Middle division
Tunstall

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Victoria County History

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Author

G H R Kent (Editor), K J Allison, A P Baggs, T N Cooper, C Davidson-Cragoe, J Walker

Year published

2002

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Pages

172-181

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'Middle division: Tunstall', A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 7: Holderness Wapentake, Middle and North Divisions (2002), pp. 172-181. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16144 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


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TUNSTALL

THE village of Tunstall lies 21 km. east of Hull and 500 m. from the sea, which bounds the parish to the east. (fn. 10) North of the village land called Monkwith commemorates the hamlet earlier called Monkwick, which has been almost entirely lost to the sea. The name Tunstall, meaning farmstead, is Anglian, as is that of Monkwick, or 'Monks' dairy farm', presumably an allusion to the ownership of the estate by St. John's church at Beverley. Monkwith was called Monk Tunstall in 1367 and Monkwick until the 17th century. (fn. 11)

In 1852 the ancient parish contained 1,346 a. (545 ha.) but by 1911 coastal erosion had reduced the area to 1,301 a. (527 ha.). (fn. 12) Tunstall civil parish was united with those of Hilston, Owstwick, and Roos to form a new Roos civil parish in 1935. (fn. 13)

There were 126 poll-tax payers at Tunstall, excluding Monkwith, in 1377. (fn. 14) In 1672 the parish had 33 houses assessed for hearth tax. (fn. 15) There were 32 families in the parish in 1743 and 33 in 1764. (fn. 16) The population of Tunstall increased from 145 in 1801 to 172 in 1831 but fell to 144 in 1871; thereafter it declined to 98 in 1901, and was only 102 in 1931. (fn. 17)

The parish is largely on boulder clay and mostly lies at over 15 m. above sea level; on a ridge of sand and gravel in the north the ground rises to 25 m., but south of the village it falls below 7 m. Alluvial deposits mark the sites of several meres. (fn. 18) The open fields extended south from the centre of the parish into the lower grounds, which also contained meadow, while the common pastures lay in the north on the higher land. The commonable lands had been reduced by early inclosure by 1779, when those remaining were inclosed.

Tunstall is mostly drained by a stream which forms the southern parish boundary and flows south-west towards the river Humber. Smaller streams flowing south on either side of the village feed the main drain which, as part of Keyingham fleet, was in disrepair in 1367. (fn. 19) Keyingham fleet drained 50 a. of Tunstall in 1618, and 78 a. of low ground were assessed to the drainage of the level after 1845; (fn. 20) under the Keyingham Level Drainage Acts of 1772 and later the southern boundary stream was improved as Tunstall drain. (fn. 21) Other drains insufficient in 1367 were further north; one was that which rises close to the sea in Gills, formerly Gildeson, mere and flows north and then west along the boundary with Roos into Hilston, and the other was probably the drain running along the boundary with Grimston, in Garton. (fn. 22) Gills mere survived as an area of marshy ground in 1991. The main drain evidently once flowed from Sandley mere or Sand le Mere, which was itself fed by Spring mere. Coastal erosion has reduced Sandley mere to a hollow depression in the mud cliffs, and already by 1622 a protective bank had been raised there to protect the level from incursions by the sea. (fn. 23) The bank was frequently damaged by the sea, (fn. 24) which elsewhere in the parish consumed an average of 2 yd. a year during the 19th century. (fn. 25) Other meres in Tunstall included Row, sometimes How, mere, Rose mere, and Bramarr. (fn. 26)

From Tunstall village minor roads lead north, south, east, and west. That to the east, called Seaside Lane by the 1850s, was once continued by a track to Waxholme, in Owthorne, (fn. 27) but that route has been disrupted by erosion and another field road, slightly further inland, now connects Tunstall to Waxholme. The lane to the south led to Thirtle bridge on the road between Roos and Withernsea, (fn. 28) which was upgraded in the mid 20th century as part of the Holderness coast road.

The situation of TUNSTALL village on a tongue of high ground closely flanked by converging streams probably accounts for its linear plan. Most of the houses are loosely strung along both sides of a main street, with the church and a small, triangular green at the centre. Further south the street turns to cross the eastern stream and then continues south-eastwards along the higher ground. By the late 18th century half a dozen houses stood beside the southern lane (fn. 29) forming what was called Kiln House Lane in the 1850s. (fn. 30) The village buildings mostly date from the 19th and 20th centuries and include several farmhouses. They are largely of brick but several houses and particularly outbuildings incorporate boulder-built walls. Manor Farm was a single-storeyed house of boulders until it was heightened in brick in the early 19th century, and its outbuildings include a boulder-built barn. Also of boulders is Town Farm, of one storey with attics and possibly of the early 18th century. A modern bus shelter is also boulderbuilt. Tunstall Hall Farm, at the southern extremity of the village, was built in the 18th century and is a sizeable L-shaped house of two storeys with attic.

There were usually two or three licensed houses at Tunstall in the mid 18th century and later one, named the Cock in the 1820s and the King's Arms by 1840; it was closed c. 1970. (fn. 31) The Mermaid public house was opened on a caravan site near the sea in 1970. (fn. 32) A wooden village hall was put up in 1947, (fn. 33) and a branch library used a private house c. 1960. (fn. 34)

Monkwith

may already have begun to be eroded by 1360, when Great and Little Monkwick were recorded, and they later comprised two distinct areas separated by land belonging to Tunstall. (fn. 35) Monkwith had 28 poll-tax payers in 1377, (fn. 36) and in 1517 a house there was reported as decayed and four people had been ejected because of an inclosure; (fn. 37) the hamlet was evidently lost by the mid 17th century. (fn. 38)

The only outlying farmhouse is Hooks Farm, which was apparently built between 1770 and 1788. (fn. 39) High ground in the north was used for a military camp (fn. 40) and a beacon c. 1800, (fn. 41) and one or two military buildings put up c. 1940 remain close to the sea. A coastguard station with two cottages was built east of the village in 1902 to replace one at Waxholme; it was closed c. 1970 but the cottages remained in 1991 close to the cliff edge. (fn. 42)

A caravan site begun before 1939 was requisitioned during the war and re-established c. 1950. Permanent buildings including a shop were built c. 1970, and in 1991 the 29½ a. site accommodated some 400 caravans and about 30 residential and holiday chalets. (fn. 43)

MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES

In 1066 Morkar held 7 carucates in Tunstall as soke of Kilnsea manor and 1 carucate as soke of Withernsea manor. By 1086 both estates had passed to Drew de Bevrère, (fn. 44) and with the manors of Kilnsea and Withernsea they later became part of the Aumale fee and descended like Burstwick manor. (fn. 45) The so-called manor of TUNSTALL was granted for life in 1522 to Sir Leonard Grey (d. 1541). (fn. 46) The estate was, however, later regarded as a mere member of Burstwick manor, with which it passed in 1558 to Henry Neville, earl of Westmorland, and later to the Constables of Burton Constable. (fn. 47) Most of the land was held by freeholders and at inclosure in 1779 only 7 a. were awarded as copyhold of Burstwick manor. (fn. 48)

The Constable family had a demesne estate in Tunstall from the 15th century. (fn. 49) It was perhaps that which, with Garton, was held by Henry Constable (d. 1700) before reverting to the senior line of the family. (fn. 50) It comprised a farm of c. 80 a. in 1769, when William Constable sold it to William Barron; (fn. 51) it has not been traced further.

The Scures family held as undertenants part of the Aumale fee, which passed with Riston to the Hildyards. Sir Robert de Scures was thus succeeded in 4 carucates of the fee by Robert Hildyard by 1287. (fn. 52) The estate, described from the 16th century as TUNSTALL manor, descended in the Hildyards until the mid 17th century; the land was wholly or very largely held by their undertenants and has not been traced later. (fn. 53)

Another part of Tunstall belonged to the Preston family. Roger of Preston was disputing land there in 1230, (fn. 54) and Thomas of Preston (d. by 1246) left as his heir Roger's son William, a minor. The estate evidently later passed to Henry of Preston, possibly Thomas's nephew. (fn. 55) It comprised 2 carucates and was said to be held as 1/24 knight's fee. Henry's estate in Holderness, which also included Waxholme manor, had descended to his grandson John of Preston by the 1280s, when Tunstall was practically all held by undertenants. (fn. 56) The mesne lordship and a small demesne estate descended from John (d. by 1334) to his son John, who conveyed the estate to Isabel daughter of John of Preston, presumably his sister, in 1335. (fn. 57) Isabel (d. 1349) married Thomas Hautayn and her heir Gillian Stedeman was probably the wife of Thomas Vescy, and the Hautayns and the Vescys evidently granted an interest in Waxholme manor and Tunstall to John del Flete. (fn. 58) Flete, who had apparently bought land in Tunstall in 1334, (fn. 59) granted Tunstall with Waxholme to Warter priory in or soon after 1350. (fn. 60) Occasionally called TUNSTALL manor, the estate descended with Waxholme to John Stanhope (fl. 1582), and after his death probably to William Alford. (fn. 61) It has not been traced later.

Roger of Grimston was recorded as a mesne lord in Tunstall in 1325. Other members of the family recorded as proprietors included Thomas Grimston in 1275 and Thomas Grimston (d. 1479) of Flinton. (fn. 62) The family's estate extended into Monkwick in the 16th century: in 1517 another Thomas Grimston was said to be a freeholder there, and 1 carucate and 1 bovate of copyhold was held in dower by Walter Grimston's widow in 1558. (fn. 63) The estate descended with Grimston in the Grimston family from the 16th century. Comprising only a few acres of demesne, it was called TUNSTALL manor and was held of Burstwick manor as 1/100 knight's fee. (fn. 64) In 1779 John Grimston, as lord, was awarded 1 a. for his consent to inclosure, besides a few acres for his commonable lands. (fn. 65) In 1918 the family's estate in Holderness included 7 a. in Tunstall. (fn. 66)

In the 13th century the Tunstall family held land in Tunstall in serjeanty for acting as bailiff in the Tunstall bailiwick of Holderness, which seems to have been named after them. (fn. 67) The bailiff was later said to hold a bovate in Bailiff's close, and Bailiff garth was named in 1779. (fn. 68)

The largest modern estate in Tunstall was that assembled by the Lorrimar family. In 1779 Edward Lorrimar had c. 150 a.; (fn. 69) it was perhaps he who in 1806 was succeeded by Edward Lorrimar (fn. 70) (d. 1831), from whom the estate descended to his son Edward (d. 1894). (fn. 71) Some 60 a. were bought from Bryan Taylor in 1820, (fn. 72) and the Lorrimars later also succeeded to the estate of the North family. William North (d. 1796) left nearly 150 a. to his son William, who sold the estate in 1818 to Philip Hardy (d. by 1829); Hardy devised the land to his niece Frances Lorrimar (d. 1836), wife to Edward (d. 1831), and she also was succeeded by Edward (d. 1894). (fn. 73) By the 1890s much of the Lorrimars' estate had passed to the trustees of (Sir) Charles Parsons (O.M., F.R.S., d. 1931) and his wife Katherine, née Bethell (d. 1933), probably by foreclosure of mortgage. (fn. 74) Apart from a few acres sold in 1920, the estate, comprising Manor farm with c. 220 a. in Tunstall, descended to the Parsons's daughter Rachel. (fn. 75) In 1956 Rachel Parsons sold the farm and 196 a. to Mr. Sidney Kirkwood, who still owned it in 1991. (fn. 76)

In 1086 the archbishop of York held the whole of Monkwith (called Monkwick until the 16th century) as a berewick comprising 2 carucates; the estate had by then been assigned to his church of St. John at Beverley, (fn. 77) and its overlordship descended after the suppression of Beverley college as part of Beverley Chapter manor. (fn. 78)

Monkwith was held of the provost of Beverley by the Ros family. The Ros's also held part of the Aumale fee in Tunstall as a member of Roos manor, and William de Ros was named as the sole lord of Tunstall in 1316. (fn. 79) Monkwith comprised 2 carucates and 3 bovates in 1285 and 3 carucates in 1558; in 1363, when it was called MONKWICK manor, it was held by the service of 1/28 knight's fee. (fn. 80) Monkwith was usually, however, regarded as a member of Roos, and with that manor it and the other land in Tunstall descended to the Cecils. (fn. 81) The estate was wholly occupied by free tenants and copyholders, and was much reduced by coastal erosion; at inclosure in 1779 only c. 50 a. in Tunstall, mostly in Monkwith, were copyhold of Roos manor. (fn. 82)

