Bethnal Green
Education

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Victoria County History

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T.F.T. Baker (Editor)

Year published

1998

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242-260

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'Bethnal Green: Education', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 242-260. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22767 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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EDUCATION

Thomas Parmiter in his will proved 1682 (fn. 79) hoped that St. George's chapel could be obtained as a schoolhouse for the poor of Bethnal Green. (fn. 80) It was, however, apparently used only for the dissenting academy at Bishop's Hall (fn. 81) and the first public school was Parmiter's, built in St. John Street in 1722. In 1765, when Parmiter's was educating 30 boys, a parochial charity school was founded for 30 girls. By c. 1800 the two schools taught c. 130 children.

Sunday schools, which taught reading and sometimes writing, were associated with the spread of Dissent from the early 19th century. Some of the earliest, although unrecorded, may have been opened by the Christian Community. (fn. 82) The Sunday School Union was founded in 1803 (fn. 83) and Friar's Mount, allegedly the first Methodist Sunday school in London, may have opened in 1802; (fn. 84) the Sunday School Tract Society was instituted there in 1806. (fn. 85) William Hale in 1806 observed that several Sunday schools had been lately established around Spitalfields, with a pleasing effect on morals. (fn. 86) By 1810 Bethnal Green possessed a large Sunday school attended by several hundred children, three Methodist Sunday schools at their respective chapels attended by 200, a Sunday school belonging to Protestant dissenters attended by 40, and a charity school for 10 children also belonging to Protestant dissenters. (fn. 87) Other Sunday schools included the Poor Child's, opened for c. 80–100 children by John Mandeno in a garden shed in 1812, (fn. 88) and one associated with Independents, opened soon afterwards in Virginia Row. In 1814 Henry Althans moved to Bethnal Green where he founded the East London Auxiliary to the Sunday School Union and became involved in several nonconformist Sunday schools. (fn. 89)

The London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, an Anglican body, included schools among its new institutions in Bethnal Green in 1813, although it was not listed by the rector in 1816. (fn. 90) He recorded two schools 'under the Establishment', Parmiter's and the Parochial charity school, the workhouse, where a pauper schoolmaster taught the children to read but the education was 'very bad', and Spitalfields British school in Spicer Street which, although beyond the boundary, taught some Bethnal Green children. (fn. 91) There were no Anglican Sunday schools but Methodist and dissenters' Sunday schools were attended by some Anglicans. A total of 2,535 children were receiving some education in 1816, 130 of them at the two day schools and the others at 11 Sunday schools, two of them Methodist (Friar's Mount and Middlesex) and the rest also dissenters'. Three of the schools were connected with Congregational chapels (Virginia Row, Bethnal Green, and Gibraltar) and Wilmot Square and Mandeno's were precursors of the largely Congregational Abbey Sunday school. There were two Sunday schools in Globefields, one of them connected with the Calvinist minister George Evans. The Revd. William Shenton opened a nonconformist Sunday school at no. 3 Darling Place between 1804 and 1816. The last Sunday school, for girls only, was in Church Street. (fn. 92) By 1818 (fn. 93) there were 9 Methodist Sunday schools with 2,600 children, two endowed (charity) schools with 120, and three unendowed day schools with 135 (the London Orphan asylum, the Jews' chapel, and Mr. Kello's). (fn. 94)

The Society for the Education of the Poor of Bethnal Green in the principles of the Established Church was formed at a vestry chaired by the rector in 1818. Appealing for funds, it blamed lack of education for the 'demoralization of the lower orders', the profanation of Sunday, and the 'tumultuous assemblies' of young people. (fn. 95) As a result the first National school, St. Matthew's, opened in 1819.

The British and Foreign Schools Society, founded in 1808, opened an important school in Spitalfields in 1812 but in 1816 it was only half full because parents could not afford 1d. a week and children were set to work in silk manufacturing when very young. (fn. 96) Sunday schools therefore had a major role but they, too, were constantly in difficulties. Some of the early Methodist Sunday schools could pay neither rent nor the interest on loans and many schools closed. The Sunday School Tract Society lapsed, to be refounded in 1821 under the patronage of T. F. Buxton. (fn. 97) In 1833 (fn. 98) no Sunday schools were recorded for the Methodists; there were three Church of England (Friar's Mount, the Episcopal Jews' chapel, and one started in 1829), two Independent, one Calvinist, and one Protestant dissenters'. Of the combined day and Sunday schools, two were departments of St. Matthew's National School and three were Lancasterian (probably Hackney Road, Twig Folly, and Abbey). Thirty schools were listed, (fn. 99) attended by 5,612; two thirds of schooling took place on Sundays. The total number of educated children was smaller, since, for example, Twig Folly district day pupils usually also attended on Sunday. In Twig Folly c. 45 per cent received some education at the British school, a small infants' school, three or four private day schools, and five or six dame schools. (fn. 1)

The British and Foreign Schools Society, which had one school in Bethnal Green (Hackney Road) from 1819, opened several during the 1830s and 1840s. In 1835 an attempt 'to preempt the dissenters' and open a second National school, connected with St. John's church (opened in 1828), was frustrated by the controversy between the rector and Joseph Merceron. (fn. 2) The situation was transformed by Bishop Blomfield's decision to found 10 district churches, each with its own National school. By 1843 (fn. 3) eight National schools provided 2,463 day-school places, attended by 1,780 children, and two Church infants' schools provided another 138 places, attended by 90, in addition to the 170 places, all filled, provided by the older Anglican charity schools. The list omitted St. Bartholomew's National, which was being built, and the Episcopal Jews' school, which included children from outside the parish. Five British schools provided 1,659 places attended by 1,327 children and three other infants' schools provided 375 places, attended by 320. Of c. 14,000 children aged 5–14 in Bethnal Green, 4,820 received daily instruction, the rest presumably being taught in dame schools of which there were 2,109 in the combined districts of Bethnal Green and Spitalfields. There were 23 Sunday schools teaching 5,167 children in the same area. By 1846 ten parishes had National schools, mostly both as day and Sunday schools and, together with infants' and charity schools, Church schools in Bethnal Green were attended by 4,812 pupils. (fn. 4) At the end of the 1850s William Cotton reported a school in every parish save one (probably St. James the Less), where the incumbent would not allow schools to be built lest they entail him in expense. (fn. 5)

The pence placed National and British schools beyond the reach of many. The incumbent of St. Bartholomew's explained in 1853 that, besides the National school, there was an infants' school attended long after infancy by the children of hawkers, labourers, and costermongers because it charged half as much, and a free ragged school for the children of casual labourers. (fn. 6)

As the Methodist Sunday school movement declined, new organizations, which in part grew out of it, sought to serve the very poor. The London City Mission, founded in 1835, (fn. 7) opened schools largely run by missioners and voluntary teachers. Most of them joined the Ragged School Union which was established in 1844. (fn. 8) They were often part of a group including place of worship, mission, day, Sunday, and infants' schools, and social centre, the schools themselves receiving grants from the British and Foreign Schools Society, the Ragged School Union, and the London City Mission. Abbey Street, one of the largest British schools, also supported Sunday schools, evening classes, a library, and a reading room. Under the patronage of Charles Buxton, by 1857 it had more than 12 separate educational agencies with more than 6,000 registered pupils. (fn. 9)

In 1851 there were 3,519 Sunday attendances at nonconformist, mainly Congregational, chapels and Sunday schools and 3,236 at Anglican churches. (fn. 10) Some 6,000 children were taught in Anglican, mainly National, schools and Sunday schools by 1858. (fn. 11)

By 1871 when the school board for London assumed responsibility for public education, all 15 parishes had National Schools with a total day roll of 5,655 and average attendance of 4,383. There were seven British schools with a total day roll of 8,522 and average attendance of 6,668, the figures distorted by those for the Good Shepherd schools (6,442 and 4,961). One British school, Satchwell Street, was classified as private. (fn. 12) Five ragged schools had a total of 1,250 on the roll and an attendance of 922; a sixth, Cranbrook Street, was classified as private. Approach Road Wesleyan school and the private Christian Orphanage, Methodist Children's Home, and St. Matthias's nursery schools, with a combined roll of 285 and average attendance of 237, also had denominational links. There was one Roman Catholic public school (Parliament Street), opened in 1869, which had an average attendance of 263. The private St. Matthew's German and English school, with an average attendance of 39, had no apparent religious connexion. Surprisingly, in view of the area's strong radical atheist tradition, only Birkbeck school was avowedly non-Christian. A total of 16,644 children were enrolled and an average of 12,955 attended 36 schools. (fn. 13)

The board was leased two British schools, one ragged school, and one National school while erecting its own buildings. By 1887 there were 14 board schools, mostly standing out above the terraces, with accommodation for 16,537 children. Eight National schools accommodated 4,054 and three other schools, Approach Road Wesleyan, Bonner Road Children's Home, and Parliament Street Roman Catholic, accommodated 1,002. (fn. 14) The L.C.C.'s education committee in 1904 took over 20 board schools, accommodating 25,083. (fn. 15)

It maintained the National schools, the Wesleyan school, and the Roman Catholic school but the Children's Home refused its help and closed in 1913. As the population began to fall schools were reorganized and accommodation was reduced, although new schools were still built. By 1919 (fn. 16) the L.C.C. had 24 schools, including one former National and the Wesleyan school which it had taken over, and accommodation for 24,949; six Church of England schools could accommodate 2,796 and one Roman Catholic school 189. By 1932 (fn. 17) there were 22 council schools accommodating 19,033, six Church of England schools accommodating 2,585, and two Roman Catholic schools accommodating 493.

