List of commissions and officials
1860-1870 (nos. 95-136)

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

J.M. Collinge

Year published

1984

Supporting documents

Pages

62-91

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'List of commissions and officials: 1860-1870 (nos. 95-136)', Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 9: Officials of Royal Commissions of Inquiry 1815-1870 (1984), pp. 62-91. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16912 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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95. DOCKYARDS 1860-1

Five Commissioners were appointed in June 1860 to inquire into the system of control and management of the naval dockyards, the purchase of materials and stores and the method of keeping the accounts. They were also required to inquire into expenditure since the year 1848 to ascertain whether the system of ship building had been efficient and whether spending on the alteration of ships, including the conversion from sail to steam, had been judiciously applied. (fn. 1) In August 1860 the commission's chairman, Ricardo, was replaced by Peel. (fn. 2) Peel himself appears to have withdrawn from the chairmanship following his appointment as Financial Secretary to the Treasury in November 1860. Thereafter Willoughby took the chair. (fn. 3) Three Commissioners, Dalglish, Gifford and Willoughby, reported on 11 March 1861 ([2790] HC (1861) xxvi). Robinson's report, dated 6 February 1861, was appended to the main report. (fn. 4)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary Price, who was named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £488, being the annual remuneration he had received as Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief at Devonport, the office he had relinquished to take up the secretaryship of the commission. (fn. 5)

Commissioners 8 June 1860 Ricardo, J. L. (fn. 6) ; Gifford, Earl of; Willoughby, Sir H. P.; Robinson, R. S.; Dalglish, R. (C 66/5007).

21 Aug. 1860 Peel, F. vice Ricardo (C 66/5008).

Secretary 8 June 1860 Price, A. (C 66/5007).

96. SALMON FISHERIES 1860-1

Three Commissioners were appointed in 1860 to inquire into the salmon fisheries of England and Wales with the view of increasing the supply of 'a valuable article of food for the benefit of the public'. (fn. 7) They reported on 7 February 1861 ([2768, 2768-I] HC (1861) xxiii, 67, 659).

The Commissioners were awarded £350 each as remuneration for their services, and their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded £250. (fn. 8)

Commissioners 31 July 1860 Jardine, Sir W.; Ffennell, W. J.; Rickards, G. K. (C 66/5008).

Secretary 31 July 1860 Eden, F. (ibid.).

97. CHANCERY FUNDS 1861-4

Eight Commissioners were appointed in February 1861 to inquire into the constitution of the Accountant General's Department of the Court of Chancery and into the provisions for the custody and management of the stocks and funds of the court. (fn. 9) An additional Commissioner was appointed in April 1861. (fn. 10) The Commissioners reported on 17 February 1864 ([3280] HC (1864) xxix, 1). Kingsdown and Crawford dissented from part of the report. (fn. 11)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded an allowance of £750 for his services. (fn. 12)

Commissioners 15 Feb. 1861 Argyll, Duke of; Kingsdown, Lord; Grey, Sir G. (fn. 13) ; Crawford, R. W.; Rogers, P. W.; Anderson, W. G.; Cookson, W. S.; Field, E. W. (HO 38/59 pp. 125-8).

22 April 1861 Wood, Sir W. P. (ibid. pp. 186-8).

Secretary by 21 March 1861 Macnaghten, E. (HO 36/33 p. 235).

98. THAMES EMBANKMENT 1861-31 (fn. 14)

Seven Commissioners were appointed in February 1861 to examine the plans for embanking the river Thames within the metropolis so as to relieve the most crowded streets by the establishment of a new thoroughfare and to improve the navigation of the river. (fn. 15) Their report dated 22 July 1861 ([2872] HC (1861) xxxi, 267) dealt only with the Middlesex side of the river. Thwaites did not sign the report and submitted a protest against it, to which Cubitt as chairman responded. (fn. 16)

The same seven Commissioners were appointed in December 1861 to examine the plans for embanking the Surrey side of the river. (fn. 17) They reported on 29 July 1862 ([3043] HC (1862) xxviii, 61). Thwaites again declined to sign the report. (fn. 18)

The same seven Commissioners with the addition of one other were appointed in August 1862 to consider the plans for making a communication between the embankment at Blackfriars Bridge and the Mansion House by means of a new street, and plans for uniting the intended embankment at Westminster Bridge with the existing embankment at Millbank. (fn. 19) They reported on 7 February 1863 ([3093] HC (1863) xxvi, 431).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in all three commissions, was awarded two payments for his services: one of £300 in August 1861 and one of £400 in August 1862. (fn. 20)

Commissioners 23 Feb. 1861 (fn. 21) Cubitt, W.; Jebb, Sir J.; Thwaites, J.; Galton, D. S.; Burstal, E.; Hunt, H. A.; McClean, J. R. (HO 38/59 pp. 138-43, 370-4, 600-6).

16 Aug. 1862 Tite, W. (ibid. pp. 600-6).

Secretary 23 Feb. 1861 (fn. 21) Kingscote, H. (ibid. pp. 138-43, 370-4, 600-6).

99. PUBLIC SCHOOL 1861-4

Seven Commissioners were appointed in 1861 to inquire into the nature and application of the endowments, funds and revenues belonging to certain public schools; and also into the course of studies pursued there and into the methods, subjects and extent of instruction given to the students. (fn. 22) They reported on 16 February 1864 ([3288] HC (1864) xx, xxi). Vaughan dissented from the recommendations concerning entrance examinations to the schools. (fn. 23)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £500. (fn. 24)

Commissioners 18 July 1861 Clarendon, Earl of; Devon, Earl of; Lyttelton, Lord; Twisleton, Hon. E. T. B.; Northcote, Sir S. H.; Thompson, W. H.; Vaughan, H. H. (C 66/5010).

Secretary 18 July 1861 Bernard, M. (ibid.).

100. MINES 1862-4

Eight Commissioners were appointed in 1862 to inquire into the condition of all mines in Great Britain to which the provisions of the Mines Regulation and Inspection Act (23 & 24 Vict. c. 151) did not apply; and to suggest the most practicable means of improving the health and safety of persons employed in them. (fn. 25) They reported on 4 July 1864 ([3889] HC (1864) xxiv, pt. i p. 371 and xxiv, pt. ii).

The Commissioners were unsalaried, but with the exception of the chairman, Kinnaird, were allowed an allowance of one guinea a day for expenses when travelling out of London. (fn. 26) The Secretaries, both of whom were appointed by the Commissioners, were awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 27)

Commissioners 13 Feb. 1862 Kinnaird, Lord; Egerton, Hon. A. F. (fn. 28) ; Kendall, N.; Bruce, H. A. (fn. 29) ; St. Aubyn, J.; Ferguson Davie, J. D. (fn. 30) ; Greenhow, E. H.; Holland, P. H. (HO 38/59 pp. 435-8).

27 Feb. 1862 Davey, R. vice Ferguson Davie (ibid. pp. 453-7).

21 Feb. 1863 Leveson Gower, Hon. E. F.; Grey Egerton, Sir P. de M. vice Egerton and Bruce (HO 38/60 pp. 24-8).

Secretary by 19 March 1862 Temple, R. (fn. 31) (HO 74/3 p. 155).

18 Feb. 1863 Campbell, J. F. vice Temple (HO 36/34 p. 75).

101. CHILDREN'S EMPLOYMENT 1862-7

Three Commissioners were appointed in 1862 to inquire into the employment of children and young persons in trades and manufactures not already regulated by law. (fn. 32) The number of Commissioners fell to two on the death of Grainger in 1865. They were permitted to employ three Assistant Commissioners, approved by the Home Secretary, to collect information. (fn. 33) They issued their first report on 15 June 1863 ([3170] HC (1863) xviii, 1); the second and third reports were both dated August 1864 ([3414, 3414-1] HC (1864) xxii, 1, 319); the fourth report followed in July 1865 ([3548] HC (1865) xx, 103); and the fifth report was dated 11 June 1866 ([3678] HC (1866) xxiv, 1). In May 1865 in compliance with an address from the House of Lords, the Home Secretary directed the Commissioners to extend their inquiries to children and young persons employed in agricultural gangs. (fn. 34) This formed the subject of their sixth and final report dated 5 March 1867 ([3796] HC (1867) xvi, 67).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. The Assistant Commissioners and the Secretary, named in the commission, were awarded salaries of £300 in addition to an expenses allowance of 15 shillings a night if away from home. (fn. 35)

Commissioners 18 Feb. 1862 Tremenheere, H. S.; Grainger, R. D. (fn. 36) ; Tufnell, E. C. (C 66/5012).

Assistant Commissioners 24 Feb. 1862 Longe, F. D.; White, J. E.; Lord, H. W. (HO 36/33 pp. 447-8).

Secretary 18 Feb. 1862 Selby, P. (C 66/5012).

102. VOLUNTEER FORCE 1862

Thirteen Commissioners were appointed in May 1862 to inquire into the condition of the volunteer force in Great Britain and into the probability of its continuance at its existing strength. (fn. 37) Their undated report ([3053] HC (1862) xxvii, 89) was presented to the House of Commons on 4 August 1862. (fn. 38) The report was not signed by Gladstone who had been unable in consequence of illness to attend meetings; but on consideration of the printed evidence he concurred in the report's recommendations. (fn. 39) Eyre recorded a partial dissent. (fn. 40)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, a War Office Clerk named in the commission, was awarded an allowance of £100 for his services. (fn. 41)

Commissioners 16 May 1862 Eversley, Viscount; Ducie, Earl of; Hardinge, Viscount; Elcho, Lord; Overstone, Lord; Pleydell Bouverie, Hon. E.; Barttelot, W. B.; Campbell, Sir A. I.; Wetherall, Sir G. A.; Eyre, H.; McMurdo, W. M. S.; Gladstone, A. S.; Venables Vernon Harcourt, E. W. (London Gazette no. 22627).

Secretary 16 May 1862 Wetherell, T. F. (ibid.).

103. PATENT LAW 1862-4

Eleven Commissioners were appointed in 1862 to inquire into the working of the law relating to letters patent for inventions. (fn. 42) The number was reduced to ten in 1864 on the death of Atherton. The Commissioners reported on 29 July 1864 ([3419] HC (1864) xxix, 321). Hindmarch submitted a minority report. (fn. 43)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. They were served by a Secretary, named in the commission, at a salary of £300. (fn. 44)

Commissioners 1 Sept. 1862 Stanley, Lord; Overstone, Lord; Erle, Sir W.; Wood, Sir W. P.; Atherton, Sir W. (fn. 45) ; Cairns, Sir H. McC.; Waddington, H.; Grove, W. R.; Hindmarch, W. M.; Forster, W. E.; Fairbairn, W. (C 66/5014).

Secretary 1 Sept. 1862 Lloyd, E. (ibid.).

104. PENAL SERVITUDE 1862-3

Thirteen Commissioners were appointed in 1862 to inquire into the operation of the acts 16 & 17 Vict. c. 99 and 20 & 21 Vict. c. 3; into the manner in which sentences of transportation and of penal servitude had been carried into effect under their provisions; and generally into the law and practice relating to persons sentenced or liable to be sentenced to penal servitude. (fn. 46) The number was effectively reduced to twelve by Chelmsford's inability to act. They reported on 20 June 1863 ([3190, 3190-1] HC (1863) xxi, 1,283). Henley and Cockburn did not sign the report and explained the reasons for their dissent. (fn. 47)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was initially awarded a salary of £300 but at the close of the commission, which sat for only six months, was awarded an allowance of £250 for his services. (fn. 48)

Commissioners 29 Dec. 1862 Grey, Earl; Naas, Lord; Cranworth, Lord; Chelmsford, Lord (fn. 49) ; Pleydell Bouverie, Hon. E.; Pakington, Sir J. S.; Walpole, S. H.; Henley, J. W.; Cockburn, Sir A. J. E.; Waddington, H.; Gurney, R.; O'Conor, C. O.; Childers, H. C. E. (C 66/5015).