From 1230 the rectorial estate belonged to the subchanter of York minster. (fn. 83) There were 4 bovates of glebe land in Tunstall from the mid 13th century. (fn. 84) The rectory, which was worth just over £63 a year gross in 1650, was sold to Matthew Alured in 1651 (fn. 85) but was recovered by the subchanter at the Restoration. The glebe included a dozen acres in closes, (fn. 86) and the subchanter was awarded 59 a. for his commonable lands at inclosure in 1779. The rectorial tithes of the commonable lands were then commuted for 138 a. and those of most of the old inclosures for rent charges amounting to £32 12s. 4d. Of the closes excepted from that commutation of tithes, (fn. 87) Long Leys may have been tithed by a modus in the 17th century (fn. 88) but was declared to be tithe-free in 1843; by then it had been reduced by erosion to c. 10 a. and it was evidently lost soon afterwards. The remaining tithes, from c. 95 a. in Hall close and the Hooks, had long been paid by moduses; the compositions amounted to just over £2 in 1843, when rent charges of the same sum were substituted for them. (fn. 89)

The rectory was let by the 17th century and in the 18th was held by the Barron family. (fn. 90) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners, as expectant owners under the Cathedrals Act of 1840, sold their interest to the subchanter's lessee William Barron in 1854; the estate comprised a farm of 183 a., earlier called Tithe farm. (fn. 91) Barron (d. 1879) devised it to his son Thomas (fn. 92) but by 1897 it evidently belonged to the Revd. Edward Gordon. (fn. 93) Gordon sold the farm, then eroded to 165 a., to C. C. Wreathall in 1917. (fn. 94) Samuel Marriott bought it in 1919, (fn. 95) and sold c. 60 a. in 1921 and 1922 and the house and 102 a. in 1923 to Charles Kenington. (fn. 96) The mortgagees evidently foreclosed in 1937 and in 1948 sold the farm to Thomas Cook and Thomas Kennington Cook. (fn. 97) It was bought by H. E. Brown in 1950, as Westhill farm by F. H. Leckonby in 1956, and by Frank Grassby in 1966, when it had been enlarged to c. 140 a. Mr. Grassby still owned it in 1991. (fn. 98) The rectory farmhouse had been rebuilt by 1840. (fn. 99)

St. Sepulchre's hospital, Hedon, alienated a toft in Tunstall in the earlier 13th century, (fn. 1) but soon afterwards, c. 1240, Sir Walter of Hedon gave the house other land and rent there. (fn. 2) By 1326 the hospital had also been given rent and more than 5 bovates by Matthew son of Alexander of Tunstall. (fn. 3) After the suppression in 1547 the estate descended with the hospital to Michael Constable (fl. 1630s). (fn. 4) It has not been traced further.

Thornton abbey (Lincs.) had land in Tunstall by 1208, (fn. 5) and 5 bovates in the mid 13th century. (fn. 6) After the Dissolution the land descended as a member of Garton manor to John Eldred and William Whitmore. (fn. 7)

Between 1235 and 1249 John Talon gave Meaux abbey 2 bovates, a toft, and rent of 1s. a year, but the land was soon afterwards granted at fee farm to Hugh of Tunstall, serjeant of the count of Aumale, (fn. 8) presumably the Hugh Sergeant who later held 4 bovates in Tunstall. (fn. 9)

A chantry in Preston church (fn. 10) and lights in Roos church were endowed in Tunstall; Roos's endowment was granted to John and William Marsh in 1574, and later passed to the Grimstons. (fn. 11) Since the 18th century a few acres in Tunstall have belonged to the fabric of Roos church. (fn. 12)

An estate, including half of TUNSTALL manor, was bought in the early 16th century by Martin Boynton and used to endow Barmston church and Mount Grace priory (Yorks. N.R.); (fn. 13) no more is known of Barmston's endowment, but in 1610 the Crown sold two houses and land in Tunstall formerly belonging to the priory to Edward Bates and Henry Elwes. (fn. 14)

ECONOMIC HISTORY

Common lands and early inclosure

Tunstall and Monkwith may have had separate common lands in the Middle Ages but after the loss of much of the hamlet to the sea the land remaining was managed with the common lands of Tunstall. (fn. 15)

Tunstall. The East field of Tunstall is said to have been named in 1342, and West field was recorded from 1397. (fn. 16) Poorly drained parts of both fields were used as common meadow land; Howmarr in West field and Spring and Rose meres in East field were all said in 1750 to be laid out for mowing in strips, a 'gadd', or measure of 7½ ft., being used to determine the breadth of each strip. In the mid 18th century 1 beast gate was enjoyed in East field when it was fallow for each 5 a. held and after it had been harvested for each 3 a.; in West field the stint was 1 gate for 4 a. and 2½ a. respectively. (fn. 17)

Tillage evidently once extended into the low ground in the south of the parish. Land at Thirtle Bridge, Thorma green, and 'Ingolspole' was recorded in 1326 as including some arable, besides meadow, turbary, and marsh, (fn. 18) and it was there, in the south-west corner of the parish, that South field was later recorded. South field may have been a part of West field, rather than a separate open field, and much of it was probably used as meadow. In 1662 c. 26 a. of meadow were recorded in South field. (fn. 19) The field was reduced by piecemeal inclosure: inclosed strips were recorded there in 1637, in 1651 an openfield holding included 8 a. of meadow in a close at 'Thorney' green in South field, (fn. 20) and by the later 18th century the commonable land there had been reduced to two small areas called Thorma green and South field. The latter was then flanked by South Field closes, and Intakes along the south side of West field suggest that it too had been encroached upon. (fn. 21)

By the 17th century rough grazing and gorse, or whins, for fuel were provided mostly by the common pasture of Hogsey. The pasture seems also to have been formerly part of the tillage and still lay in strips. In 1628 grassland there included 4 a. lying in two former 'lands', and 'ley or whin lands' were recorded in Hogsey in the 18th century. (fn. 22) Each proprietor presumably took gorse from his own strips, and the area of the holdings in the pasture was evidently the basis for stinting the grazing there. In 1716 the rector had 18 a. 'containing', probably meaning entitling him to stock, 8 beast gates in Hogsey. (fn. 23)

A gate might be divided into quarters, or 'feet', each of which comprised 80 perches. (fn. 24)


Tunstall 1777

Tunstall 1777

Early inclosures in Tunstall probably also included Tunstall carr, which belonged to Roos manor and was used as meadow in 1285 and pasture in 1558; in the 16th century it contained c. 90 a. and was rented by copyholders of the manor for nearly £7 a year. (fn. 25) The name Carr Hill located in 1777 suggests that the carr lay in the south-east corner of the parish. (fn. 26)