The only secondary school in 1904 was Parmiter's. (fn. 18) A central school, Morpeth Street, opened in 1910 and a second, Mansford Street, was created out of its senior department in 1911. Between 1927 and 1932 most council schools were reorganized into junior, senior, and infants' departments.

The closure of several older schools gave rise in 1933 to a Board of Education Scheme (fn. 19) grouping the educational portions of Greenwood's, Inman's, Robertson's, Jane Thomas's, and the Bread charities with the endowments of the Parochical school. Thirteen trustees, the rector and representatives of the L.C.C. and M. B., were to apply the income, then £350 a year, for the benefit of the remaining Church schools. The combinaton, entitled Bethnal Green Educational charities under a Charity Commission Scheme of 1978, (fn. 20) had an income of £3,659 in 1993. (fn. 21)

Despite heavy bomb damage and the evacuation of children, 22 schools accommodating c. 9,000 were open in 1944. (fn. 22) The London school plan of 1947 allowed for 18 council primary schools and six voluntary primary schools in Bethnal Green, which by 1951 had 15 council primary and four voluntary primary schools. The most radical proposals were for reorganizing secondary education on comprehensive lines. Nine schools, including two outside the borough, were to be combined in three newly built schools. New buildings were also planned for the voluntary Parmiter's and St. Jude's schools. In the event one school amalgamated with another outside the borough to create Bowbrook in 1956, although using the existing buildings, and two more amalgamated in 1959 to create Daneford comprehensive, which acquired new buildings in 1965. Bowbrook closed in 1975 and St. Jude's secondary school in 1977. Parmiter's moved out of the control of the I.L.E.A., the L.C.C.'s successor, in 1981. By 1988 four secondary and fifteen primary schools survived to serve the smaller population.

Under the Local Government Act, 1963, Bethnal Green became part of Division 5 of the I.L.E.A. (fn. 23) On the abolition of the I.L.E.A. in 1990 responsibility for education passed to Tower Hamlets L.B.

Public schools. (fn. 24)

Except where otherwise stated, basic historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been taken from: files on Church of England schools at the National Society; National Society, Inquiry, 1846–7, Mdx. 2–3; National Society, Annual Reps. (1820–44); British and Foreign Schools Society, Reps. (1812–82); Ragged School Union, Annual Reps. (1847–56); Ragged School Union Magazine (1849–70); P.R.O., ED 3/11; ED 7/74, 80; ED 14/8; Educ. Enq. Abstract, H.C. 62, pp. 85–86 (1835), xlii; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1846 [866], H.C. (1847), xlv; 1849 [1215], H.C. (1850), xliii; 1851–2 [1480], H.C. (1852), xl; 1856–7 [2237], H.C. (1857 Sess. 2), xxxiii; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1865–6 [3666], H.C. (1866), xxvii; 1870 [C. 406], H.C. (1871), xxii; 1887 [C. 547–1], H.C. (1888), xxxviii; 1893–4 [C. 7437–1], H.C. (1894), xxix; Schs. transferred to Sch. Bds. H.C. 253 (1875), lviii; Schs. receiving Bldg. Grants [Cd. 1336], H.C. (1902), lxxviii; Return of Non-Provided Schs. H.C. 178-XXXIII (1906), lxxxviii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908–38 (H.M.S.O.); L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Particulars (1909–10 and later edns.); L.C.C. (I.L.E.A. from 1965), Educ. Svce. Inf. (1937 and later edns.). Building alterations from Dist. Surveyors' Returns (G.L.R.O, MBW and AR/BA/4).

The following abbreviations are used: a.a., average attendance; accn., accommodation; amalg., amalgamation; B, boy, boys; Bapt., Baptist; bd., board; Brit., British; C.E., Church of England; Cong., Congregational; demol., demolished; dept., department; evg., evening; G, girl, girls; I, infant, infants; Ind., Independent; J, JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls, mixed; M, mixed; Meth., Methodist; mod., modern; Nat., National; parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C., Roman Catholic; reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S, SB, SG, SM, senior, senior boys, girls, mixed; S.B.L., School Board for London; sch., school; sec., secondary; Sun., Sunday; temp., temporarily, temporary; V., vicar; vol., voluntary; Wes., Wesleyan. The word 'school' is to be understood after each named entry. Separate departments are indicated by commas: B, G, I; JM, I.

Abbey, (fn. 25) Abbey Pl., Wilmot Sq., or Essex St. Sun. sch. built 1828 by Robt. Gammon of no. 7 Wilmot Sq. at end of gdn., bounded N. by Abbey Pl. and E. by narrow street called successively Mary's Row, John's Pl., Essex St., and Blythe St. Named after the ho., once known as the Abbey. (fn. 26) Connected with Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. by 1833, when supported by sch. pence and roll 120 B, but described as Nat. 1837. (fn. 27) Enlarged for 300 c. 1841 when leased to Gammon and other trustees for children of labouring classes, for sch. teacher, Sun. sch., or other charitable purposes connected with C.E. but links also with Inds. and Lond. City Mission. Absorbed Poor Child's Sun. sch. and used small adjoining ho. as I sch., where roll 1843 220 I. (fn. 28) Additions for older children c. 1856. Free evg. sch. for G under Gammon's successor. Renamed Essex St. 1867, Blythe St. 1871. One room used for Sun. and day sch., roll 1871: 51 B, 55 G; a.a. 41 B, 33 G, but mostly I; financed by sch. pence, instruction basic, 'books wretched'. Connexion with Lond. City Mission severed 1871 and replaced by supervision of Cong. ch. at Stamford Hill. Union with Satchwell St. Sun. sch. 1873 and Sun. classes later divided between Blythe St., Satchwell St., and Zion chapel. Lease expired 1878, when day sch. moved to Wolverley St. (q.v.). Sun. sch. used new bldg. in Mansford St. 1880–8, then moved to Abbey St. Sun. sch.

Abbey Street. (fn. 29)

Spitalfields and Bethnal Green Brit. Soc. built sch. on site between Abbey and Ramsey streets purchased 1838 and conveyed to trustees 1842. (fn. 30) Day sch. opened 1839 and Sun. sch. (successor of that associated with Virginia Ind. chapel) opened 1840. Rapid turnover of children although schs. 'well conducted'. Improvements 1843, 1851, 1857. (fn. 31) Day sch. a.a. 1840: 430 B, 160 G. a.a. 1857: 400 B, 205 G, 201 I. Model Sun. sch. visited by French statesman François Guizot, a.a. 1857: 600 and 32 teachers. (fn. 32) a.a. 1867: 721 and 50 teachers. Day sch. accn. for 373 B, 216 G, 206 I in 1871, when financed by parl. grant, sch. pence, and subscriptions. (fn. 33) Additions 1872. Accn. 1879: 979 B,G,I. a.a. 1882: 217 B, 205 G, 136 I. Day sch. transferred to S.B.L. 1883 and replaced Hague (q.v.). 1884. (fn. 34) Part of Sun. sch. united with Hope St. (Spitalfields) ragged sch. 1884, rest under cttee. becoming sole tenants of premises. Evg. Sun. sch. a.a. 1888: 375, with 22 teachers. By Char. Com. Order 1892 constituted a charity to advance educ. in Bethnal Green and Spitalfields by payments and exhibitions. (fn. 35) Site sold to S.B.L. 1894 (fn. 36) and proceeds invested. As Abbey St. Educ. Foundation, governed by Scheme 1913, made grants in 1993. (fn. 37)

Adelphi Chapel Brit., Gloucester St., Hackney Rd. Revd. W. Woodhouse persuaded by Althans to settle in Bethnal Green after visit to Abbey St. Sunday sch. (fn. 38) Missionary sch. with 30 pupils supplied with schoolroom, teachers, and funds from Woodhouse's new Adelphi chapel by 1849. (fn. 39) Three-storeyed sch. built 1853 as day and Sun. sch. although also used by chapel. (fn. 40) Financed by parl. grant and sch. pence, a.a. 1855: 204 B, 160 G. Enlarged 1868. (fn. 41) Roll 1871: 289 B, 283 G. Subsequently Sun. sch. only. (fn. 42)

Albion, No. 7 George St., Old Bethnal Green Rd. Day and Sun. sch. opened by Lond. City Mission 1863, a.a. 30 weekday: 45 Sun. (fn. 43) Free night sch. in room also used for Sun. sch. and worship 1871, when roll 18 B, 17 G.

Anchor Ragged, No. 22 Sclater St. Opened 1849 by Lond. City Mission in large ho. in Anchor (later Sclater) St. rented at nominal sum from Eastern Counties Rly. (fn. 44) Accn. 1850: 180; roll: 60 Sun. a.m. and p.m., 112 Sun. evg., 65 B, 60 G, 7 adults weekday evg., with 10 vol. teachers and 1 paid teacher. Roll 1856: 86 B, 91 G, 43 I. Scheme to extend premises 1858 apparently unsuccessful and Sun. evg. sch. closed 1866. Room for I beneath room for 'juvenals', itself beneath room for svces., the whole dilapidated 1871. Most children aged under 9 and many left to enter match trade; roll 1871: 69 B, 41 G day, 36 B, 21 G, evg. Probably soon closed.

Ann's Place Brit. Opened by 1839 in room and probably built as day and Sun. sch. for I by Bapts. E. of Pritchard's Rd. (fn. 45) Improvements 1845. Financed by parl. grants and sch. pence 1871, when accn. 181 I, roll 85 I. 'Inefficient in instruction' when S.B.L. leased it and replaced day sch. by Pritchard's Road (q.v.). Continued as Sun. sch. (fn. 46) under Char. Com. Scheme 1909. (fn. 47)

Approach Road Temporary, Victoria Pk. Opened 1859 as Approach Rd. Wes. in bldg. attached to chapel at corner of Approach and Bonner rds. Accn. 1871: 333 B & G on first floor, 191 I on ground floor; roll 139 B, 45 G, 104 I. Financed by parl. grant, collections, subscriptions, and sch. pence. Accn. reduced 1907 and 1908 to 156 M, 100 I. a.a. 1906–7: 170 M, 75 I. Transferred to S.B.L. 1913 and closed 1927.