Secretary 29 Dec. 1862 Kent, T. F. (ibid.).

105. ROYAL ACADEMY 1863

Seven Commissioners were appointed in 1863 to inquire into the position of the Royal Academy in relation to fine arts and to suggest measures which might render it more useful in promoting art and in improving and developing public taste. (fn. 50) They reported on 10 July 1863 ([3205, 3205-1] HC (1863) xxvii, 1, 587).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded an allowance of £200 for his services and an additional allowance of £50 for preparing an index to the report. (fn. 51)

Commissioners 2 Feb. 1863 Stanhope, Earl; Hardinge, Viscount; Elcho, Lord; Head, Sir E. W.; Stirling, W.; Seymour, H. D.; Reeve, H. (C 66/5016).

Secretary 2 Feb. 1863 Sketchley, R. F. (ibid.).

106. CLAIMS OF FIELD OFFICERS 1863

Nine Commissioners were appointed in May 1863 to investigate the claims of certain field officers who considered that their position in the army had been injured by the system of army promotion adopted following the recommendations of royal commissions appointed in 1854 and 1858 (see 68 and 81). (fn. 52) They reported on 15 June 1863 ([3196] HC (1863) xiii, 1). Brown did not sign the report and explained the reasons for his dissent in a memorandum published with the report. (fn. 53)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, a War Office Clerk named in the commission, was awarded an allowance of £25 for his services. (fn. 54)

Commissioners 8 May 1863 Peel, J.; Pleydell Bouverie, Hon. E.; Woodford, Sir A. G.; Brown, Sir G.; Rosslyn, Earl of; Brereton, Sir W.; Sandham, H.; Russell, D.; Rumley, R. (London Gazette no. 22734).

Secretary 8 May 1863 Cave Browne Cave, T. (ibid.).

107. SEA FISHERIES 1863-5

Three Commissioners were appointed in 1863 to inquire into the sea fisheries of the United Kingdom. They were specifically required to ascertain whether the supply of fish was increasing, stationary or diminishing; whether any of the methods of catching fish involved a wasteful destruction of fish or spawn and if so whether legislative restriction would increase the supply of fish; and whether any existing legislative restriction operated injuriously. (fn. 55) No business appears to have been conducted under the chairmanship of Lord Hobart, appointed in July 1863, and he was succeeded as chairman by Caird in September 1863. (fn. 56) The Commissioners' undated report ([3596, 3596-1] HC (1866) xvii, 571 and xviii) was probably completed in July 1865, but was not presented to the House of Commons until 6 February 1866. (fn. 57)

Of the Commissioners, only Huxley, who was considered 'a professional man', was remunerated - at the rate of £3 a day for 104 days' work. Caird and Shaw Lefevre were Members of Parliament and thus not eligible for remuneration. (fn. 58) The Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £300. (fn. 59)

Commissioners 11 July 1863 Hobart, Lord (fn. 56) ; Caird, J.; Huxley, T. H. (C 66/5017).

21 Sept. 1863 Shaw Lefevre, G. J. vice Hobart (ibid.).

Secretary 11 July 1863 Holdsworth, E. W. H. (ibid.).

108. CLERICAL SUBSCRIPTIONS 1864-5

Twenty-seven Commissioners were appointed in 1864 to consider the subscriptions, declarations and oaths required to be made and taken by the clergy of the United Church of England and Ireland on ordination or appointment to ecclesiastical office; and to report how far they might be altered and simplified. (fn. 60) They reported on 9 Feb. 1865 ([3441] HC (1865) xv, 29). Heathcote did not sign the report.

The Commissioners were unsalaried. They were served by a Secretary, named in the commission, at a salary of £400. (fn. 61)

Commissioners 8 Feb. 1864 Canterbury, Archbishop of; York, Archbishop of; Armagh, Archbishop of; Dublin, Archbishop of; Stanhope, Earl; Harrowby, Earl of; London, Bishop of; Winchester, Bishop of; St. David's, Bishop of; Oxford, Bishop of; Lyttelton, Lord; Cranworth, Lord; Ebury, Lord; Pleydell Bouverie, Hon. E.; Lushington, S.; Walpole, S. H.; Napier, J.; Coleridge, Sir J. T.; Heathcote, Sir W.; Buxton, C.; Milman, H. H.; Goodwin, H.; Sandford, J.; Jacobson, W.; Jeremie, J. A.; Venn, H.; Humphry, W. G. (C 66/5018).

Secretary 8 Feb. 1864 Kent, T. F. (ibid.).

109. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 1864-6

Twelve Commissioners were appointed in 1864 to inquire into the provisions and operation of the laws then in force in the United Kingdom by virtue of which capital punishment might be inflicted, and into the manner in which capital sentences were carried out. (fn. 62) They reported on 8 January 1866 ([3590] HC (1866) xxi).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. They were served by a Secretary, named in the commission. His salary, fixed in July 1864 at £300, was in February 1866 increased to £400, payable from the date of his appointment. (fn. 63)

Commissioners 8 July 1864 Richmond, Duke of; Stanley, Lord; Lushington, S.; Coleridge, Sir J. T.; O'Hagan, T.; Moncreiff, J.; Waddington, H.; Bright, J.; Ewart, W.; Hardy, G.; Hunt, G. W.; Neate, C. (C 66/5019).

Secretary 8 July 1864 Patteson, J. H. (ibid.).

110. SCHOOLS 1864-7

Twelve Commissioners were appointed in 1864 to inquire into the education given in schools not already investigated by the Commissions on Popular Education (84) or Public Schools (99). (fn. 64) Three classes of schools, endowed, private and proprietary, were thus comprised within the scope of the inquiry. In 1865 the Commissioners were permitted to appoint ten Assistant Commissioners to collect information for a period of eight months. (fn. 65) Two of the Assistant Commissioners were sent overseas: Arnold to France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy; and Fraser to the United States of America and Canada. (fn. 66) The remaining eight were sent to selected districts of England and Wales, chosen to represent a cross-section of population and employment. (fn. 67) The Assistant Commissioners made separate reports on each endowed grammar school within their districts and in 1866 the commission was permitted to extend the investigations to include all endowed grammar schools in England and Wales. For this purpose five of the existing Assistant Commissioners were retained and four new Assistant Commissioners were appointed. (fn. 68) The Commissioners reported on 2 December 1867 ([3966, 3966 I - XX] HC (1867-8) xxviii (pts. ixvii)). The general reports of the Assistant Commissioners and the special reports on endowed grammar schools were appended to the main report. Stanley and Northcote, who had both taken office in December 1866 as Foreign Secretary and President of the Board of Trade respectively, declined to sign the report, partly because their official duties had prevented them from attending the later meetings of the commission; and partly because, as members of the executive, they thought it better to reserve their opinions on the points at issue until the time came when action had to be taken upon them. (fn. 69)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. The Assistant Commissioners received payment at the rate of £50 a month in addition to their subsistence and travelling expenses. (fn. 70) The Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £600. (fn. 71)

Commissioners 28 Dec. 1864 Taunton, Lord; Stanley, Lord; Lyttelton, Lord; Northcote, Sir S. H.; Hook, W. F.; Temple, F.; Thorold, A. W.; Acland, T. D.; Baines, E.; Forster, W. E.; Erle, P.; Storrar, J. (C 66/5020).

Assistant Commissioners
14 April 1865 Fearon, D. R. (T 1/6594B/18681).
14 April 1865 Giffard, H. A. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Stanton, C. H. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Green, T. H. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Hammond, J. L. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Fitch, J. G. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Bryce, J. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Bompas, H. M. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Fraser, J. (ibid.).
14 April 1865 Arnold, M. (ibid.).
8 March 1866 Elton, C. I. (T 1/6672A/20180).
8 March 1866 Richmond, D. C. (ibid.).
8 March 1866 Wright, R. S. (ibid.).
1 April 1866 Eve, H. W. (ibid.).
Secretary 28 Dec. 1864 Roby, H.J. (C 66/5020).

111. RAILWAY CHARGES 1865-7

Fourteen Commissioners were appointed in March 1865 to inquire into the charges made for the conveyance of goods and passengers on the railways of Great Britain and Ireland; and to report whether it would be practicable to effect any considerable reduction in such charges and any uniformity of charge within the several railway systems, with due regard to safety, punctuality and expedition. (fn. 72) Two additional Commissioners were appointed in December 1865. (fn. 73) The number of Commissioners fell to fifteen on the death of Donoughmore in 1866. The Commissioners reported on 7 May 1867 ([3844, 3844 I-III] HC (1867) xxxviii, pt. i, pp. 1, 127, pt. ii, pp. 1, 579). Monsell and Hill produced minority reports. (fn. 74) Stanley and Roebuck did not sign the report.

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £800. (fn. 75)

Commissioners 11 March 1865 Devonshire, Duke of; Donoughmore, Earl of (fn. 76) ; Stanley, Lord; Leveson Gower, Hon. E. F.; Lowe, R.; Hill, Sir R.; Roebuck, J. A.; Horsfall, T. B.; Dalglish, R.; Glyn, G. C.; Ayrton, A. S.; Galton, D. S.; Hamilton, E. T.; McClean, J. R. (HO 38/60 pp. 633-9).

19 Dec. 1865 Belmore, Earl; Monsell, W. (HO 38/61 pp. 218-28).

Secretary 11 March 1865 Pole, W. (HO 38/60 pp. 633-9).

112. MARRIAGE LAWS 1865-8

Fourteen Commissioners were appointed in 1865 to inquire into the operation of the laws then in force in the United Kingdom respecting the constitution, proof and registration of the contract of marriage; into the laws respecting the marriages of European British subjects in India and the colonies; and into the laws relating to the marriages of British subjects in foreign countries. (fn. 77) They reported in July 1868 ([4059] HC (1867-8) xxxii, 1). The Earl of Mayo (as Lord Naas had then become) did not sign the report as his appointment in 1866 as Chief Secretary for Ireland had prevented his attending the later meetings of the commission. (fn. 78)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. They were served by a Secretary, named in the commission, at a salary of £500. (fn. 79)

Commissioners 22 March 1865 Chelmsford, Lord; Naas, Lord; Lyveden, Lord; Walpole, S. H.; Monsell, W.; Inglis, J.; O'Hagan, T.; Wilde, Sir J. P.; Wood, Sir W. P.; Palmer, Sir R.; Cairns, Sir H. McC.; Young, G.; Twiss, T.; Murray Dunlop, A. (C 66/5021).

Secretary 22 March 1865 Macqueen, J. F. (ibid.).

