Three Cups Chequer
Monuments in Three Cups Chequer.
(351) Balle's Place, demolished in 1962, (fn. 1) comprised
the remains of a substantial 14th-century courtyard
house and associated tenements. The timber-framed
buildings had been extensively remodelled and many
walls were rebuilt in 18th and 19th-century brickwork,
but much of the original three-bay hall roof survived,
together with a range on Winchester Street.
The hall was built during the third quarter of the
14th century by John Balle (d. 1387), a wool merchant
who appears to have come to Salisbury from elsewhere
and who held no public office in the town. Soon after
1416 the property was acquired by Walter Shirley
(mayor 1408, 1416). In 1455 the tenant was the bishop's
bailiff, John Whittokesmeade, the place having by then
become city property. (fn. 2) Between 1477 and 1565 documents are lacking, but after 1591 when the tenant was
Zachary Lyming (mayor 1598) the sequence of leases
preserved in the city archives is almost uninterrupted. (fn. 3)
During the 17th-19th centuries the buildings were
divided among numerous tenants. The accompanying
plan of the property as it was in the middle of the 19th
century is taken from surveys of 1851–5 by J.M.
Peniston; (fn. 4) it shows that the original walls had by then
largely gone. Nevertheless, in the two areas where
shading has been added by RCHM to Peniston's survey,
mediaeval roofs remained in situ. The middle part of
No. 27 Winchester Street, a two-storeyed house with
brick walls and tiled roofs, was spanned by the original
hall roof; to S., Nos. 25 and 29 Winchester Street also
enclosed mediaeval timber framework.
(351) Balle's Place
Plan of houses in Three Cups Chequer, 1851–5 (after Peniston).
Apart from the roof, No. 27 had few notable features.
The oak stairs were of 18th-century origin, but early in
the 19th century deal lattice work imitating 'chinoiserie'
of the 1750s had been put in place of the balustrades;
at the same time pairs of elliptical wooden arches with
square pilasters were inserted in both storeys, doubtless
to strengthen the staircase floors and ceilings. In the
attic (Plate 83) the middle part of the 14th-century hall
roof remained, with stout cambered tie-beams supporting
crown-posts, collar-purlins and collar-rafters. Below, in
the party-wall which divided the former hall between
two tenements were the chamfered arch-braces, queenposts, hammerbeams and lower braces of a hammerbeam
queen-post truss. The spandrels of the truss were filled
with vertical boarding. Mortices in the queen-posts
indicated longitudinal arch-braces to support arcade
plates. The W. truss survived because it was built into the
party-wall; that on the E. had perished below the level
of the tie-beam. The arcade plates rested on the jowled
heads of the queen-posts and had moulded oak cornices.
In the W. end truss of the hall, large vertical speres in
place of the queen-posts indicated the probable position
of the original hall screens. A stout brick chimneybreast
at the E. end of the former hall was probably added in
the 16th century.
(351) Balle's Place
To S. of the hall, Nos. 25 and 29 Winchester Street
were small two-storeyed houses with brick walls and
tiled roofs. Demolition revealed that the early 19th-century brickwork masked a 14th-century timber-framed range with chamfered posts, about 10 ins. square,
braced to a crown-post rafter roof in which the crownposts were braced longitudinally, but not laterally. The
first floor was jettied on the S., but had been under-built.
The range was of four bays, but that to W. was narrower
than the others;doubtless the narrow bay was an original
through-way to the courtyard, presumably corresponding
with the S. entrance mentioned in a document of 1423. (fn. 5)
Another entrance, wide enough for carts, led into the
tenement from Rolleston Street. The garden contained
a dovecot. (fn. 6)
During demolition some mediaeval ridge-tiles with
glazed and serrated cresting were found.
(352) House and Shop, Nos. 23 Winchester Street
and 2 Rolleston Street, occupying ground originally
part of Balle's Place (351), were demolished in 1962.
Most of the building was three-storeyed with brick walls
and slate-covered roofs; it dated from the first half of
the 19th century. There is a plan of 1851 by. J.M.
Peniston (W.R.O., 451/185).