Approach Road Wes., see Approach Road temp.

Bacon Street Ragged, see St. Philip's ragged.

Barnet Street Bd., see Columbia primary.

Bethnal Green Chapel Brit. Kello, minister of Cong. chapel at corner of Cambridge Rd. and Bath St., had sch. for 12 G 1818. (fn. 48) Roll 1833: 30 G, of whom 12 clothed and educ. by subscription, rest paid sch. pence. Sch. behind chapel built or rebuilt c. 1835 when grant made towards new sch. for 250; (fn. 49) a.a. 1840: 84 G; 1846: 132 G. Closed and conveyed to Birkbeck schs. 1849, when new Cong. chap. opened at junction of Bethnal Green Rd. and Pott St. with sch. for 400 I underneath; (fn. 50) a.a. 1857: 220 I; 1861: 175 I. Connexion with Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. apparently severed 1862. Managed by cttee. associated with chapel and financed by sch. pence until 1870, when run as private sch. by mistress. Sch. 'wretched' 1871, when a.a. 89 I. S.B.L. agreed to hire premises 1872 but never opened. (fn. 51)

Bethnal Green Gospel Mission Ragged, 42– 43 Old Castle St. (later Virginia Rd.). Wm. Jarvis, evangelist, opened mission 1867 in large workshop at no. 43, inc. night sch. for adults, soon also attended by children and followed by free day sch. Also Sunday sch. with 100—150 children by 1869, when adjoining house leased and new room behind with accn. for 500 opened. Roll 1871: 260 B day, 40 B evg. Day sch., overcrowded and 'inefficient in instruction' closed 1871 (fn. 52) but used as temp. sch. by S.B.L. 1872–3. (fn. 53)

Birdcage Walk.

Received grant from Ragged Sch. Union 1849.

Birkbeck, Cambridge Rd. Opened 1849 in vacated Bethnal Green Chapel Brit. sch. and Cong. chapel at corner of Cambridge Rd. and Bath (later Birkbeck) St. (fn. 54) One of four schs. named after Geo. Birkbeck founded by City philanthropist Wm. Ellis for children of 'small tradesmen and others of moderate means', and particularly to improve character of educ. available. (fn. 55) Wide curriculum inc. natural sciences, algebra, mechanics, French, and book keeping; said by Anglican source 1853 to provide 'first rate intellectual education but where Bible is absolutely excluded'. (fn. 56) Site and bldgs. secured to trustees 1865. (fn. 57) Accn. 1871: 212 B, 85 G; a.a. 181 B, 82 G. Bldgs. then large and well fitted and instruction 'above average', although B discipline 'indifferent'. Sch. pence, already 6d.– 9d, increased when schs. raised to higher grade and after foundations by S.B.L. Schs. became too expensive and closed 1884. Premises sold under Char. Com. Order and sum invested for other Birkbeck schs. (fn. 58)

Blythe Street., see Abbey.

Bonner Lane bd., see Twig Folly Brit.

Bonner Primary.

Built as Bonner Street bd. on site of former Twig Folly Brit. G. sch. 1875 in Queen Anne style by Edw. Robt. Robson and John Jas. Stevenson. (fn. 59) Opened 1876 for 261 B, 261 G, 292 I on three floors. (fn. 60) Additions 1881. a.a. 1887: 728 B, G, I; 1906–7: 241 B, 237 G, 269 I. Alterations 1895, 1902, 1903. Remodelled 1914–15 for 240 B, 240 G, 279 I. (fn. 61) Reorg. 1930 for 479 JG, 270 I. (fn. 62) a.a. 1932: 378 JG, 217 I. After return from evacuation, roll 1944: 336 M & I. Reorg. for JM & I 1945 and renamed Bonner primary 1949. (fn. 63) Roll 1988: 371 JM & I. (fn. 64)

Bonner Road Children's Home, Victoria Pk. Moved from Lambeth, where founded by Thos. Bowman Stephenson, 1871, (fn. 65) when bldgs. rented by Wes. for orphanage and sch. Accn. 1871: 154 B & G; a.a. 33 B, 2 G. Sch. then 'inefficient in instruction' but improved by 1872 when larger premises built in Bonner Rd. behind private hos. New schoolrooms completed 1877, when application made to become pub. elementary sch. Parl. grant 1887. Accn. 1887: 239; a.a. 150. Alterations 1896 and enlargement 1902. Decided against transfer to L.C.C. 1905. (fn. 66) Accn. 1908: 319 M; a.a. 175 M. Closed 1913.

Bonner Street Bd., see Bonner primary.

Bowbrook Sec. Formed 1956 by amalg. of Cranbrook sec. with Bow sch., Wright's Rd. (Bow) as G. sch. providing general and commercial subjects and dressmaking. Upper sch. in Cranbrook bldgs. and lower in Wright's Rd. (fn. 67) Cranbrook bldgs. remodelled as annexe for art, needlework, and commercial subjects by 1971. (fn. 68) Closed 1975 and pupils moved to Central Foundation G sch. (Bow). (fn. 69)

Butler Street Brit. Opened 1840 for 160 G in hired rooms in Butler St., presumably off Green St. Probably replaced by Twig Folly schs. (q.v.).

Cambridge Heath, see Mowlem primary

Castle Street Brit., see Gascoigne Place Brit.

Castle Street Ragged. Lond. City Mission opened first Sun. then weekday ragged sch. in room at no. 1 Castle St. 1856. Roll 1857: weekday 60, Sun. 30 a.m., 70 p.m. with 6 vol. teachers and one paid teacher. a.a. by 1862: 80, Sun. 140, evg. (2 nights a week) 40. Assistance from Ragged Church and Chapel Union, Ragged Sch. Union, and Sun. Sch. Union. (fn. 70) Apparently closed between 1868 (fn. 71) and 1871. (fn. 72)

Children's Home, see Bonner Road Children's Home.

Chisenhale Primary, Victoria Pk. Opened by S.B.L. 1893 between Chisenhale, Vivian, and Auckland (later Zealand) rds. for 240 B, 240 G, 320 I. (fn. 73) Additions 1902 for 344 B, 288 G, 296 I. a.a. 1908: 273 B, 260 G, 352 I. Reorg. 1931 for 240 JB, 200 JG, 239 I. a.a. 1932: 239 JB, 203 JG, 205 I. Roll 1944: 240 M & I. (fn. 74) By 1951 JM & I, inc. nursery class. (fn. 75) Roll 1988: 267 JM & I. (fn. 76)

Christian Orphanage, Grove Rd., Victoria Pk. Founded by 1867 by Revd. Hen. Lance for children of cholera victims. Roll 1868: 20. (fn. 77) 23 G boarded, clothed, and taught free 1871, when supported by vol. contributions, but hired bldg. insufficient and closure expected.

Church Row Nat., see St. Matthew's Nat.

Claremont Street bd., see Teesdale primary.

Club Row, see Holy Trinity Nat.

Collingwood Street Ragged. Opened as Sun. sch. before 1832, (fn. 78) possibly when bldg. associated with Wes. erected 1821. (fn. 79) Ragged sch. in bldg. behind Shoreditch ch. belonging to Wes. Sun. Sch. cttee. by 1854, when roll 40 B, 40 G, weekday evg., 150 Sun. evg. with 11 vol. teachers. Roll 1871: 84 B, 116 G weekday, 59 B evg. Inspector found 54 small children crowded into two rooms and completely ignorant, teacher inefficient, and strong smell from factory. Subsequently run as ragged sch. by V. of St. Philip's. (fn. 80)

Columbia Market Mission, No. 15 Virginia Row. C.E. Sun. and evg. sch. for 'rough boys' aged 7–19 in home for 24 messengers and shoeblacks financed by Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Accn. 1871: 49, roll 150, a.a. 40–50.

Columbia Market Nursery, Columbia Rd. Site acquired by S.B.L. 1915 (fn. 81) and sch. for 150 opened 1930. After evacuation during war, reopened for children aged 2–5. (fn. 82) Roll 1975: 81. (fn. 83) Housed in new wooden hut by 1988. (fn. 84)

Columbia Primary, Columbia Rd. Opened 1875 as Barnet St. bd. between Barnet St. (later Columbia Rd.), Ravenscroft St., and James (later Ezra) St. (fn. 85) for 245 B, 237 G, 266 I. Enlarged 1879, 1881, and 1893. Renamed Columbia Rd. 1888. (fn. 86) Accn. 1908: 458 B, 458 G, 463 I; a.a. 415 B, 405 G, 437 I. Reorg. 1931 for 355 JB, 453 JG, 390 I, a.a. 339 JB, 337 JG, 338 I. Roll 1944: 600 M & I. Reorg. by 1951 as Columbia primary for JM, I. Roll 1988: 338. (fn. 87)

Cooper's Gardens Temp. Bd. Opened 1879 for 174 G & I in leased bldg. attached to cottages belonging to Baroness Burdett-Coutts. (fn. 88) I dept. closed 1883 and rest of sch. 1887, when a.a. 123 M. Children moved to New Castle St. bd. (fn. 89)

Cranbrook. Opened 1881 as Cranbrook Rd. bd. in bldg. by E. R. Robson for 480 B, 480 G, 638 I on 3 floors near canal in Twig Folly dist. a.a. 1887: 1,321 B, G, I. (fn. 90) Remodelled 1899. Accn. 1908: 261 B, 261 G, 314 I; a.a. 241 B, 237 G, 269 I. Reorg. 1930 for 388 SB, 389 SG, 373 I. a.a. 1932: 204 SB, 151 SG, 268 I. Renamed Cranbrook Terrace 1938. (fn. 91) Roll 1944: 572 M & I. (fn. 92) After war reorg. into Cranbrook primary with JM & I depts. and Cranbrook sec. for SB until 1951 and for SG until 1956. Primary sch. closed and sec. amalg. with Bow sch. to form Bowbrook sec. (q.v.) 1956. (fn. 93)

Cranbrook Sec., see Cranbrook.