113. POLLUTION OF RIVERS

a. 1865-8

Three Commissioners were appointed in 1865 to inquire how far the use of rivers in England and Wales for the purpose of carrying off the sewage of towns and the refuse arising from industrial processes could be reduced without risk to public health or serious injury to industry; how far such sewage and refuse could be utilised or rendered harmless before reaching rivers; and also to inquire into the effect on the drainage of lands and towns of obstructions to the natural flow of rivers caused by mills, weirs, locks and other navigation works. (fn. 80) The Home Secretary instructed the Commissioners to study selected river basins illustrating different classes of employment and population and suggested that they might investigate the Thames valley, the Mersey valley, the Aire and Calder basin, the Severn basin, the Taff valley and a river basin containing a mining district in Cornwall. (fn. 81) The Commissioners accordingly produced their first report on the Thames valley, dated 29 March 1866 ([3634, 3634-1] HC (1866) xxxiii, 1, 71). Harrison produced additional recommendations with which Rawlinson and Way did not concur. (fn. 82) They then began to investigate the Aire and Calder basin, but following a cholera outbreak in Poplar in the summer of 1866, turned their attention to the River Lea, on which they issued their second report, dated 6 May 1867 ([3835, 3835-1] HC (1867) xxxiii, 1, 29). The report on the Aire and Calder basin followed on 15 August 1867 ([3850, 3850- 1] HC (1867) xxxiii, 231, 329). Serious differences between the Chairman, Rawlinson, and one of the Commissioners, Harrison, as to the disposal of town sewage and as to the Chairman's authority to prevent Harrison from pursuing his own line of inquiry, were made damagingly public in the course of an open inquiry at Liverpool in January 1868. The Home Secretary considered the dispute too fundamental to be resolved, and consequently revoked the commission on 14 February 1868. (fn. 83)

Of the Commissioners, Harrison and Way, were awarded salaries of £800. (fn. 84) At the time of his appointment Rawlinson was in receipt of an official salary of £1,000 as an Inspector in the Local Government Act Office. His salary continued to be paid until January 1866 when responsibility for its payment was transferred to the commission. (fn. 85) The commission's first Secretary, Lushington, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £500. (fn. 86) Lushington offered his resignation in April 1866 because his professional engagements as a barrister prevented his travelling with the commission on its inquiries outside London. (fn. 87) The offer was refused and a compromise was reached whereby Lushington agreed to remain as Secretary at a reduced salary of £400 and the Office Assistant, S. J. Smith, agreed to travel with the commission. Smith's salary was increased from £300 to £400. (fn. 88) When in December 1866 Lushington was appointed Secretary to the Digest of Law Commission (118), the Treasury insisted on his resignation from the Pollution of Rivers Commission. (fn. 89) He was replaced by Benson, appointed by warrant under the royal sign manual, at a salary of £500. The salary of Smith, who was no longer required to travel with the commission, was accordingly reduced to £300. (fn. 90) When Benson himself resigned in August 1867, no successor was appointed and Smith was again required to travel with the commission at a salary of £400. (fn. 91)

Commissioners 18 May 1865 Rawlinson, R.; Harrison, J. T.; Way, J. T. (HO 38/ 61 pp. 11-15).

Secretary 18 May 1865 Lushington, G. (fn. 92) (ibid.).

22 June 1867 Benson, R. A. (fn. 93) vice Lushington (HO 38/62 pp. 151-2).

b. 1868-74

Three new Commissioners were appointed in April 1868 to conduct the inquiry on the same instructions as the old and to proceed at the point where the previous commission had been abandoned. (fn. 94) Their first report on the rivers Mersey and Ribble was completed on 16 February 1870 ([C. 37, C. 109] HC (1870) xl, 1, 157). The Chairman, Denison, and the two Commissioners, Frankland and Morton, produced separate and differing reports on the constitution of a proposed river conservancy board. (fn. 95) They then produced a short report, dated 4 July 1870, on the 'A.B.C.' patent process of treating sewage ([C. 181] HC (1870) xl, 499). Following the production of the first report on the Mersey and Ribble, the Home Secretary, at the request of the Commissioners, cancelled the instruction to inquire into selected river basins, and replaced it with an instruction to inquire into the specific pollution caused by any particular manufacturing process wherever located. (fn. 96) The Commissioners accordingly produced their third report, dated 22 April 1871, on pollution caused by woollen manufactures ([C. 347] HC (1871) xxv, 689). It was signed, as were all subsequent reports, only by Frankland and Morton as Denison had died in January 1871 just before the inquiry was completed. No chairman was appointed in Denison's place. (fn. 97) The commission's powers had been extended to Scotland in 1869 (fn. 98) , and the fourth report, dated 29 June 1872, dealt solely with the pollution of Scottish rivers ([C 603, 603-1] HC (1872) xxxiv, 1, 135). It was followed by reports on pollution arising from mining and metal manufactures, dated 18 October 1873 ([C. 951, 951-1] HC (1874) xxxiii, 1, 71) and on domestic water supply, dated 30 June 1874 ([C. 1112] HC (1874) xxxiii, 311).

Denison, the Chairman, was awarded a salary of £1,000, his pension as a retired colonial governor ceasing during his period of office. (fn. 99) The two other Commissioners were awarded salaries of £800. (fn. 100) The commission's Secretary, Smith, the former Office Assistant, was appointed by the Commissioners. His salary, fixed at £400 in 1868, was increased to £500 in 1870. (fn. 101)

Commissioners 6 April 1868 Denison, Sir W. T. (fn. 102) ; Frankland, E.; Morton, J. C. (HO 38/62 pp. 466-9).

Secretary 20 April 1868 Smith, S. J. (HO 74/3 pp. 434, 439).

114. CATTLE PLAGUE 1865-6

Twelve Commissioners were appointed in 1865 to investigate the origin and nature of the cattle plague then prevailing in Great Britain and to ascertain the treatment best adapted for the cure of the affected animals and the regulations which should be made to prevent the spreading of the disease and to avert any future outbreak. (fn. 103) The Commissioners issued their first report on 31 October 1865 ([3591] HC (1866) xxii, 1). Spencer, Cranborne, Read and Jones joined in signing a dissenting report and McClean produced a report of his own. (fn. 104) The second report, dated 5 February 1866 ([3600] HC (1866) xxii, 227) was signed by all the Commissioners and the third and final report, dated 1 May 1866 ([3656] HC (1866) xxii, 321) by all except McClean.

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £500. (fn. 105)

Commissioners 29 Sept. 1865 Spencer, Earl; Cranborne, Viscount; Lowe, R.; Playfair, L.; Read, C. S.; Jones, H. B.; Quain, R.; Parkes, E. A.; McClean, J. R.; Wormald, T.; Ceeley, R.; Spooner, C. (HO 38/61 pp. 127-33).

Secretary 29 Sept. 1865 Bernard, M. (ibid.).

115. RECRUITING THE ARMY 1866

Twelve Commissioners were appointed in May 1866 to inquire into the operation of the laws for raising men to serve in the army and into the recruiting system. (fn. 106) They reported on 31 October 1866 ([3752] HC (1867) xv, 1). Neither Longford nor Peto signed the report. Radcliffe dissented from the recommendations concerning pensions. (fn. 107)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the Commission, was awarded a salary of £300. (fn. 108)

Commissioners 9 May 1866 Dalhousie, Earl of; Longford, Earl of; Eversley, Viscount; Paulet, Lord W.; Peto, Sir S. M.; Cameron, Sir D. A.; Balfour, G.; Chapman, F. E.; Wilson Patten, J.; Whitbread, S.; O'Reilly, M. W. P.; Radcliffe, R. P. (London Gazette no. 23115).

Secretary 9 May 1866 Milton, J. (ibid.).

116. OATHS 1866-7

Thirteen Commissioners were appointed in 1866 to inquire what oaths, affirmations and declarations were required to be taken by any subjects of the United Kingdom other than those required to be taken by members of either house of parliament, by prelates or clergy of the established church or by any person examined as a witness in any court of justice; and to report which might be altered, which might be dispensed with and which retained. (fn. 109) Their undated report ([3885] HC (1867) xxxi, 1) was presented to the House of Commons on 27 June 1867. (fn. 110) It was signed by only five of the Commissioners, Richmond, the Bishop of Oxford, Gurney, O'Reilly and Shee, the first four of these dissenting from some of its recommendations. (fn. 111) Lyveden, Pleydell Bouverie, Lowe, Stirling Maxwell, Murray Dunlop, and Milman were unable to sign the report and produced statements of the grounds of their dissent. (fn. 112) Naas and Waddington did not provide any explanation for their failure to sign.

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 113)

Commissioners 17 May 1866 Richmond, Duke of; Stanley, Lord; (fn. 114) Naas, Lord; Oxford, Bishop of; Lyveden, Lord; Pleydell Bouverie, Hon. E.; Walpole, S. H.; (fn. 114) Lowe, R.; Shee, Sir W.; Stirling Maxwell, Sir W.; Murray Dunlop, A.; O'Reilly, M. W. P.; Milman, H. H. (HO 38/61 pp. 353-8).

16 July 1866 Gurney, R.; Waddington, H. vice Stanley and Walpole (ibid. pp. 439-45).

Secretary 29 June 1866 Patteson, J. H. (HO 74/3 p. 308).

117. COAL SUPPLY 1866-71

Sixteen Commissioners were appointed in 1866 to investigate the probable quantity of coal contained in the coalfields of the United Kingdom and to report on the quantity which might reasonably be expected to be available for use; to investigate the probability of the existence of coal at workable depths under the Permian, New Red Sandstone and other superincumbent strata; and to inquire as to the quantity of coal consumed and exported, as to how far such consumption and exportation might be expected to increase, and as to whether there was reason to believe that coal was wasted. (fn. 115) The number of Commissioners fell to fifteen on the death of Jukes. At the first meeting of the commission it was decided to divide the inquiry amongst the Commissioners and to appoint committees to investigate the separate subjects, every member having leave to serve on any committee he pleased. (fn. 116) The investigation of the probable quantity of coal in each known coalfield was allotted to specific Commissioners. (fn. 117) The commission's report ([C. 435, C. 435-I and II] HC (1871) xviii, 1, 199, 815) was agreed on 27 July 1871, Elliot and Murchison partially dissenting from it. (fn. 118) To it were appended the reports of the committees, the reports on the probable quantity of coal in the known coalfields, the general minutes, and full accounts of the proceedings in each committee.

The Commissioners were unsalaried, but were permitted to claim an allowance for personal expenses of one guinea for each day and night when absent from home on duty. (fn. 119) Their Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 120)

Commissioners 28 June 1866 Argyll, Duke of; Murchison, Sir R. I.; Armstrong, Sir W. G.; Vivian, H. H.; Clark, G. T.; Dickinson, J.; Elliot, G.; Forster, T. E.; Geddes, J.; Hunt, R.; Jukes, J. B. (fn. 121) ; Hartley, J.; Percy, J.; Prestwich, J.; Ramsay, A. C.; Woodhouse, J. T. (HO 38/61 pp. 397-402).

Secretary 7 July 1866 Campbell, J. F. ([C. 435-1] p. 1 HC (1871) xviii, 205).

118. DIGEST OF LAW 1866-70

Thirteen Commissioners were appointed in 1866 to inquire into the expediency of a digest of law and into the best means of accomplishing it or of otherwise exhibiting in an accessible form the law as embodied in judicial decisions. (fn. 122) On the death of Cranworth in 1868, Westbury became the chairman of the commission. Two additional Commissioners were appointed in 1870. (fn. 123) The commission issued its first report on 13 May 1867 ([3849] HC (1867) xix, 65). Its main recommendation was that specimen digests should be prepared. Three topics, mortgages, bills of exchange and easements, were chosen as subjects for the specimens and in the winter of 1867 a competition was held to find three barristers to carry out the work. (fn. 124) The three winners were appointed Draftsmen to the commission in June 1868. When the specimens were completed, it was decided in February 1870 that they were unsuited to the purpose required and that it was not desirable to continue the experiment. (fn. 125) The commission closed its work with a short second report dated 11 May 1870 ([C. 121] HC (1870) xviii, 231). Willes dissented from the report and explained his reasons. (fn. 126) Bowyer and Daniel did not sign it.

The Commissioners were unsalaried. The Draftsmen received salaries of £500 for the period 16 June 1868 to 16 March 1870. (fn. 127) The Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 128)

Commissioners 22 Nov. 1866 Cranworth, Lord (fn. 129) ; Westbury, Lord; Cairns, Sir H. McC.; Wilde, Sir J. P.; Lowe, R.; Wood, Sir W. P.; Bowyer, Sir G.; Palmer, Sir R.; Shaw Lefevre, Sir J. G.; May Sir T. E.; Daniel, W. T. S.; Thring, H.; Reilly, F. S. (HO 38/61 pp. 537-42).