Monkwith. At Monkwith there was land for 2 ploughteams in 1086 but there were then 3, worked by 6 villeins who owed rent of 10s. (fn. 27) In 1517 one team was reported lost because of an inclosure made at Monkwith, apparently by Thomas Grimston. (fn. 28) There were still, however, reckoned to be 3 carucates there in 1558, when the open-field land was held under Roos manor by 10 copyholders; one holding comprised 1 carucate and 1 bovate and the others 1–2½ bovates each. (fn. 29) Coastal erosion may soon afterwards have disrupted agricultural arrangements there. The land remaining was used as common pasture by the mid 17th century, when the grazing was overcharged and a pain was laid against digging there, presumably for turves. (fn. 30) The management of the pasture probably reflected earlier arrangements, as in neighbouring Hogsey, and Monkwith was later said to include 25 ley or whin lands carrying an entitlement of 3 gates and 48 perches. (fn. 31) Gates in the pasture had been re-ordered by 1670, when 16 beast gates of the old stint were equated with 10"2/3" of the new. (fn. 32) Monkwith was inclosed as part of Tunstall's commonable grounds in 1779. (fn. 33)

Hooks. It is not clear what use was made of the extreme north end of the parish. That it was once shared with a neighbouring parish, or parishes, possibly as pasture, is suggested by the inclusion of Hooks, then of 142 a., on a 17thcentury map of Garton. Hooks was moreover variously described as part of Grimston (fn. 34) or of Hilston, into which parish it clearly extended. (fn. 35) Hooks and the adjacent Long Leys close were however titheable to Tunstall. (fn. 36) Whatever its use, the land there had been inclosed by the 17th century, when, besides Hooks and Long Leys, New close, of c. 20 a., was recorded. (fn. 37) Hooks close was later divided, and by 1788 it was occupied as Hooks farm; it had by then been reduced by coastal erosion to just under 100 a., (fn. 38) and Long Leys was lost in the mid 19th century. (fn. 39)

Parliamentary inclosure

The remaining commonable lands in Tunstall were inclosed by an award of 1779 under an Act of 1777. (fn. 40) There was 938 a. to be dealt with, besides 356 a. of old inclosures. Allotments made totalled 913 a., and 39 a. of old inclosures were involved in exchanges. There were more than 304 a. in West field, over 214 a. in East field, more than 208 a. in Hogsey, 60 a. in Monkwith, 12 a. in South field, and 7 a. in Thorma Green. (fn. 41) The subchanter of York as rector received 197 a. for glebe and the tithes of the lands inclosed, and James Smith 126 a.; there were also two allotments of just over 100 a., three of 50–99 a., five of 20–49 a., three of 10–19 a., and seven of under 10 a.

Later agriculture

There was said to be 496 a. under crops in Tunstall in 1801, (fn. 42) and 878 a. were returned as arable land and 379 a. as permanent grassland in 1905. (fn. 43) Arable farming was still predominant in the 1930s. The grassland, which supported a few cowkeepers from the late 19th century, lay mostly west and south of the village alongside the drains. (fn. 44) In 1991 many trees were newly planted near Tunstall Hall in the south end of the parish.

There were up to a dozen farmers in Tunstall in the 19th and earlier 20th century, of whom 3 or 4 in 1851 and the 1920s and 1930s had 150 a. or more. (fn. 45) A poultry farmer was recorded in the 1930s, when there was a smallholding in the parish.

Gravel working

The lord of Holderness took tolls on trade at Tunstall in the 15th cent ury, and also then received occasional income from wrecks there. (fn. 46) The seigneurial rights over the shore produced income again in the 19th century. Materials for repairing roads were being taken from the beach at Sand le Mere by the 1820s, and the shore was later worked by agents of Sir Thomas Constable, Bt., the lord of Holderness. In 1845 Constable was summoned before the justices in quarter sessions for the removal of gravel from Tunstall beach (fn. 47) but he evidently maintained his right. The shore in Tunstall and Waxholme was let to a Tunstall man for 13 years in 1844, and there was much activity in the 1860s, when several Tunstall residents worked as 'gravel catchers'. During the winter of 1868–9 three men took c. 400 tons of gravel and 300 tons of cobbles from the beach, and 125 tons of cobbles from elsewhere in Tunstall, for which Constable received nearly £18. (fn. 48)

Mill

A mill was recorded in Tunstall in 1246. (fn. 49) Place names commemorating mill sites include Howmill close, in the south-west corner of the parish, and Mill hill, north-west of the village. (fn. 50)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The provost of Beverley successfully maintained his right to waif and stray and wreck of sea in Monkwith c. 1350. (fn. 51) The hamlet was part of Roos manor and officers appointed in the manor court in the 17th century included 2 bylawmen for Monkwith. (fn. 52) Court papers for the Grimstons' manor of Tunstall survive for the mid 19th century. The court had view of frankpledge but its meetings were by then largely concerned with collecting rents. The court was held in the public house and last met in 1869. (fn. 53)

Churchwardens' accounts survive for 1799– 1914, (fn. 54) and extracts from 19th-century constables' accounts have been printed. (fn. 55) The parish may have had poorhouses in 1764, when two unendowed almshouses were recorded, and less than 1 a. in Tunstall belonged to the overseers of the poor in 1910. (fn. 56) Permanent poor relief was given to 4 people in Tunstall in 1802–3 and to a dozen in 1812–15; up to 6 people were also relieved occasionally in the early 19th century. (fn. 57) Tunstall joined Patrington poor-law union in 1836 and remained in Patrington rural district until 1935 when it was taken into Holderness rural district as part of the new civil parish of Roos. Roos became part of the Holderness district of Humberside in 1974. (fn. 58) In 1996 Roos parish became part of a new East Riding unitary area. (fn. 59)

CHURCH

In 1115 Tunstall and other churches in Holderness were given to the priory, later abbey, of Aumale (Seine Maritime), (fn. 60) which ceded Tunstall to the archbishop of York in 1228. The church was used to endow the office of subchanter in York minster in 1230 and was later in his peculiar jurisdiction. (fn. 61) No vicarage was ordained and Tunstall was later served by curates, who were paid out of the rectory. Following endowment the living became a perpetual curacy in 1752 (fn. 62) and was declared a rectory in 1867. (fn. 63) Tunstall was united with Hilston in 1877 and, on further regroupings of the benefices, with Roos in 1927. Roos with Tunstall and Garton with Hilston were united in 1974. (fn. 64)