Cranbrook Street Ragged. Opened by 1870 on rented first floor of no. 39 also used for worship and evg. sch. Managed by C.E. cttee. but sch. undenominational. Free sch., roll 1871: 74 B, 39 G; a.a. 70 B, 35 G. Praised for work but premises unsuitable and probably soon closed.

Cranbrook Terrace, see Cranbrook.

Cudworth Ragged. Opened 1859 by managers of North St. ragged schs. (q.v.) at junction of Cudworth St. with Burton (Collingwood) St. (fn. 94) in leased room over warehouse as day, Sun., and evg. sch. for 262 'children of the lowest class'. Teacher worked as shoemaker in evgs.; financed by vol. contributions and grants by Ragged Sch. Union and, from 1863, by Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. Day roll 1871: 105 B, 79 G; a.a. 88 B, 66 G. Closed after 1872.

Cumberland Place Ragged, see North St. ragged.

Daneford, Gosset St. Comprehensive M sch. formed 1959 by amalg. of Daniel sec. with Mansford. sec. Initially lower sch. in Daniel bldgs. and upper in Mansford. Daniel bd. sch. adapted and 3 blocks built 1961–5 to designs of Armstrong & MacManus. Opened 1965 as comprehensive sec. for 975 B. (fn. 95) Roll 1988: 554 B. (fn. 96)

Daniel Sec. Opened by S.B.L. 1900 in new bldgs. between Daniel, Gosset, and Orange (later Satchwell) streets. Accn. 1908: 353 B, 353 G, 378 I; a.a. 314 B, 315 G, 375 I. Reorg. 1931 for 422 SB, 422 SG, 438 I. a.a. 1932: 362 SB, 354 SG, 385 I. Roll 1944: 610 M & I. (fn. 97) After war reorg. as sec. sch. for SB, SG, from 1955 for SM. (fn. 98) Amalg. with Mansford sec. to form Daneford 1959.

Domestic Mission Brit., Spicer St. Chapel and sch. on N. side of street within Bethnal Green opened by Lond. Domestic Missionary Soc. 1837 and conveyed to trustees 1839. (fn. 99) Connected with Unitarians but undenominational. Roll 1843: 150. (fn. 1) Sun. sch. a.a. 1851: 775. (fn. 2) Brit. sch. by 1856. (fn. 3) Financed by parl. grant and sch. pence, described by V. of St. Matthias 1858 as large I sch. belonging to Unitarians. (fn. 4) Day sch. a.a. 1858: 60 G, 60 I. a.a. 1871: 123 B, 67 G, 108 I. (fn. 5) Accn. 1879: 372 B, G, I. Closed for B 1883, for G, I 1884. (fn. 6)

Ebenezer. I day sch., roll 1843: 105; a.a. 100. (fn. 7)

Episcopal Jews', Palestine Pl. Duke of Kent laid foundation stone for schs. and chapel for Lond. Soc. for Promoting Christianity among Jews 1813. (fn. 8) B sch., with salaried master and mistress, to N. of chapel and G sch., with salaried matron and mistress, to S. Children boarded, clothed, and financed by vol. contributions. B apprenticed at age of 14, G put out for svce. at 16. Roll 1819: 71 B & G. (fn. 9) Roll 1835: 35 B, 45 G. C.E. Sun. sch. started 1818 in bldg. to N. in Gloucester (later Parmiter) St., leased 1829 as I and adult sch. (fn. 10) Roll 1835: 220 B, 244 G. Roll 1846: week day 50 B, 50 G, 96 I, Sun. 45 B, 84 G. Alterations to G sch. 1878, to Gloucester St. sch. 1884. Accn. 1892: 100 B, G; a.a. 42 B, 25 G. Closed 1895. (fn. 11)

Essex Street, see Abbey.

Friar's Mount. (fn. 12) First Meth. Sun. sch. in Lond. opened 1802 in purpose-built, rented bldg. (fn. 13) Roll 1810: 294 B, 318 G, but 'great want of discipline'. Roll 1820: 388 B, 403 G. Closed 1820 by Meth. Sun. Sch. Soc. in protest at high rent and temp. transferred to ho. adjoining chapel in Church St., Spitalfields. Reopened 1821 by local Sun. sch. cttee., which tried to buy premises 1824, but probably closed as Meth. Sun. sch. 1829. Bldg. also housed sch. of industry run by cttee. of ladies and appointed mistress 1811–17. Also housed B day sch. from 1817, initially probably connected to Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. Roll 1835: 70 B, financed by subscriptions and school pence with salaried master. C.E. Sun. sch. had 324 B, 339 G, with 35 vol. teachers. Bldg. to be used for Anglican worship 1840 until new chs. built. (fn. 14) B day sch. apparently survived 1849. (fn. 15)

Friar's Mount Mission, No. 11 Little Bacon St., Brick Lane. Free evg. sch. with accn. for 49 G aged over 12 in room also used for C.E. mission svces. leased to Revd. W. Pennefather 1870. (fn. 16) Roll 1871: 30 G; a.a. 20.

Gascoigne Place Brit., Castle St. Built 1841 with parl. grant for 200 B, 200 G. Grants 1842, 1850, 1854, 1861, mostly for improvements, inc. new bldg. 1850. (fn. 17) Probably owned by Baroness Burdett-Coutts and also used for worship by Inds. 1854. (fn. 18) Financed by sch. pence. a.a. 1849: 170 B, 96 G. a.a. 1857: 167 B, 246 G. Bldg. demol. for Columbia Market developments 1872 and sch. moved to new bldg. in Church St., Mile End New Town. (fn. 19)

Globe Primary, Welwyn St. Built as Globe Terrace bd. 1874 for 342 B, 343 G, 415 I on 3 floors between Globe St. (Rd.), Gauber St., and Park (later Welwyn) St. Enlarged 1885 for additional 120 B, 120 G, 160 I. (fn. 20) a.a. 1887: 1,281 B, G, I. Remodelled 1900 and 1904 and renamed Globe Rd. 1911. Reorg. 1930 for 666 JB, 402 I. a.a. 1932: 437 JB, 294 I. Bombed in Second World War. Roll 1944: 480 M & I. (fn. 21) Reopened as Globe primary for JM & I, although briefly, c. 1951, called Pilgrim. (fn. 22) Roll 1988: 294 JM & I. (fn. 23)

Good Shepherd Brit. Opened 1866 for 120 M in Mape St. Ejected by Gt. Eastern Rly. and temp. used two cottages in Wilmot St. 1871, when roll 126 I, a.a. 117 I. Financed by sch. pence. New sch. for 400 I built with parl. grant at corner of Wilmot St. and Three Colts Lane 1871. S.B.L. hired premises until completion of its Wilmot sch. (q.v.) 1873. (fn. 24) Amalg. with Abbey St. 1894 as Good Shepherd and Abbey St. Sun. and ragged schs. which still flourished 1898. (fn. 25)

Gospel Mission Ragged, see Bethnal Green Gospel Mission ragged.

Greencoat, see Parochial Charity.

Grey Coat, see Parmiter's.

Hackney Road Brit. (fn. 26) Sun. sch. in Middlesex chapel adopted by Meth. Sun. Sch. Soc. 1812. Roll 1816: 110 B, 90 G. (fn. 27) Separate bldg. erected behind chapel 1817. Roll 1823: 119 B, 107 G. Brit. day sch. for G under auspices of N.E. Lond. Auxiliary opened in leased premises and partly financed by sch. pence. Roll 1820: 146 G. Chapel with Brit. sch. in rear conveyed 1827 to trustees, who purchased freehold 1840. (fn. 28) After 1824 day sch. became B sch. a.a. 1833: 240 B. a.a. 1840: 312 B. New day sch. built in Weymouth Terr. (Shoreditch) when chapel rebuilt 1841. Sun. sch. continued at chapel, a.a. 1851: 156 a.m., 50 p.m. (fn. 29)

Hackney Road (Providence Chapel). Sun. sch. formed part of Bapt. chapel built 1835 near Austin St. New schoolroom built 1844. (fn. 30) Roll 1851: 72 a.m. (fn. 31) Day sch. opened by 1860. Roll 1871: 119 B, taught wide range of subjects inc. book keeping. Sch., clean and with 'good tone', financed by sch. pence. Presumably Sun. sch. only by 1891, when large schoolroom and 10 classrooms for 1,500 belonged to Shoreditch Tabernacle as Providence chapel's successor. (fn. 32)

Hague primary. Opened 1883 as Hague St. bd. between Hague, Cross (later Kelsey), and Mapes streets for 360 B, 360 G, 469 I. (fn. 33) Free from 1891. Roll 1884: 949 B, G, I. (fn. 34) a.a. 1887: 876 B, G, I. a.a. 1908: 348 B, 308 G, 402 I. Reorg. 1930 for 440 SB, 330 I. a.a. 1932: 435 SB, 330 I. Roll 1944: 405 M & I. (fn. 35) After war reorg. as primary sch. for JM & I. Moved to former Wilmot sec. site probably c. 1965. Roll 1996: 226. (fn. 36) Hague bd. bldg. later housed Weavers' Field special sch. (q.v.).