29 Jan. 1870 Willes, Sir J. S.; Maine, H.J.S. (HO 38/63 pp. 79-80). Draftsmen

Mortgages 16 June 1868 Fisher, W. R. (SLC/16, paper of 1 Aug. 1868).

Bills of Exchange 16 June 1868 Macleod, H. D. (ibid.).

Easements 16 June 1868 Goddard, J. L. (ibid.).

Secretary 10 Dec. 1866 Lushington, G. (fn. 130) (SLC/16, minute 10 Dec. 1866).

8 Nov. 1869 Harrison, F. vice Lushington (HO 74/4 p. 65).

119. WATER SUPPLY 1866-9

Six Commissioners were appointed in 1866 to ascertain what supply of unpolluted and wholesome water could be obtained by collecting and storing water in the high grounds of England and Wales at a sufficient elevation for the supply of the large towns and to report which of such sources were best suited for the supply of the metropolis and its suburbs and how the supply from the remaining sources might be most beneficially distributed among the principal towns. (fn. 131) They reported on 9 June 1869 ([4169, 4169-I and II] HC (1868-9) xxxiii, 1, 133, 625).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. They were served by a Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, at a salary of £300. (fn. 132)

Commissioners 24 Dec. 1866 Richmond, Duke of; Thwaites, Sir J.; Harness, H. D.; Phillips, B. S.; Harrison, T. E.; Prestwich, J. (HO 38/61 pp. 581-6). Secretary 23 Jan. 1867 Lennox, A. (fn. 133) (HO 74/3 p. 350).

29 Oct. 1867 Pole, W. vice Lennox (ibid. p. 410).

120. NEUTRALITY LAWS 1867-8

Thirteen Commissioners were appointed in 1867 to inquire into the character, working and effect of the laws of the United Kingdom available for the enforcement of neutrality during the existence of hostilities between other states with which the United Kingdom was at peace. (fn. 134) Their undated report ([4027] HC (1867-8) xxxii, 265) was presented to the House of Commons on 28 May 1868. (fn. 135) Lushington, who had been prevented by indisposition from attending meetings after June 1867, did not sign the report. (fn. 136) Venables Vernon Harcourt dissented from some proposals. (fn. 137)

The Commissioners and their Secretary, named in the commission, were unsalaried.

Commissioners 30 Jan. 1867 Cranworth, Lord; Houghton, Lord; Cairns, Sir H. McC.; Lushington, S.; Erle, Sir W.; Bramwell, Sir G. W. W.; Phillimore, Sir R. J.; Palmer, Sir R.; Twiss, T.; Venables Vernon Harcourt, W. G. G.; Baring, T.; Gregory, W. H.; Forster, W. E. (HO 38/61 pp. 657-64).

Secretary 30 Jan. 1867 Onslow, F. P. (ibid.).

121. TRADE UNIONS 1867-9

Eleven Commissioners were appointed in 1867 to inquire into the organisation and rules of trade unions and other associations, whether of workmen or employers, and into the effect produced by them on workmen and employers respectively, on the relations between workmen and employers and on the trade and industry of the country; and to suggest any improvements to be made in the law. (fn. 138) The number of Commissioners was reduced to ten on the death of Head in 1868. The Commissioners issued eleven reports. The first ten of these ([3873, 3893, 3910, 3952] HC (1867) xxxii, 1, 167, 197, 289; [3980-I-VI] HC (1867-8) xxxix, 1, 149, 259, 325, 375, 445) merely submitted without comment the evidence taken before the Commissioners in 1867 and 1868. The eleventh report ([4123, 4123-1] HC (1868- 9) xxxi, 235, 363) contained the actual report of the commission, dated 9 March 1869, and the minority report of Lichfield, Hughes and Harrison. (fn. 139)

The Commissioners were empowered by their warrant of appointment and subsequently by statute to investigate any recent acts of intimidation or outrage alleged to have been promoted, encouraged or connived at by any trade unions. (fn. 140) The investigation of two such incidents, in Sheffield and Manchester, was carried out by three Examiners, being barristers of not less than ten years' standing, appointed by the Home Secretary's warrant on the recommendation of the commission. (fn. 141) The Sheffield Examiners reported on 2 August 1867 ([3952-I, II] HC (1867) xxxii, 397, 414) (fn. 142) and the Manchester Examiners on 10 February 1868 ([3980] HC (1867-8) xxxix, 571).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded a salary of £500. (fn. 143) Of the Sheffield and Manchester Examiners, the first was awarded an allowance of 1,000 guineas and the second and third allowances of 300 guineas; their Secretaries were remunerated at the rate of 3 guineas a day. (fn. 144)

Commissioners 12 Feb. 1867 Erle, Sir W.; Lichfield, Earl of; Elcho, Lord; Head, Sir E. W. (fn. 145) ; Gooch, Sir D.; Merivale, H.; Booth, J.; Roebuck, J. A.; Hughes, T.; Harrison, F.; Mathews, W. (HO 38/61 pp. 676-83).

Secretary by 4 March 1867 Patteson, J. H. (fn. 146) (HO 74/3 p. 354).

25 Jan. 1868 Traill, J. C. vice Patteson (ibid. pp. 412-13).

Examiners (Sheffield) 23 May 1867 Overend, W.; Barstow, T. I.; Chance, G. (HO 38/62 pp. 116-21).

Secretary 23 May 1867 Barker, J. E. (ibid.).

Examiners (Manchester) 23 Aug. 1867 Pickering, P. A.; Barstow, T. I.; Chance, G. (ibid. pp. 249-52).

Secretary 23 Aug. 1867 Sheil, J. (ibid.).

122. STANDARDS OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 1867-70

Eight Commissioners were appointed in 1867 to inquire into the condition of the standards of weights and measures transferred from the Exchequer to the Board of Trade under the provisions of the Standard of Weights, Measures and Coinage Act (29 & 30 Vict. c. 82); to ascertain how far these standards agreed with the imperial standards of length and weight and with each other; and generally to consider how the Standard Department of the Board of Trade might be made most efficient. (fn. 147) The number of Commissioners fell to seven in 1869 on the death of Graham. The commission issued five reports: a preliminary report dated 24 July 1868 ([4077] HC (1867-8) xxvii, 1); on the introduction of the metric system of weights and measures, dated 3 April 1869 ([4186] HC (1868-9) xxiii, 73); on the abolition of troy weight, dated 1 February 1870 ([C. 30] HC (1870) xxvii, 81); on the inspection of weights and measures, dated 21 May 1870 ([C. 147] HC (1870) xxvii, 249); and on the business of the Standard Department and the condition of the official standards and apparatus, dated 3 August 1870 ([C. 257] HC (1871) xxiv, 647). (fn. 148) That part of the fifth and final report relating to the establishment of the Standard Department was not signed by Chisholm, the Warden of the Standards and the senior member of the Department. (fn. 149)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. (fn. 150) Their Secretary, who was named in the commission, received no special remuneration as he was already in receipt of an official salary as Clerk of the Standard Department. (fn. 151)

Commissioners 9 May 1867 Airy, G. B.; Rosse, Earl of (fn. 152) ; Wrottesley, Lord (fn. 153) ; Shaw Lefevre, Sir J. G.; Sabine, E.; Graham, T. (fn. 154) ; Miller, W. H.; Chisholm, H. W. (HO 38/62 pp. 75-82).

4 May 1868 Colchester, Lord; Cave, S. vice Rosse and Wrottesley (ibid. pp. 498-505).

Secretary 9 May 1867 Chaney, H.J. (ibid. pp. 75-82).

123. EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN AGRICULTURE 1867-71

Two Commissioners were appointed in 1867 to inquire into the employment of children, young persons and women in agriculture and to ascertain to what extent the principles of the Factory Acts could be adopted for the regulation of their employment, especially with a view to the better education of such children. (fn. 155) The Commissioners were permitted to employ five Assistant Commissioners to collect information. (fn. 156) Their first two reports, dealing with England, were dated 31 October 1868 and 22 October 1869 ([4068, 4068-1] HC (1867-8) xvii, 1, 237; [4202, 4202- 1] HC (1868-9) xiii, 1, 231). For the second report Commissioners Tremenheere and Tufnell were not able to concur in the conclusions suggested to them by the evidence and were obliged to submit separate reports. (fn. 157) The third report, confined exclusively to Wales, was issued on 28 March 1870 ([C. 70] HC (1870) xiii, 1). The fourth and final report, on Scotland, followed on 13 February 1871 ([C. 221] HC (1870) xiii, 173). The evidence gathered by, and the reports of the Assistant Commissioners were appended to the four reports. (fn. 158)

Both the Commissioners were employees of the government, Tremenheere as an Inspector of Mines and Tufnell as an Inspector of Workhouse Schools, and were therefore not paid salaries as Commissioners. Tufnell was however paid an additional salary of £100 as an Inspector while serving as a Commissioner. (fn. 159) The Assistant Commissioners were awarded salaries of £300 in addition to an allowance of 15 shillings a day for subsistence. (fn. 160) The commission's first Secretary was named in the warrant of appointment. His successor was appointed by the Commissioners with the Home Secretary's approval. Both were awarded salaries of £300. (fn. 161)

Commissioners 10 May 1867 Tremenheere, H. S.; Tufnell, E. C. (HO 38/62 pp. 63-7).

Assistant Commissioners (fn. 162)
6 June 1867 Fraser, J. (fn. 163) (HO 74/3 pp. 377-8).
6 June 1867 Henley, J.J. (fn. 164) (ibid.).
6 June 1867 Portman, Hon. E. B. (fn. 165) (ibid.).
6 June 1867 Boyle, C.J. (fn. 166) (ibid.).
6 June 1867 Stanhope, Hon. E. (fn. 167) (ibid.).
6 Feb. 1868 Norman, F. H. vice Henley (ibid. p. 411).
6 Feb. 1868 Culley, G. vice C.J. Boyle (ibid.).
15 June 1868 Boyle, R. F. (fn. 168) vice Fraser (ibid. p. 448).
14 Oct. 1868 Tremenheere, J. H. vice R. F. Boyle (ibid. p. 473).
1 Oct. 1869 Boyle, R. F. reappointed vice Stanhope (HO 74/4 p. 54).
19 Feb. 1870 Campion, C. W. vice Portman (ibid. p. 89).
Secretary 10 May 1867 Selby, P. (fn. 169) (HO 38/62 pp. 63-7).
1 March 1870 Daniell, E. L. vice Selby (HO 74/4 pp. 92-3).