(353) Storehouse, Cottages and Shop, Nos. 4–8
Rolleston Street, were demolished in 1962. Of two
storeys with brick walls and tiled roofs they appeared to
have been built early in the 19th century.
(351) Balle's Place. Nos. 25–9 Winchester Street.
(354-5) Nos. 10–14 Rolleston Street.
(354) Pair of Houses, formerly Nos. 10 and 12
Rolleston Street, now united and converted to offices, is
of two storeys with basement and attic and has brick
walls and tiled roofs. The building is of the early 18th
century and in its original form was interesting as an
early example of 'semi-detached' planning. It is mentioned in the city land survey of 1716 as 'Col. Kenton's
new tenement and garden'. (fn. 7) The W. front (Plate 15),
originally symmetrical and of seven bays, the central bay
blind, has sashed windows in both main storeys, a first-floor plat-band and a prominent eaves cornice with
modillions. Of the two original doorways, that on the S.
has gone; that on the N., with a flat hood on scroll
brackets with acanthus enrichment, remained in its
original position until 1970 when it was moved to the
middle of the facade. A flight of stone steps leading
to a platform from which both doorways formerly
opened is shown on O.S., 1880; only the N. part of
the platform existed in 1970 and that part has now been
removed. Inside, the stairs of the N. house remain, with
turned and twisted balusters and a stout handrail, but
the curtail has been altered.
The two houses are shown as separate on the plan of
1854, but they had been united by 1880 (O.S.). Since
1970 the blind recess in the upper storey has been
opened and furnished with sashes, and a window has
been put in place of the former N. doorway.
(355) House, No. 14 Rolleston Street (plan with
(354), of two storeys with cellars and attics, has brick
walls and tiled roofs; it dates from about the middle of
the 18th century. The facade was evidently designed to
combine with that of Nos. 10–12 to form a 'terrace',
but the effect of uniformity has been diminished by the
recent removal of the cornice. In the seven-bay W. front
the main doorway with narrow flanking windows is
arranged to occupy two bays; the wooden door-case has
Tuscan three-quarter columns supporting a semicircular
hood with a modillion cornice. In the lower storey the
two S. bays of the facade are now occupied by a late
19th-century opening with columns supporting an
entablature and a rounded pediment;it was made to give
access to an industrial building erected in the garden E.
of the house. In place of this opening, O.S. (1880)
indicates an ordinary service or office doorway with a
narrow flight of steps.
Inside, although used for offices, the main rooms
retain joinery of very good quality. The entrance vestibule is spanned by an elliptical archway flanked by
Corinthian pilasters with elaborate capitals (Plate 95).
The stairs have turned balustrades and panelled dados.
The N.W. rooms of each main storey are fully lined with
fielded panelling in two heights. In the kitchen, part of
the machinery for a turn-spit projects from the chimneybreast and there are traces of a former bread oven.
(356) Salvation Army Citadel, originally a Presbyterian Meeting House, is of one storey with rendered
brick walls and a slate-covered roof. The E., S. and W.
walls were built in 1702; (fn. 8) the N. wall is modern. In
1815 the hall became the Methodists' Sunday School
and in 1882 it was acquired by the Salvation Army. The
building is approximately square (45 ft. by 39½ ft.) and
originally had two segmental-headed windows in each
wall and a central doorway on the north (O.S., 1880).
An old photograph (copy in NMR) shows the roof
supported by two timber posts placed axially, and by
two more in the S. which also supported the gallery. The
present roof is modern.
(357) Cottages, four adjoining, Nos. 24–6 Salt Lane
and 17–9 St. Edmund's Church Street, rebuilt in 1973,
were two-storeyed with attics and had brick walls and
slated roofs. The buildings were mainly of the 19th
century, but during demolition the wall between Nos. 17
and 19 was revealed as timber-framed. Probably it was
the S. end of a 16th-century house.