The patronage of Tunstall passed from Aumale abbey to the archbishop of York in 1228. From 1752 the subchanter of York was patron of the perpetual curacy. (fn. 65) Under the Cathedrals Act of 1840 the archbishop became patron again in 1868 (fn. 66) and presented alternately to the united benefice after 1877. (fn. 67) When Tunstall was united with Roos in 1927, the patronage of Roos with Tunstall was declared to belong wholly to the former patrons of Roos, and the archbishop, as former patron of Tunstall, was given one turn in four in the patronage of Garton with Hilston, united at the same time; the other turns were transferred to him in 1956 and 1960. (fn. 68) At the further union of 1974 one turn in three was given to the archbishop. (fn. 69)

Tithes in the parish worth 15s. a year were given c. 1100 to Sées abbey (Orne), but were evidently resumed soon afterwards and later belonged successively to Aumale abbey and to the subchanter of York. (fn. 70)

A stipend paid from the rectory for long comprised the curate's sole income. It was nearly £5 in 1525–6, (fn. 71) just over £13 in 1650, (fn. 72) and later £20. (fn. 73) The living was augmented from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1752, 1800, and 1816, on each occasion with £200. (fn. 74) The average annual income was £52 net in 1829–31. (fn. 75) Annuities of £12 and £8 were given from the Common Fund in 1853 and 1860 respectively, (fn. 76) and a further augmentation, of £250 to meet benefactions of £200, was made from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1863. (fn. 77) Tithe rent charges of nearly £35 a year, belonging to the rectory, were granted to the benefice in 1865. (fn. 78) The income was £109 net in 1877, when the recently united benefice of Tunstall with Hilston was further endowed. (fn. 79)

The augmentations were used to buy 7 a. at Thorngumbald, in Paull, in 1786, 11 a. at East Newton, in Aldbrough, in 1802, and nearly 3 a. at Burton Pidsea in 1822. (fn. 80) Most of the land at Burton Pidsea was sold in 1965. (fn. 81) The land at East Newton had evidently also been sold by 1978, but 6½ a. then remained at Thorngumbald. (fn. 82) There was no house until one was built in 1867, on a site at the north end of the village given by Marmaduke Grimston and enlarged in 1870. (fn. 83) The rectory house and nearly 2 a. were sold in 1929 after the union of benefices. (fn. 84)

Tunstall church had a lamp dedicated to St. Mary from the 13th century. (fn. 85) A house and 1 a. in Tunstall given to the church by the heirs of one Parker passed at the suppression to the Crown, which granted them in 1611 to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips. (fn. 86)

Tunstall was served by a parochial chaplain in 1525–6. (fn. 87) In 1567 the parishioners denied that Roman Catholic images and fittings had been retained in Tunstall church. (fn. 88) The appointment of curates probably belonged to the subchanter and it was presumably as his grantee that one Hardy nominated in 1660 and 1663. (fn. 89) From the 18th century the cure was often served with other parishes and, except in the later 19th and early 20th century, by a non-resident incumbent. (fn. 90) An assistant curate was employed c. 1825. (fn. 91) Service was weekly in 1743 and in 1764 during the summer but in the winter only fortnightly. Communion was then celebrated about four times a year, with usually c. 30–40 recipients. (fn. 92) There was a weekly service from 1865. Communion was celebrated up to nine times a year in the later 19th century, fortnightly c. 1920, and on every third Sunday in 1931; there were generally a dozen communicants. (fn. 93)


Tunstall Church in the earlier 19th century

Figure 10: Tunstall Church in the earlier 19th century

The church of ALL SAINTS, so called by 1333, (fn. 94) is mostly built of boulders with ashlar dressings and consists of chancel, aisled and clerestoried nave with south porch, and west tower. The chancel has a window and a priest's doorway of the 13th century. Late in the same century the earlier of the three-bayed aisles was added to the north side of the nave. The tower, which is also of the 13th century, was remodelled and heightened in the 14th, when the south aisle was added. A chapel built north of the chancel in the 15th century was later demolished. (fn. 95) Other work of the 15th century included the making of new windows in the tower, north aisle, and east wall of the chancel. The south aisle was probably given new windows when the clerestory was added in the early 16th century. The chancel was in disrepair in 1591. (fn. 96) The church was repaired in 1802–3 and again in 1844, (fn. 97) the brick porch added by 1831, (fn. 98) and a west gallery, recorded from the 18th century, removed in the early 1860s. (fn. 99) The church was restored c. 1875, probably to designs by Smith & Brodrick of Hull; the work included the rebuilding of much of the chancel and parts of the aisles, and the reflooring and reseating of the whole church. (fn. 1) The tower was restored in 1912. (fn. 2) The fittings include a font, comprising a 15th-century bowl on a 13th- or 14th-century base, and there is a medieval cross socket in the churchyard.

There were two bells in 1552 and later. (fn. 3) The plate includes a cup and paten. (fn. 4) The registers of marriages begin in 1567 and of baptisms and burials in 1568; they are complete except for marriages for 1752–61. (fn. 5)

Land assigned to church repairs by 1654 produced c. £2 a year in 1743. (fn. 6) The estate comprised c. 4 a. and grazing rights in 1764, 6 a. after inclosure in 1779, (fn. 7) and slightly less by 1910. (fn. 8) The income varied from c. £7 about 1820 to £20 in the 1860s and stood at £9 in the early 20th century. The holding may later have been administered with a similar estate belonging to Roos church. (fn. 9)

NONCONFORMITY

In 1743 the parish had one family of Quakers. (fn. 10) A house at Tunstall used for worship by the Primitive Methodists in 1851 was registered the next year, but its use was evidently discontinued by 1865. (fn. 11)

EDUCATION

In 1818 there was a school with 18 pupils, of whom 3 were paid for by a gentleman of the parish and the rest presumably by their parents. (fn. 12) It was perhaps the same school in which 20 pupils were taught at their parents' expense in 1833. (fn. 13) A dame's school with a dozen pupils was recorded in the 1860s and a school with 8 pupils in 1871, (fn. 14) but by 1877 the children of Tunstall attended school at Roos; most of them were then supported by Snaith's charity, which about 1900 spent c. £4 a year in that way. (fn. 15)