124. RITUAL 1867-70

Twenty-nine Commissioners were appointed in 1867 to inquire into the differences of practice which had arisen from the varying interpretations put upon the rubrics, orders and directions for regulating the conduct of public worship, the administration of the sacraments and the other services contained in the Book of Common Prayer, according to the use of the United Church of England and Ireland, with special reference to the ornaments used and the vestments worn by the ministers. They were further required to report whether any amendments should be made in the selection of lessons to be read at divine service. (fn. 170) The chairmanship of the commission was held by successive Archbishops of Canterbury until 15 December 1869 when the Bishop of Winchester was appointed chairman because of the illness of the then Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 171) The commission issued four reports: 19 August 1867, mainly concerning vestments ([3951] HC (1867) xx, 719); 30 April 1868, mainly concerning the use of candles and incense ([4016] HC (1867-8) xxxviii); 12 January 1870, on the lessons to be read at divine service ([C. 17] HC (1870) xix, 437); and 31 August 1870, on the Book of Common Prayer ([C. 218] HC (1870) xix, 461). The first report was signed by all the Commissioners, Phillimore, Beresford Hope and Perry expressing certain reservations. (fn. 172) Beauchamp, Phillimore, Beresford Hope, Hubbard, Gregory and Perry totally dissented from the second report and of the signatories, the Bishop of Oxford, Goodwin, Coleridge and Stanley differed in part. (fn. 173) The third report was signed by all the Commissioners. Carnarvon and Phillimore were unable to sign the fourth report and all the signatories dissented from some of its recommendations. (fn. 174)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £400 payable until 31 December 1870. (fn. 175)

Commissioners 3 June 1867 Canterbury, Archbishop of; (fn. 176) Armagh, Archbishop of; Stanhope, Earl; Harrowby, Earl of; Beauchamp, Earl; London, Bishop of; St. David's, Bishop of; Oxford, Bishop of; Gloucester and Bristol, Bishop of; Portman, Lord; Ebury, Lord; Walpole, S. H.; Cardwell, E.; (fn. 177) Napier, Sir J.; Wood, Sir W. P.; (fn. 177) Phillimore, Sir R. J.; Twiss, T.; Coleridge, J. D.; (fn. 177) Smith, J. A.; Beresford Hope, A.J. B.; Hubbard, J. G.; Stanley, A. P.; Goodwin, H.; Jeremie, J. A.; Payne Smith, R.; Venn, H.; Humphry, W. G.; Gregory, R.; Perry, T. W. (HO 38/62 pp. 136-44).

16 Jan. 1869 Carnarvon, Earl of; Chester, Bishop of; Buxton, C. vice Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardwell and Wood (ibid. pp. 606-17).

15 Jan. 1870 London, Bishop of (HO 38/63 pp. 80-2).

Secretary 3 June 1867 Kemp, W. F. (HO 38/62 pp. 136-44).

125. JUDICATURE 1867-74

Sixteen Commissioners were appointed in September 1867 to inquire into the operation and effect of the existing laws and arrangements for distributing and transacting the judicial business of the superior courts of common law and equity, both in court and in chambers. (fn. 178) Three additional Commissioners were appointed in October 1867 and a further two in January 1869. (fn. 179) The commission issued its first report on 25 March 1869 ([4130] HC (1868-9) xxv, 1). Partial dissents were recorded by Phillimore, Bramwell, Smith, Coleridge and Ayrton. (fn. 180) In October 1869 the scope of the inquiry was enlarged to include county courts, courts of quarter sessions and all other inferior and local courts, both civil and criminal, and the relationship between these inferior courts and the superior courts. At the same time the number of Commissioners was increased from twenty-one to twenty-four. (fn. 181) The commission issued its second report, dated 3 July 1872, on the subject of the inferior courts ([C. 631 and C. 631-1] HC (1872) xx, 217, 245). The report was not signed by Cairns, Penzance, Erle, Blackburn, Collier and Coleridge, who explained their reasons; and partial dissents were recorded by Willes, Smith, Karslake, Quain, Whitmore, Ayrton, Moffatt, Bateson and Lowndes. (fn. 182) On 25 November 1872, the scope of the inquiry was further enlarged to include the advisability of establishing tribunals of commerce for the cognisance of disputes relating to commercial transactions. (fn. 183) A further five members were added to the commission in November 1872 and January 1873. (fn. 184) The third report on tribunals of commerce was dated 21 January 1874 ([C. 957 and C. 957-1] HC (1874) xxiv, 1, 13). It was not signed by Penzance and Waterlow, who explained their reasons; Ayrton recorded a partial dissent. (fn. 185) The fourth report, dated 25 March 1874, dealt with the subject of chamber practice ([C. 984 and C.984-1] HC (1874) xxiv, 183, 191). The fifth report, dated 10 July 1874 ([C. 1090] HC (1874) xxiv, 307) completed the work of the commission. It was signed by all the Commissioners with partial dissents from Hunt, Coleridge, Moffatt, Bateson, Lowndes and Hollams. (fn. 186)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. The two Secretaries who served the commission were both appointed by warrant under the royal sign manual. They received a salary of £400. (fn. 187)

Commissioners 18 Sept. 1867 Cairns, Lord; Erle, Sir W.; Wilde, Sir J. P.; Wood, Sir W. P.; Blackburn, Sir C.; Smith, Sir M. E.; Karslake, Sir J. B.; Palmer, Sir R.; James, W. M.; Quain, J. R.; Rothery, H. C.; Ayrton, A. S.; Hunt, G. W.; Childers, H. C. E.; Hollams, J.; Lowndes, F. D. (HO 38/62 pp. 256-63).

22 Oct. 1867 Phillimore, Sir R. J.; Bramwell, Sir G. W. W.; Bateson, W. G. (ibid. pp. 295-7).

25 Jan. 1869 Collier, Sir R. P.; Coleridge, Sir J. D. (ibid. pp. 621-4).

9 Oct. 1869 Willes, Sir J. S. (fn. 188) ; Whitmore, C. S.; Moffatt, G. (HO 38/63 pp. 40-50).

25 Nov. 1872 Cockburn, Sir A.J.E.; Bovill, Sir W. (fn. 189) ; Kelly, Sir F.; Jessel, Sir G. (ibid. pp. 353-65). 31 Jan. 1873 Waterlow, Sir S. H. (ibid. pp. 373-7).

Secretary 18 Sept. 1867 Bradshaw, T. J. (fn. 190) (HO 38/62 pp. 256-63).

1 July 1872 Fisher, R. A. vice Bradshaw (HO 38/63 pp. 323-4).

126. INTERNATIONAL COINGE 1868

Fourteen Commissioners were appointed in February 1868 to consider the proceedings of the International Monetary Conference held in Paris in 1867 and the report of the British commissioners in reference to that conference; and to report whether it would be desirable to make any changes in the coinage of the United Kingdom in order to establish either wholly or partially such uniformity as the conference had in contemplation. (fn. 191) They reported on 25 July 1868 ([4073] HC (1867-8) xxvii, 9). Smith, Lubbock and Hubbard dissented from some of the recommendations. (fn. 192)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, who was named in the commission, received an official salary as a Treasury Clerk, (fn. 193) and therefore received no remuneration for serving the commission.

Commissioners 18 Feb. 1868 Halifax, Viscount; Villiers, C. P.; Cave, S.; Wilson Patten, J.; Longfield, M.; Lubbock, Sir J.; Baring, T.; Rothschild, L. N.; Smith, J. B.; Hankey, T.; Hubbard, J. G.; Hunt, T. N.; Airy, G. B.; Graham, T. (HO 38/62 pp. 387-92).

Secretary 18 Feb. 1868 Wilson, C. R. (ibid.).

127. ST.KATHRINE'S HOSPITAL 1868-71

Three Commissioners were appointed in 1868 to inquire into and submit a scheme for the management of the Royal Hospital of St. Katharine near the Tower. (fn. 194) The number of Commissioners briefly rose to four in the months August to October 1869. (fn. 195) The chairmanship of the commission was held in succession by Lord Chancellors Chelmsford, Cairns and Hatherley. The commission's undated report ([C. 321] HC (1871) xvi, 371) was presented to the House of Commons on 5 June 1871. (fn. 196)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £250. (fn. 197)

Commissioners 22 Feb. 1868 Chelmsford, Lord (fn. 198) ; Walpole, S. H.; Twiss, Sir T. (HO 38/62 pp. 393-7).

2 March 1868 Cairns, Lord (fn. 199) vice Chelmsford (ibid. pp. 440-4).

9 Aug. 1869 Hatherley, Lord (HO 38/63 pp. 30-33).

Secretary 22 Feb. 1868 Bacon, F. H. (HO 38/62 pp. 393-7).

128. COURTS MARTIAL 1868-9

Eleven Commissioners were appointed in 1868 to inquire into the constitution and practice of courts martial in the army and the system of punishment for military offences and to report in what respects the administration of criminal justice in the army might be improved. (fn. 200) The number of Commissioners was later increased to thirteen. (fn. 201) The commission issued two reports dated 24 July 1868 and 14 May 1869 ([4114, 4114-1] HC (1868-9) xii, 131).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 202)

Commissioners 10 March 1868 Wilson Patten, J.; Hartington, Marquess of; Eversley, Viscount; Peel, J.; Mowbray, J. R.; Headlam, T. E.; Gurney, R.; Scarlett, Hon. Sir J. Y.; Horsford, Sir A. H.; Eyre, H.; Whitbread, S. (London Gazette no. 23360).

30 March 1868 Vivian, Hon. J. C. W.; Lowder, S. N. (ibid. no. 23366). Secretary 10 March 1868 Wharton, J. L. (ibid. no. 23360).

129. LAND TRANSFER ACT 1868-9

Ten Commissioners were appointed in April 1868 to inquire into the operation of the Land Transfer Act (25 & 26 Vict. c. 53) and into the condition of the Middlesex registry of deeds. (fn. 203) The number of Commissioners was increased to twelve in May 1868. (fn. 204) They reported on 24 November 1869 ([C. 20] HC (1870) xviii, 595). Westbury, Walpole and Giffard did not sign the report, the two latter dissenting totally from its recommendations. (fn. 205) Howes, Hobhouse, Waley, Thring, Wolstenholme and Farrer recorded partial dissents. (fn. 206)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 207)

Commissioners 23 April 1868 Romilly, Lord; Walpole, S. H.; Giffard, G. M.; Howes, E.; Hobhouse, A.; Waley, J.; Thring, H.; Wolstenholme, E. P.; Young, J.; Farrer, W. J. (HO 38/62 pp. 485-91).

20 May 1868 Westbury, Lord; Lowe, R. (ibid. pp. 508-14).

Secretary 23 April 1868 Babington, B. (ibid. pp. 485-91).

130. NATURALISATION 1868-9

Ten Commissioners were appointed in 1868 to inquire into the legal condition of natural born British subjects residing in foreign countries and of aliens entering or residing within the United Kingdom and becoming naturalised as subjects of the crown. (fn. 208) They reported on 20 February 1869 ([4109] HC (1868-9) xxv, 607). Bramwell, Bernard and Venables Vernon Harcourt recorded partial dissents from the recommendations. (fn. 209)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, who was already in receipt of a salary as a Clerk in the Foreign Office, (fn. 210) also served without salary.

Commissioners 21 May 1868 Clarendon, Earl of; Cardwell, E.; Phillimore, Sir R. J.; Bramwell, Sir G. W. W.; Karslake, Sir J. B.; Twiss, Sir T.; Palmer, Sir R.; Forster, W. E.; Venables Vernon Harcourt, W. G. G.; Bernard, M. (HO 38/62 pp. 515-19).

Secretary 21 May 1868 Abbott, C. S. A. (ibid.).

131. MILITARY EDUCATION 1868-70

Eleven Commissioners were appointed in 1868 to inquire into the state of military education. (fn. 211) The number of Commissioners was increased to twelve in 1869. (fn. 212) They were required especially to inquire into the training of candidates for commissions and into the education provided at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. They reported on the education of officers on 9 August 1869 ([4221] HC (1868-9) xxii, 1). (fn. 213) De Ros produced a minority report. (fn. 214) In February 1870 the Secretary of State for War instructed the Commissioners to inquire into the state of general education among non-commissioned officers and soldiers and their children, (fn. 215) which formed the subject of the commission's second and final report dated 14 July 1870 ([C. 214] HC (1870) xxiv, 701).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £350. (fn. 216)

Commissioners 23 June 1868 de Grey, Earl (fn. 217) ; Gascoyne Cecil, Lord E. B. H.; de Ros, Lord; Northbrook, Lord; Russell, Sir C.; Cameron, Sir D. A.; Butler, H. M.; Lake, W. C.; Lefroy, J. H. (fn. 217) ; Haythorne, E.; Chesney, C. C. (London Gazette no. 23393).

