Hackney
Education

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Victoria County History

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T.F.T. Baker (Editor)

Year published

1995

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148-165

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'Hackney: Education', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney (1995), pp. 148-165. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22718 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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EDUCATION

The vestry's appointment of a schoolmaster in 1613 has normally been seen as the origin of Hackney's first parochial school. (fn. 19) A schoolmaster (ludimagister) had been recorded in 1580 and 1586, (fn. 20) however, and William Snape, a parishioner, had left 40s. 'for the better maintaining of the grammar school' by will proved 1587. (fn. 21)

The vestry specified different rates for teaching some parishioners' children to read and others to write and cypher; fees for outsiders' children were left to the master. (fn. 22) Margaret Audley's charities, by will dated 1616, included £20 a year for a schoolmaster, to be appointed by the vicar, churchwardens, and 12 leading inhabitants. (fn. 23) Although the foundation was presumably intended as a second school, perhaps to prepare for the learned professions, (fn. 24) a separate master was not recorded. Its 12 boys were taught, as were the other children, in the Church House, (fn. 25) in 1620 called the 'common schoolhouse of the parish'. (fn. 26) Robert Skingle, parish schoolmaster from 1644, taught both sets of pupils: in 1665 he was said to neglect his schools and not to deserve his £20 salary. (fn. 27) The vestry's and Mrs. Audley's schools were later believed to have been the same. (fn. 28)

A parochial charity school was founded in 1714 (fn. 29) and finally absorbed the old free school in 1772, when it took in Mrs. Audley's pupils. As a National school, whose funds also supported a Sunday school from 1804, it became known as Hackney Free and Parochial school. A school of industry, proposed in 1772, was founded in 1790; both boys and girls were taught in Dalston Lane from c. 1810, although only the girls remained in 1833. A Unitarian school also originated in 1790. Another industrial school, for girls, was founded in 1803 and survived in 1824 in Bohemia Place with the support of Independents. At Homerton, Ram's episcopal chapel established a girls' school in 1792 and a boys' in 1801. At Kingsland a school later connected with Kingsland Congregational church was opened in 1808 on the Stoke Newington side of the boundary. (fn. 30) South Hackney had a free school founded from Well Street chapel in 1807 and St. John's chapel school founded by the Revd. H. H. Norris in 1810. Infants attended a school near the brickfields at Upper Clapton, which had been built by the Revd. J. J. Watson, in 1811, when some girls from the Sunday school went on to a school supported by Mrs. Watson.

In 1819 the poor were said to have ample means of obtaining education. (fn. 31) The four endowed schools were Hackney Free and Parochial, in so far as it served Mrs. Audley's charity, and those of Norris, Ram's chapel, and Well Street chapel. In addition to the workhouse and the school of industry, there were 12 other schools supported entirely by voluntary contributions, six of them being Sunday schools. At least one Sunday school, held by Methodists, in 1821 taught writing on some weekdays. (fn. 32) The numbers included a second National school at Stamford Hill, which perhaps was a short lived forerunner of St. Thomas's, Upper Clapton, and a new Independents' school in St. Thomas's Square, but excluded a new Lancasterian or British school for boys in Homerton Row.

Provision had greatly increased by 1833, (fn. 33) when there were 4 infants' and 59 day schools. The day schools included 8 connected with the Church of England, among them the Cumberland benevolent institution and 2 started in 1828 at Upper Clapton, and 6 connected with dissenters, among them a girls' Lancasterian school, Brenton's asylum school at Hackney Wick which prepared boys for the colonies, and the London Orphan Asylum. The last two, like the Cumberland institution, were not restricted to local children. The other day schools were for fee payers, some of them boarders: 2,109 children were educated at their parents' expense. (fn. 34)

National schools, promoted by the Hackney Phalanx, (fn. 35) were opened in connexion with the new Anglican churches. By 1846-7, in addition to Hackney Parochial or St. John's, Ram's chapel, and St. Thomas's schools, there were National schools for South Hackney (formerly Norris's school) and West Hackney, and for St. James's, Clapton, St. Philip's (later Holy Trinity), Dalston, and St. Peter's, De Beauvoir Town. The National Society found least provision in the poorer parts of South Hackney. (fn. 36) Later National schools were those of St. Barnabas, Homerton, and St. Thomas (later St. Matthew) at Upper Clapton, St. Augustine, Victoria Park, and St. Michael and All Angels, London Fields. Dissenters were served by Congregational schools in Stoke Newington High Street and Upper Clapton, in addition to those at South Hackney, Kingsland, Homerton, and St. Thomas's Square, by Wesleyan ones at Homerton and Dalston, and by the Unitarian school. Roman Catholics had a school at the Triangle, later St. John the Baptist's, by 1849 and at Kingsland, later Our Lady and St. Joseph's, from 1855. Ragged schools were opened at Kingsland in 1848 and in Sanford Lane, off Stoke Newington High Street, in 1849. (fn. 37)

Parliamentary grants were paid to the Parochial school and West Hackney school, which had also received a building grant, by 1851. (fn. 38) Eight schools or institutions received annual grants by 1868 (fn. 39) and thirteen by 1870. (fn. 40) All were listed in 1871 among Hackney's 42 public elementary schools, a number exaggerated by the counting of some departments as separate schools and the inclusion of such institutions as the London Orphan Asylum, with 439 inmates, and the smaller Dalston refuge, Elizabeth Fry refuge, and Silesia orphanage. Dalston refuge, like the privately managed Tre-Wint industrial home, had received a parliamentary grant since 1868. Of 6,762 daytime attenders in 1871, 4,917 went to public schools or institutions, a further 288 to 13 privately managed schools, institutions, or missions, and 1,557 to 88 private adventure schools. (fn. 41)

Under the Education Act, 1870, the Hackney division of the school board for London included Shoreditch and Bethnal Green. (fn. 42) The board, whose divisional committee hired offices at no. 205 Mare Street from 1873, (fn. 43) was warned in 1872 that compulsory attendance could be achieved only after a building programme in the poorest districts, where absentees were 'of such a low order' as to be unfit to mix with children in regular attendance. (fn. 44) Despite the poor state of existing accommodation, lack of places forced the board to take over Kingsland and Shacklewell ragged school as soon as its managers threatened closure. (fn. 45) Most of the board's early building took place outside the parish: 7 of the division's 19 board schools in 1873 were in Hackney and only one, in John Street replacing Kingsland ragged school, was a new foundation. (fn. 46)

The most effective defence of denominational education against the dominance of the board was in South Hackney, where the vicar of St. Michael's pressed ahead with the building of a large National school near the board's school in Lamb Lane, although he gave up a proposed infants' school. (fn. 47) There was a mild demurral at the board's plans to build near St. Matthew's school at Upper Clapton in 1874 (fn. 48) and proposals to build opposite the Free and Parochial school were defeated in 1875. (fn. 49) Hackney vestry joined neighbouring authorities in 1876 in charging the board with extravagance. (fn. 50) Proposals for a board school in Cassland Road were opposed by residents and by the Cass Foundation in the 1890s. (fn. 51)

The board had opened 13 permanent schools, besides 3 temporary ones, by 1880 and 16 by 1890. A National school was opened for St. Michael and All Angels, Stoke Newington common, although it proved short lived; the schools connected with St. Augustine's, St. Barnabas's, and St. Peter's also closed. Two more Roman Catholic schools had opened by 1890. Of the four protestant nonconformist schools which then still received grants, (fn. 52) only Dalston Wesleyan survived in 1903. (fn. 53)

By 1903 the 28 board schools in Hackney M.B. had accommodation for 33,758 and a total average attendance of 27,435. (fn. 54) Nearly all had separate departments for boys, girls, and infants; Millfields Road school was higher elementary, Queen's Road and Wilton Road included higher grade classes, and Cassland Road was entirely higher grade. In addition the board's 7 special schools were attended by 258 handicapped children. (fn. 55) Eighteen other schools received grants and were attended by 4,869. Ten were connected with the Church of England. (fn. 56) Only Hackney Free and Parochial school, including a branch for infants on a separate site and with a total attendance of 779, was comparable in size to a normal board school.

The L.C.C.'s education committee succeeded the London school board in 1904. (fn. 57) By 1909 there were county secondary schools at Hackney Downs (taken over from the Grocers' Company), Colvestone Crescent, and Cassland Road. (fn. 58) A central school was opened at Lauriston Road in 1910, another at Millfields Road to replace the higher elementary department in 1911, and another at Wilton Road to replace the higher grade departments of Wilton and Queen's roads in 1913. (fn. 59) Of 43 maintained schools in 1927, 32 were county, 7 connected with the Church of England, St. Matthew's and West Hackney parochial schools having closed, and 4 Roman Catholic. (fn. 60) Three of the Anglican and all the Roman Catholic schools survived the Second World War, to become voluntary aided primary schools. In 1951 there were also 23 county primary schools, a county nursery school called Wentworth in Cassland Road, and 16 county secondary schools. (fn. 61) Many county schools were renamed in 1949. (fn. 62)

Under the London Government Act, 1963, Hackney L.B. formed a division of the new I.L.E.A. (fn. 63) By 1976 several of the county primary schools had been divided into adjoining junior mixed and infants' schools, while the number of county secondary schools had been reduced by reorganization on comprehensive lines, although some formed upper and lower schools on separate sites. (fn. 64) In 1989 there were 50 I.L.E.A. primary schools, (fn. 65) most of which had nursery classes, besides Wentworth nursery school; they included the 3 Anglican and 4 Roman Catholic schools and an eighth voluntary school, the Jewish Simon Marks. (fn. 66) Of the 8 I.L.E.A. secondary schools only Clapton, Homerton House, and Kingsland had originated as county schools; the others were Our Lady's Convent High and the Skinners' Company's, (fn. 67) Hackney Downs, Cardinal Pole's, originally in Shoreditch, and a secondary division of Hackney Free and Parochial.

Hackney L.B. became a local education authority on the abolition of the I.L.E.A. in 1990. (fn. 68) The education directorate, which occupied the former Edith Cavell school building from 1992, had carried out six amalgamations of junior and infants' schools by 1993. (fn. 69)

Public schools . (fn. 70)

Except where otherwise stated, basic historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been taken from: files on Church of England schools at the National Society; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1848-9 [1215], H.C. (1850), xliii; 1850- 1 [1357], H.C. (1850-1), xliv(1); 1859-60 [2681], H.C. (1860), liv; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1867-8 [4051], H.C. (1867-8), xxv; 1868-9 [4139], H.C. (1868-9), xx; 1869-70 [C.165], H.C. (1870), xxii; 1870-1 [C.406], H.C. (1871), xxii; 1871-2 [C.601], H.C.(1872), xxii; 1880-1 [C.2948-1], H.C. (1881), xxxii; 1890-1 [C.6438-1], H.C. (1890-1), xxvii; Return of NonProvided Schs. H.C. 178-XXXIII (1906), lxxxviii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908-38 (H.M.S.O); L.C.C. Educ. Service Particulars (1937 and later edns.); L.C.C. (I.L.E.A from 1965), Educ. Service Inf. (1951 and later edns.). Inf. on Church of England schools 1846 is from National Society, Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. Roll and attendance figures for 1871 are from G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 91-2. Schools renamed in 1949 are listed in L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. (1949-50), 269. Primary school rolls for 1989 have been supplied by the education officer, I.L.E.A. division 4; rolls for 1993, including nursery classes, have been supplied by the research and statistics team, Hackney education directorate.

The following abbreviations are used in addition to those in the index: a.a., average attendance; accn., accommodation; amalg., amalgamated; B, boy, boys; bd., board; C, county; C.E., Church of England; Cong., Congregationalist; demol., demolished; dept., department; G, girl, girls; I, infant, infants; J, JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls, mixed; M, mixed; Meth., Methodist; Nat., National; parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C., Roman Catholic; reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S,SB,SG,SM, senior, senior boys, girls, mixed; S.B.L., School Board for London; sec., secondary; Sun., Sunday; temp., temporary; vol., voluntary; Wes., Wesleyan. The word 'school' is to be understood after each named entry. Separate departments are indicated by commas: B,G, I; JM, I.

Ada Street C.E. (fn. 71) Temp. I sch. opened 1840 or 1841 in premises of Sir John Cass's char. in Wick Street, followed by schs. for 120 I in Goring Street and 30 I in Well Street. Intended partly to serve South Hackney Parochial schs. but founded as separate venture by asst. curate C. J. Daniel. Larger site leased to cttee. by 1847, in Ada Street, (fn. 72) where I sch. used also as mixed sch. 1870. Roll 1871: 192; a.a. 106. Listed 1871 as St. Mic. and All Angels, Ada Street, and probably replaced by St. Mic.'s Nat. sch., Lamb Lane (q.v.).

Amhertst.

Formerly Sigdon Rd. bd. (q.v.), renamed 1949. JM, I by 1951. Rolls 1989: 220 JM, 200 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1992. Roll 1993: 472.

Baden-Powell, Ferron Rd. Opened 1970 for 280 JM & I. (fn. 73) Roll 1989: 190 JM & I; 1993: 247.

Ballance Rd., see St. Dominic.

Bay Street Temp. Bd. Opened 1906 in former Dalston Cong. sch. (q.v.) for 260 M, 60 I. Closed 1923.

Benthal.

Opened 1876 as Rendlesham Rd. bd. (fn. 74) for 532 SM, 300 I, and 1887 for 379 JM. Called Benthal Rd. by 1903, Benthal by 1951. Rebuilt after war damage 1949 for JM & I (fn. 75) ; reorg. by 1955 for I only, by 1976 for JM, I. Rolls 1989: 194 JM, 187 I; 1993: 220 JM, 244 I.

Berger, Anderson Rd. Opened 1877 in former St. Barnabas sch. (q.v.), (fn. 76) moved 1878 as Berger Rd. temp. bd. to iron bldg. in Wick Rd., and 1879 to perm. sch. for 720 M, 356 I. Iron bldg. reopened 1879-83, 1883-4; (fn. 77) inc. temp. accn. for 30 I in 1913. Reorg. 1920 for 328 B, 338 G, 356 I, again 1932/6 for 480 JB, 313 I, and again by 1951 for JM, I. Renamed Berger 1949. Rolls 1989: 192 JM, 188 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 455.

Berkshire Rd. bd. Opened 1899 as Windsor Rd. bd. (Berkshire Rd. from 1906), on site of dyeworks, for 348 B, 348 G, 390 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 50 B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 340 SB, 340 SG, 397 I. Renamed Lea Marsh primary and sec. schs. 1949. Reorg. by 1951 as sec. for SM. Closed by 1966, when pupils sent to Clapton Pk. or Upton Ho. (qq.v.). (fn. 78)

Bohemia Place industrial.