CHARITY FOR THE POOR

James Snaith (d. 1870) left £16 a year for the poor of Tunstall, to assist those in the neighbourhood who lost cows, and to apprentice weak or disabled boys. (fn. 16) In 1902 part of the income was spent in buying cows for labourers, and in the mid 1920s about £20 of current and accumulated income was spent annually in cash grants to the sick and on coal and other goods. (fn. 17) In 1990 the income was being allowed to accumulate. (fn. 18)

Footnotes

10 This article was written in 1990–1.
11 E.R.A.O., DDIV/18/1; Belvoir Castle, near Grantham (Lincs.), Roos ct. roll (1547); P.N. Yorks. E.R. (E.P.N.S.), 57; Poulson, Holderness, i. 123.
12 Census, 1911.
13 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.); Census, 1931 (pt. ii).
14 P.R.O., E 179/202/60, m. 26.
15 Hearth Tax, 61.
16 B.I.H.R., V.1764/Ret. 3, no. 98; Herring's Visit. iii, p. 175.
17 Census, 1911–31; V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 494.
18 Geol. Surv. Map 1", drift, sheet 73 (1909 edn.).
19 Poulson, Holderness, i. 126.
20 E.R.A.O., DDCC/54/53; DDPK/3/8.
21 V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 55–7; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 and later edns.).
22 Poulson, Holderness, i. 122–3. For mere, R.D.B., BB/134/17; E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall.
23 E.R.A.O., CSR/20/64; ibid. IA. Tunstall; R.D.B., BB/134/17.
24 E.R.A.O., CSR/4/55, 152, 252; CSR/16/56, 80; CSR/ 20/23; ibid. DDCK/32/15 (sketch plan of c. 1835); T. Sheppard, Lost Towns of Yorks. Coast, 154; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.).
25 Sheppard, op. cit. 156.
26 E.R.A.O., DDCC/141/70; ibid. IA. Tunstall.
27 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.).
28 R.D.B., BB/134/17; E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall.
29 E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall.
30 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.); for Kiln Garth earlier, E.R.A.O., DDCC/141/70.
31 E.R.A.O., QDT/2/7, 9; R.D.B., EU/61/61; directories; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.); inf. from Mrs. P. Kirkwood, Manor Farm, Tunstall, 1991.
32 Inf. from Mr. A. C. Ellis, Sand-Le-Mere Caravan & Leisure; Park, Tunstall, 1991; below, this section.
33 TS. by G. W. Wilbraham in possession of Mrs. P. Kirkwood, Manor Farm, 1991.
34 E.R. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 1959–60, 86.
35 E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall; Cal. Pat. 1358–61, 474–5.
36 P.R.O., E 179/202/60, m. 17.
37 Trans. R. Hist. S. n.s. vii. 246; below, econ. hist.
38 Below, econ. hist.
39 H.U.L., DDKE/8/88; R.D.B., BO/580/896; A. Bryant, Map of E.R. Yorks. (1829).
40 E.R.A.O., PE/42/2; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 88.
41 E.R.A.O., LT/9/54; ibid. DDGR/35/38; H. Teesdale, Map of Yorks. (1828); R. W. S. Norfolk, Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteer Forces of E.R. 1689–1908 (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Ser. xix), 18, 26.
42 E.R.A.O., NV/1/28; R.D.B., 48/453/424 (1902); Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1905), 590; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 88; local inf.
43 E.R.A.O., PE/42, accession 1218, letters 1940, 1942; R.D.B., 1653/445/386; inf. from Mr. A. C. Ellis, 1991.
44 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 264–5.
45 V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 9–10, 69, 163.
46 P.R.O., C 66/639, m. 4; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 191.
47 E.R.A.O., DDCC/111/21, 23; Cal. Pat. 1557–8, 39; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 10.
48 R.D.B., BB/134/17.
49 E.R.A.O., DDCC/111/16, 207; DDCC/133/3; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 85; J. Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii, s.v. Constable of Constable Burton.
50 E.R.A.O., DDCC/1/11/231; DDCC/134/17, 23; above, Garton, manors.
51 R.D.B., AM/112/185.
52 Kirkby's Inquest, 374; Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, p. 353; above, Long Riston, manors.
53 P.R.O., C 142/73, no. 47; C 142/530, no. 155; Cal. Inq. p.m. vi, pp. 185–6; Yorks. Fines, i. 315; Yorks. Royalist Composition Papers, i (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. xv), pp. 97–104; J. Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii, s.v. Hildyard.
54 Close R. 1227–31, 394.
55 H.U.L., DHO/16/53.
56 Kirkby's Inquest, 76, 246 n., 374; Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, pp. 354, 356; ix, p. 303; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 92.
57 Yorks. Fines, 1300–14, p. 105; 1327–47, p. 89; Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, pp. 413–14.
58 Cal. Inq. p.m. viii, p. 342; ix, pp. 302–3; Yorks. Fines, 1327–47, p. 111; 1347–77, p. 31.
59 Yorks. Fines, 1327–47, p. 70.
60 Cal. Pat. 1348–50, 460.
61 P.R.O., C 142/160, no. 38; C 142/199, no. 69; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xi, p. 207; xvi, p. 325; Yorks. Fines, i. 102.
62 Cal. Inq. p.m. vi, p. 364; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 85; Test. Ebor. iii, p. 251 n.
63 H.U.L., DDSY/56/1; Trans. R. Hist. S. n.s. vii. 246.