Hare Street. Built c. 1821 at corner of Hare and Hereford streets by Spitalfields Sun. Sch. Subscription Soc. to educate children of labouring poor of Bethnal Green and Spitalfields in C.E., although associated during 1820s with Wes. Tract Soc. No formal link with Ragged Sch. Union, but trustees inc. Sam. Hoare, Buxton fam., and other supporters. (fn. 37) Possibly same as Hare St. day and I sch. for 80 children, supported by sch. pence and subscriptions and connected with Calvinists 1835. Housed Calvinist adult sch. 1838. (fn. 38) By 1851 schoolho. uninhabited but I schoolmistress, resident at no. 17 Hereford St., may have had some connexion with sch. (fn. 39)

Holy Trinity Nat., Club Row. Opened 1864 for I in ground floor room at junction with Anchor St. a.a. 1865: 42 I. Enlarged for 159 I by 1871 when day and Sun. schs. financed by parl. grant and sch. pence, evg. sch. free. Roll 1871: 123 I day, 61 I evg.; a.a. 82 I day, 37 I evg. (fn. 40) Taught natural hist., drawing, needlework, and drill besides basic subjects. Closed 1878 during road alterations. (fn. 41)

John Bartlett Primary, see Olga primary.

Lance's Christian Home For Orphan And Neglected Girls, see Christian Orphanage.

Lawdale Primary, Mansford St. Formed 1975 by amalg. of Lawrence primary with Teesdale primary JM in former Lawrence bldgs., I in new bldg. in Old Bethnal Green Rd. (fn. 42) Roll 1988: 253 JM, 256 I. (fn. 43)

Lawrence Primary, Mansford St. Opened 1883 as Mansford St. bd. for 420 B, 420 G, 560 I between Mansford St. on E. and Old Bethnal Green Rd. on N. (fn. 44) a.a. 1887: 1,076. Renamed Lawrence by 1905. (fn. 45) a.a. 1908: 338 B, 329 G, 391 I. Reorg. 1931 for 280 JB, 280 JG, 288 I. a.a. 1932: 227 JB, 221 JG, 239 I. Accn. 1940: 572 JB, 322 I. Roll 1944: 506 M & I. (fn. 46) After war reorg. for JB, I, with nursery class by 1964. Amalg. with Teesdale primary 1975 to form Lawdale primary (above).

London Orphan Asylum, Hackney Rd. Sch. existed by 1819, when roll 52 B & G, (fn. 47) although said in 1835 to have been established 1827 for I. a.a. 1835: 67 I. Supported by subscriptions and donations. Bldg., on S. side of rd. near James Pl., apparently housed Maritime Penitent Female Refuge by 1836. (fn. 48)

London Street (Mission). Existed by 1854 as North St. Rly. Arches ragged sch., with 3 paid and 24 vol. teachers for 35 B, 130 I in day sch., 95 B, 80 G on weekday evgs., and 189 on Sun. Named New North St. 1856 when 'for a number of years these schs. successful'. As London St. (Mission) (fn. 49) served as temp. S.B.L. sch. 1876–80 with accn. for 227 B, 184 G in 2 schoolrooms and 2 classrooms in leased bldg. Partly financed by sch. pence. (fn. 50) Replaced by Somerford St. bd. (fn. 51)

Mansford Sec. Opened 1896 as SM section of Mansford St. bd. between Mansford St. on W. and Old Bethnal Green Rd. on S. for 210 SB, 210 SG. (fn. 52) a.a. 1908: 319 SM. Reorg. as higher elem. sch. 1906 and as central sch. 1911. (fn. 53) a.a. 1932: 353 SM. After war reorg. as Mansford Sec. Commercial and Technical sch. for SB until amalg. with Daniel sec. to form Daneford (q.v.) 1959.

Mansford Street Bd., see Lawrence primary.

Mansford Street Central, see Mansford sec.

Mansford Street Sun., see Abbey.

Middlesex Chapel Sun., see Hackney Road Brit.

Morpeth Sec. Opened 1910 as Morpeth St. Central by S.B.L. for 320 M between rly., Morpeth St., and Portman Pl. (fn. 54) a.a. 1912: 287 M. a.a. 1932: 280 SM. Roll 1944: 231 M. (fn. 55) After war provided general, technical, and commercial courses for SM on larger site inc. bldgs. of former Portman Pl. sch. (q.v.). Acquired former John Scurr sch., Wessex St. (Mile End), as annexe by 1964. Roll 1970: 750 SM. (fn. 56) Block containing workshops, gymnasium, libr., and hall added to existing 3 bldgs. 1974. (fn. 57) Roll 1988: 969 SM. (fn. 58)

Morpeth Street Brit. Existed by 1847 when Lond. City Mission applied to use it. Mission opened adult free sch. there 1848, when 160 taught reading and writing on 2 evgs. a week. (fn. 59) Brit. sch. survived 1850. (fn. 60)

Mowlem Primary, Cambridge Heath. Opened 1887 as Mowlem St. bd. for 360 B, 360 G, 466 I between Mowlem and Lyte streets. (fn. 61) a.a. 1893: 1,058 B, G, I. Enlarged 1898 and altered 1902 for 410 B, 410 G, 466 I. a.a. 1908: 356 B, 359 G, 348 I. Reorg. 1930 for 315 SB, 315 SG, 357 I. a.a. 1932: 193 SB, 194 SG, 208 I. Roll 1944: 395 M & I. (fn. 62) After war reorg. for JM & I, with nursery class by 1964. New single-storeyed bldg. for 280 opened 1971. (fn. 63) Roll 1988: 209 JM & I. (fn. 64)

National Children's Home, see Bonner Road Children's Home.

New Castle Street Bd., see Virginia primary.

New North Street Ragged, see London Street (Mission).

Nichol Street Bd., see Rochelle Street.

Nichol Street Ragged. (fn. 65) Jonathan Duthoit, active in humanitarian work in dist. from 1836, started Sun. sch. in small room in New Nichol St. Developed 1849 into day sch. supported by Lond. City Mission. Joined Ragged Sch. Union 1850, when accn. 90, roll 100 I weekday, 50 Sun., with 12 vol. teachers and one paid teacher. Numbers grew in spite of ruffians' opposition until missioner c. 1852 converted 3 houses into one room and by 1854, helped by Islington Union chapel and £100 donation, built room with gallery for 170 I over yard. a.a. 1854: weekday 119 B & G, 112 I, evg. 100 B, 77 G; Sun. 202 a.m., 351 p.m., 304 evg., with 3 paid and 30 vol. teachers. By 1855 40 teachers, of whom 32 from Islington. Sch. 'overflowing with children', although few remained long. Inc. nursery from 1856 and occupied 17 rooms, attended by c. 1,000 children and 300 adults, by 1860 but closed as unsafe. Trustees, min. and members of Islington Union chapel acquired site at corner of Old Nichol Street and Nichol Row 1863. (fn. 66) New sch. completed 1866. a.a. 1871: day 100 B, 130 G, 90 I, evg. 150 B, 125 G. Used by S.B.L. as temp. Old Nichol St. bd. 1872–9 until Rochelle St. opened, and 1884–8 before children transferred to New Castle St. Accn. 1878: 339 B, 342 G, 356 I. Also used for free ragged sch. on four weekday evgs. and Sun., (fn. 67) where roll by 1886 was 1,800, with 120 vol. teachers. (fn. 68) Ragged sch. still attended by c. 600 on Sun. evg. 1898. (fn. 69) Bldg. continued as Sun. sch. and mission centre until closed as unsafe 1939. (fn. 70)


New Nichol Street Ragged School in 1858

New Nichol Street Ragged School in 1858

North Street Ragged. Name given to several ragged schs. in very poor dist. bordering Whitechapel. Originated in 'commodious schoolho.' erected 1842 in Thames Pl. at own expense by Cong. min. Williams and reg. as Zion chapel and Sun. sch. (fn. 71) Later attempt to hold Sun. and weekday ragged sch. in room offered by poor woman broken up by ruffians. Local cttee. formed 1848 which, aided by Ragged Sch. Union, opened I sch. in Thomas Pl. 1849. Accn. 1850: 200; roll: weekday 120 I, evg. 50 B, 45 G; Sun. 180 I; also 45 G in industrial classes; 2 paid and 5 vol. teachers. Assistance also given for ragged schs. opened 1850 in neighbouring cottages: Cumberland Pl., accn. 60, roll Sun. 24 a.m., 60 p.m. with 8 vol. teachers; Pleasant Pl., accn. 100, roll weekday 30 B, 45 G, 30 I, Sun. 117, industrial classes 20 G, with one paid and 8 vol. teachers. Cumberland Pl., available only on Sun., replaced 1852 by premises adjoining those in Pleasant Pl., which were thrown into one sch. a.a. 1852: weekday 180, Sun. 150. North St. schs. joint accn. 1858: 500; a.a.: weekday 300, Sun. evg. 45. Adopted by Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. 1859–65, then probably closed.

North Street Railway Arches Ragged, see London Street (Mission).

Nova Scotia Gardens Nat. Sch. established 1858 in iron bldg. owned by Baroness BurdettCoutts who, with archdeacon of Kensington, managed and largely financed it. Parl. grant. Probably sch. at corner of Crabtree Row and Columbia Sq. c. 1862. (fn. 72) a.a. 1865: 247. Closed by 1870 and partly replaced by Columbia Market Mission (q.v.).

Oakey Street Brit. Roll 1843: 71. (fn. 73)

Oaklands, Old Bethnal Green Rd. Opened as sec. M on site of St. Bernard's R.C. sec. 1991. New arts bldg. on opposite side of road, linked by bridge. Roll 1994: 450 SM. (fn. 74)

Old Castle Street Ragged, see Bethnal Green Gospel Mission ragged.