Opened 1803 for G, most of whom were placed in domestic svce. Not identifiable with any sch. listed 1819 or later but supported 1821-4, when 33 G educ. and clothed, by sermons at Old Gravel Pit and Well Street chapels. (fn. 79)

Brooke Ho. sec., Kenninghall Rd. Opened 1960 for 960 SB from Joseph Priestley and Mount Pleasant (qq.v.) in bldgs. designed by Armstrong & MacManus on site of Brooke Ho. (fn. 80) Amalg. with Upton Ho. to form Homerton Ho. (qq.v.) 1982. Bldg. later adapted for Hackney Coll. (fn. 81)

Cadogan Terr. temp. bd. Opened 1879 for B. Closed 1883 on opening of Sidney Rd. (q.v.). (fn. 82)

Cardinal Pole R.C. sec., Kenworthy Rd. Opened 1959 in Wenlock Rd., Shoreditch, as vol. aided sch. with older children from Kingsland R.C. (later Our Lady and St. Joseph, q.v.). Moved 1964 to new bldg. in Kenworthy Rd. Annexe in former French hosp., Victoria Pk. Rd., for lower sch. from 1974. (fn. 83) Roll 1993: 992.

Cassland Rd. higher grade, see South Hackney C.

Cassland Rd. C. Opened 1913 as temp. county sch. for 160 JM, 192 I. SM dept. opened 1916, closed 1917 on opening of Derby Rd. (q.v.). Reorg. 1932/6 for 285 I only.

Cassland sec., see South Hackney.

Chapman Rd. Cong. Opened by 1870 for BG. Described 1871 as at Chapman Rd. mission rooms, Hackney Wick. (fn. 84) Roll 1871: 161; a.a. 116. Nothing further known.

Chatsworth Rd. temp. bd. Opened 1901 for 60 G in Sun. schoolroom below tabernacle and managed from Rushmore Rd. (q.v.). (fn. 85) Closed 1908.

Clapton C, Laura Pl. Opened 1916 for SG. Renamed John Howard sec. 1949. Amalg. with Clapton Pk. to form Clapton comprehensive in Howard bldg. and 4 new perm. bldgs. for 1,080 SG 1977. Roll 1993: 781 SG. (fn. 86)

Clapton Jewish Day, see Simon Marks.

Clapton Pk., Oswald Street. Formerly Mandeville Street (q.v.), renamed for SB 1949. Closed 1953, when bldg. occup. by Pond Ho. Reopened by 1961 for SG, with lower sch. between Oswald and Mandeville streets and annexe (later upper sch.) in Chelmer Rd. Amalg. with John Howard to form Clapton comprehensive.

Clapton R.C., see St. Scholastica.

Clapton, Upper, and Stamford Hill, see St. Thomas.

Clapton, Upper, Cong., Conduit (later Rossendale) Street. Opened by 1871, when paid parl. grant, by Upper Clapton Cong. ch. Roll 1871: 251 M; a.a. 170. Transferred 1875 to S.B.L., closed 1876 on opening of Rendlesham Rd. (later Benthal, q.v.), briefly for I 1877. (fn. 87)

Colvestone.

Opened as Colvestone Crescent by 1949, when renamed Colvestone. I only 1951, 1955, JM & I by 1970. Roll 1989: 163 JM & I; 1993: 205.

Craven Pk., Castlewood Rd. Opened 1896 by S.B.L. for 336 M, 215 I. Reorg. by 1919 for 404 SM, 228 JM & I, and again 1932/6 for 300 JM, 262 I. JM, I 1951, with annexe at synagogue in Egerton Rd., JM & I by 1976. Roll 1989: 164 JM & I; 1993: 221.

Dalston central, Wilton Rd. Opened 1913 (fn. 88) for 388 Higher Grade M from Wilton Rd. (q.v.). Closed 1938/51.

Dalston Cong., Bay Street. Opened 1855 as Dalston Training sch. by Dalston Cong. ch. (fn. 89) In 1873 had separate bldgs. for 229 B and 169 I in Bay Street and school room for 98 G above chapel vestry; styled 'Middle-class', although only 81 of 297 pupils paid more than 9d. a week. Managers unsuccessfully sought transfer to S.B.L. 1873 (fn. 90) and maintained sch., with accn. for 580 by 1880, until 1890 or later.

Dalston C, Shacklewell Lane. Opened 1876 as Hindle Street bd. for 469 B, 464 G, 546 I. Called the Shacklewell by 1903. Reorg. 1932/1936 for 353 SB, 342 SG, 414 I. New yellow-brick bldg. in Shacklewell Lane by E. P. Wheeler 1937. (fn. 91) Renamed Dalston county sec. bef. 1949, when renamed Dalston. For SG only 1951. Renamed Dalston Mount after enlargement on closure of Mount Pleasant (q.v.) by 1974. Amalg. with Edith Cavell, South Hackney (q.v.), and Shoreditch to form Kingsland (q.v.) 1982.

Dalston Mount, see Dalston C.

Dalston sch. of industry. (fn. 92)

Opened 1790 for 30 B at Shacklewell and 30 G in par. churchyard; by 1795 40 G, who had moved to Jerusalem Sq. by 1799. B educ. and 20 of them taught tailoring 1799, when G taught reading and needlework. B moved 1803 to Dalston Lane, (fn. 93) where G had moved by 1810. Financed by subscriptions and sermons 1811. 20 B and 35 G in 1819, as Hackney sch. of ind.; 40 G only by 1833. New bldg. by Jas. Edmeston for 80 G with ho. for mistress on site leased from Tyssen est. at corner of Dalston Rise (later Lane) and projected Amhurst Rd 1837., (fn. 94) but a.a. only 40 G in 1843. Roll 1871: 49 G; a.a. 24. probably closed by 1880 and later acquired for North-East Lond. Institute. (fn. 95)

Dalston training, see Dalston Cong.

Dalston Wes., Mayfield Terr. (later Rd.). Opened by 1871, when paid parl. grant. Roll 1871: 105 M; a.a. 97. Accn. for 526 by 1880. 'Middle-class', not transferred to S.B.L. Closed after 1906. (fn. 96)

Daubeney.

Opened 1886 as Daubeney Rd. bd. for 540 B, 530 G, 436 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 50 B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 422 JB, 435 JG, 306 I, by 1976 for JM, I. Renamed Daubeney 1949. Rolls 1989: 233 JM, 216 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 517.

De Beauvoir, Tottenham Rd. Opened by 1951 for JM, I. Rolls 1989: 203 JM, 183 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 397.

Derby Rd. Opened 1917 for 440 SM from Cassland Rd. county (q.v.). Reorg. 1926. Amalg. 1927 with Lauriston (q.v.).

Detmold Rd. bd. Opened 1884 in iron bldgs. (fn. 97) and 1886 as perm. sch. for 407 B, 364 G, 445 I. Reorg. 1932/36 for 560 JM, 324 I. Renamed Southwold (q.v.) by 1951.

Downs Side, Rendlesham Rd. Opened 1969 for JM & I in new bldgs. (fn. 98) Roll 1993: 235 JM & I.

Edith Cavell, see Enfield Rd. and Kingsland.

Elizabeth Carr, see Glyn Rd.

Eleanor Rd. bd. Opened 1898 for 295 B, 295 G, 310 I from Lamb Lane (q.v.). (fn. 99) Inc. temp. accn. for 20 B, 20 G in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 300 JM, 262 I, and again 1936/38 for 510 SB. Closed by 1947.

Enfield Rd. bd. Opened 1894 for 355 B, 355 G, 438 I. Reorg. 1932/36 for 273 SB, 275 SG, 312 I. Renamed Kingsland (q.v.) 1949, for SM only by 1951. Renamed Edith Cavell by 1963. Premises housed Hackney L.B. educ. directorate from 1992. (fn. 1)

Eton mission schs., Hackney Wick. Opened probably as char. schs. supported by mission. Govt. inspection sought for small sch., not in receipt of grant, by sister in charge 1889. Upper grade sch., under govt. inspection, closed 1891. (fn. 2)

Fleetwood.

Formerly Stoke Newington bd. (q.v.), renamed 1949. JM, I in 1951, JM & I by 1970. Closed by 1978.

Fountayne, see Jubilee.

Gainsborough.

Opened 1875 as Gainsborough Rd. bd. for 468 B, 468 G, 496 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 353 JB, 355 JG, 307 I. Renamed Gainsborough by 1938, after rd. renamed Eastway. JM, I in 1951. In Berkshire Rd. as JM & I by 1970. Roll 1989: 124 JM & I; 1993: 216.

Gayhurst. (fn. 3)

Opened 1894 as Gayhurst Rd. bd. for 358 B, 358 G, 363 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 560 SG, 328 I. Primary only by 1949, when renamed Gayhurst. JM, I in 1951. Rolls 1993: 269 JM, 269 I.

Glyn Rd. bd., Chelmer Rd. Iron bldg. opened 1884, closed 1886 on opening of Daubeney (q.v.), reopened 1891-2 and 1893-4. (fn. 4) Perm. sch. opened 1892 for 420 B, 418 G, 488 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 40 B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 360 SB, 360 SG, 325 I. Renamed Glyn 1949; I sch. renamed Elizabeth Carr 1951. (fn. 5) Glyn closed 1958 (fn. 6) and Eliz. Carr by 1961, when Chelmer Rd. premises occup. by Clapton Pk. (q.v.).

Hackney British, see Homerton Cong.

Hackney Downs, Downs Park Rd. (fn. 7) Opened 1876 as grammar sch. for 500 B by Grocers' Co. of Lond. on site bought from Tyssen est. Fees of £3 to £6 p.a., raised to £8 to £10 in 1888. Offered to L.C.C. 1904, renamed Hackney Downs sch., formerly the Grocers' Co.'s sch., 1905, and managed by L.C.C. from 1907. Thereafter popular and usually overcrowded. Roll 1906: 426; 1931: 675; 1952: 539. Main bldg. in Gothic style by Theophilus Allen damaged by fire 1963, when sch. temporarily dispersed, and demol. 1970. New bldg., intended for grammar sch., opened 1967, but further bldg., for comprehensive intakes from 1969, carried out 1968-70. Roll 1993: 441 SB. Pupils inc. playwright Harold Pinter (b. 1930). (fn. 8)

Hackney Free and Parochial schs. (fn. 9) Originated in parochial sch. recorded in 1580s and supported by Marg. Audley's foundation by will of 1616 for 12 B (by 1732 called the free sch.) and by char. sch. established for 30 B and 20 G aged 7 to 12, also clothed, in 1714. Free sch. held in Church Ho. and char. sch. in rented ho. in churchyard. Char. sch., managed by subscribers of 40s. a year, financed largely by sermons. Temporarily closed 1734 but revived with Stephen Ram as treasurer 1738 (fn. 10) and absorbed free sch. 1772. Premises in Plough Lane, Homerton, until 1811, then new two-storeyed bldg. with central pediment in Paradise Fields (later Chatham Pl.), with accn. for master and mistress, largely paid for by legacy from Jas. Gadsden. 50 B and 40 G educ. and clothed by 1811, besides 50 B and 30 G at Sun. sch. opened 1804. Nat. system by 1819, when 179 B educ., inc. 100 clothed, and 80 G educ. and clothed. (fn. 11) I sch. opened 1826 in rented premises in Bridge (later Ponsford) Street, moved temporarily 1856 to Chatham Pl., then to new bldg. in Paragon Rd. Name Hackney Free and Parochial Charity schs. adopted under Chancery decree of 1842, to remove doubts about legacy to Hackney's 'free' school. 180 B, 110 G, and 120 I by 1846. Schs. financed by subscribers and benefactors, inc. Gadsden's legacy for 15 medals presented annually from 1820, parl. grant in 1850, and sch. pence (1d.-2d.) from 1856. Master and mistress not certificated 1858. (fn. 12) 100 B and all G clothed 1861. (fn. 13) Rolls 1871: 330 BG, 296 I; a.a. 252 BG, 158 I. Bldg. in grounds of Sutton Ho., Isabella Rd., opened 1896, replacing condemned Chatham Pl. BG and I schs., with accn. for 829, formed boro.'s largest non-bd. sch. 1903. (fn. 14) As sociated with Ram's chapel I (q.v.) from 1936. Isabella Rd. bldg. condemned 1937, rebuilt, and alone used as vol. aided sch. 1946, after bomb damage to Paragon Rd. and requisitioning of Ram's sch. in Tresham Ave. Temp. transfer to Berger Rd. 1950. New sch. for c. 320 SM opened 1952 on Paragon Rd. site; designed by Howard V. Lobb as first post-war C.E. sec. sch. completed in Lond. Overcrowding relieved 1963 by acquisition of former Wilton Rd. sch. (q.v.). Roll 1993: 670 SM. Isabella Rd. bldg. remodelled after seniors' move and site later extended after compulsory purchase of Tresham Ave. Rolls 1989: 197 JM in Isabella Rd., 139 I in Mehetabel Rd. Amalg. as Ram's Episcopal primary sch. (q.v.). Sale of Wilton Rd. site and re-establishment of SM sch. in Paragon Rd. planned for 1994. (fn. 15)

Hackney sch. of industry, see Dalston sch. of industry.

Hackney Unitarian, Paradise Fields (later Chatham Pl.). (fn. 16) Established 1790 by Ric. Price and other subscribers as Sun. and day sch. for BG; to be inspected by members of cong. and Hackney New Coll. Called New Gravel Pit mtg. sch. 1819, when 30 B and 30 G clothed and educ. By 1833 only 25 G attended daily, besides 14 B at Sun. sch. in Water Lane which closed 1840. Roll 1871, when called Hackney Unitarian: 56 G; a.a. 48. Improved after having been found inefficient 1872. (fn. 17) Day sch. closed 1884.

Hackney Working Men's Institute, West Street. (fn. 18) Two rooms on first floor of institute (fn. 19) were lent for sch., under uncertificated mistress, by 1871. Financed by pence (1d.-2d.). Roll 1871: 102; accn.: 50. Presumably closed soon afterwards, when premises found inadequate and transfer was rejected by S.B.L.

Harrington Hill primary.

Opened 1970/2 for JM & I. Roll 1989: 183 JM & I; 1993: 222.

Hindle Street, see Dalston C.

Holcroft Rd., see Orchard primary.

Holmleigh primary, Dunsmure Rd. Opened 1970 for JM & I in new bldgs. (fn. 20) Roll 1989: 147 JM & I; 1993: 206.

Holy Trinity C.E. primary, Beechwood Rd. (fn. 21) Opened by 1842 as St. Philip's Nat. for 60 G. 40 G, 35 I by 1846. Schoolroom for 100 BGI built 1851 on site in Woodland Street leased for 99 yrs. by Thos. and Wm. Art. Rhodes; enlarged 1865. Roll 1871: 150 BGI; a.a. 138. Financed 1873 by vol. contributions and sch. pence (2d.); parl. grant by 1876. Iron room for I built nearby 1879 and replaced by perm. bldg. 1880, when management transferred to new dist. of Holy Trinity. Site for new GI sch. leased 1882 by Rhodes fam. in Mayfield (later Beechwood) Rd. (fn. 22) Accn. 1890: 568 BGI; a.a. 506. Reorg. 1927/32 for 120 G, 156 I, by 1951 vol. aided for JM & I. Roll 1993: 232 JM & I.