64 P.R.O., C 142/58, no. 27; C 142/160, no. 59; C 142/210, no. 124; C 142/301, no. 65; C 142/401, no. 126; H.U.L., DGN/11/8; R.D.B., H/641/1298; BF/270/465; Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii; above, Garton, manors.
65 R.D.B., BB/134/17.
66 Ibid. 185/114/93.
67 English, Holderness, 81–3; Kirkby's Inquest, 374.
68 R.D.B., BB/134/17; Poulson, Holderness, i. 155.
69 R.D.B., BB/134/17.
70 Ibid. CO/399/619; E.R.A.O., PE/42/2.
71 R.D.B., EO/71/80; EW/278/307; EY/262/270; E.R.A.O., PE/42/7; memorial in church.
72 R.D.B., DM/309/360.
73 Ibid. BB/134/17; DC/446/611; DC/447/612; EG/272/ 337; GX/339/396; GX/399/485; HH/192/210; H.U.L., DRA/545; memorial in church.
74 R.D.B., MY/94/151; NO/383/557; NS/73/103; 16/ 424/390 (1899); 98/224/214 (1907); E.R.A.O., NV/1/28; D.N.B., s.v. Parsons.
75 R.D.B., 223/370/310; 495/194/151.
76 Ibid. 1038/90/78; inf. from Mr. Kirkwood.
77 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 216.
78 P.R.O., E 317/Yorks./17; H.U.L., DDSY/97/16; DDCV/16/1–3; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. iv. 14.
79 Feud. Aids, vi. 163.
80 H.U.L., DDSY/56/1; Yorks. Inq. ii, pp. 32–6; Cal. Inq. p.m. xi, p. 401; Memorials of Beverley Minster, ii (Sur. Soc. cviii), 322.
81 P.R.O., C 142/218, no. 52; ibid. E 317/Yorks./17; H.U.L., DHO/7/41; Cal. Inq. p.m. viii, pp. 330–42; xi, pp. 400–1; Test. Ebor. i, pp. 375–6; N. Country Wills, i (Sur. Soc. cxvi), pp. 184–7; Yorks. Fines, 1614–25, 168; above, Roos, manors.
82 R.D.B., BB/134/17; H.U.L., DDSY/56/1.
83 Below, church.
84 Kirkby's Inquest, 374.
85 P.R.O., C 54/3628, no. 5; Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM/ XIIa/18/94–6; T.E.R.A.S. iv. 55.
86 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1716, etc.
87 R.D.B., BB/134/17.
88 P.R.O., E 134/28 Chas. II East./4; E 134/29 Chas. II East./7.
89 E.R.A.O., PE/42/2, terrier 1738; PE/42/12 (tithe award); below, econ. hist.
90 E.R.A.O., PE/42/12; 17 Geo. III, c. 30 (Priv. Act); B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1726; ibid. CC. Succ. 9 Tun. 1; R.D.B., EW/47/58; FM/197/220; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 86.
91 R.D.B., GZ/381/439; 3 & 4 Vic. c. 113, s. 51; Le Neve, Fasti, 1541–1857, York, 42; A. Bryant, Map of E.R. Yorks. (1829).
92 R.D.B., NA/31/48; 33/458/430 (1889); E.R.A.O., PE/42/7.
93 B.I.H.R., TER. 79; R.D.B., IK/335/382; LF/215/273; 68/478/454 (1904); E.R.A.O., NV/1/28.
94 R.D.B., 182/336/280.
95 Ibid. 196/19/19; 196/20/20.
96 Ibid. 241/381/331; 243/594/486; 275/627/490.
97 Ibid. 778/193/172; 784/453/384.
98 Ibid. 845/346/300; 1051/24/23; 1440/338/290; inf. from Mrs. Grassby.
99 Poulson, Holderness, ii. 88.
1 E.Y.C. iii, p. 46; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 194.
2 Hist. MSS. Com. 78, Hastings, i, pp. 162–3.
3 Dugdale, Mon. vi. 654–5.
4 P.R.O., C 2/Jas. I/C 3/31; ibid. C 60/525, no. 52; Valor Eccl. v. 110; Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 170, 250; 1553, 87–8; Yorks. Deeds, iv, pp. 76–7; D.N.B., s.v. Stanhope; Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii, s.v. Constable of Constable Burton; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 194.
5 Yorks. Fines, John (Sur. Soc. xciv), pp. 135–6.
6 Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, 10; Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 203, 275; Kirkby's Inquest, 374.
7 P.R.O., C 66/1903, no. 9; ibid. E 310/27/158, f. 20; E 310/29/169, f. 16; ibid. SC 6/Hen. VIII/2022, m. 79; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvii, pp. 29–30; above, Garton, manors.
8 Chron. de Melsa (Rolls Ser.), ii. 23.
9 Kirkby's Inquest, 374.
10 Cal. Pat. 1334–8, 336; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v. 118; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 199.
11 P.R.O., C 142/401, no. 126; H.U.L., DHO/10/6, feodary's acct.; Cal. Pat. 1572–5, pp. 321–5.
12 R.D.B., BB/134/17; E.R.A.O., NV/1/28.
13 P.R.O., CP 40/1014, rot. 141; T.E.R.A.S. xix, p. 23; H.U.L., DDWB/2/3; DDSY/56/1.
14 P.R.O., C 66/1882, no. 4.
15 Below, this section.
16 E.R.A.O., DDCC/111/15; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 85.
17 The acres were described as 'computed acres': E.R.A.O., DDCC/141/70.
18 Dugdale, Mon. vi. 654–5.
19 G. T. J. Miles and W. Richardson, Hist. Withernsea, 67–8.
20 P.R.O., C 54/3628, no. 5; C 142/553, no. 30; E.R.A.O., PE/42/2, terrier 1738; H.U.L., DDMC/94/1.
21 E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall.
22 Ibid. DDIV/18/1; DDCC/141/70; H.U.L., DDCV/ 166/46.
23 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1716.
24 Ibid. 1726, 1743; E.R.A.O., DDCC/141/70.
25 H.U.L., DDSY/56/1; Yorks. Inq. ii, pp. 34–5.
26 E.R.A.O., IA. Tunstall; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.).
27 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 216.
28 Trans. R. Hist. S. N.S. vii. 246.
29 One tenant there had no open-field land: H.U.L., DDSY/56/1.
30 Ibid. DDSY(3)/3/6 (Oct. 1642); DDCV/134/1 (Oct. 1635).
31 Ibid. DDCV/166/63.
32 Ibid. DDCV/166/36.
33 Below, this section.
34 H.U.L., DDSY/75/6; E.R.A.O., DDCC/42/2.
35 Cf. R.D.B., 992/130/116; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Yorks. CCXXVIII. 7 (1910 edn.). R.D.B., BB/134/17; E.R.A.O., IA. (maps).