Old Nichol Street Bd., see Nichol Street ragged.

Old Zion, see Zion, Old Bethnal Green Rd.

Olga Primary. Opened by 1874 as Olga St. bd. for 324 B, 325 G, 418 I between Olga St. and Arbery Rd. Enlarged 1881. Accn. 1887: 1,455 B, G, I; a.a. 1,374 B, G, I. Improved 1898. (fn. 75) Remodelled 1931 for 333 SB, 380 SG, 462 I. a.a. 1932: 263 SB, 284 SG, 338 I. Reorg. c. 1935 for 427 I. a.a. 1936: 213 I. Roll 1944: 500. (fn. 76) After war reorg. for JM, I, briefly called John Bartlett primary but by 1951 Olga primary. Inc. nursery class by 1964. Bldg. replaced by single-storeyed open-plan sch., designed by Anne Webb and housing nursery, evg. institute, and play centre, opened fronting Lanfranc Rd. 1982. Roll 1988: 208 JMI. Accn. already inadequate 1989. (fn. 77)

Our Lady Of The Assumption R.C. Primary. Opened 1925 as Priory Hall R.C. temp. sch. by Augustinians of Assumption next to priory in Victoria Park Sq. Perm. premises opened and reorg. 1926. Accn. 1927: 304 M & I; a.a. 153 M & I. Called Our Lady of the Assumption by 1930. (fn. 78) Roll 1944: 100 M & I. (fn. 79) Vol. assisted after war. Roll 1954: 94 JB, 100 JG, 29 SB, 33 SG. (fn. 80) Reorg. 1955 as JM & I on new site in Bonner Rd. Reorg. as I 1964/70. (fn. 81) Roll 1988: 155 I. (fn. 82)

Parliament Street R.C., see St. Patrick's R.C.

Parmiter's. (fn. 83) Thos. Parmiter by will proved 1682 left property to found almshos. and sch. with master, elected by trustees, to teach 10 poor children to read, write and 'such other knowledge as they should be capable of being taught in the English tongue'. (fn. 84) Chancery accordingly ordered lands to be mortgaged 1705. Almshouses and sch. built on site at E. end of St. John St., leased at peppercorn rent, 1722. Additional gifts inc. £5 a year rent charge towards children's clothing by Edw. Mayhew (1726). From 1787 children given shoes, stockings, and books. (fn. 85) By 1809 uniform of dark (probably grey) (fn. 86) Yorkshire cloth. Master paid £1 p.a. for each B, aged 10–14, resident of Bethnal Green and C.E. Roll 1723: 10 B; 1730: 30 B; 1790: 40 B; 1792: 50 B; 1819: 60 B. Music master 1768–1809. Also called Grey Coat sch. 1818. Curriculum 1819 reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious instruction. New almshos. and schoolho. built in Gloucester (later Parmiter) St. 1839. (fn. 87) Roll 1846: 70 B. Trustees purchased site 1871 in Approach Rd., where T. Chatfeild Clarke designed 'handsome Gothic structure' for 250 B. Old sch. closed 1885 and used for almshos. New sch. opened 1887 with 118 B. Char. Com. Scheme of 1884 allotted 2/3 income to sch., removed residential qualification, and established 6 co-optative governors and 6 appointed by vestry, S.B.L., and Bethnal Green Museum. (fn. 88) L.C.C., which made grants from 1889, replaced co-optative members 1894. (fn. 89) Roll 1894: 311 B aged 7–16. Art room adapted for additional classrooms; (fn. 90) further alterations 1897, 1906. Listed as efficient sec. sch. 1908. (fn. 91) Bd. of Educ. Scheme 1913 established separate sch. branch of Parmiter's charity with 15 governors, 6 co-optative and 9 appointed by L.C.C., Bethnal Green M.B., and Oxf. and Lond. univs. Sch. to provide 40 free places for B from public elem. schs. in Bethnal Green. (fn. 92) Scholarships and exhibitions provided under will of Thos. Hen. Rippin, dated 1927. (fn. 93) Sch. evacuated 1939–43, granted vol. aided grammar sch. status 1951. Roll 1952: 480 B. Acquired premises of bombed Cong. chapel where science block built 1962 and gymnasium 1968. Roll 1969: 500 B. Roll 1980: 530 B. (fn. 94) Rejected proposed amalg. into comprehensive system and 1981 moved to Watford (Herts.). Bldgs. taken over by Raine's Foundation (q.v.). (fn. 95)

Parochial Charity (Greencoat), Church Row. Founded 1763 by vol. subscription for educ. and clothing of 30 G, and, from 1765, 10 B. (fn. 96) Roll 1810: 30 B, 30 G; (fn. 97) 1816: 35 B, 35 G; 1835: 45 B, 45 G; 1846: 80 B, 80 G. Taught reading, writing, accounts, and sewing 1816. (fn. 98) Financed by sermons, vol. contributions, sch. pence, and rent charge of £4 4s. left by Fras. Newham (d. 1809), but mostly by dividends from gift by Jas. Le Grew (1778) or bequests under wills of Jas. Limborough (or Linborough), Mic. Le Mounier (1783), Geo. Leeds (1785), Peter Debeze (1791), Revd. Cornelius Winter (1808), Eliz. Pontier (n.d.), Hen. Staveley (1816), Thos. Stanfield (1826), and Jas. Geo. Greenwood (1837). (fn. 99) Margaretta Brown's Gift (1830) left the residue on £1,400 consols for bibles and prayer books for Parochial sch., amounting to £18 p.a. in 1861 and, by 1920s, no longer spent on religious books. (fn. 1) 'Suitable bldg.' with ho. for master and mistress erected at junction of Church St. (later Bethnal Green Rd.) and Gibraltar Walk by 1813. (fn. 2) Three-storeyed sch. for 200 built on same site 1845. (fn. 3) Road improvements necessitated move to bldg. belonging to St. And.'s ch. 1879 and then to empty St. Mat.'s Nat. sch. in Church Row. Bldgs. repaired and, by agreement with rector, also used for St. Matthew's Sun. and evg. schs. Geo. Robertson's educational charity transferred to Parochial sch. after closure of St. Mat.'s Nat. sch. (fn. 4) and children from Parochial sch. received scholarships from Sam. Butler's apprenticing char. 1889–93. (fn. 5) Roll 1894: 80 B, 70 G. (fn. 6) Closed 1930. (fn. 7) Funds applied to 6 remaining C.E. schs. under Bd. of Educ. Scheme 1933. (fn. 8)

Pilgrim Primary, see Globe primary.

Pleasant Place Ragged, see North Street ragged.

Portman Place, Globe Rd. Opened by S.B.L. 1878 for 365 B, 355 G, 452 I, largely from Bethnal Green although site in Mile End until boundary changes of 1900. Accn. 1884 for additional 120 B, 120 G, 150 I. New 3-storeyed block 1896 for 414 JMI, with drawing room, laboratory, cookery and manual training centres, and special sch. Accn. 1908: 435 B, 435 G, 408 JM, 494 I. Reorg. 1927/30 for 314 SG, 389 JB, 307 JG, 498 I. Closed 1947/51 and site taken for adjoining Morpeth sec. (q.v.). (fn. 9)

Prince's Court, Tyssen St. Housed Sun. sch. 1818. (fn. 10) I day sch. in unsecured room 1846. Roll 1846: 115 B, 115 G, with one paid teacher and 21 vol. teachers. Also evg. sch., roll 1846: 14 B, 46 G. Possibly run as ragged sch. by V. of St. Matthias 1858. (fn. 11)

Priory Hall R.C., see Our Lady of the Assumption primary.

Pritchard's Road. Erected by S.B.L. next to Ann's Place Brit. sch. for 195 B, 189 G 1875 and 270 I 1878. Enlarged 1881 (fn. 12) and altered 1890, 1897. Accn. 1908: 315 B, 275 G, 296 I; a.a. 274 B, 265 G, 294 I. Remodelled 1909 and 1927. Accn. 1932: 516 SG, 312 I; a.a. 352 SG, 231 I. Closed during Second World War. (fn. 13)

Providence Chapel, see Hackney Rd. (Providence Chapel).

Rachel Keeling Nursery, Bullard's Pl., Morpeth St. Opened 1962 in purpose-built sch. under block of flats. Roll 1989: 100. (fn. 14)

Raine's Foundation C.E. Vol. aided Raine's Foundation grammar sch. (dating from c. 1719) (fn. 15) in Arbour Sq., Mile End, amalg. 1977 with St. Jude's C.E. sec. into Raine's Foundation C.E. comprehensive for 750 SM. Lower sch. in St. Jude's bldg. in Old Bethnal Green Rd., upper at Arbour Sq. until move to vacated Parmiter sch. in Approach Rd. 1981. New science block 1985. Roll 1988: 840 SM. (fn. 16)

Rochelle Street. Opened 1879 as Shoreditch Nichol St. bd. in new bldg. for 312 B, 312 G, 363 I to replace Nichol St. ragged. (fn. 17) Rebuilt as tall, red-brick and stone bldg. under Boundary St. scheme 1898, when renamed after new Rochelle St. (fn. 18) Accn. 1908: 270 B, 270 G, 363 I; a.a. 241 B, 250 G, 284 I. Accn. for I reduced to 294 in 1909. Reorg. 1929 for 228 JB, 200 JG, 190 I. 'Almost entirely Jewish' 1930. Alumni inc. Louis and Bernard Grade and Chas. Clore. (fn. 19) I dept. closed 1933. (fn. 20) Closed during Second World War and later reopened as special sch. (below).

Royal Victoria Park, see Twig Folly Brit.