Homerton Cong., Homerton Row. Opened 1819 as Homerton (sometimes called Hackney) Brit. or Lancasterian sch. in new bldg. 215 B, most paying 1d., in 1822; overcrowded by 1824; (fn. 23) 273 B in 1833. GI sch. in separate bldg. 1820, at first under different managers. (fn. 24) Both schs. probably transferred to Cong. Bd. of Educ. (responsible for Homerton Coll.) 1852. (fn. 25) Parl. grant by 1869. a.a. 1869: 50 G, 70 I. B sch. continued under Homerton Practising sch. (below), but lease of GI sch., with accn. for c. 275, transferred to bd. 1871. (fn. 26)

Homerton Ho., Homerton Row. Opened 1982 as SB comprehensive on amalgamation of Brooke Ho. with Upton Ho. (qq.v.), on site of former Upton Ho. annexe. Roll 1990: 700 SB; 1993: 591.

Homerton Practising, High Street. Model sch. for BG built c. 1852, designed by Alf. Smith, behind Homerton Coll. and managed, like coll., by Cong. Bd. of Educ. (fn. 27) Parl. grant by 1869. Rolls 1871: 490 BG; a.a. 346; 89 B; a.a. 74. Children drawn from wider area than those at Homerton Cong. sch. (fn. 28) (above), which was taken over as Homerton Row training sch. Roll 1871: 130; a.a. 115. Transfer to S.B.L., reserving right for coll. students to practise teaching, rejected by bd. 1888. (fn. 29) Schs. closed 1893, when S.B.L. bought bldgs. (fn. 30)

Homerton Ragged, John (later Dunn) Street. So named 1871, when night sch. with roll and a.a. 30. (fn. 31) Probably offshoot of Kingsland ragged sch. (q.v.). Acquired as John Street bd. sch. (q.v.) 1872.

Homerton R.C., see St. Dominic.

Homerton Row Bd. Opened 1883 for 1,180 BGI (I opened 1882). Reorg. 1927/32 for 355 JB, 360 JG, 411 I and again 1932/6 for 360 JG, 409 I. Closed after 1938.

Homerton Wes., Church Rd. Opened probably in connexion with Wes. Meth. ch. of 1868. (fn. 32) Roll 1871: 77; a.a. 68. Parl. grant by 1876. 1890 accn. 627; a.a. 187. Closed by 1899.

Howrah Ho., see St. Victoire's.

Isaac Watts, see Stoke Newington Road.

John Howard, see Clapton C.

John Street temp. bd. (fn. 33) Opened 1872 for BG. a.a. 1873: 70. (fn. 34) Schoolroom in Dunn's Pl., John (later Dunn) Street, stated 1872 to have been used by Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell ragged sch. Closed 1875 and replaced by Hindle St. bd. sch. (see Dalston C).

Joseph Priestely sec., Morning Lane. Opened by 1951 for SB. Annexe at Homerton Row by 1958. Amalg. with B from Mount Pleasant to form Brooke Ho. (q.v.) 1960. Annexe used by Upton Ho. 1961.

Jubilee, Filey Ave. Opened 1970/2 for JM & I as Fountayne. Roll 1989: 316 JM & I; 1993: 365.

Kingsland, Shacklewell Lane. Enfield Rd. sch. (q. v.) renamed Kingsland 1949 for SM. Kingsland renamed Edith Cavell for SM by 1961, with upper sch. in Enfield Rd. and lower in former Queen's Rd. sch. (see Queensbridge) in Albion Drive. Edith Cavell amalg. 1982 with Dalston Mount (see Dalston county), South Hackney C (q.v.), and Shoreditch to form Kingsland comprehensive, by 1990 with whole sch. at Shacklewell Lane. (fn. 35) Roll 1993: 880 SM.

Kingsland R.C., see Our Lady and St. Joseph.

Kingsland Ragged, Kingsland High Street. (fn. 36) Opened 1848 after mtg. at Maberly schoolroom, presumably part of Maberly Cong. chapel, Islington, in no. 14 Providence Row. Moved 1848 to rented room at Kingsland British sch., Stoke Newington, (fn. 37) but served wide area, with annual mtgs. at Kingsland Cong. ch., and therefore named Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell ragged sch. from 1851. a.a. 1850: 70 B and 80 G, taught on separate evgs. by 14 vol. teachers; also industrial class of 10 G. (fn. 38) B and G taught together from 1855, when day sch. also started. a.a. 1861: 240 day, 166 evg. (fn. 39) Bldg. fund started with legacy 1866, (fn. 40) apparently followed by move to Abbott Street, where a.a. 1871 was 124, and John Street. Transferred with Homerton ragged to John Street bd. (qq. v.) 1872. (fn. 41)

Kingsmead, Kingsmead Way. Opened 1953 for I. (fn. 42) JM & I after 1976. Roll 1993: 221 JM & I.

Lamb Lane Bd. Opened 1873 for 120 G, 120 I. (fn. 43) Children moved to Eleanor Rd. (q.v.), when Lamb Lane bldg. converted into centre for special instruction. (fn. 44)

Lauriston, Rutland Rd. Opened 1892 as Lauriston Rd. bd. for 300 B, 300 G, 377 I. Reorg. 1926. Accn. 1927, after taking children from Derby Rd.: 440 B, 424 G, 384 I. Reorg. 1932/6 for 640 JM, 408 I, and again by 1938 for 438 SM, 400 JM, 336 I. Separate SM and primary schs. by 1949, when both renamed Lauriston. Sec. sch. amalg. with Cassland to form South Hackney C (q.v.) 1958. primary sch. in Derby Rd. 1970, Rutland Rd. by 1976. Roll 1993: 254 JM & I.

Lauriston Rd. central. Opened 1910 at Lauriston Rd. bd. for 340 M. Closed by 1919.

Lea Marsh, see Berkshire Rd.

London Fields, Westgate Street. Opened 1874 for 453 B, 442 G, 577 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 360 JB, 360 JG, 408 I, and again 1932/6 for 640 JM, 408 I. Rolls 1989: 137 JM, 153 I; 1993: 400 JM & I.

Mandeville, Oswald Street. Opened 1902 as Mandeville Street bd. for 300 B, 300 G, 302 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 280 JB, 240 JG, 276 I, and again 1936/8 for 352 JM, 276 I. Sec. sch. by 1949, when renamed Clapton Pk. (q.v.). Replaced 1977 by Mandeville primary, with J sch. in old Oswald Street bldg. and I in new adjoining bldg. (fn. 45) Roll 1993: 224 JM & I.

Mayfield Terrace, see Dalston Wes.

Millfields, Elmcroft Street. Opened 1895 as Millfields Rd. bd. for 1,539 MI. Opening of higher grade dept., attended by many pupils from outside Hackney, led to curtailment of senior sch. and to local complaints 1901. (fn. 46) Accn. 1909: 300 SM (higher elem.), 650 M, 379 I; 1919, after opening of Millfields Rd. central (below): 590 M, 404 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 490 JM, 398 I. Rolls 1989: 243 JM, 211 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 517.

Millfields Rd. central. Opened 1911 at Millfields Rd. bd. for 354 M. Accn. 1922: 414 M. Renamed North Hackney central by 1927. Reorg. 1927/32 for 374 SG. Renamed Pond Ho. 1951. (fn. 47) Closed 1955/63.

Morningside, Chatham Pl. Formerly Morning Lane bd. (q.v.), renamed as JM & I by 1951. Roll 1989: 275 JM & I; 1993: 359.

Morning Lane bd. Opened 1884 for 465 B, 465 G, 578 I; inc. temp. accn. for 60 I in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 371 SB, 379 SG, 443 I. Replaced by Joseph Priestley and Morningside (qq.v.) by 1951.

Mount Pleasant County Sec., Mount Pleasant Lane. Opened by 1938 for 320 SB, 320 SG. SB amalg. with Joseph Priestley to form Brooke Ho. (q.v.) 1960. SG remained in Mt. Pleasant Lane until bldgs. taken over as lower sch. for Skinners' Co.'s sch. 1972. (fn. 48)

Norris's charity, see South Hackney Parochial.

North Hackney Central, see Millfields Rd. central.

Northwold, Northwold Rd. Opened 1902 as Northwold Rd. bd. for 366 SM, 306 JM, 306 I. Reorg. 1923 for 440 B, 440 G, 480 I. Separate SM and primary schs. by 1949, when both renamed Northwold. Sec. sch. closed by 1955. Rolls 1993: 198 JM, 213 I.

Oldhill Street, see Tyssen.

Olinda Rd. temp. bd. Opened 1891 for B & G in two iron bldgs. on land owned by S.B.L. Superseded 1896 by Craven Pk. (q.v.).

Orchard primary, Holcroft Rd. Opened 1926 as Holcroft Rd. county for 232 B, 232 G, 276 I. Renamed Orchard county by 1927. Reorg. 1932/6 for 240 JB, 240 JG, 251 I. Roll 1989: 294 JM & I; 1993: 374.

Orchard Street bd. Opened 1874 in former Well Street chapel (q.v.) and Orchard Street schs.; closed 1875, reopened 1875, closed again 1876. (fn. 49) Perm. sch. opened 1875 for 246 B, 239 G, and 1876 for 303 I. Closed 1926.

Orchard Street schs., see Well Street chapel.

Our Lady and St. Joseph R.C. primary, Tottenham Rd. Opened 1855 as Kingsland R.C. on ground floor of ch. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (1d.-6d.) 1870; (fn. 50) parl. grant by 1871. Roll 1871, when also called St. Joseph's: 92 BGI; a.a. 71. Accn. 1880: 355 BGI. Remained all-age sch., later vol. aided, until transfer of older children to Cardinal Pole (q.v.) 1959. (fn. 51) Primary sch. continued in Tottenham Rd., renamed Our Lady and St. Joseph by 1976. Roll 1989: 205 JM & I; 1993 251.

Our Lady's Convent high sch., see below, private schs.

Pond House, see Millfields Rd. central.

Queen's Rd. bd., see Queensbridge.

Queensbridge, Queensbridge Rd. Opened 1898 as Queen's Rd. bd., apparently as successor to Dalston Cong. or Training sch., for 418 SM (higher grade), 420 JM, 405 I. Reorg. 1923 for 454 B, 448 G, 368 I, and again 1927/32 for 549 SB, 275 JM, 310 I. Renamed Queensbridge Rd. 1939. Sec. and primary schs. both renamed Queensbridge 1949. I sch. only by 1951. Roll 1993: 120.

Ram's Episcopal Chapel schs., Homerton. Char. sch. to educ. and clothe 25 G aged 8 to 14 opened 1792 in rented ho.; additional 4 G taught reading at Sun. sch. 1819 under legacy from Judith Lambe. Sch. to educ. and clothe 25 B opened 1801. Financed 8 by vol. contributions 1819, (fn. 52) when all classes perhaps held in later B sch. in Durham Grove. Separate bldg. for G, with teacher's ho., built 1836 in Retreat Pl. (fn. 53) 60 B, 70 G, and 137 I by 1846, when G sch. praised by inspector. G and certificated teacher, supported by endowment and subscriptions, 1856; (fn. 54) G still clothed 1861, when master took some paying pupils. (fn. 55) Parl. grant probably paid by 1869. Rolls 1871: 60 B in Durham Grove, 101 G in Retreat Pl., 140 I at corner of Urswick Rd. and College (later Tresham) Ave.; a.a. 54 B, 76 G, 90 I. B and G schs. probably closed by 1880. Accn. 1903: 175 I; a.a. 118. (fn. 56) Management transferred to Hackney Free and Parochial schs. (q.v.) 1936. (fn. 57) Remodelled Hackney Free and Parochial I sch. renamed Hackney Free and Parochial (Ram's Episcopal) 1951. (fn. 58)

Ram's Episcopal Primary established 1993 on amalgamation of Hackney Free and Parochial JM, I schs. Roll 1993: 319 JM & I.

Rendlesham Rd., see Benthal.

Rushmore.

Opened 1877 as Rushmore Rd. bd. for 432 B, 432 G, 382 I, and 1908 for 330 JM, inc. pupils from Chatsworth Rd. temp. (q.v.). Reorg. 1924 for 432 B, 384 G, 330 J & I (B), 334 J & I (G), and again 1927/32 for 472 SB, 418 SG, 326 I. Primary sch. only by 1949, when renamed Rushmore. Rolls 1989: 211 JM, 213 I; 1993: 220 JM, 260 I.

St. Augustine, Cassland Rd. Roll 1871: 96; a.a. 78. Presumably connected with ch. in Victoria Pk. Only Sun. sch. and recently started night sch. existed 1878. (fn. 59) Nothing further known.

St. Barnabas Nat., Queen's (later Berger) Rd. (fn. 60) Opened 1855 for BGI on site bought 1853 mainly with money from Revd. J. J. Watson. Parl. grant by 1868. Roll 1871: 342; a.a. 241. Debts incurred by opening of separate G sch. to satisfy Educ. Dept. 1875. (fn. 61) Closed 1877, when rented to S.B.L. for Berger Rd. sch. (q.v.). (fn. 62) Proceeds of sale spent c. 1880 on new Sun. sch. and other bldgs. next to St. Barnabas's ch.

St. Dominic R.C. Primary, Ballance Rd. Opened 1873 as Homerton or Ballance Rd. R.C. for BGI in new bldg. next to ch. on site given by Revd. Geo. Akers. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (1d.-2d.) 1873; (fn. 63) parl. grant by 1876, when a.a. 136. Accn. 1890: 420; a.a. 182. G. taught by Sisters of Sacred Hearts, who also kept nearby boarding sch. (fn. 64) Renamed St. Dominic, vol. aided, 1949. Roll 1989: 215 JM, 169 I; 1993: 236 JM, 238 I.

St. James Nat., Powell Rd. (fn. 65) Opened by 1846 for G, I. Perhaps not permanent until land settled in trust by Powell fam. 1853. (fn. 66) Financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence (1d.-2d. 1873), and parl. grant by 1870. Neighbouring B sch. probably opened before 1863, when new I sch. built adjoining G sch. (fn. 67) Roll 1871: 105 B, 62 G, 80 I; a.a. 81 B, 52 G, 46 I. Closed as day schs. 1876, after inspector's report, (fn. 68) but reopened by 1880. Accn. 1886: 286. Accn. 1906: 342; a.a. 267. Reorg. by 1909: accn. 122 B. Closed after 1938. I sch. under same management opened at Lea Bridge by 1846. Roll 1871: 120; a.a. 77. Closed after 1880.