23 Feb. 1869 Dufferin, Lord vice de Grey; Eardley Wilmot, F. M. vice Lefroy; Parker, C. S. (ibid. no. 23473).

Secretary 23 June 1868 Hozier, J. W. (ibid. no 23393).

132. SANITARY LAWS

a. 1868-9

Twenty-one Commissioners were appointed in November 1868 to inquire into the operation of the sanitary laws for towns, villages and rural districts in Great Britain and Ireland so far as these applied to conditions conducive to public health; into the laws for preventing the introduction and spreading of contagious and infectious diseases; into the local administration of the sanitary laws; and into that part of the registration system which related to certificates of and causes of death. The Commissioners were particularly required to distinguish any laws that should be obligatory from those which should be permissive; and those that should be generally applied from those which should be confined to populous places or particular localities. (fn. 218) The fall of the Conservative government only two weeks afterthe appointment of the commission, led to the retirement of its chairman and the revocation of the commission in April 1869, before any work had been completed. (fn. 219)

Commissioners 24 Nov. 1868 Northbrook, Lord; Romney, Earl of; Elcho, Lord; Adderley, C. B.; Bruce, H. A.; Watson, Sir T.; Lanyon, Sir C.; Ewart, C. B.; McClean, J. R.; Clive, G.; Powell, F. S.; Ayrton, A. S.; Aytoun, R. S.; Shaw, B.; Lambert, J.; Paget, J.; Rumsey, H. W.; Acland, H. W.; Christison, R.; Stokes, W.; Haughton, S. (HO 38/62 pp. 574-80).

Secretary 24 Nov. 1868 Birley, W. H. (ibid.).

b. 1869-71

The new commission appointed by the Liberal government was also composed of twenty-one members. It was headed by a new chairman and eight of the members were replaced. Its terms of reference were changed. Ireland, Scotland, the City of London and all places under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Board of Works were excluded; and the commission was required to report on the constitution of the central and local authorities charged with the administration of the sanitary laws and the formation of areas proper to be controlled by local authorities. (fn. 220) The commission's first report, dated August 1869 ([4218] HC (1868-9) xxxii, 301) and signed only by the chairman, merely submitted the evidence presented before 5 August 1869. The second, and substantive, report ([C. 281, C. 281-I and II] HC (1871) xxxv, 1, 185, 555) was presented to the House of Commons on 21 February 1871. (fn. 221) Montagu dissented from some of the proposals. (fn. 222) The fourth section of the report, consisting of documentary appendices, did not appear until 1874 ([C. 1109] HC (1874) xxxi, 603).

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in both commissions, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 223)

Commissioners 20 April 1869 Adderley, C. B.; Romney, Earl of; Ducie, Earl of; Montagu, Lord R.; Gurney, R.; Cave, S.; Watson, Sir T.; Ewart, C. B.; McClean, J. R.; Whitbread, S.; Hibbert, J. T.; Richards, E. M.; Clive, G.; Powell, F. S.; Shaw, B.; Paget, J.; Acland, H. W; Christison, R.; Stokes, W.; Lambert, J.; Bircham, F. T. (HO 38/62 pp. 698-707).

Secretary 20 April 1869 Birley, W. H. (ibid.).

133. OVER-REGULATION PAYMENTS FOR AARMY COMMISSIONS For 1870

Nine Commissioners were appointed in 1870 to inquire into allegations that in those regiments in which promotions were made by purchase, a practice existed of paying in respect of promotions and receiving in respect of retirements, sums in excess of those sanctioned by royal warrant dated 3 February 1866. (fn. 224) Their undated report ([C. 201] HC (1870) xii, 199) was presented to the House of Commons on 25 July 1870. (fn. 225)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, who was named in the commission, was awarded an allowance of £75 for his services. (fn. 226)

Commissioners 5 April 1870 Grey, Sir G.; Devon, Earl of; Peel, J.; Hunt, G. W.; James, Sir W. M.; Scarlett, Hon. Sir J. Y.; Steele, T. M.; Whitbread, S.; Muntz, P. H. (London Gazette no. 23605).

Secretary 5 April 1870 Knox, R. H. (ibid.).

134. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION 1870-5

Nine Commissioners were appointed in 1870 to inquire with regard to scientific instruction and the advancement of science and to consider what aid was derived from grants voted by Parliament or from endowments belonging to universities and colleges in the United Kingdom and whether such aid could be rendered more effectual. (fn. 227) The Commissioners issued a very brief first report on 9 March 1871 and a supplement to it dated 28 February 1872 ([C. 536] HC (1872) xxv, 7, 9). Seven substantial reports followed: on training colleges and elementary day schools and on science classes under the Science and Art Department, dated 22 March 1872 ([C. 536] HC (1872) xxv, 11); on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, dated 1 August 1873 ([C. 868] HC (1873) xxviii, 637); on museums, dated 16 January 1874 ([C. 884] HC (1874) xxii, 1); on University College and King's College, London, Owens College, Manchester, the College of Physical Science, Newcastle-uponTyne and the Catholic University of Ireland, dated 4 August 1874 ([C. 1087] HC (1874) xxii, 51); on public and endowed schools, dated 18 June 1875 ([C. 1279] HC (1875) xxviii, 59); on the University of London, the universities of Scotland, and the University of Dublin, Trinity College and the Queen's University, Ireland, dated 18 June 1875 ([C. 1297] HC (1875) xxviii, 337); and on the relations of government to science and to scientific research, dated 18 June 1875 ([C. 1298] HC (1875) xxviii, 417). (fn. 228) Lansdowne did not sign the fourth report, on museums, as he was unable to take part in those meetings of the commission which produced it. (fn. 229)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, appointed by the Commissioners, was awarded a salary of £300. (fn. 230)

Commissioners 18 May 1870 Devonshire, Duke of; Lansdowne, Marquess of; Lubbock, Sir J.; Kay Shuttleworth, Sir J. P.; Samuelson, B.; Sharpey, W.; Huxley, T. H.; Miller, W. A. (fn. 231) ; Stokes, G. G. (HO 38/63 pp. 97-101).

1 Dec. 1870 Smith, H. J. S. vice Miller (ibid. pp. 173-4).

Secretary by 29 June 1870 Lockyer, J. N. (HO 36/37 p. 300; T 13/9 p. 40).

135. FRIENDLY SOCIETIES 1870-4

Eight Commissioners were appointed in 1870 to inquire into the existing state of the laws relating to friendly societies and benefit building societies, into the organisation and general condition of societies established under such laws and into the office and duties of the Registrar of Friendly Societies. (fn. 232) Their first report, which merely submitted the evidence thus far received ([C. 452] HC (1871) xxv, 1) was presented to the House of Commons on 8 August 1871. (fn. 233) Because of the wide scope of the inquiry and difficulties experienced in securing evidence from some societies, in the summer of 1871 the Commissioners sought statutory power to compel the attendance of witnesses and the production of books and papers and to take evidence on oath; and also requested the employment of six Assistant Commissioners, at least two of whom should be barristers of standing, armed with powers, similar to those granted to the Examiners under the Trade Unions Commission (121), for the conduct of formal inquiries. (fn. 234) The bill embodying their proposals was withdrawn, but some assistance was granted: the quorum was reduced from three to two to enable evidence to be taken more easily; (fn. 235) and the commission was permitted to employ four 'lay' Assistant Commissioners with no special legal powers. (fn. 236) The commission's second report, largely devoted to benefit building societies ([C. 514] HC (1872) xxvi, 1) was presented to the House of Commons on 15 March 1872. (fn. 237) Bircham who had been prevented by illness from signing the report was unable to concur in some of its recommendations and submitted a separate report on 27 January 1873 ([C. 678] HC (1873) xxii, 285). Further evidence was submitted to the House without comment on 18 June 1872 and 31 July 1873. (fn. 238) The final report, on friendly societies ([C. 961] HC (1874) xxiii (pt. i), 1) was submitted to the House of Commons on 30 March 1874, followed by the reports of the Assistant Commissioners on 14 May 1874 ([C. 995-C. 998] HC (1874) xxiii (pt. ii)) and appendices and an index on 31 July 1874 ([C. 961-I] HC (1874) xxiii (pt. i), 349). (fn. 239)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. The Assistant Commissioners were awarded salaries of £300. (fn. 240) The Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 241)

Commissioners 29 Oct. 1870 Northcote, Sir S. H.; Hicks Beach, Sir M. E.; Waterlow, Sir S. H.; Bonham Carter, J.; Richards, E. M.; Roundell, C. S.; Bircham, F. T.; Pattison, W. P. (HO 38/63 pp. 151-5).

Assistant Commissioners 10 Aug. 1871 Culley, G.; (fn. 242) Young, Sir G.; Stanley, Hon. E. L.; Daniell, E. L. (HO 34/25 pp. 417-18).

Secretary 29 Oct. 1870 Ludlow, J. M. F. (HO 38/63 pp. 151-5).

136. CONTAGIOUS DISEASES ACTS 1870-1

Twenty-five Commissioners were appointed in 1870 to inquire into the administration and operation of the Contagious Diseases Acts, 1866-9. (fn. 243) The number of Commissioners fell to twenty-four on Campbell's leaving for India. The commission's undated report [C. 408, 408-1] HC (1871) xix, 1, 29) was presented to the House of Commons on 12 July 1871. (fn. 244) Peel, who had been prevented by illness from attending the later meetings of the commission, did not sign the report. (fn. 245) Sixteen of the remaining twenty-three Commissioners registered partial dissents. (fn. 246)

The Commissioners were unsalaried. Their Secretary, named in the commission, was awarded a salary of £400. (fn. 247)

Commissioners 23 Nov. 1870 Massey, W. N.; Hardinge, Viscount; Carlisle, Bishop of; Pakington, Sir J. S.; Peel, J.; Cowper Temple, Hon. W. F.; Salusbury Trelawny, Sir J. S.; James, Sir W. C.; Collinson, R.; Buxton, C.; O'Reilly, M. W. P.; Rylands, P.; Mundella, A. J.; Huxley, T. H.; Gregory, R.; Maurice, J. F. D.; Hannah, J.; Wilks, S.; Bridges, J. H.; Paget, G. E.; Holmes, T.; Coote, H.; Campbell, G.; (fn. 248) Hastings, G. W.; Applegarth, R. (HO 38/63 pp. 165-70).

Secretary 23 Nov. 1870 Armstrong, J. (ibid.).