St. Andrew's Nat. Originated c. 1841 as Sun. sch. in private ho. Day sch. for 200 B, 120 G, 75 I opened 1842 next to ch. on corner of St. And. St. with Teale St. Grants from parl., Nat. Soc., and Bethnal Green Fund. (fn. 21) Roll 1843: 279. (fn. 22) Premises conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1845. (fn. 23) V. sole manager. I closed by 1846, when roll 141 B, 110 G and 'much life, intelligence and good work in sch.'. I reopened by 1852 but in financial difficulties. Sch. closed 1867 but reopened by 1871, when financed by sch. pence. Roll 1871: 93 B, 116 G; a.a. 60 B, 103 G; I taught in Vicarage. Teaching poor and sch. probably soon finally closed. (fn. 24) Bldg. offered to Oxford Ho. 1884. (fn. 25)

St. Anne's R.C. Sec., Wood Close. Founded by Marists 1955 as vol. aided SM, linked with existing primary sch. in Underwood Rd. (Stepney). Became separate sch., named St. Gregory's 1959 and amalg. to form St. Bernard's R.C. sec. 1965. (fn. 26)

St. Barnabas's Nat. (formerly St. Luke's), Gernon Rd., Roman Rd. Founded 1866 for 252 I in Gothic bldg. on corner with Lawfranc Rd. also used as mission ch.; teacher's ho. to E. (fn. 27) Financed by grants from parl., Nat. Soc., and Bp. of Lond's Fund and by sch. pence. (fn. 28) Roll 1871: 244; a.a. 166. 'Cannot be looked on as permanent' by S.B.L. 1879. Roll 1905: 165; a.a. 137. Closed 1905 and bldgs. converted to ch. institute. (fn. 29)

St. Bartholomew's C.E., Coventry St. Founded as Sun. and day sch. in temp. premises 1841:a.a. 70 B, 40 G, 30 I. Schs. blt. 1842 with parl. and Nat. Soc. grants for 200 B, 120 G, 75 I, S. of ch. between Suffolk (later Coventry) St. and Essex (later Buckhurst) St. Schs. and teachers' hos. conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1844. (fn. 30) Roll 1846: weekday 75 B, 53 G; Sun. 74 B, 93 G; 34 B, 34 G attended both, with paid master and mistress and 11 vol. teachers in 2 schoolrooms. I sch. roll 1846: weekday 46 B, 47 G; Sun. 28 B, 29 G who also attended day sch., with one paid mistress in one schoolroom. V. reported 1852 that B and G schs. were attended by children of artisans who paid 2d.–4d. a week to be taught book keeping, history, geography, and English besides the elements. I sch., 'crammed to suffocation', was attended by children of lower classes who paid 1d.–2d. Bldgs., consisting of teachers' ho. flanked by single-storeyed B sch. and G & I sch., converted 1853 into sch., sometimes called upper sch., for 340 B, G. New I sch., sometimes called elementary sch., built N. of ch. at corner of Suffolk and Newport (later Cudworth) streets 1853, enlarged 1858 for 310 I. (fn. 31) Roll 1858: 130 B, 100 G, 200 I. (fn. 32) Roll 1871: 240 B, 184 G, 239 I, when financed by sch. pence, subscriptions and parl. and Nat. Soc. grants and managed by V. Offered to S.B.L. 1874 (fn. 33) but continued as vol. sch. Accn. 1879: 644 B, G, I. a.a. 1906: 292 B & G, 234 I. a.a. 1932: 210 M, 121 I. Both schs. bombed and not reopened. (fn. 34)

St. Bernard's R.C. Sec. Comprehensive sch. for SB, formed 1965 by amalg. of St. Bernard's R.C. of Damien St. (Stepney) with Johnson St. B (Stepney) and St. Gregory's SM. Upper sch. in former St. Gregory's premises in Wood Close and middle sch. in former Daneford premises in Mansford St. (fn. 35) Roll 1970: 660 B. Roll 1988: 650 B. (fn. 36) Amalg. with St Phil. Howard into Blessed John Roche sec. 1991 and site used for Oaklands (q.v.). (fn. 37)

St. Gregory's R.C., see St. Anne's R.C. sec.

St. James The Great Nat., Bethnal Green Rd. Day and Sun. schs. for 200 B, 112 G, 86 I built 1842 with grants by parl., Nat. Soc., and Bethnal Green Churches' Fund. (fn. 38) Single-storeyed Gothic teacher's ho. flanked by B sch. and by G & I sch., N. of church on corner of Pollard Row and Ann (later Florida) St., conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1848. (fn. 39) Financed by sch. pence, subscriptions, and incumbent and attended 1846 by children of 'respectable weavers'. Roll 1846: 100 B, 104 G, 120 I, in 3 schoolrooms with paid master and two mistresses and 19 vol. teachers. Bldgs. unsatisfactory and parl. withdrew financial aid 1858. (fn. 40) Endowed, possibly in 1843, with £1,106 stock by Thos. Churchman Harrold, which produced £33 in 1861. (fn. 41) Closed 1866 but reopened by 1871, when 'dark, dirty and inefficient'. Roll 1871: 140; a.a. 64 B, 55 G. (fn. 42) Still Nat. sch. 1885 but by 1893 (fn. 43) Sun. schs. only, which received dividends of Harrold's charity. (fn. 44)

St. James The Less Nat., St. James's Rd. and Sewardstone Rd., Victoria Pk. Built 1858 for 141 I on ground floor and 168 G above, with adjoining teacher's ho., in St. James's Rd. and conveyed to incumbent and churchwardens 1859. a.a. 1860: 40 B, 40 G, 80 I. (fn. 45) Sch. for 270 B built in ecclesiastical style with grant from Nat. Soc. 1861 next to teacher's ho. in Sewardstone Rd. (fn. 46) Financed by parl. grant and sch. pence. Attended 1868–70 by Geo. Lansbury. (fn. 47) Roll 1871: 293 B, 144 G, 164 I. In disrepair by late 1898. G & I sch. converted under Char. Com. Scheme 1900 into parochial bldgs., inc. 5 classrooms for day and Sun. schs. but probably used only for Sun. sch. B sch. sold under Scheme 1908 to L.C.C. (fn. 48)

St. John The Baptist R.C. Primary, Bonner Rd. Moved 1968 from Hackney Road to new bldgs. next to Our Lady of the Assumption R.C. I sch. (fn. 49) Roll 1988: 217 JM. (fn. 50)

St. John C.E. Primary, Peel Grove. Sch. for 600 opened 1843 on site acquired 1841 on W. side of Peel Grove, with parl. grant and subscriptions, after failure to obtain part of Poor's Land on green. Gothic bldg. with adjacent B and G depts. and teacher's ho. adjoining at back. (fn. 51) Roll 1843: 390; a.a. 220. (fn. 52) Financed also by Nat. Soc. grants and sch. pence and managed by trustees. Roll 1846: weekday 110 B, 86 G; Sun. 46 B, 92 G, besides 30 B, 48 G on both weekdays and Sun., in 2 schoolrooms with paid master and mistress and 33 vol. teachers. Alleged lack of discipline and poor instructions. Teacher's ho. converted into classrooms, I dept. blt. adjoining B dept., and detached teacher's ho. blt. to S. 1860. (fn. 53) Roll 1858: 170 B, 106 G, 112 I. Roll 1871: 119 B, 54 G, 93 I. a.a. 1887: 203; 1893: 387. Bldgs. condemned by Educ. Dept. 1897 and new bldg. for 700 opened 1900. (fn. 54) a.a. 1908: 385 M, 226 I. a.a. 1932: 339 M, 200 I. After war vol. assisted C.E. M & I, reorg. 1954 as JM & I. Roll 1988: 197. (fn. 55)

St. John Street. Opened by 1827 as Sun. sch. associated with mainly Wes. Spitalfields Sun. Sch. Tract Soc. in former Huguenot chapel. (fn. 56) By 1835 housed day sch., roll 35 B, 35 G, of whom 12 paid for by Lond. French Ch. Soc., rest by parents. Sun. sch. taken over by St. Matthias C.E. by 1846, when 44 B, 43 G paid sch. pence. Day sch. taken over by St. Matthias Nat. 1850 but still used as Sun. sch. 1863 and demol. for rly. (fn. 57)

St. Jude's C.E. Sec., Old Bethnal Green Rd. Opened by 1846 as Sun. sch. in old chapel. Roll 1846: 109 B, 107 G, financed by incumbent and with 22 vol. teachers. Day sch. for 452 B, G, I and adjoining teachers' ho. in yellow brick built E. of church 1846 with parl. grant and conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1848. (fn. 58) B. sch., a.a. 78, in difficulties and master dismissed for 'gross misbehaviour' 1852. Older children attended only a few days a week. Roll 1858: 100 B, 50 G, 120 I, all supported by vol. contributions. (fn. 59) Roll 1871: 149 B, 110 G, 120 I. (fn. 60) Alterations 1875. Accn. 1878: 144 B, 85 G, 168 I. After 'many years of temp. non-existence', new bldg. opened 1895 (fn. 61) and reorg. for 108 G, 146 I. Accn. 1932: 264 JG & I; a.a. 175. Under Lond. Plan 1947, (fn. 62) reorg. in new bldg. on same site as vol. assisted C.E. Sec. M 1959. (fn. 63) Amalg. with Raine's Foundation 1977 and bldgs. used for lower sch. (fn. 64)

St. Luke's Nat., see St. Barnabas's Nat.

St. Matthew's German And English, No. 1 Halliford Terr., Grove Rd., Victoria Pk. Day, Sun., and evg. sch. where by 1870 Theodor Winkley or Winckler of Leipzig Univ. and wife taught the elements and German. Some free pupils, others paid sch. pence. a.a. 1871: 24 B, 15 G day, 9 G evg. Closed soon afterwards amid rumours of murder.