St. John of Jerusalem C.E., Ainsworth Rd. Opened 1956 in new bldg. on site of bombed South Hackney Parochial schs. (q.v.). Enlarged 1968. Roll 1993: 238 JM & I. (fn. 69)

St. John the Baptist R.C., King Edward's Rd. Opened by 1849 as Triangle or Hackney Triangle R.C. for BG in rented bldg. New bldg. for BGI, adjoining presbytery, built 1851. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (1d.-2d.) 1868; (fn. 70) parl. grant by 1869. Roll 1871: 152; a.a. 100. Accn. 1890: 528; a.a. 236. Accn. 1909: 100 B, 101 G, 114 I. Reorg. 1932/6 for 100 B, 196 GI. As St. John the Bapt., vol. aided, occupied part of London Fields sch. by 1951 to c. 1968, when it moved to Bonner Rd., Bethnal Green. (fn. 71)

St. John's Chapel, see South Hackney Parochial.

St. Matthew Nat., Harrington Hill. (fn. 72) Opened 1862 for I in new bldg. at High Hill Ferry granted to clergy of St. Thos., Stamford Hill, by W. A. Tyssen-Amhurst. Parl. grant by 1870. Management by new dist. of St. Mat. from 1871, when sch. enlarged for GI. Sch. for B opened 1874, designed, like master's ho., by F. T. Dollman. (fn. 73) Further additions to allow separation of G from I 1881. Accn. 1890: 364; a.a. 215. I sch. accn. improved after threat to grant 1893. BG sch. closed by 1906, I sch. in 1909. Derelict bldgs. remained Ch. property 1936.

St. Michael And All Angels Nat., Lamb Lane. Probably replaced Ada Street (q.v.) as Ch. sch. Opened 1873 for 500 B and 250 G, to serve also as ch. hall, on part of site of Pembroke Ho., bought in 1871 from G.E.R. Co. (fn. 74) Financed by sch. pence (6d.-8d.) 1874; (fn. 75) parl. grant by 1876. Accn. 1890: 534; a.a. 237. Accn. 1909: 231 M, 110 I. Closed after 1939.

St. Michael And All Angels Nat., Rossington Street. Probably opened 1884 in former premises of Upper Clapton and Stamford Hill Nat. sch. (see St. Thomas C.E.). (fn. 76) Accn. 1890: 151; a.a. 89. Nothing further known.

St. Peter Nat., De Beauvoir Rd. Opened by 1846 for B, G. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence. Roll 1871: 260; a.a. 182. Parl. grant, as De Beauvoir Town Nat., by 1876. Accn. 1880: 365. Closed by 1890.

St. Philip, see Holy Trinity.

St. Scholastica R.C. primary, Kenninghall Rd. Opened 1868 as Clapton R.C. for BG in bldg. also used as temp. chapel. New bldg. for BGI 1879. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (2d.-9d.) 1881, (fn. 77) parl. grant by 1890. Accn. 1909: 90 MI. Vol. aided JM & I in Kenninghall Rd. 1951, in Elmcroft Street 1970. Called St. Scholastica from c. 1972. In Kenninghall Rd. by 1976. Roll 1993: 251 JM & I.

St. Thomas C.E. primary, Lynmouth Rd. Opened 1828 for BG and 1831 for I as Upper Clapton and Stamford Hill Nat. in leased bldg. in Wood (later Rossington) Street. (fn. 78) 100 B, 53 G, 80 I by 1846. Enlarged 1855. Roll 1871: 202; a.a. 160; also sch. for 75 I in Chapel Rd., improved after being found inefficient 1872. (fn. 79) Financed by endowment, vol. contributions, and sch. pence (1d.-3d.) 1872; (fn. 80) parl. grant, after closure 1875 and reopening for GI, (fn. 81) by 1876. New bldg. for GI in Grove (later Lynmouth) Rd. on site given by W. A. Tyssen-Amherst 1884, when old bldgs. assigned to St. Mic. and All Angels, Rossington Street (q.v.). (fn. 82) Accn. 1909: 126 G, 84 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 210 M & I, and again 1932/6 for 194 JM & I. Called St. Thomas by 1938. Vol. aided JM & I by 1951. Roll 1993: 91 JM & I.

St. Thomas's Sq. Meeting. Opened by 1819, when 20 G educ. and clothed in addition to 120 BG at Sun. sch. of Ind. chapel. (fn. 83) 120 G, of whom 25 clothed and oldest trained as servants, 1833. (fn. 84) Financed mainly by vol. contributions. New schoolrooms 1841. (fn. 85) Apparently survived only as St. Thos.'s Sq. I sch., Loddiges Rd., 1871: accn. 33; a.a. 18. Probably closed after S.B.L. refused to accept transfer 1871. (fn. 86)

St. Victoire's Convent R.C., Victoria Pk. Rd. (fn. 87) Opened as Howrah Ho. high sch. for G next to convent of Faithful Companions of Jesus in E. India Dock Rd. (Poplar). (fn. 88) After war damage and use of temp. premises, moved as vol. aided grammar sch. with 161 G to former French hosp. on edge of Victoria Pk. 1949. Name changed from Howrah Ho. convent sch. to St. Victoire's convent sch. 1952, although no convent attached. Closed between 1972 and 1974.

Sandford Lane ragged, Stoke Newington High Street. Opened C. 1846 as Stoke Newington ragged in ho. on n. side of Stoke Newington common. Accn. 1850: 60; a.a. 36 B and 12 G week days, 16 B evgs., and Sun. classes, taught by 33 vol. and 2 paid teachers. (fn. 89) Moved 1854 to single-storeyed bldg. at S. end of Lawrence's Bldgs. Accn. 1871: 208; a.a. 176. Closed on transfer to S.B.L. as temp. accn. 1872. (fn. 90)

Shacklewell, the, see Dalston C.

Shacklewell primary, Shacklewell Row. Opened by 1951 for JM, I. New bldgs. 1971. Rolls 1993: 191 JM, 216 I.

Sidney Rd. bd. Opened 1882 for 471 G, 634 I, and 1883 for 471 B. Reorg. 1927/32 for 387 JB, 392 JG, 468 I, and again 1932/6 for 468 I. Closed after 1938.

Sigdon Rd. bd. Opened 1898 for 328 B, 328 G, 350 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 25 B, 25 G, 25 I in 1913. Reorg. 1932/6 for 392 JB, 391 JG, 470 I. Renamed Amherst (q.v.) 1949.

Simon Marks, Kyverdale Rd. Opened 1956 as Clapton Jewish day sch., vol. aided, in purpose built Zion Ho. Renamed Simon Marks primary 1973. Roll 1993: 214. (fn. 91)

Skinners' Co.'s sch., see below, private schs.

South Hackney C, Cassland Rd. Opened by 1902 as Cassland Rd. higher grade with single dept. for 816. (fn. 92) Bldg. of red brick in elaborate Renaissance style. (fn. 93) Called South Hackney sec. for G in 1910. Transferred to Clapton C (q.v.) 1916. (fn. 94) South Hackney central sch. for 440 M was in former SM premises of Cassland Rd. (q.v.) in 1919. Accn. 1938: 500 SM. Renamed Cassland 1951 (fn. 95) on amalg. with Lauriston (q.v.) but renamed South Hackney 1958, (fn. 96) with upper sch. in Cassland Rd. and lower in Lauriston Rd. Amalg. with Dalston C (q.v.), Edith Cavell, and Shoreditch to form Kingsland (q.v.) 1982.

South Hackney Central, see South Hackney C.

South Hackney I, see Ada Street.

South Hackney Parochial. (fn. 97) Opened 1810 as St. John's chapel (also known as Norris's char.) sch. in new bldg. with wings for 50 B and 50 G flanking rooms of master and mistress; land in Park Pl., Grove Street, given by Revd. H. H. Norris, whose endowment was assisted by J. De Kewer. (fn. 98) 57 B and 24 G in 1814, when G clothed; financed mainly by subscriptions. 82 B and 32 G in 1833. Settled in trust by Norris as South Hackney Parochial or charity schs. 1834. 140 B, 40 G by 1846. (fn. 99) Bldg. of St. John of Jerusalem ch. necessitated move 1848 to site given by St. Thos.'s hosp. in Greenwood's Row (later Percy and later Kingshold Rd.), where sch. for BG designed by Hen. Currey. (fn. 1) Master and mistress certificated 1855. 50-60 B partly and 30 G completely clothed 1861, when master took some paying pupils. (fn. 2) Parl. grant by 1860. Roll 1871: 126; a.a. 114. Transfer of G sch. rejected by S.B.L. 1871. I sch. built on adjoining site, given by St. Thos.'s hosp., 1875. BG sch. enlarged 1883. Total accn. 1890: 535; a.a. 422. Accn. 1909: 266 M, 110 I. Reorg. for JM & I 1939. (fn. 3) Bombed in war and replaced by St. John of Jerusalem (q.v.). (fn. 4)

Southwold, Detmold Rd. Formerly Detmold Rd. (q.v.), renamed by 1951. JM, I, in 1951. Roll 1989: 261 JM & I; 1993: 316.

Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, and Upper Clapton, Stamford Hill. Roll 1871: 88 I; a.a. 72. Possibly connected with Stoke Newington British (below) and transferred to S.B.L. 1872. (fn. 5)

Stoke Newington British, High Street. Opened 1838 for BG in new bldg. near S. corner of later Northwold Rd. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (4d.-9d.) 1869, when principal teacher trained at Homerton Coll. but not certificated. (fn. 6) Roll 1871: 143; a.a. 132. Transferred to S.B.L. 1872 and replaced by bd. sch. (fn. 7)

Stoke Newington bd., High Street. Opened 1876 for 236 B, 213 G, 234 I in new bldg. on site of British sch. (above). Primary sch. renamed Fleetwood (q.v.) 1949. Sec. sch. renamed Isaac Watts and closed by 1951.

Stoke Newington ragged, see Sandford Lane.

Tottenham Rd. bd. Opened 1874 for 230 B, 230 G, 443 I, and 1887 for 480 JM. Reorg. 1932/6 for 360 JB, 320 JG, 333 I. Closed after 1938 and replaced by De Beauvoir (q.v.).

Tottenham Sq. temp. Bd., Tottenham Rd. Opened 1877 in temperance hall, rented weekly. Closed 1882 on transfer to Tottenham Rd. bd. (fn. 8)

Triangle R.C., see St. John the Baptist.

Tyssen, Oldhill Street. Bldg. for Oldhill Street primary partly completed 1939 and used as temp. accn. by 1948. (fn. 9) Renamed Tyssen 1949. JM, I by 1951, in Firsby Rd, off Oldhill Street. Roll 1989: 261 JM & I; 1993: 431.

Upton Ho., Urswick Rd. Opened 1928 as Upton Ho. central sch. for 361 SB in former truant or industrial sch. Sec. sch. for SB 1951; annexe in Homerton Row by 1958 and another annexe there, formerly of Joseph Priestley sch., by 1961. Amalg. with Brooke Ho. to form Homerton Ho. (qq.v.) 1982.

Well Street Chapel Free schs. (fn. 10) Established 1807 by Wm. Pearson and others to educ. up to 60 B according to principles of C. of E. 'in their Calvinistic sense'. Premises between Well Street and later Orchard Street settled in trust 1811 (fn. 11) on Revd. Geo. Collison and 11 other members of Well Street Ind. chapel or cttee. of Village Itinerancy soc., with provision for reversion to Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc.; inc. master's ho., and adjoining ground let on bldg. lease. I sch. built 1830 with gift from Pearson. 70 B, chosen by subscribers and attending chapel, educ. 1843 at free sch., (fn. 12) whose management was vested in Village Itinerancy soc. 1850. Free sch. united with I sch. under soc. by Char. Com. Scheme 1868. Bldgs. enlarged for 160 B and 180 GI by 1869, when master and mistress not certificated. Financed by endowment and sch. pence (1d.-6d.) 1869; (fn. 13) parl. grant by 1871. Leased to S.B.L. from 1873 as temp. accn. for Orchard Street bd. (q.v.). Compulsorily purchased by S.B.L. 1877 but part of proceeds awarded to Brit. and Foreign Sch. Soc. 1878 and devoted to Orchard Street Schs. Endowment, providing scholarships at Hackney elem. schs., 1881, and to Hackney and Spitalfields Exhibition Foundation from 1894.

West Hackney Parochial schs. (fn. 14) Probably opened c. 1830 for 70 B, 50 G, (fn. 15) although West Hackney Nat. recorded 1833 as having 47 G and mistress's ho., (fn. 16) while rector in 1837 claimed that there was provision only for Sun. schs. and that sch. room for G was beyond par. boundary. Sch. for 200 B and 200 G, on site leased by W. G. Daniel-Tyssen in Church (later Evering) Rd., built 1837 (fn. 17) . 98 B, 113 G by 1846. Parl. grant by 1849. Roll 1871: 157 BG, 58 I; a.a. 114 BG, 37 I. Rebuilt c. 1873, largely at expense of Ric. Foster. Fees (previously 1d.-2d.) raised 1877 and again 1882. Accn. 1880: 498; a.a. 395. Closed 1906. Bldg. survived 1992.

Wick Rd. temp. bd., see Berger.

Wilton Rd. bd. (later Wilton Way C). Opened 1886 for 477 B (higher grade), 477 G (higher grade), 560 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 457 JB, 417 JG, 420 I. Sec. sch. for SM by 1951. Closed by 1963.

Windsor Rd. bd., see Berkshire Rd.

Special schools. (fn. 18)

The opening in 1899 of three special day schools, in Berkshire Road, Enfield Road, and Lamb Lane, was followed in 1900 by that of a residential deaf school at Homerton. (fn. 19) By 1903 the board administered 7 special schools in Hackney, with a total of 324 places and an average attendance of 258. The school for the deaf and one in College Lane for the physically defective had their own buildings; the other five, for the mentally defective, shared the premises of ordinary schools. The L.C.C. likewise administered 7 schools in 1909, although some of the sites had changed. (fn. 20) The older and privately financed East London Home and School for Blind Children (fn. 21) was later listed with the council's schools, which are described below. Downsview, Ickburgh, and Stormont House were maintained by the I.L.E.A. in 1990. (fn. 22)

Berger Rd. Opened 1902 for 80 mentally defective. For 90 and 10 temp. by 1924, for 113 SG and JM by 1935. Classes for maladjusted continued at Berger primary sch. until 1967 or later, when perhaps moved to Morningside (q.v.).

Berkshire Rd. Opened 1899 as Windsor Rd. for 65 mentally defective. For 90 and 10 temp. by 1924. Reopened 1925 for 45 partially blind. Renamed Ryder sch., sec. and primary, for partially sighted by 1951. Moved to Tollet Street, Stepney, by 1958.

College Lane.