Footnotes

1 LPGS 8 June 1860 (C 66/5007).
2 LPGS 21 Aug. 1860 (C 66/5008).
3 Treasury Officials, 143. Peel's last recorded appearance as chairman was on 25 Oct.; Willoughby's first on 30 Oct. ([2790] pp. 63, 71 HC (1861) xxvi, 115,123).
4 [2790] pp. 586-606 HC (1861) xxvi, 640-60.
5 T 27/152 pp. 375-6.
6 Not named in commission of 21 Aug. 1860 (C 66/5008).
7 LPGS 31 July 1860 (C 66/5008).
8 HO 36/33 pp. 227-8, 283-4; T 13/5 pp. 493, 522-3.
9 WRSM 15 Feb. 1861 (HO 38/59 pp. 125-8). Initially required to report within one year, the length of time allowed to the Commissioners was four times extended by WRSM 7 Feb. 1862, 31 Jan. 1863, 18 July 1863 and 12 Nov. 1863 (HO 38/59 pp. 419-22; HO 38/60 pp. 4-7, 203-6, 294-6).
10 WRSM 22 April 1861 (HO 38/59 pp. 186-8).
11 [3280] pp. lx-lxi HC (1864) xxix, 60-1.
12 HC 317 p. 14 (1862) xxx, 628.
13 Res. July 1863 ([3280] p. vi HC (1864) xxix, 6).
14 Although technically 3 distinct commissions were appointed to investigate this subject, because of the close similarity of membership and subject matter the 3 commissions are treated here as one.
15 WRSM 23 Feb. 1861 (HO 38/59 pp. 138-43).
16 [2872] pp. v-vii HC (1861) xxxi, 271-3.
17 WRSM 6 Dec. 1861 (HO 38/59 pp. 370-4).
18 HO 74/3 p. 168.
19 WRSM 16 Aug. 1862 (HO 38/59 pp. 600-6).
20 T 27/152 pp. 448, 460; T 27/153 p. 385.
21 Reappointed 6 Dec. 1861, 16 Aug. 1862.
22 LPGS 18 July 1861 (C 66/5010). The schools were Eton, Winchester, Westminster, the Charterhouse, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors, Harrow, Rugby and Shrewsbury. The papers of the commission are preserved in the PRO (HO 73/57-9). They include the official minute book (HO 73/57/4), a private minute book (HO 73/57/3) and various items of correspondence (HO 73/57/5-11). Most but not all of the submissions and returns from the schools (HO 73/58-9) were printed with the report. On the work of the commission, see E. C. Mack, Public schools and British opinion since 1860 (1941), 3-49.
23 [3288] vol. i, pp. 327-37 HC (1864) xx, 337-47.
24 HO 74/3 p. 145.
25 WRSM 13 Feb. 1862 (HO 38/59 pp. 435-8).
26 HO 74/3 p. 172.
27 ibid. p. 163.
28 Res. 1 Oct. 1862 (ibid. p. 173).
29 Probably res. c. 21 Nov. 1862 on appointment as Parliamentary Under Secretary, Home Office (Home Office Officials, 48).
30 Not named in commission of 27 Feb. 1862 (HO 38/59 pp. 453-7).
31 Res. 18 Feb. 1863 (HO 36/34 p. 75).
32 LPGS 18 Feb. 1862 (C 66/5012). Children were defined as being under 13; young persons, of the age of 13 and under 18 ([3170] p. vii HC (1863) xviii, 7).
33 HO 74/3 pp. 151-2; HO 36/33 pp. 337-8, 360-3; T 13/6 pp. 35-6, 50-1.
34 Lords' Journals xcvii, 258-9; HO 74/3 p. 256.
35 T 13/6 pp. 50-1.
36 D. 1 Feb. 1865.
37 WRSM 16 May 1862 (London Gazette no 22627).
38 CJ cxvii, 390.
39 [3053] p. viii HC (1862) xxvii, 96.
40 ibid.
41 T 24/5 pp. 44-5, 109-10, 115.
42 LPGS 1 Sept. 1862 (C 66/5014).
43 [3419] pp. xv-xvii HC (1864) xxix, 335-7.
44 HO 74/3 pp. 177-8. Although the commission closed in July 1864, Lloyd continued to draw salary as Secretary until September 1865. He was required to pay back the sum overdrawn (ibid. pp. 279, 283).
45 D. 22 Jan. 1864 (Times, 23 Jan. 1864).
46 LPGS 29 Dec. 1862 (C 66/5015).
47 [3190] pp. 74-97 HC (1863) xxi, 74-97.
48 HO 74/3 pp. 181, 200.
49 Informed the Commissioners at their first meeting that he would be unable to act ([3190] p. 5 HC (1863) xxi, 5).
50 LPGS 2 Feb. 1863 (C 66/5016).
51 HO 74/3 pp. 213-14, 215-16.
52 WRSM 8 May 1863 (London Gazette no. 22734).
53 [3196] pp. ix-x HC (1863) xiii, 9-10.
54 T 24/5 pp. 201, 207.
55 LPGS 11 July 1863 (C 66/5017). Initially required to report within six months, the length of time allowed to the Commissioners was extended to eighteen months by LPGS 5 Jan. 1865 (C 66/5020).
56 Hobart initially declined to act because as a Clerk in the Board of Trade, he was not permitted to receive any remuneration (T 1/6446A/16452). He resigned his clerkship on 30 July 1863 and appears then temporarily to have retired from official life (Officials of the Boards of Trade, 101; Essays and miscellaneous writings by Lord Hobart, ed. Mary, Lady Hobart (2 vols. 1885), i, 106).
57 HO 74/3 p. 264; CJ cxxi, 11. The Secretary tendered his final account in August 1865 (T 27/156 p. 268).
58 T 1/6446A/16452.
59 ibid.
60 LPGS 8 Feb. 1864 (C 66/5018). By LPGS 13 May 1864 (ibid.) the Commissioners were empowered to consider the expediency of dispensing with any of the oaths.
61 HO 74/3 p. 249.
62 LPGS 8 July 1864 (C 66/5019). Initially required to report within six months, the length of time allowed to the Commissioners was extended to eighteen months by LPGS 5 Jan. 1865 (C 66/5020).
63 HO 74/3 pp. 230, 285-6.
64 LPGS 28 Dec. 1864 (C 66/5020).
65 T 1/6594B/18681.
66 ibid.; [3966] p. 8 HC (1867-8) xxviii (pt. i), 8. Fraser acted jointly with a contemporaneous commission investigating Scottish schools.
67 Fearon investigated London; Giffard, Surrey and Sussex; Stanton, Devon and Somerset including Bristol; Green, Staffordshire and Warwickshire; Hammond, Norfolk and Northumberland; Fitch, the West Riding; Bryce, Lancashire; Bompas, parts of Wales and the English borders (T 1/6594B/18681; [3966] pp. 7-8 HC (1867-8) xxviii (pt. i), 7-8). Fearon and Fitch, who had large areas to cover, were subsequently permitted to take eleven months over their inquiries; Bryce was permitted to take ten (T 1/ 6594B/18681; T 1/6672A/20180).
68 The Assistant Commissioners retained were Fearon, Stanton, Green, Fitch and Bryce. Elton, Richmond, Wright and Eve were the new appointees. Three or four months were allowed for the additional inquiries (T 1/6672A/20180).
69 [3966] p. 661 HC (1867-8) xxviii (pt. i), 661.
70 T 1/6594B/18681.
71 Originally fixed at £500, Roby's salary was increased retrospectively to £600 in 1866 (HO 74/3 pp. 239-40; T 27/157 p. 140).
72 WRSM 11 March 1865 (HO 38/60 pp. 633-9).
73 WRSM 19 Dec. 1865 (HO 38/61 pp. 218-28).
74 [3844] pp. xcii-cxxvi HC (1867) xxxviii, pt. i, pp. 93-126.
75 T 1/6601A/19139.
76 D. 22 Feb. 1866.
77 LPGS 22 March 1865 (C 66/5021).
78 [4059] p. liii HC (1867-8) xxxii, 53.
79 HO 74/3 p. 262.
80 WRSM 18 May 1865 (HO 38/61 pp. 11-15).
81 HO 74/3 pp. 256-8.
82 [3634] pp. 33-4 HC (1866) xxxiii, 33-4.
83 WRSM 14 Feb. 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 382-4); HO 74/3 p. 412. There is a valuable file on the dispute at HO 45/8112.
84 HO 36/34 pp. 485-6; T 13/6 p. 545.
85 ibid.; T 13/7 pp. 113-14, 130, 154-5.
86 HO 36/34 pp. 485-6; T 13/6 p. 545.
87 HO 74/3 p. 289.
88 T 13/7 pp. 197-8.
89 ibid. pp. 378-9, 438.
90 HO 74/3 p. 380.
91 ibid. p. 391.
92 Res. 17 May 1867 (ibid. p. 370).
93 Res. 28 Aug. 1867 (ibid. p. 391), following appointment as Metropolitan Police Magistrate, 5 Aug. 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 209-11).
94 WRSM 6 April 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 466-9); HO 74/3 pp. 432-3.
95 [C. 37] pp. 132-7 HC (1870) xl, 148-53.
96 [C. 347] p. ix HC (1871) xxv, 697.
97 HO 36/37 p. 450.
98 HO 74/4 pp. 66, 69. The commission passed under the seal of Scotland, 3 Dec. 1869 ([C. 37] p. vii HC (1870) xl, 7).
99 HO 74/3 pp. 477-8.
100 ibid. p. 454.
101 ibid. pp. 434, 439; HO 74/4 pp. 103-4.
102 D. 19 Jan. 1871.
103 WRSM 29 Sept. 1865 (HO 38/61 pp. 127-33). The commission's papers are held in the PRO (HO 73/1) and include minutes and correspondence. J. Simon, although not a commissioner, was a member of a Medical Committee formed on 7 Oct. 1865 (HO 73/1, minutes 7, 14 Oct. 1865).
104 [3591] pp. xix-xxi HC (1866) xxii, 19-21.
105 HO 74/3 p. 271.
106 WRSM 9 May 1866 (London Gazette no. 23115).
107 [3752] p. xvi HC (1867) xv, 16.
108 T 24/6 pp. 391-2.
109 WRSM 17 May 1866 (HO 38/61 pp. 353-8).
110 CJ cxxii, 323.
111 [3885] p. xiii HC (1867) xxxi, 13.
112 [3885] pp. xiii-xxiii HC (1867) xxxi, 13-23.
113 HO 74/3 p. 293; HO 36/35 pp. 243, 246; T 13/7 p. 222.
114 Stanley and Walpole left the commission following their respective appointments as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary on 6 July 1866 (London Gazette no. 23134).
115 WRSM 28 June 1866 (HO 38/61 pp. 397-402).
116 5 Committees were appointed on 7 July 1866: on possible depths of working; on waste in combustion; on waste in working; on the possibility of finding coal under superincumbent strata; and on mineral statistics ([C. 435-1] p. 1a HC (1871) xviii, 206). A sixth committee to select maps was appointed on 22 Dec. 1868 and a seventh to draft the general report on 16 March 1870 ([C. 435] p. vi HC (1871) xviii, 6).
117 South Wales to Vivian and Clark; North Wales to Dickinson; Northumberland, Durham and Cumberland to Forster and Elliot; Lancashire and Cheshire to Dickinson; North Staffordshire to Elliot; South Staffordshire and Shropshire to Hartley; Yorkshire and North Midlands to Woodhouse; Somerset to Prestwich; Forest of Dean to Dickinson; Scotland to Geddes; Ireland to Jukes ([C. 435-1] p. 4 HC (1871) xviii, 210).
118 [C. 435] p. 32 HC (1871) xviii, 53.
119 HO 74/3 pp. 350-1.
120 ibid. pp. 297, 331.
121 D. 29 July 1869.
122 WRSM 22 Nov. 1866 (HO 38/61 pp. 537-42). The papers of the commission are preserved in the House of Lords Record Office (SLC/16). They contain minutes and various unpublished reports and specimen digests.
123 WRSM 29 Jan. 1870 (HO 38/63 pp. 79-80).
124 SLC/16, minutes 1 Nov. 1867, 4 Feb., 27 May 1868.
125 ibid., minute 9 Feb. 1870.
126 [C. 121] p. 7 HC (1870) xviii, 237.
127 T 13/8 p. 139; HO 74/4 p. 90.
128 HO 36/35 pp. 378-9; T 13/7 p. 330.
129 D. 26 July 1868.