(358) House, No. 15 St. Edmund's Church Street, of
two storeys with attics and cellars, with brick walls and
tiled roofs, dates probably from the third quarter of the
18th century. Naish's maps show the site empty. The E.
front is symmetrical and of three bays with a central
doorway with a pedimented door-case and with plain
sashed windows; the eaves have a modillion cornice. A
join in the W. elevation shows that the S.W. room is a
later addition. Inside, the plan is of class U. The two N.
ground-floor rooms are fully lined with fielded panelling
in two heights; the hall and stairs have panelled dados, so
also have the E. rooms on the first floor. Several original
chimneypieces remain. In 1975 the house was extensively
restored and a late 19th-century shop-window was
(359) House, No. 47 Winchester Street, at the S.E.
corner of the chequer, is of two main storeys with cellars
and attics and has brick walls and tiled roofs; the S.
front is faced with mathematical tiles. The house was
built c. 1673 on city land which had been leased in 1671
to Gyles Naish; (fn. 9) in the lease Naish covenanted to pull
down old buildings and rebuild within two years. The
history of the former building, the Three Cups Inn, goes
back to 1431. (fn. 10) Gyles Naish's house seems to have been
designed as a private dwelling. Thomas Naish, Clerk of
the Cathedral Works, was lessee in 1694 and 1705. In
1748 an inn licence was issued to Richard Sanborn, wine
merchant, whose tenancy began in that year. (fn. 11) In 1773
John Wyche (mayor 1783) took possession, (fn. 12) and it was
probably during his tenancy that the S. front was
refaced in a contemporary style and the main rooms
were replastered. In 1849, when the house was leased
to John Finch, J.M. Peniston made a ground plan
showing the S. and E. ranges, which still exist, together
with a stable range on the W. of the court. (fn. 13) In 1877 the
freehold was sold to William Hicks. After many years
misuse as a warehouse for machinery, the building is
now (1976) empty.
The 18th-century S. front is approximately symmetrical and of five bays with plain sashed windows; the
central doorway has a pilastered wooden door-case with
fluted capitals and a frieze with garlands. The E. elevation, presumably of 1673, but old-fashioned for that
date, has mullioned and transomed windows with hollow-chamfered stone surrounds below brick relieving arches
in which some bricks are set forward to give the effect
of rustication (Plate 70). The E. end of the S. range is
defined by pilasters of rusticated brickwork; a moulded
brick plat-band marks the first floor; the gables have
moulded and weathered stone coping. In the courtyard,
the 17th-century N. and W. elevations have features
similar to those of the E. elevation.
(359) No. 47 Winchester Street.
Inside, the rooms in the S. range have 18th-century
moulded cornices and panelled dados probably installed
by John Wyche. The staircase appears to be of the 17th
century, with close strings, stout balustrades, square or
chamfered newel posts and heavy moulded handrails;
many of the newel posts have been truncated, but some
retain square vase-shaped finials.
(360) Coach and Horses Inn, No. 39 Winchester
Street, two-storeyed with walls largely of brick, but with
some original timber framework and with tiled roofs,
appears to be of late 15th or early 16th-century origin.
Behind a modern facade of imitation timber framework
the S. range has an original roof of three bays with
collared tie-beam trusses, clasped purlins and curved
wind-braces. An original chamfered post is visible at the
S.W. corner of the range. The first-floor jetty is masked
by the modern S. front. The N. wing at the E. end of
the S. range is probably contemporary; that at the W.
end, with brick walls, is of the late 18th century. Both
wings were extended N. in the 19th century.
(361) House, No. 37 Winchester Street, of three
storeys with brick walls and slate-covered roofs, is of
c. 1800. The two-bay S. front has a shop window in the
lower storey, a projecting window on the first floor and
plain sashed windows on the second floor. The plot on
which the building stands forms the S.E. corner of the
mediaeval Balle's Place tenement (350). It is mentioned
in the will of Walter Shirley, 1429, (fn. 14) and it certainly
corresponds with the plot, 12½ ft. wide, held by William
Kent in the city land survey of 1618. (fn. 15)
(362) Houses, range of three, Nos. 31–5 Winchester
Street, are of two storeys with attics and have rendered
timber-framed walls and tiled roofs; a few glazed
mediaeval ridge tiles remain. The building appears to be
of the 15th century and probably corresponds with
Walter Shirley's legacy (1429) to John Park. (fn. 16) The upper
storeys are jettied on the S. and the roofs are of collarrafter construction.