Opened 1903 for 60 physically defective in former Homerton Practising sch. (fn. 23) Accn. 1921: 125; roll 152. For 135 SG and JM by 1935. Closed c. 1940.

Downsview, Downs Rd. Opened 1968 as purpose-built sch. for children aged 5 to 16 with moderate learning difficulties. Roll 1993: 130. (fn. 24)

Enfield Rd. Opened 1899 for 65 physically defective, perhaps replacing manual training centre of 1897. (fn. 25) Reopened 1929 for 45 blind. Closed by 1935.

Homerton Row.

Opened 1920 for 45 partially blind. Closed c. 1940.

Homerton Sch. For Deaf Children, High Street. Opened 1900 for 45 boarders and 25 day pupils. Moved to Penn (Bucks.) 1921. (fn. 26)

Ickburgh, Ickburgh Rd. Opened 1970 for children aged 2 to 19 with severe learning difficulties, in bldg. which had been acquired from Hackney L.B. health dept. and built by L.C.C. in early 1960s. Steel framed single-storeyed bldg. by Foster Associates 1972-3. Roll 1993: 86. (fn. 27)

Lamb Lane.

Opened 1899 for 65 mentally defective, upgrading centre for special instruction which had replaced bd. sch. 1898. (fn. 28) Closed c. 1926. Unit for partially deaf open at London Fields primary sch. by 1951 to 1974 or later.

Marsh Ho., Millfields Rd. Opened by 1972 for children with severe learning difficulties. Listed as annexe of Ickburgh (q.v.) 1976 and probably closed soon afterwards.

Morning Lane.

Opened by 1903 for 24 blind, probably as temp. sch. (fn. 29) Closed c. 1926.

Morningside, Morning Lane. Classes for maladjusted held at Morningside primary sch. 1970, perhaps in place of those at Berger (q.v.). Discontinued by 1972.

Northworld Rd. Opened 1903 for 65 mentally defective, perhaps replacing centre for physically and mentally handicapped of 1898. (fn. 30) For SG and JM by 1930. Closed c. 1932.

Rendlesham Rd. Room for special instruction of defective children in temp. use 1898-9. (fn. 31)

Ryder, see Berkshire Rd.

Stormont Ho., Downs Pk. Rd. Opened 1919 as 'open air' sch. for 75 tuberculous children. Bombed in Second World War and reopened 1964 in new bldg. for delicate children aged 5 to 16. Roll 1993: 133. (fn. 32)

Upton Ho., Urswick Rd. Opened 1878 for 60 B nominally as industrial sch., to avoid disputes about legality of detentions, although only truants admitted. Rebuilt 1885 for 100 B and enlarged on provision of new infirmary 1887. (fn. 33) 1909 accn.: 150 B aged 5 to 14. Truant sch. closed by 1913. Opened 1928 as 'open air' sch. for 130 delicate children. Closed c. 1940.

Windsor Rd., see Berkshire Rd.

Adult and technical education.

Well Street chapel, in addition to providing day and Sunday schools, was the scene in 1822 of the seventh general meeting of the Hackney Society for Teaching Adult Persons to Read. (fn. 34) A successful course of lectures for parents was given in 1854 at Kingsland ragged school, where adults may have attended the evening classes from 1855, by which time children could attend classes in the day. (fn. 35) Adults may have been in the mind of the vicar of St. Barnabas when he hoped to start an evening school in 1855. (fn. 36)

In 1871 there was a total roll of 531 and an attendance of 459 at night classes held in both public and private schools. Apart from Hackney Working Men's Institute (below), the largest numbers enrolled were 72 at an evening school at the printing house, Shacklewell, and 70 at Sandford Lane ragged school. Churches and missions, notably St. Matthew's, also offered many places. (fn. 37)

The school board provided several centres for cookery, of which the first, each with 14 places, were opened at Benthal Road in 1881, at Homerton Row in 1883, and Tottenham Road in 1887. Centres for laundrywork and handicrafts followed in the 1890s. (fn. 38) In addition to those centres and to the classes at Hackney technical institute (below), 17 ordinary evening schools or continuation classes were held by 1901, all of them in the board's buildings save one at Holy Trinity school. (fn. 39) The L.C.C. in 1910 administered one science and art and two commercial evening centres, besides 16 ordinary evening schools; it aided the technical institute and Clapton and Stamford Hill school of art, which had their own governing bodies. (fn. 40)

Hackney Working Men's Institute was at no. 6 West (later Westgate) Street, the Triangle, by 1860. It held a yearly tenancy in 1871, when listed as a private adventure school with 94 on the roll, and apparently had closed by 1880. (fn. 41)

The North-East London institute school of music, science, and art, at nos. 236 and 238 Dalston Lane, by 1894 occupied enlarged premises on the site of Dalston school of industry. (fn. 42) They were to be acquired in 1897 as a central site for Hackney institute (fn. 43) and by 1904 served as its northern branch, being transferred to the L.C.C. with the southern branch in 1909. (fn. 44)

South Hackney technical institute, so called in 1900 but later known as Sir John Cass's Hackney institute, (fn. 45) originated in the annual tenancy of Cassland House taken by the L.C.C.'s technical education board in 1897. With money assigned to technical instruction in Hackney under a Charity Commission Scheme, a building trade school was opened and placed under the same governing body as that of the institute in Dalston Lane. (fn. 46) After transfer to the L.C.C. in 1909, (fn. 47) the two branches constituted the L.C.C. Hackney institute, renamed in 1928 the L.C.C. Hackney technical institute (fn. 48) and in 1947 Hackney technical college. (fn. 49) In 1974 it was amalgamated with Poplar technical college and Hackney and Stoke Newington college of further education to form Hackney College, whose Poplar sites were transferred in 1990 to the new Tower Hamlets college of further education. (fn. 50)

Hackney's technical college expanded from the mid 1960s, when its department of building took over Triangle House at nos. 15-35 Mare Street. Keltan House, a former factory, at nos. 89-115, had been adapted by 1970 and Clapton school for girls in Laura Place was used from 1968 until 1988. The administrative headquarters were moved from Dalston Lane to Keltan House in 1974 and to Brooke House, an extensive conversion of the boy's school, in 1990. Chelmer House was converted from a school for joint use with Hackney adult education institute in 1981. Hackney College's eight sites included the original two in Dalston Lane and Cassland Road and two in Stoke Newington and Bow in 1990, when 10,000-12,000 students were enrolled annually for full-or part-time courses. (fn. 51)

Clapton and Stamford Hill school of art was established at no. 37 Clapton Common in 1885 and moved in 1888 to no. 81. Both day and evening classes were held in 1910. The school, a noted centre for training art teachers, where Clapton's historian Florence Bagust taught, closed in 1916 after the L.C.C. had withdrawn support. (fn. 52)

Ten evening institutes, (fn. 53) some of them with branches, met at the L.C.C.'s schools in 1930: 4 were for women, 3 were commercial or junior commercial, 2 were junior commercial and technical, and one was literary. In addition South Hackney day continuation school was held in Homerton High Street. After reorganization in 1948, (fn. 54) Clapton and Homerton (formerly Glyn Road) women's institute offered classes to both sexes at Glyn school, with a branch at Lea Marsh school. It was replaced by Clapton and Kingsland institute on the same site, by then an annexe of Clapton Park school, with branches at three primary schools, in 1958. Clapton institute, its successor, was at Upton House by 1967 and at Brooke House school throughout the 1970s. Hackney adult education institute was in Chelmer Road from 1981 and at Woodberry Down school, Stoke Newington, by 1987.

The Cordwainers' technical college, originally in Clerkenwell and incorporated in 1914 to take over the work of the Leather Trades school, (fn. 55) moved from war-time accommodation to no. 182 Mare Street (formerly Lady Holles's and the Dalston county school) in 1945. (fn. 56) A threestoreyed block with a connecting wing was added in 1956-7. The college was aided by Hackney education authority in 1990 and specialized in courses for the footwear and leather goods industries; a course in rural saddlery, developed in the 1960s, remained the only one in the country. It enrolled 176 full-and 328 part-time students for 1989-90, when numbers were expected shortly to double. (fn. 57)

Private schools.

Its healthy reputation made Hackney a noted centre of private education for some 200 years, in particular as 'the ladies' university of the female arts'. (fn. 58) John Salladine, a French schoolmaster, was resident in 1627 (fn. 59) and was chosen in 1630 as a vestryman, in which capacity he helped to appoint the parish schoolmaster. (fn. 60) Mrs. Winch boarded young ladies in 1637, when a rich City orphan was abducted while walking on Newington common. (fn. 61) Samuel Pepys (b. 1633) boarded at Hackney as a little child. (fn. 62)

The Presbyterian Mrs. Salmon taught French, housewifery, and polite accomplishments (fn. 63) to pupils who included the verse writer Katherine Philips (1631-64), 'matchless Orinda', in 1639 (fn. 64) and the daughters of the lawyer Sir John Bramston (d. 1670) in 1648. (fn. 65) Mrs. Salmon presumably was Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Salmon (d. 1672), a vestryman who in 1671 was allowed to add to his scholars' gallery in the church and who successfully sued for unpaid fees. (fn. 66) He occupied a house at Clapton in 1658, presumably that assessed in 1664 at 28 hearths (fn. 67) and left with 11 a. to his widow and his son Thomas. (fn. 68) The younger Thomas, a clergyman, had moved to Meppershall (Beds.) by 1691. (fn. 69) Allocations of the Salmons' pew have led to identification of their school with those of Benjamin Morland and Henry Newcome. (fn. 70)

Another fashionable school was established in 1643 by Mary Perwich, whose husband Robert, 'professing schooling and boarding', was licensed to build a gallery in the church in 1649. (fn. 71) The school was allegedy associated with the Black and White House south of the churchyard, but in fact that house was enlarged for Sir Thomas Vyner (fn. 72) and assessed at only 20 hearths. (fn. 73) The Perwichs occupied a larger building: their school took 800 girls during its first 17 years (fn. 74) and, after Brooke House, Robert Perwich's was the biggest house in the parish in 1664, when it was assessed at 36 hearths in Church Street, and in 1672, when it had 32. (fn. 75) It was probably at the north end of the village, where 6½ a. held of Grumbolds were conveyed by Ralph Macro in 1653, (fn. 76) and presumably was among the copyholds left to Perwich's wife and four surviving daughters in 1676. (fn. 77)

The Perwichs offered music and dancing, taught by well known masters, in addition to household skills. A fifth daughter Susanna (d. 1661) played the violin so well that distinguished audiences came from London. In reply to criticism of such accomplishments a memoir stressed Susanna's humility and her regard for William Spurstowe. (fn. 78) In the mid 1640s Joseph Lister, a serving man, found that an unidentified Hackney school was merely for 'young gentlewomen to learn to play and dance and sing' and that there were no daily prayers. (fn. 79)

Hannah Woolley (d.1677 or later), an early champion of women's education, moved with her husband from Newport (Essex) to Hackney in 1655. There she kept a boarding school and presumably wrote her first works on cookery, published in 1661 and 1664. The school may have closed after her second marriage in 1666. (fn. 80)

Other schools included those of Mr. Littelton of Clapton, who was allotted a pew in 1661, George Painter, who had two French boarders in 1668, and Mrs. Freeman and her daughter, who were licensed to build a gallery in 1671. (fn. 81) Pepys, who had recently renewed his acquaintance with Hackney, went to church in 1667 chiefly to see the young ladies of the schools, 'whereof there is great store, very pretty'. (fn. 82) The prosperous vicar of Earls Colne (Essex) sent his daughters to be educated at Hackney in 1675. (fn. 83) The City's court of aldermen in 1682 paid the fees of two orphans to Mrs. Crittenden, (fn. 84) who in 1686 had installed her scholars without permission in Thomas Salmon's pew. (fn. 85) Mrs. Boardman, another schoolmistress, was threatened in 1685 with the pillory. (fn. 86) Samuel Hoadly (d.1705), author of the popular Natural Method of Teaching, moved in 1686 to Hackney, which he left in 1700 to become headmaster at Norwich. (fn. 87) Benjamin Morland, son of the ejected Martin Morland, kept a successful private school at Clapton from 1685 (fn. 88) and took over Mrs. Crittenden's gallery in 1690. (fn. 89)

Girls' schools, perhaps influenced by the freer morality of the Restoration, continued to be condemned for frivolity. John Aubrey in 1670 regretted a past when girls had been educated at nunneries, 'not at Hackney schools to learn pride and wantonness'. At the same time, by catering chiefly for citizens' daughters, they attracted the sneers of court dramatists: (fn. 90) snobbery was portrayed in a Hackney educated haberdasher's wife in Thomas Shadwell's The Humourists of 1671 (fn. 91) and a heroine from Hackney was kept close by her father in Wycherley's The Gentleman DancingMaster of 1672. (fn. 92)

Growing numbers led in 1686 to an order that gentlewomen's schools which had a gallery should use no other pews. (fn. 93) Allocations were made for Mr. Sinclair's pupils in 1686 and Mrs. Hopkins's in 1689. (fn. 94) Of 13 well known ladies' boarding schools listed in 1694 three, under Mrs. Freeman, Mrs. Beckford, and Mrs. Smith, were at Hackney. Morland's and another grammar school and a writing school were also listed, (fn. 95) as later was Hoadly's school. (fn. 96) The grammarian James Greenwood (d. 1737) was an usher under Morland before moving to Woodford (Essex) soon after 1711. (fn. 97)

By c. 1700 the west side of London was attracting more schools. (fn. 98) The lexicographer Robert Ainsworth (d. 1743), who advocated small classes, kept a school in Bethnal Green in 1698 and afterwards, between 1725 and 1729, lived at the Norris family's house in Grove Street. (fn. 99) During most of the 18th and early 19th centuries the parish, for all its many schools, was noted chiefly for Newcome's and for nonconformist academies. (fn. 1)

Newcome's or Hackney school came to be the largest and most fashionable of all 18th-century private schools. (fn. 2) It originally belonged to Benjamin Morland, whose daughter Lydia married Henry, son of the vicar Peter Newcome, in 1714. Henry Newcome (d. 1756), although dismissed as a young preacher of little sense, was long remembered as 'the famous Dr. Newcome of Hackney'. He probably took charge in 1721, when Morland became high master of St. Paul's school. (fn. 3) Perhaps an acquaintance begun at Hackney led Samuel Hoadly's son Benjamin (d. 1761), bishop of Winchester, to choose Newcome's school for his own sons Benjamin (1706-57), the royal physician, and John (1711- 76), the poet, both of whom wrote plays. John distinguished himself in one of the theatrical performances for which the school became famous. (fn. 4) Leading Whig patrons included the Cavendishes, the Fitzroys, and the Yorkes: (fn. 5) sons of the third and fourth dukes of Devonshire attended, (fn. 6) as did the second earl of Hardwicke (d. 1790) and his three brothers. (fn. 7)