130 Res. 8 Nov. 1869 on appointment as Legal Adviser, Home Office (HO 36/37 p. 154; T 13/8 pp. 381, 386). Lushington had resigned on 10 Nov. 1868 to contest the borough of Abingdon in the general election, but was reappointed on 18 Nov. (HO 36/36 p. 456).
131 WRSM 24 Dec. 1866 (HO 38/61 pp. 581-6). By WRSM 4 April 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 11-15) the commission's powers were extended to include inquiry into the existing water supply of the metropolis and consideration of districts other than the high districts from which water might be supplied.
132 HO 74/3 pp. 350, 410. Pole's salary was paid for a year after the termination of the commission, at the full rate until the end of March 1870 and at half rate from then until the end of June 1870 (HO 74/4 p. 111).
133 Res. 28 Oct. 1867 (HO 36/36 p. 191).
134 WRSM 30 Jan. 1867 (HO 38/61 pp. 657-64). C.S.A. Abbott, a Foreign Office clerk, was informally attached to the commission and attended its meetings ([4027] p. 7 HC (1867-8) xxxii, 271).
135 CJ cxxiii, 207.
136 [4027] p. 7 HC (1867-8) xxxii, 271.
137 [4027] pp. 7-11 HC (1867-8) xxxii, 271-5.
138 WRSM 12 Feb. 1867 (HO 38/61 pp. 676-83). On the work of the commission, see H. W. McCready, 'British labour and the royal commission on trade unions, 1867-9', University of Toronto Quarterly xxiv (1954-5), 390-409.
139 [4123] pp. xxix-lxiv HC (1868-9) xxxi, 263-98.
140 HO 38/61 pp. 676-83; 30 & 31 Vict. c. 8, 74.
141 HO 38/62 pp. 116-21, 249-52; HO 74/3 pp. 363-4.
142 The Sheffield Outrages with an introduction by Sidney Pollard (Bath 1971) reprints the report.
143 HO 74/3 p. 362.
144 ibid. pp. 371-2, 390.
145 D. 28 Jan. 1868.
146 Left office 25 Jan. 1868 on appointment as Metropolitan Police Magistrate (HO 36/36 p. 198; HO 38/62 pp. 361-3).
147 WRSM 9 May 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 75-82). The commission's minutes were printed with the final report ([C. 257] pp. xvii-lxxiii HC (1871) xxiv, 663-719).
148 A consolidated index to the reports is to be found at [C. 716] HC (1873) xxxviii, 447.
149 [C. 257] pp. xiii-xv HC (1871) xxiv, 659-61.
150 However a salary increase of £200 awarded to Chisholm in 1867 as Warden of the Standards appears to have been granted in recognition of his services to the commission (Officials of the Boards of Trade, 77; [C. 257] p. xviii HC (1871) xxiv, 664).
151 Officials of the Boards of Trade, 77.
152 D. 31 Oct. 1867.
153 D. 27 Oct. 1867.
154 D. 16 Sept. 1869 ([C. 30] p. vi HC (1870) xxvii, 86).
155 WRSM 10 May 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 63-7).
156 HO 74/3 p. 377.
157 [4202] pp. viii-lxxiii HC (1868-9) xiii, 8-73.
158 The English inquiries were conducted by all the Assistant Commissioners with the exception of Campion. Illness prevented C. J. Boyle from completing any reports. The Welsh inquiries were conducted by Portman, Norman, Culley, Tremenheere and R. F. Boyle; the Scottish inquiries by Norman, Culley, Tremenheere, R. F. Boyle and Campion.
159 HO 74/3 pp. 370, 393; HO 36/36 p. 68.
160 HO 74/3 p. 377.
161 ibid.
162 Appointments are dated by reference to the Home Secretary's letter approving the Commissioners' nomination.
163 Res. by 13 June 1868 (HO 74/3 p. 448).
164 Left office 1 Feb. 1868 on appointment as Poor Law Inspector (ibid. pp. 411, 414).
165 Res. by 17 Feb. 1870 (HO 74/4 p. 89).
166 Res. 1 Feb. 1868 (HO 74/3 pp. 411, 414).
167 Res. by 11 Sept. 1869 (HO 74/4 p. 54).
168 Res. 30 Sept. 1868 to contest the constituency of Co. Cork. When unsuccessful he completed his inquiries as an Assistant Commissioner without salary ([4202] p. vii HC (1868-9) xiii, 7; HO 36/36 p. 462; HO 74/3 p. 473; HO 74/4 p. 5).
169 Res. 1 March 1870 (HO 74/4 pp. 92-3).
170 WRSM 3 June 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 136-44). The minutes of the commission were printed with the final report ([C. 218] pp. 62-130 HC (1870) xix, 552-620).
171 [C. 218] p. 108 HC (1870) xix, 598.
172 [3951] p. viii HC (1867) xx, 726.
173 [4016] pp. 3-7 HC (1867-8) xxxviii, 9-13.
174 [C. 218] pp. viii-xxviii HC (1870) xix, 468-88.
175 HO 74/3 p. 379; HO 74/4 pp. 160, 169.
176 D. 28 Oct. 1868.
177 Cardwell and Wood had resigned by 16 Jan. 1869 (HO 38/62 pp. 606-17); Coleridge had resigned by 12 Jan. 1870 ([C. 17] p. 3 HC (1870) xix, 439).
178 WRSM 18 Sept. 1867 (HO 38/62 pp. 256-63).
179 WRSM 22 Oct. 1867, 25 Jan. 1869 (ibid. pp. 295-7, 621-4).
180 [4130] pp. 25-6 HC (1868-9) xxv, 25-6.
181 WRSM 9 Oct. 1869 (HO 38/63 pp. 40-50).
182 [C. 631] pp. 23-7 HC (1872) xx, 239-43.
183 WRSM 25 Nov. 1872 (HO 38/63 pp. 353-65).
184 WRSM 25 Nov. 1872, 31 Jan. 1873 (ibid. pp. 353-65, 373-7).
185 [C. 957] pp. 10-11 HC (1874) xxiv, 10-11.
186 [C. 1090] pp. xi-xii HC (1874), xxiv, 317-18.
187 HO 74/3 p. 394.
188 D. 2 Oct. 1872.
189 D. 1 Nov. 1873.
190 Bradshaw ceased to receive salary following his appointment as a County Court Judge, 10 Nov. 1871. Although based at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he continued to carry out his duties as Secretary until replaced in July 1872 (T 13/9 pp. 528-9; Law List (1872), p. xi).
191 WRSM 18 Feb. 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 387-92).
192 [4073] pp. xix-xxii HC (1867-8) xxvii, 27-30.
193 Treasury Officials, 159.
194 WRSM 22 Feb. 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 393-7).
195 WRSM 9 Aug., 11 Oct. 1869 (HO 38/63 pp. 30-33, 51-5).
196 CJ cxxvi, 239.
197 HO 36/37 p. 92.
198 Res. the Lord Chancellorship 29 Feb. 1868 and removed from commission by WRSM 2 March 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 440-4).
199 Appointment revoked by WRSM 11 Oct. 1869 (HO 38/63 pp. 51-5).
200 WRSM 10 March 1868 (London Gazette no. 23360).
201 WRSM 30 March 1868 (ibid. no. 23366).
202 T 24/7 p. 433.
203 WRSM 23 April 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 485-91).
204 WRSM 20 May 1868 (ibid. pp. 508-14).
205 [C. 20] p. xlvi HC (1870) xviii, 640.
206 [C. 20] pp. xxxvii-xlvi HC (1870) xviii, 631-40.
207 HO 36/36 p. 273; T 13/8 p. 69.
208 WRSM 21 May 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 515-19). The minutes of the commission are preserved in the PRO (FO 317/1).
209 [4109] pp. xi-xv HC (1868-9) xxv, 617-21.
210 Foreign Office Officials, 58.
211 WRSM 23 June 1868 (London Gazette no. 23393).
212 WRSM 23 Feb. 1869 (ibid. no. 23473).
213 The minutes of evidence, other appendices, and an index formed separate papers ([C. 25, C. 25-1] HC (1870) xxiv, 1, 585) as did reports prepared for the commission on military education in France, Prussia, Austria, Bavaria and the United States of America ([C. 47] HC (1870) xxv, 223).
214 [4221] pp. 29-30 HC (1868-9) xxii, 29-30.
215 [C. 214] p. iii HC (1870) xxiv, 703.
216 T 24/8 p. 259.
217 Not named in commission of 23 Feb. 1869. De Grey had been appointed Lord President of the Council, 9 Dec. 1868 (London Gazette no. 23449); Lefroy, Director-General of the Ordnance, 3 Dec. 1868 (War Office List (1869), 185).
218 WRSM 24 Nov. 1868 (HO 38/62 pp. 574-80).
219 WRSM 20 April 1869 (ibid. pp. 698-707).
220 ibid.
221 CJ cxxvi, 51.
222 [C. 281] p. 177 HC (1871) xxxv, 183.
223 HO 74/3 p. 481.
224 WRSM 5 April 1870 (London Gazette no. 23605).
225 CJ cxxv, 358.
226 T 24/8 pp. 193-4.
227 WRSM 18 May 1870 (HO 38/63 pp. 97-101).
228 Minutes of evidence, 14 June 1870-11 July 1871 are to be found at [C. 536] pp. 1-629 HC (1872) xxv, 35-663; 12 Feb. 1872-21 Nov. 1873 at [C. 958] HC (1874) xxii, 95; 22 April-12 May 1874 at [C. 1363] pp. 1-63 HC (1875) xxviii, 477-539. A consolidated index to the reports is to be found at [C. 1363] HC (1875) xxviii, 553.
229 [C. 884] p. 24 HC (1874) xxii, 30.
230 HO 74/4 p. 115.
231 D. 30 Sept. 1870.
232 WRSM 29 Oct. 1870 (HO 38/63 pp. 151-5). The Commission's minutes and letterbooks are preserved in the PRO (HO 73/12-15) as are some loose papers (PC 1/136-40). The Secretary's papers are preserved in the Goldsmiths' Library, University of London Library. On the work of the commission, see P.H.J.H. Gosden, The friendly societies in England 1815-75 (Manchester 1961), 183-5.
233 CJ cxxvi, 405.
234 [C. 452] pp. v-vi HC (1871) xxv, 5-6.
235 WRSM 17 Aug. 1871 (HO 38/63 pp. 241-4).
236 HO 34/25 pp. 274-5, 417-18, 497; T 13/9 pp. 333-4, 355-6. The Assistant Commissioners were nominated by the Home Secretary. Culley investigated Scotland and the 4 northern counties of England; Young, England south of a line drawn from the Humber to the Severn; Stanley, England north of that line; and Daniell, Ireland and Wales ([C. 514] p. v HC (1872) xxvi, 5).
237 CJ cxxvii, 95.
238 [C. 514-1 and II] HC (1872) xxvi, 101, 475; [C. 842] HC (1873) xxii, 291; CJ cxxvii, 276, cxxviii, 410. The evidence submitted in July 1873 was termed a third report.
239 CJ cxxix, 66, 149, 356. The final report was signed by all the Commissioners, but Hicks Beach, Richards, Roundell, Bircham and Pattison signed additional separate reports ([C. 961] pp. ccxvii-ccxxi HC (1874) xxiii (pt. i), 217-21).
240 HO 34/25 pp. 445-6; T 13/9 pp. 355-6.
241 HO 36/37 p. 371; T 13/9 pp. 92, 98.
242 Res. 1 Nov. 1872 (HO 73/14 no. 1016). Culley's work was completed by Stanley and Daniell ([C. 961] p. vii HC (1874) xxiii (pt. i), 7).
243 WRSM 23 Nov. 1870 (HO 38/63 pp. 165-70).
244 CJ cxxvi, 332.
245 [C. 408] p. 20 HC (1871) xix, 20.
246 [C. 408] pp. 21-7 HC (1871) xix, 21-7. Only Massey, the Bishop of Carlisle, Collinson, O'Reilly, Huxley, Gregory and Hannah signed without qualification.
247 HO 36/37 p. 371; T 13/9 pp. 92, 98.
248 Left for India early in 1871 following his appointment as Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal ([C. 408] p. 20 HC (1871) xix, 20).