36 Above, manors.
37 P.R.O., C 142/708, no. 96; E.R.A.O., DDCC/42/2.
38 H.U.L., DDSY/75/6; DDKE/8/88; R.D.B., BO/ 580/896.
39 Cf. E.R.A.O., PE/42/12; ibid. DDCC/42/2; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVIII (1855 edn.).
40 17 Geo. III, c. 30 (Priv. Act); R.D.B., BB/134/17; E.R.A.O., IA. (maps).
41 The discrepancy in the sum results from rounding.
42 P.R.O., HO 67/26/430.
43 Acreage Returns, 1905.
44 [1st] Land Util. Surv. Map, sheets 33–4; directories.
45 Two paras. based on P.R.O., HO 107/2364; RG 9/3600; directories.
46 H.U.L., DHO/7/42; DHO/8/47; DHO/10/6.
47 E.R.A.O., DDCC/1/62.
48 Ibid. DDCC/136/51, 151–2, 155–7, 179.
49 H.U.L., DHO/16/53.
50 E.R.A.O., DDX/59/27; ibid. IA. Tunstall; R.D.B., MM/37/55; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Yorks. CCXXVIII.11 (1910 edn.).
51 Cal. Pat. 1358–61, 474–5.
52 H.U.L., DDCV/134/1; above, manors.
53 H.U.L., DDCV/167/1–2, 5; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 85.
54 E.R.A.O., PE/42/10.
55 Miles and Richardson, Hist. Withernsea, 61.
56 B.I.H.R., V. 1764/Ret. 3, no. 98; E.R.A.O., NV/1/28.
57 Poor Law Abstract, 1804, pp. 594–5; 1818, pp. 522–3.
58 3rd Rep. Poor Law Com. 169; Census.
59 Humberside (Structural Change) Order 1995, copy at E.R.A.O.
60 E.Y.C. iii, pp. 30–1, 35–7; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 18.
61 Reg. Gray, pp. 22–3, 52–3.
62 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1716, etc.; Rep. Com. Eccl. Revenues, 974–5; Hodgson, Q.A.B. supplement, p. lv.
63 Lond. Gaz. 1 Mar. 1867, p. 1483.
64 B.I.H.R., OC. 880; Lond. Gaz. 11 May 1877, pp. 3076–7; 4 Nov. 1927, pp. 6972–3.
65 Above, this section; R.D.B., IU/195/258.
66 3 & 4 Vic. c. 113, s. 41; Le Neve, Fasti, 1541–1857, York, 42.
67 Lond. Gaz. 11 May 1877, pp. 3076–7.
68 Ibid. 4 Nov. 1927, pp. 6972–3; above, Garton, church; Hilston, church.
69 B.I.H.R., OC. 880.
70 E.Y.C. iii, pp. 27–8; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 198; above, this section; above, manors.
71 Y.A.J. xxiv. 76.
72 T.E.R.A.S. iv. 55.
73 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall n.d., etc.
74 Hodgson, Q.A.B. p. cccl.
75 Rep. Com. Eccl. Revenues, 974–5.
76 Lond. Gaz. 16 Sept. 1853, pp. 2536–7; 30 Oct. 1860, pp. 3948–9.
77 Hodgson, Q.A.B. supplement, pp. lv, lxxvi.
78 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1868; R.D.B., IU/195/ 258; IU/196/259.
79 Lond. Gaz. 11 May 1877, pp. 3076–7; above, Hilston, church.
80 There were evidently 13 a. at East Newton. B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1786, 1809, 1825; R.D.B., BL/123/160; CE/505/758; DL/224/255; E.R.A.O., NV/1/40.
81 R.D.B., 1428/567/500.
82 Inf. from York Dioc: Bd. of Finance, 1981.
83 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1865, 1868; R.D.B., IK/325/370; KP/351/462; Rep. Com. Eccl. Revenues, 974–5; Lond. Gaz. 8 July 1870, p. 3312.
84 R.D.B., 391/424/355; Lond. Gaz. 4 Nov. 1927, p. 6972.
85 Chron. de Melsa (Rolls Ser.), ii. 23; Cal. Inq. p.m. v, p. 144.
86 P.R.O., C 66/1908, no. 1; ibid. E 311/35, no. 29.
87 Y.A.J. xxiv. 76.
88 B.I.H.R., V. 1567–8/CB. 1, f. 192v.; Aveling, Post Reformation Catholicism, 67.
89 Poulson, Holderness, ii. 87.
90 B.I.H.R., V. 1764/Ret. 3, no. 98; V. 1884/Ret. 2; Herring's Visit. ii, pp. 219–20; iii, pp. 175–6; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 87; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 200.
91 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1825; Baines, Hist. Yorks. (1823), ii. 396.
92 B.I.H.R., V. 1764/Ret. 3, no. 98; Herring's Visit. iii, p. 175.
93 B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 2, no. 556; V. 1868/Ret. 2, no. 509; V. 1871/Ret. 2, no. 515; V. 1877/Ret. 3, no. 126; V. 1884/ Ret. 2; V. 1912–22/Ret. (s.vv. Tunstall and Hilston); V. 1931/ Ret.
94 York Minster Libr., L/2/4, f. 12v.
95 Poulson, Holderness, ii. 88.
96 B.I.H.R., V. 1590–1/CB. 1, f. 138.
97 E.R.A.O., PE/42/10.
98 T. Allen, Hist. Co. York, iv. 276.
99 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1764, 1861; V. 1865/Ret. 2, no. 556.
1 E.R.A.O., PE/42/2, note in addition to terrier of 1868; PE/42/9; Bulmer, Dir. E. Yorks. (1892), 524.
2 Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1913), 621.
3 Inventories of Ch. Goods, 34; Boulter, 'Ch. Bells', 86.
4 B.I.H.R., TER. 534; Yorks. Ch. Plate, i. 326–7.
5 Banns are recorded, however, from 1754: E.R.A.O., PE/42/1–2, 4.
6 H.U.L., DDCV/166/3; Herring's Visit. iii, p. 175.
7 B.I.H.R., TER. H. Tunstall 1764; R.D.B., BB/134/17.
8 E.R.A.O., NV/1/28.
9 Ibid. PE/42/10; B.I.H.R., TER. 79; above, Roos, church.
10 Herring's Visit. iii, p. 175.
11 P.R.O., HO 129/521/1/26/47; O.N.S. (Birkdale), Worship Reg. no. 462; B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 2, no. 556.
12 Educ. of Poor Digest, 1095.
13 Educ. Enq. Abstract, 1097.
14 B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 2, no. 556; V. 1868/Ret. 2, no. 509; Returns relating to Elem. Educ. 472–3.
15 B.I.H.R., V. 1877/Ret. 3, no. 126; E.R.A.O., accession 1681; below, charity.
16 East window in church; TS. by G. W. Wilbraham in possession of Mrs. P. Kirkwood, Manor Farm, 1991.
17 E.R.A.O., accession 1681.
18 Inf. from the Revd. J. Adey, Roos, 1990.