The plays at Newcome's school were produced from 1730 or earlier, perhaps annually in the 1760s (fn. 8) but every three years by 1795. (fn. 9) Contributors of prologues or epilogues, for both classical and English works, included David Garrick in 1763 (fn. 10) and later George Keate (d. 1797). (fn. 11) Actors included the earl of Euston, later first lord of the treasury as duke of Grafton (1735-1811), who was watched by his grandfather in 1751, (fn. 12) perhaps the future fifth duke of Devonshire (d. 1811) in the early 1760s, (fn. 13) the future earl of Harrington and Lord Robert Cavendish in 1764, when over 100 coaches arrived, (fn. 14) and the diarist Thomas Creevey (1768-1838) in 1783. (fn. 15) Royalty attended in 1761. (fn. 16) Old boys' dinners often took place at the Thatched House tavern, St. James's: stewards included the earl of Hardwicke and Lord Grey in 1768, Lord Ravensworth in 1781, and the duke of Devonshire, Lord Dover, and Lord Henry Fitzroy in 1791. (fn. 17) Reunions were still held in 1829. (fn. 18)

Henry Newcome died rich, (fn. 19) leaving Clapton copyholds to his son Peter, F.R.S., so long as he should carry on the school, and then on the same conditions to Peter's half-brother Henry. (fn. 20) Peter (d. 1779) gave up control to Henry, (fn. 21) who married a niece of the antiquary William Cole and whose second son Richard (fn. 22) had succeeded by 1792. The diplomatist Stratford Canning (1786- 1880), a pupil from 1792 to 1794, remembered a priggish potentate who left the boys to a Spartan existence in which the smaller ones were slaves. (fn. 23) At the end of 1802 Richard handed over to the Revd. C. T. Heathcote, (fn. 24) whose family had long known the Newcomes (fn. 25) and under whom speeches replaced the plays. (fn. 26) The school closed between 1815, when changes were announced by Heathcote, who also held an Essex living, and 1819, when the property was auctioned. (fn. 27) In the 1790s a resident usher kept order in a tall double-gabled brick building large enough for 70-80 boys, while the Newcomes lived next to it in a new house. (fn. 28) The two houses, walled grounds, and 8 a. offered a good building site, (fn. 29) which was taken for the London Orphan Asylum. (fn. 30)

Girls' boarding schools were kept in 1715 by Mrs. Wallis, Mrs. Hammond, and Elizabeth Hutton and in 1726 by Elizabeth Golbourne. Mrs. Hutton's may have been at the Black and White House, (fn. 31) occupied as a school by Mary Roberts in 1747 (fn. 32) and presumably the 'old white boarding school next the church, well known for a century past' whose former headmistress Katharine Thompson died in 1788; (fn. 33) the school had ended a long existence by 1795. (fn. 34) Mrs. Newton died in 1790, having kept a school for many years. M. and E. Humphries boarded young ladies at Homerton in 1772, (fn. 35) the Misses Green kept the Grove boarding school in Church Street in 1782, Mrs. Ranking engaged a Frenchman for her boarders in Tryon's Place in 1784, (fn. 36) Mrs. Carter's scholars had lately used a gallery in the church in 1787, (fn. 37) and Miss Rogerson boarded girls in the Grove in 1790. (fn. 38) Mrs. Larkham, assisted by Mr. Larkham, in 1791 boarded girls at Dalston, where Miss Story was associated with her in 1793. (fn. 39)

Boys' boarding schools in the 18th century included one under a Mr. W-, where a pupil stabbed another with a sword in 1727, (fn. 40) and one under James Graham, which surrendered a pew in 1738 (fn. 41) but presumably continued as Graham's school at Dalston, where it staged a play in 1755. An academy in Church Street offered genteel boarding, with emphasis on morals, in 1769. (fn. 42) John Bonnycastle (1750?-1821), the mathematical writer, kept an academy at Hackney when young. (fn. 43) A French grammar by Isaac Coustell, a teacher at Hackney, was advertised in 1748. (fn. 44) John Naudin took boarders in Well Street, where only French was spoken in the family, in 1775 and denied rumours of his retirement in 1785. (fn. 45) He may have been succeeded by Paul de la Pierre, a Swiss, and one Gilbert, who advertised their Well Street academy in 1790 and produced French plays in 1791; boys under eight boarded at Miss Gilbert's, Well Street, in 1793. (fn. 46) Mr. De Latre kept an academy in the City in 1789 (fn. 47) but lived in Well Street, where Mrs. De Latre carried on a school, perhaps for girls, in 1790; Mrs. Delavaud and Miss Yeomans were her successors in 1791. (fn. 48) Mr. Thurgood, after nine years' experience, moved from Hoxton to open a boarding school in Shore Place in 1791. (fn. 49) Barber's Barn was Mr. Worsley's school in the 1790s. (fn. 50)

Private schools were most numerous in the 19th century, (fn. 51) although many were short lived and some were apparently ill managed. A seller of indecent prints in 1802 had no need to venture farther than Hackney because of his custom from the ladies' schools. (fn. 52) Mr. Newham, in charge of a school at Homerton, was sued in 1807 for beating a boy who had been bitten by the master's dog. (fn. 53)

In 1826-7 at least 71 establishments were described as private academies. Thirty-five, of which 22 were wholly or partly boarding, were in the old centre and south part of the parish; a further 10 were listed for Clapton, 4 for Homerton, 18 for Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell, and 4 for Stamford Hill. (fn. 54) Such schools were often ephemeral; few of the proprietors were still listed in 1832, when some had moved farther north within the parish. (fn. 55) In 1838 the total was 75, of which 29 were in Hackney, 16 in Clapton, 27 in Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell, and 3 at Stamford Hill. (fn. 56) There were also rival grammar schools, founded in 1830 by subscription. (fn. 57) In 1849 at least 68 residents kept schools, while others offered private or specialist tuition. (fn. 58)

Longer lived schools included one in 1804 under Richard Barnes, successor to James Pickbourne, in the Cass family's house or in one that had replaced it in Grove Street. As Grove House school, it was kept by Barnes and his son in 1832 and at its height had over 40 boarders. (fn. 59) Probably it had been closed by 1848, when a school was established in the nearby Common House. (fn. 60) That too was called Grove House by 1849, when, as in 1861, it was under John Willey. (fn. 61) By 1869 it was under H. R. Clarke, who prepared boarders and day boys for the universities or commerce in 1872, and by 1879 under E. Watkinson. (fn. 62) Clapton House reputedly had both boys and girls (fn. 63) before its lease as a classical school in 1830 to Donald Aird, who advertised its grandeur and previously had taught in St. Thomas's Square. Aird may have added some buildings and apparently used Salomon's 'synagogue' as a dining hall. (fn. 64) Sutton House contained a boys' school under Dr. Burnet, briefly attended in 1818 by the novelist Edward Bulwer-Lytton (d. 1873), and later Milford House girls' school. (fn. 65) The many girls' schools included one near St. Thomas's Square under the Misses Brown, successors to Mrs. and Miss Walker, in 1814; (fn. 66) it may have been continued by them in Mare Street in 1826, by Maria Brown in Mare Street, or by Sarah Brown in Cambridge Row in 1838. Hannah Slater's school in Lower Clapton Road near the site of Laura Place, recorded in 1826 and 1838 and perhaps continuing one kept by Mrs. Bell, was highly regarded, (fn. 67) as was the school of the Misses Hibbert, in Upper Clapton Road by 1826. (fn. 68)

The most distinguished 19th-century school, in the enlightened tradition of Ainsworth, was Madras House, (fn. 69) so named by the religious writer John Allen (d. 1839), who adopted the Madras system whereby monitors took responsibility for younger boys. (fn. 70) Although it was later claimed that the school dated from 1796, (fn. 71) Allen first took pupils in Mare Street in 1817, moving to larger premises on the east side in 1821. The school, visited by Edward Irving (d. 1834) and other scholars, had a maximum of nearly 150 boys. (fn. 72) They included the lexicographer Sir William Smith (1813-93) and his brother Philip (1817-85), who wrote on ancient history, John Curwen (1816-80), the writer on music, and Sir Charles Reed (1819-81), chairman of the London school board. The missionary Edward Steere (1828-82), bishop of Zanzibar, attended under John Allen's son, the philologist Alexander Allen (d. 1842). On Alexander's death Madras House passed to Thomas Garland, (fn. 73) who ran it in 1861, and to Messrs. W. Paine and Wilson, who described it as a grammar school in 1869 (fn. 74) and took boarders and day boys until 1879 or later. (fn. 75) The premises, at no. 208 Mare Street, were used by the Essex Volunteer Regiment in 1892. (fn. 76)

Hackney Proprietary grammar school, (fn. 77) each of whose proprietors might hold not more than 3 out of 130 shares, was opened in 1830. Its staff was to be well paid and the Madras system was used. Although the headmaster was an Anglican clergyman, the presence of nonconformist teachers led to printed denunciations in 1831. (fn. 78) More damaging was a ban on shopkeepers' sons, (fn. 79) which stimulated support for a Church of England grammar school (below). Each school had c. 120 boys in the 1830s, when they formed warring gangs before uniting against the Free school, but the Proprietary school had only 50 by c. 1840 and amalgamated with the Church of England grammar school before 1848. The 'dear little building', (fn. 80) rendered and with Perpendicular details, was converted to private use as Sutton Lodge, which in turn was replaced in the 1950s by extensions to the Metal Box factory. (fn. 81)

Hackney Church of England grammar school sought a headmaster in 1829 and was opened in connexion with King's College, London, with the bishop as patron and the rector J. J. Watson as president. (fn. 82) Benjamin Clarke was among the first boys in 1830, when a few boarders were allowed. The composer Alfred Cellier (1844-91) attended and later taught there. (fn. 83) The building, on the west side of Back Lane (later Clarence Road) was designed by William MacIntosh Brookes and rendered, with a Doric portico: it was costlier than that of Hackney Proprietary school. The school was rescued from debt c. 1880 and continued as King's College or Hackney Collegiate (fn. 84) school until 1895. After serving as a soft drinks factory, the building made way in 1903 for flats called Clarence Gardens, which in turn made way for a road on the Pembury estate. (fn. 85)

The number of private schools fell only slightly in the mid 19th century. Wick House was turned into a boys' boarding school, entitled Wick Hall collegiate, commercial, and scientific school, in 1841 (fn. 86) but was again in private occupation in 1861, shortly before its demolition. (fn. 87) At least 57 private schools existed in 1861, only 10 of them for boys, (fn. 88) and 55, including a Pestalozzian school, in 1869. Many retained genteel descriptions in 1869, when there were also music teachers (fn. 89) and, in Dalston, a 20-year old French institute offering art classes. (fn. 90) Clapton House was the third home of St. John's Foundation school for the sons of poor clergymen from 1859 until its move to Leatherhead (Surr.) in 1872. As his first school, it was recalled by Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins (1863-1933) (the novelist Anthony Hope), whose father the Revd. E. C. Hawkins was headmaster. (fn. 91)

Schools in 1872 included Dalston Congregational or Middle-class training school of 1855, which was often listed with public schools, (fn. 92) Kingsland collegiate school of 1865 for 20 boarders and 60 day boys, South Hackney college of 1866 for 40 boarders and 75 day boys, Lonsbury college of 1866 at Hackney Downs, and Dalston college at Albion hall. Both South Hackney and Lonsbury colleges, offering a commercial education, survived in 1898. (fn. 93) Anglican clergymen had charge of St. James's college, called Clapton college by 1879, for boarders and day boys, and Hackney Collegiate school. (fn. 94) Priory House school was on the west side of Lower Clapton Road, under Howard Anderton; it had been founded by Samuel Prout Newcome and later continued at Clapton Common under Howard's son Stanley until 1909. (fn. 95) Girls' schools in 1884 included the purpose-built Kingsland Birkbeck schools in Ridley Road, founded in 1852 in the old Kingsland Congregational church and originally also for boys, College House, Clapton Square, founded in 1863, and the expensive Grove House at Upper Clapton. (fn. 96)

After 1870 a few well known schools were founded, in spite of social changes and better public provision, which were blamed for the closure of Madras House. (fn. 97) The Grocers' Co.'s school of 1876 was drawing boys from Clapton college by 1882. (fn. 98) The governors of Lady Holles's school in London built a middle-class school at no. 182 Mare Street, which was opened in 1878 and charged fees comparable with those of the Grocers' school; some 300 girls attended by 1884, although numbers fell to 81 in 1895 before reaching 380 in 1921. (fn. 99) At Stamford Hill successful schools were founded by the Skinners' Co. in 1890 and the Servite Sisters in 1904. (fn. 1) The Church Schools' Co., formed in 1883, had a short lived school in Cazenove Road in 1892. (fn. 2) Bodleian House, Upper Clapton, was founded in 1878 and attended by 35 girls, including boarders, in 1884. It may have continued at no. 35 Clapton Common as a music academy, with a kindergarten and preparatory school, in the 1930s. (fn. 3) No. 81 Clapton Common, from 1888 the home of Clapton and Stamford Hill school of art, in 1861 had been a girls' boarding school under Miss C. Bush. (fn. 4)

Roman Catholic schools were open in Sidney Road by 1887. The boys', next to the church, was called Homerton Catholic grammar school; (fn. 5) it had accommodation for 112 and an attendance of 27 in 1890 and closed in 1891. (fn. 6) The girls', at no. 21, was a boarding school still managed by Sisters of the Sacred Hearts in 1894. (fn. 7)

The Skinners' Co.'s school for girls (fn. 8) was opened in 1890, under a Scheme of 1886, following foundations for boys at Tunbridge Wells and Tonbridge (Kent). (fn. 9) Purpose-built premises at nos. 111 and 113 (later 117) Stamford Hill accommodated 250 pupils aged 8-7, of whom 6 at first held scholarships. (fn. 10) Under the Act of 1944, the school was voluntary aided from 1949. Younger girls used the former Mount Pleasant county school (fn. 11) from 1972, while older ones remained at Stamford Hill. In 1989 the upper school had 290 pupils aged 14-19 and the lower had 353, aged 11-13.

In 1898 the Girls' Public Day School Co. occupied nos. 1 and 2 Marriott Terrace, Lower Clapton Road, and North Hackney high school for girls had a boys' department and kindergarten at Stamford Hill. Besides those schools, others mentioned above, and a mixed middleclass school in Lauriston Road, there were at least 60 smaller private establishments. A few survived near Victoria Park but most were farther north: 13 were in the Hackney part of Stoke Newington, notably in Brooke or Cazenove roads, 7 in Upper Clapton, including 4 in Clapton Common, and 13 in Lower Clapton, including 3 in Clapton Square. (fn. 12)

Ownership in 1898 was more concentrated than the number of schools suggested: H. Anderton's Priory House was at no. 29 Clapton Common and Miss H. A. Anderton's school at no. 57; probably two schools were kept by Miss Bessie Buckley, two by Miss A. Henderson, and two by Miss M. E. Jervis. While most schools were short lived, a few continued in different hands. Stamford Hill and Clapton school for girls, at no. 96 Stamford Hill under Miss Henderson by 1898, moved after c. 1906 to no. 118, (fn. 13) where it remained under Miss J. Rothery until 1930 or later. (fn. 14) No. 77 Cazenove Road housed a school under Miss E. Plews in 1898 and Wilson college for boys, founded in 1881, under W. A. Warne in 1911 and 1914; a boys' school, under W. Brimicombe by 1930, survived there until the Second World War. (fn. 15) Clark's college opened a branch at the Tower House, no. 108 Clapton Common, c. 1909 and soon moved to nos. 147-9 Stamford Hill, where it remained until 1959 or later. (fn. 16)

Numbers fell rapidly in the 20th century. Excluding the Grocers', Lady Holles's, and Skinners' schools, 29 private schools were listed in 1905, when 2 were for boarders, 15 in 1914, and 10 in 1930. The Grocers' school passed to the L.C.C. in 1906 and Lady Holles's moved to Hampton in the 1930s. By 1939 there were only denominational schools, apart from the Skinners', Brimicombe's, and Clark's college at Stamford Hill. (fn. 17)

A Roman Catholic school whose success may have affected many competitors was opened by the Servite Sisters at no. 14 Amhurst Park in 1904. (fn. 18) For girls of all ages and at first also for small boys, it occupied no. 16 by 1914 (fn. 19) and was described as a high-class day school and kindergarten in 1931, when it also occupied no. 12. (fn. 20) As Our Lady's Convent high school, it was voluntary aided from 1944. Nos. 6, 8, and 10 Amhurst Park were acquired in 1966 and all the original buildings were replaced in stages, in 1963, 1966, 1978, and 1986. The school remained in the Servites' trusteeship in 1989, with 575 girls aged 11 to 18 on the roll.

Jewish settlement (fn. 21) had led to the opening in 1906 of an industrial school for girls in detention called Montefiore House at no. 69 Stamford Hill, with Claude Montefiore as chairman of the governors. (fn. 22) The Jewish Secondary Schools Movement, established by Rabbi V. Schonfield who founded the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations, in 1929 started a boys' school at Avigdor House, no. 96 Amhurst Park, and a girls', with some preparatory classes and boarders, at Northfields, nos. 109 and 111 Stamford Hill. (fn. 23) In 1939 the New synagogue also had a preparatory and kindergarten school. All apparently closed during the war, although afterwards Avigdor House reopened in Stoke Newington (fn. 24) and the movement had offices at no. 86 Amhurst Park until the 1980s.

Yesodey Hatorah, founded in 1943, was the first and in 1977 the largest of the ultra-orthodox schools. (fn. 25) It occupied nos. 2 and 4 Amhurst Park by 1947 and also nos. 5 and 13, as primary and girls' senior schools, by 1964. In 1989 the boys' primary school, kindergarten, and nursery were at no. 2 Amhurst Park, the boys' senior school was at no. 4, and primary and senior girls' schools were at no. 153 Stamford Hill.

The Lubavitch Foundation opened the ultraorthodox Lubavitch House primary school for girls, with a nursery, at nos. 107 and 109 Stamford Hill in 1959. The Foundation's synagogue moved there from Cazenove Road in 1960, when a boys' school was opened. A senior girls' school started at no. 115 Stamford Hill in 1962 and expanded in 1964 and 1966. Premises for boys were acquired and adapted in 1971 at nos. 133 and 135 Clapton Common, where a senior school was opened in 1983. In 1989 the kindergarten, with 100 children, and 115 senior girls were at no. 107 Stamford Hill, 175 junior girls were at nos. 113-115 Stamford Hill, and 80 senior and 165 junior boys were at Clapton Common. (fn. 26)

Yesodey Hatorah girls' and Lubavitch boys' and girls' primary schools unsuccessfully sought voluntary aided status in 1983-4. Although Hackney L.B. later made grants to several Jewish schools, Simon Marks was the only one administered by the I.L.E.A. in 1990 and by Hackney in 1993. (fn. 27)

Footnotes

19 Vestry mins. Dec. 1613; J. Baldry, Hackney Free and Parochial Schs. (1970), 17.
20 Guildhall MS. 9537/4; ibid. 6, f. 5.
21 Ibid. 9171/17, f. 96.
22 Vestry mins. Dec. 1613.
23 2nd Rep. Com. Educ. of Poor, H.C. 547, p. 94 (1819), x.
24 Lysons, Environs, ii. 512.
25 Baldry, Free Schs. 18.
26 Vestry mins. 1 Aug. 1620.
27 Baldry, Free Schs. 19; vestry mins. 11 Dec. 1665, 9 Jan. 1666.
28 Lysons, Environs, ii. 512.
29 Para. based on Lysons, Environs, ii. 512-13; ibid. Suppl. 173-4; Robinson, Hackney, ii. 231-4, 246-7, 258-9, 270-1; accounts of individual schs., below.
30 Above, prot. nonconf.; V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 219.
31 Para. based on Educ. of Poor Digest, 546.
32 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 57-8.
33 Para. based on Educ. Enq. Abstract, 562-3.
34 Below, private schs.
35 Above, parish church (church extension).
36 Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 6-7.
37 Based on accounts of individual schs. below.
38 Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1851 [1357], p. clxx, H.C. (1851), xliv(1); 1852-3 [1623], pp. 124, 238, H.C. (1852-3), lxxix.
39 Rep. of Educ. Cttee of Council. 1868-9 [4139], pp. 569-71, H.C. (1868-9), xx.
40 Ibid. 1870-1 [C. 406], p. 495, H.C. (1871), xxii.
41 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 90-99; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1868-9, pp. 569-70
42 33 & 34 Vic. c. 75; Stanford, Sch. Bd. Map of Lond. [undated].
43 Sch. Bd. for Lond. Mins. of Procs. 30 Apr. 1873
44 Ibid. 12 June 1872
45 Ibid. 10 July, 10 Oct. 1872
46 Ibid. (1872-3), midsummer returns.
47 Nat. Soc. files.
48 Sch. Bd. for Lond. Mins. of Procs. 18, 25 Mar. 1874.
49 Baldry, Free Schs. 54.
50 Sch. Bd. for Lond. Mins. of Procs. 29 Mar., 5 Apr. 1876.
51 P.R.O., ED 14/8.
52 Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1880-1 [C. 2948-1], p. 639, H.C. (1881), xxxii; 1890-1 [C. 6438-1], p. 637, H.C. (1890-1), xxvii.
53 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of elem. schs. 1903).
54 Para. based on ibid.
55 Below.
56 Inc. St Paul's, Brougham Rd., the infants' branch of a sch. in Shoreditch
57 Education (London) Act, 3 Edw. VII, c. 24.
58 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909-10). Other sec. schs. were Lady Eleanor Holles's and the Skinners' Co.'s: below, private schs.
59 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1913-14).
60 Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1927 (H.M.S.O.). The 45 maintained schs. listed inc. Bay Street temp. and Derby Rd. (qq.v.).
61 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1951).
62 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 7 Dec. 1949
63 Ann. Abstract of Gtr. Lond. Statistics (1967), 119.
64 I.L.E.A. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1976).
65 Rest of para. based on inf. from educ. officer, I.L.E.A. division 4.
66 Below, pub. schs.
67 Below, private schs.
68 Whitaker's Almanack (1991), 452
69 Inf. from inf. officer, research and statistics, Hackney educ. directorate.
70 Private schs. are treated separately below.
71 Based on Nat. Soc. files, S. Hackney Parochial.
72 H.A.D. D/F/TYS/16, p. 31.
73 I.L.E.A. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 17 July 1968; 20 May 1970.
74 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
75 L.C.C. Ceremonial Pamphlets, 18 Nov. 1949.
76 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 12.
77 Ibid.
78 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 3 Mar. 1965.
79 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 53-6.
80 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 27 Jan. 1960; Archit. Rev. cxxi. 48; L.C.C. Ceremonial Pamphlets, 16 Feb. 1961.
81 Below, tech. educ.
82 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 12; P.R.O., ED 14/8.
83 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 7 Oct. 1959; 20 July 1960; inf. from head teacher.
84 Old O.S. Map Lond. 41 (1870); G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 91-2.
85 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 12; P.R.O., ED 14/8.
86 I.L.E.A. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 10 Feb., 13 Apr. 1976; inf. from head teacher.
87 P.R.O., ED 14/8; G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 11.
88 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
89 Ibid.
90 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 30 July 1873.
91 Pevsner, Lond. ii. 167.
92 Based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 258-9; Lysons, Environs, ii. 512-13; ibid. Suppl. 173; H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 348, 353 et seq.
93 G.L.R.O., M79/LH/19, pp. 114-15.
94 Ibid. P79/JNI/282-3.
95 Below, technical educ.
96 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of elem. schs. 1903), p. 8; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1902).
97 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 12.
98 Inf. from head teacher; Tower to Tower Block, no. 54.
99 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
1 Inf. from Hackney educ. directorate.
2 Ibid. ED 14/8.
3 Tower to Tower Block, no. 41.
4 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 12.
5 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 4 July 1951.
6 Ibid. 22 Jan. 1958.
7 Based on G. Alderman, Hist. Hackney Downs Sch. (1972).
8 Who's Who, 1992, 1476
9 Based J. Baldry, Free Schs. passim; Nat. Soc. files.
10 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/70/18 (char. schs. min. bk).
11 Above, plate 61; 2nd Rep. Com. Educ. of Poor, 94. Many annual attendance nos. 1802-47 are in H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 349-95 (notices of sermons).
12 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
13 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861).
14 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of schs. 1903), p. 8.
15 Mander, St. John-at-Hackney, 50.
16 Based on E. H. Green, Hist. New Gravel Pit Ch. Sun. Sch. (1913), 3-6.
17 P.R.O., ED 14/8.
18 Based on S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 26 July, 11 Oct. 1871.
19 Below, tech. educ.
20 Inf. from head teacher.
21 Based on P.R.O., ED 7/75; Endowed Chars. Lond. I, 260-1.
22 Bp. of Lond.'s Fund made grant not towards sch. but towards 'mission bldgs.' where day sch. might be held: Nat. Soc. files.
23 17th Rep. Brit. and Foreign Sch. Soc. (May 1822), 69, 134; 19th Rep. (May 1824), 54.
24 20th Rep. (May 1825), 49.
25 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
26 Ibid. ED 4/37.
27 T. H. Simms, Homerton Coll. 1695-1978 (1979), 21-2.
28 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 11 Oct. 1871.
29 P.R.O., ED 4/36.
30 Ibid. ED 14/8; Simms, Homerton Coll. 89.
31 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 91-2.
32 Above, prot. nonconf. (Meths.).
33 Based on G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 11.
34 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
35 Inf. from head teacher.
36 Based on Ragged Sch. Union Mag. ix. 74-8.
37 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 219.
38 Ragged Sch. Union Mag. ii. 233.
39 Ibid. xiii. 72.
40 Ibid. xviii. 96.
41 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 10 July, 10 Oct. 1872.
42 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 6 May 1953.
43 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. (1872-3), 754.
44 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (list of schs. 1899), 48.
45 Inf. from head teacher.
46 H.A.D., H/LD 7/16.
47 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 9 May 1951.
48 Inf. from Skinners' Co., schools clerk.
49 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903), p. 11.
50 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
51 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 7 Oct. 1959.
52 2nd Rep. Com. Educ. of Poor, 96-7; H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 116, 449.
53 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
54 Ibid. Many annual attendance nos. 1822-41 are in H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 428-49 (notices of sermons).
55 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861). Presumably the 'first-class day sch. for young gentlemen' advertised in Hackney Gaz. 2 Jan. 1875, 4.
56 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of schs. 1903), p. 8.
57 Baldry, Hackney Free Schs. 82.
58 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 9 May 1951.
59 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 91-2; Nat. Soc. files.
60 Based on Endowed Chars. Lond. I, 258-60; Nat. Soc. files.
61 Hackney Gaz. 8 May 1875, 3.
62 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 18 Apr., 2 May 1877.
63 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
64 Kelly's Dir. Hackney (1890); below, private schs.
65 Rec. in G.L.R.O., P79/JSG/119-52.
66 Nat. Soc. files.
67 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
68 Ibid. ED 14/8.
69 H.A.D., H/LD 7/24 (cutting); Nat. Soc. files (inspector's rep. 1983).
70 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
71 I.L.E.A. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 15 Dec. 1965; 7 Feb. 1968.
72 Based on L. E. Shelford, Twenty Years of St. Mat.'s (1886), 1, 4-5.
73 G.L.R.O., P79/MTW/17/1/
74 Nat. Soc. files.
75 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
76 H. L. Kingsford, Short Acct. of St. Thos.'s Ch. (1913), 78.
77 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
78 Ibid. Many annual attendance nos. 1833-43 are in H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, pp. 124-33 (notices of accts.).
79 P.R.O., ED 14/8.
80 Ibid. ED 7/75.
81 Ibid. Ed 14/8.
82 Kingsford, St. Thos.'s Ch. 78.
83 Educ. of Poor Digest, 546.
84 Educ. Enq. Abstract, 562.
85 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 245.
86 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 9 Aug., 11 Oct. 1871.
87 Based on G.L.R.O., EO/PS/12/NP S304/1.
88 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1932).
89 H.A.D., D/5/34/1-5; Ragged Sch. Union Mag. i. 134; ii. 233.
90 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 2 Oct. 1872.
91 Inf. from headmistress.
92 Tower to Tower Block, no. 43; G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of schs. 1903), p. 7.
93 List of Bldgs. (1975).
94 L.C.C. Lond. Statistics, xxvi. 259.
95 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 4 July 1951.
96 Ibid. 17 July 1957, 22 Jan. 1958.
97 Based on Nat. Soc. files, inc. hist. of sch. from Lond. Dioc. Mag. Apr. 1895; G.L.R.O., P79/JNJ/314-400.
98 Lysons, Environs, Suppl. 174; 2nd Rep. Nat. Soc. (1814), 45.
99 Nat. Soc. nos. of 18 I and 88 I may refer to schs. in Goring and Well streets: above, s.v. Ada Street.
1 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, p. 30.
2 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861).
3 G.L.R.O., note in index to rec. of ch.
4 H.A.D., H/LD 7/24.
5 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. (1872-3), 754.
6 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
7 S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 10 Apr., 1, 29 May 1872.
8 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of temp. schs. 1903).
9 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 10 Mar. 1948.
10 Based on Endowed Chars. Lond. I, 156-7, 183-8.
11 The statement that sch. was behind chapel perhaps refers to years before 1811: Clarke, Hackney, 185, 298.
12 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 248.
13 P.R.O., ED 7/75.
14 Para. based on Nat. Soc. files.
15 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, p. 319 (5th ann. rep., 1835).
16 Educ. Enq. Abstract, 562.
17 Datestone.
18 Para. based on L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909-10 and later edns.).
19 Final Rep. of S.B.L. 1870-1904, 182.
20 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of elem. schs. 1903), p. 8.
21 Above, pub. svces.
22 Inf. on the schs. listed below is from L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. and L.C.C. (I.L.E.A. from 1965) Educ. Svce. Inf. Except where otherwise stated, schs. are for mixed day pupils.
23 G.L.R.O., EO/PS/12/SP/28/1. Wrongly listed as for the deaf in ibid. SBL 1527 (return of elem. schs. 1903), p. 8.
24 Officially opened 1969: inf. from head teacher.
25 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of schs. 1899), p. 48.
26 Ibid. EO/PS/12/SP/54/1; L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1928-9).
27 Archit. of Lond. 376; inf. from head teacher.
28 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (return of schs. 1899), p. 48; above, pub. schs.
29 Ibid. (return of elem. schs. 1903), p. 8.
30 Ibid.
31 Ibid.
32 Inf. from head teacher.
33 Final Rep. of S.B.L. 1870-1904, 252-4.
34 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, p. 113.
35 Ragged Sch. Union Mag. vi. 240; above.
36 Nat. Soc. files.
37 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 90-2, 98-9.
38 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909-10), 195, 204, 209, 214.
39 H.A.D., H/LD 7/16: nos. inc. Bailey's Lane, Tottenham, but not Maidstone Rd., Haggerston.
40 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909-10), 222, 228-9, 259.
41 P.O. Lond. Suburban Dir. (1860 and later edns.); S.B.L. Mins. of Procs. 11 Oct. 1871.
42 Kelly's Dir. Hackney (1894-5); above, pub. schs.
43 H.A.D., H/LD 7/1; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1904).
44 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. of Procs. 13 Oct., 10 Nov. 1909.
45 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1900-10).
46 H.A.D., H/LD 7/1.
47 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. of Procs. 13 Oct., 10 Nov. 1909.
48 Ibid. 25 July 1928.
49 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 3 Dec. 1947.
50 Inf. from senior librarian, Hackney Coll.
51 Ibid. For Brooke Ho., above, pub. schs.
52 H.A.D., D/F/BAG/2, pp. 37-54; Terrier, Oct. 1987; L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909-10), 259.
53 Para. based on L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Parties.(1930-1 and later edns.); I.L.E.A. Green Bk. (1978 and later edhs.).
54 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 28 Apr. 1948.
55 Cordwainers' Tech. Coll. Prospectus (1928-9).
56 L.C.C. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 21 June 1939; 7 Feb. 1945.
57 Cordwainers' Coll. Prospectus (1990-1); inf. from viceprincipal.
58 D. Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood at Sch. (1929), 211.
59 Ret. of Strangers in Metropolis (Huguenot Soc. of Lond. quarto ser. lvii), 334.
60 Vestry mins. 18 Apr. 1630; 5 July 1631.
61 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1637, 422.
62 Diary of Sam. Pepys, ed. Latham, v. 132.
63 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 251.
64 D.N.B.
65 Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood, 211; Foster Watson, Dict. of Educ. ii (1921), 712.
66 Vestry mins. 1 Oct. 1671; P.R.O., C 78/719/7.
67 G.L.R.O., M93/2, p. 121; ibid. MR/TH/4, m. 3.
68 P.R.O., PROB 11/340, f. 114.
69 G.L.R.O., M79/G/3, p. 169.
70 H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, p. 106; Lost Hackney, 64; below, this section.
71 Vestry mins. 15 July 1649.
72 Robinson, Hackney, i. 96-7, 212 n.; above, Hackney village.
73 G.L.R.O., MR/TH/3, m. 2; MR/TH/34.
74 Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood, 212.
75 G.L.R.O., MR/TH/3, m. 2; MR/TH/34.
76 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40, p. 209. The land was close to the Templars' ho., which was held of Kingshold.
77 P.R.O., PROB 11/351, f. 104.
78 Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood, 212-14; Robinson, Hackney, i. 212-20; J. Batchiler, The Virgin's Pattern: Life of Susanna Perwich (1661), epistle dedicatory, pp. 2, 7, 21, 34, 41.
79 Autobiog. of Jos. Lister, ed. T. Wright (1842), 32.
80 D.N.B.; Europa Biog. Dict. of Eng. Women (1983), 430.
81 Vestry mins. 8 Apr. 1661; 26 Nov. 1671; Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. iv. 61.
82 Diary of Sam. Pepys, ed. Latham, viii. 174; Jnl. of Wm. Schellinks (Camd. 5th ser. i), 59.
83 Diary of Ralph Josselin (Camd. 3rd ser. xv), 167.
84 Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood, 214, 167.
85 Vestry mins. 9 May 1686.
86 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1684-5, 303.
87 D.N.B.
88 M. McDonnell, Reg. of St. Paul's Sch. 1509-1748 (1977), 418; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, p. 106; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 243.
89 Vestry mins. 22 Apr. 1690.
90 Gardiner, Eng. Girlhood, 220; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 252; J. Aubrey, Miscellanies (1857), 219.
91 Complete Works of Thos. Shadwell, ed. M. Summers, i (1927), 247.
92 W. Wycherley, Gentleman Dancing-Master, I. i. 86.
93 Vestry mins. 11 Mar. 1686.
94 Ibid. 28 Dec. 1686; 14 Sept. 1689.
95 J. Houghton, Colln. for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade [weekly newsheet], v, no. 104.
96 Ibid. v, no. 112. Schs. were not listed after vol. v, no. 169 (25 Oct. 1695).
97 McDonnell, Reg. of St. Paul's, 419; D.N.B.
98 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 252.
99 Ibid. i. 246; Watson, Gentlemen, 110; above, manors (Norris). It is not certain that he moved his sch. there, as in D.N.B.
1 Above, prot. nonconf.
2 N. Hans, New Trends in Educ. in 18th Cent. (1951), 70.
3 McDonnell, Reg. of St. Paul's, 362-3; Diary of Dudley Ryder, ed. Matthews, 180.
4 D.N.B.; Lysons, Environs, ii. 477.
5 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 244; below, this section.
6 Hist. Parl., Commons, 1754-90, ii. 201, 203, 206.
7 Ibid. iii. 675, 678-9, 681; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, pp. 116-23 (list of pupils, from programmes and adverts.).
8 H.A.D., D/F/TYS 70/14, p. 13 ('Plays performed at Dr. Newcome's sch.').
9 Lysons, Environs, ii. 477.
10 H.A.D., D/F/TYS 70/14, p. 79.
11 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, pp. 71, 117, 127; 7/3, p. 53.
12 Ibid. 7/2, p. 14; D.N.B. s.v. Fitzroy, Augustus.
13 H.A.D., D/F/TYS 70/14, p. 13.
14 Ibid. H/LD 7/3, p. 41.
15 Ibid. D/F/TYS 70/14, p. 87.
16 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, p. 22.
17 Ibid. pp. 33, 73, 107, passim; H.A.D., 900.2, passim.
18 Ibid. D/F/TYS 70/14, p. 26.
19 Hans, Trends in Educ. 72.
20 G.L.R.O., M79/LH/13, pp. 263-5.
21 Ibid. 15, pp. 22-3; Alum. Cantab. to 1751, iii. 246.
22 Horace Walpole's Corresp. ed. W. S. Lewis (1937), i. 315; ii. 265.
23 S. Lane-Poole, Life of Stratford Canning (1888), i. 9- 10; D.N.B.
24 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, p. 29.
25 Hans, Trends in Educ. 71.
26 Lysons, Environs, Suppl. 168.
27 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, pp. 171, 186; Hans, Trends in Educ. 75.
28 Lane-Pole, Stratford Canning, i. 10-11; Lost Hackney, 64-5; above, plate 60.
29 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, p. 186.
30 Above, pub. svces.
31 Diary of Dudley Ryder, 81-2, 84, 102, 151; Stow, Survey (1720), app. 1, p. 123; vestry mins. 12 Apr. 1726.
32 H.A.D., M 158(b).
33 Ibid. 900.2, p. 24.
34 Lysons, Environs, ii. 459.
35 H.A.D., 900.2, pp. 21-2.
36 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, pp. 77, 82.
37 Vestry mins. 10 Apr. 1787.
38 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, p. 103.
39 Ibid. p. 285; ibid. 7/6.
40 Ibid. 7/2, p. 2b.
41 Vestry mins. 27 Feb. 1738.
42 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, pp. 33, 285.
43 D.N.B.
44 H.A.D., 900.2, p. 14.
45 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, pp. 55, 82.
46 Ibid. pp. 103, 105, 109, 121; Watson, Gentlemen, 110.
47 H.A.D., 900.2, p. 24.
48 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, pp. 103, 107.
49 Ibid. p. 109.
50 Clarke, Hackney, illus. facing p. 32.
51 E. Lond. Papers, iv. 63.
52 H.A.D., 900.2, p. 31.
53 Ibid. H/LD 7/2, p. 161.
54 Pigot, Com. Dir. (1826-7).
55 Ibid. (1832-4) listing Hackney, Homerton, Dalston, Kingsland, and Shacklewell under Lond., Clapton and Stoke Newington, inc. Stamford Hill, under Mdx.
56 Pigot's Lond. Dir. (1838).
57 Ibid.; below (Hackney Proprietary grammar sch. and Hackney Ch. of Eng. grammar sch.).
58 Hackney Dir. (1849); the no. excludes schs. in Stoke Newington, listed under Hackney.
59 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, p. 148; Watson, Gentlemen, 111; Pigot, Com. Dir. (1832-4). Pickbourne in 1790 had been a tenant of H. H. Norris: H.A.D., D/F/NOR/2111.
60 Watson, Gentlemen, 111; F. S. de Carteret-Bisson, Our Schs and Colleges. (1879), 694.
61 Hackney Dir. (1849); Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861).
62 Green's Hackney Dir. (1869-70); Bisson, Schs. (1872), 261; (1879), 694.
63 H.A.D., D/F/BAG/5, pp. 26-7.
64 Ibid. pp. 50-2; D/F/BAG/ 13A; Pigot, Com. Dir. (1826-7); Pigot's Com. Dir. Lond. (1832-4); Pigot's Lond. Dir. (1838); E. Lond. Papers, iv. 69; above, plate 59.
65 Sutton Ho. Guide, 3; V. Lytton, Life of Edw. Bulwer, Ld. Lytton, i (1913), 49-50; D.N.B.
66 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, p. 171.
67 Pigot, Com. Dir. (1826-7); Pigot's Lond. Dir. (1938); Terrier, July 1987; Clarke, Hackney, 195.
68 Depicted on a cup in Vestry Ho. mus., Walthamstow; inf. from Mr. D. Mander.
69 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 246.
70 Clarke, Hackney, 35.
71 Bisson, Schs. (1879), 694.
72 Clarke, Hackney, 35.
73 Ibid.; D.N.B.
74 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861); Green's Hackney Dir. (1869-70).
75 Bisson, Schs. (1879), 694.
76 Clarke, Hackney, 34 n.
77 Following 2 paras. based on E. Lond. Papers, iv. 64-7; Clarke, Hackney, pp. xiv, 132-4, 205, and n.; Hackney Photos. i. 150.
78 S. Curtis, Strictures on Hackney Grammar Sch. (1831), answered by S. Roper, More Words in Defence of Hackney Grammar Sch. (1831).
79 Attacked in Hackney Mag. Feb. 1834, 51.
80 Pevsner, Lond. ii. 168.
81 Lost Hackney, 68-9; above, plate 44.
82 H.A.D., H/LD 7/2, pp. 215, 221; 7/3, p. 123.
83 D.N.B.
84 H.A.D., D/F/TYS/16, p. 326; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862-5 edn.), sheet 7; Bisson, Schs. (1879), p. 693.
85 Lost Hackney, 72.
86 H.A.D., H/LD 7/11 (prospectus); illus. in H.A.D., P 12047-8.
87 P.O. Dir. Six Home Counties (1845); inf. from H.A.D.; above, manors (Wick).
88 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861).
89 Green's Hackney Dir. (1869-70).
90 Ibid. (advert.).
91 Clarke, Hackney, 197 and n.; E. M. P. Williams, The Quest Goes On (1951), 3, 6-8; R. Hughes, St. John's Foundation Sch. 1851-72 (1987), 59-60; D.N.B.
92 Above, pub. schs.
93 Bisson, Schs. (1872), 260-2; (1879), 693, 695; P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1898).
94 Bisson, Schs. (1872), 260; (1879), 693.
95 Ibid. (1872), 260; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, pp. 86-9; Terrier, Spring 1993.
96 Bisson, Schs. (1884), 533-5; H.A.D., H/LD 7/24; adverts. in Hackney Gaz. 10 July 1869 and later edns.
97 Clarke, Hackney, 35.
98 F. Geffen, 'Educ. in Hackney 1616 to 1901' (Brentwood trg. coll. thesis, 1963, in H.A.D.), 69-72.
99 Bisson, Schs. (1884), 527; E. Lond. Papers, iv. 72-3.
1 Below, this section.
2 Official Year Bk. of Ch. of Eng. (1892).
3 Bisson, Schs. (1884), 527; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1934).
4 Crockford's Scholastic Dir. (1861); above, tech. educ.
5 Kelly's Dir. Hackney (1887).
6 P.R.O., ED 14/8.
7 Kelly's Dir. Hackney (1887, 1893-4).
8 Para. based on inf. from the schools clerk, Skinners' Co.
9 A. Fox, Brief Description of Co. of Skinners (1968).
10 Ibid.; The Times, 27 Nov. 1890, 3f; P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1898).
11 Above, pub. schs.
12 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1898).
13 Ibid.; Hackney Photos. i. 151.
14 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs (1930).
15 Ibid. North (1898); H.A.D., H/LD 7/1 (advert.); P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs (1914, 1930); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1941, 1942).
16 H.A.D., D/F/BAG/1, p. 69; Kelly's Dir. Stoke Newington and Clapton (1909-10 and later edns.); Hackney Photos. ii. 55; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1959).
17 P.O. Dirs. Lond.; above, pub. schs. (Hackney Downs).
18 Para. based on inf. from Sister Mary John, headmistress.
19 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs (1914).
20 Catholic Dir. (1931).
21 Two paras. based on P.O. Dir. Lond. (1914 and later edns); Jewish Year Bk. (1910 and later edns).
22 Bernstein, Stamford Hill and the Jews, 20; above, Judaism.
23 Hackney, Official Guide [1935], advert.
24 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 218, 223.
25 Jewish Chron. Colour Mag. 27 May 1977.
26 Inf. from dir. of educ., Lubavitch Foundation.
27 Alderman, Lond. Jewry and Lond. Politics, 127-8, 176 n.; above, pub. schs.