St. Matthew's Nat., Church Row. Nat. sch. opened 1819 by rector, with aid from bp. of Lond. and Soc. for Educ. of Poor in Principles of Established Ch. and from tithe rate, in temp. premises in Wilmot Sq. for 120. Nat. Soc. built sch. on NW. corner of churchyard with burial vaults underneath 1819. Roll 1820: weekday 304 B, 106 G; Sun. 109 B, 92 G; also evg. sch. Financed by parl. grants, Nat. Soc., local subscriptions, Geo. Robertson's charity (1862), and sch. pence. (fn. 65) Roll 1848: 275 B in upper room with master, 135 G in lower room with mistress. Suffered stench of corpses on one side, slaughter house on other. (fn. 66) Master absconded 1854. Roll 1858: 350 B, G, 120 I. (fn. 67) Roll 1871: 294 B, 286 G & I. Bldgs. altered 1859, conveyed to rector and churchwardens for sch. 1860, in disrepair by 1879. Closed after rector refused use to S.B.L., and later occupied by Parochial Charity sch. (fn. 68) Sun. sch. beneficiary of Margaretta Brown Educ. Fund. (fn. 69)

St. Matthias C.E. Primary, Granby St. Opened by 1843 when roll 629. (fn. 70) By 1844 Sun. and Nat. day sch. for 112 B, 112 G in 2 unsecured rooms. Roll 1846: weekday and Sun. 58 B, 117 G; Sun. 87 B, 77 G, with paid master and mistress. Parish also ran I day sch. in Prince's Ct. and Sun. sch. in St. John St., probably in former French chapel acquired by Nat. Soc. 1850. First floor used as St. Matthias Nat. B. sch. and ground floor as teacher's ho. until demol. 1871. (fn. 71) Site in Hare St. next to ch. conveyed for G & I sch. and teacher's ho. 1851. (fn. 72) Parl. grant 1852, when 'much overcrowded'. (fn. 73) Financed by parl. grants, vol. contributions, and sch. pence. Roll 1871: 145 B, 225 G & I. (fn. 74) Single-storeyed sch. for 300 B, 200 G blt. at corner of Granby St. with Oakley St. 1871, when Hare St. converted for I only. (fn. 75) Accn. 1879: 773 B, G, I. Alterations 1894, when schs. free. (fn. 76) a.a. 1906: 375 B, G, 203 I. a.a. 1932: 142 B, 117 G, 92 I. After evacuation temp. reopened 1944 in Wood Close (Hare St.) premises. (fn. 77) Reopened as vol. assisted JM & I in Granby St. bldgs. 1953. Roll 1988: 103 JM & I. (fn. 78)

St. Patrick's R.C., Parliament St., Cambridge Rd. Built 1869 by St. Anne's Spitalfields R.C. church and opened as Parliament (later Witan) St. R.C. Financed by parl. grant, vol. contributions, and sch. pence. Roll 1871: 29 B, 85 G, 116 I; 'a very nice sch.'. Accn. 1879: 163 B, G, I. Alterations 1895. Roll 1908: 95 G, 94 I; a.a. 91 G, 85 I. Renamed St. Patrick's 1936. (fn. 79) After war vol. assisted M & I sch., at Stewart Headlam sch. in Tapp St. until move 1953 to Buxton St., Mile End New Town.

St. Paul's Nat., No. 11 Gosset St. Opened 1851 in ho. belonging to V. and churchwardens with I on ground floor and G above. Financed by sch. pence, vol. contributions, parl. and Nat. Soc. grants. Roll 1871: 164; a.a. 155 G & I. (fn. 80) Adjoining property conveyed, subject to lease, in trust for schs. 1870 and 1871. New bldg. for 168 I 1873. Accn. 1878: 170 G. Day sch. closed c. 1884 although Sun. sch. continued. By 1892 income from trust augmented V.'s income. (fn. 81) Property vested in official trustees by Char. Com. Scheme 1896. (fn. 82) Bldgs. hired by S.B.L. but given up by 1903. (fn. 83)

St. Peter's C.E., St. Peter's Ave. (formerly St. Peter St.), Hackney Rd. Opened by 1842 as Nat. day and Sun. sch. in temp. bldg. for 70. (fn. 84) Roll 1844: 84 B, 31 G. Room for Benlarged 1845. Roll 1846: weekday and Sun. 74 B, 27 G; Sun. 29 B, 12 G, in 2 'virtually secured' schoolrooms with paid master and mistress and 11 vol. teachers. Accn. inadequate and new sch. 1851 near ch. with parl. grant and contributions, especially from relatives of dead curate. Accn. 1851: 245 B, 130 G, 133 I. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence. (fn. 85) Roll 1858: 120 B, 45 G, 109 I. (fn. 86) Roll 1871: 126 B, 56 G, 82 I. Application to Nat. Soc. for more accn. 1873 sought conversion of G & I schs. for 200 I, move by G to B sch. and extension for 300 B. Extension, also to be used as mission room, built on adjacent site 1875. (fn. 87) Accn. 1878: 225 B, 172 G, 172 I. Bldgs. condemned by inspector 1881 and B & G schs. abandoned 1886. a.a. 1887: 57 I. Nat. Soc. asked for grant to convert ground floor, then a club room, for M sch. and to add I classroom. M sch. opened 1891 and improved with anonymous benefaction 1894. (fn. 88) a.a. 1898: 203 M, 180 I. Vol. contributions saved sch. from condemnation by L.C.C. 1907 (fn. 89) Reorg. 1931 for 246 JM, 222 I. a.a. 1932: 162 JM, 110 I. Evacuated during Second World War and not reopened. Bldg. let for industry before demol. in 1960s.

St. Philip's C.E., Swanfield (formerly Mount) St. Opened by 1843 in Friar's Mount (fn. 90) as day and Sun. sch. in hired ho. a.a. 1844: 48 B, 48 G. Sites on E. side of Mount St., N. and S. of ch. for B and G & I schs., with accn. for 536 conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1852. (fn. 91) Financed by parl. and Nat. Soc. grants and sch. pence. Roll 1858: 110 B, 100 G, 250 I. (fn. 92) Roll 1871: 170 B, 170 G, 101 I. Classroom added 1877 and sch. efficient in 1870s. (fn. 93) a.a. 1887: 405. a.a. 1893: 267. By 1899 G sch. closed, B sch. became M; heavy debt and incompetent staff. Alterations 1901 and 1902. Always in poor dist., by 1922 'swamped by Jews', sch. drew children from wider area as other C.E. schs. closed. Reorg. 1931 for 231 JM & I. a.a. 1932: 161. Closed during Second World War. (fn. 94)

St. Philip's Ragged, no. 32 Bacon St. Opened by 1855 as C.E. ragged sch. by V. of St. Phil. Roll 1855: weekday 80; Sun. 40 a.m., 60 p.m. with one paid teacher and 2 vol. teachers. In large old ho. at corner of Anchor (Sclater) St. and Club Row, later Holy Trinity Nat. sch., in early 1860s. (fn. 95) At no. 32 Bacon St. by 1871, when 80 B, 85 G, all but five aged under 9, taught free in large room on third floor; badly furnished and instruction poor. Open 1872 but probably soon closed. (fn. 96)

St. Simon Zelotes Nat., Bullard St. and Morpeth St. Opened 1841 as St. Jas. the Less Nat. Sun. and day sch. for 140 G and 100 I on ground floor and 200 B on first floor in plain bldg. adjoining teacher's ho. in Twig Folly. Financed by grants from parl. and Nat. Soc. and private subscriptions. (fn. 97) Site at corner of Bullard St. and William (later Warley) St. conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1843. (fn. 98) Roll 1846: weekday 38 I in I schoolroom; weekday and Sun. 67 B, 40 G in 2 schoolrooms; Sun. 100 B, 80 G, with paid master and mistress and 13 vol. teachers; schs. attached to new dist. of St. Simon Zelotes. Chapel and schoolroom 'once an infidel lecture hall', in Knottisford St. off Morpeth St., leased 1855 to V. and churchwardens and later housed I. (fn. 99) Roll 1858: 116 B, 66 G, 171 I. (fn. 1) Roll 1871: 229 B, 92 G, 206 I. Financed by sch. pence. I sch. a 'tumbledown barn sort of mission hall' 1875. Both schs. transferred to S.B.L. 1877 and closed 1881. (fn. 2) B & G sch. housed Warley St. temp. bd. 1884–5 and I sch. St. Simon Zelotes temp. bd. 1895–7. (fn. 3) Teacher's ho. occupied by ladies' mission 1905. (fn. 4)

St. Thomas's Nat., Westminster St., Columbia Market. Opened by 1843 as Sun. and day sch. for 75 B, 75 G in large hired room in Gascoigne Pl. (fn. 5) Roll 1846: weekday and Sun. 72 B, 24 G; Sun. 9 B, 5 G, in one schoolroom with paid master and 2 vol. teachers. New sch. blt. 1847 for 110 G, 165 I on ground and 225 B on first floor of plain bldg. in Westminster St., W. of ch. conveyed to Nat. Soc. 1851. Financed by grants from parl. and Nat. Soc., vol. contributions, and sch. pence. Improvements 1858 and 1866. (fn. 6) Roll 1858: 90 B, 60 G, 110 I. (fn. 7) Roll 1871: 90 B, 81 G, 228 I. (fn. 8) a.a. 1875: 425 M & I. Supposedly closed as day sch. 1876 but accn. given 1878 as 80 B, 84 G, 94 I and V. referred 1882 to proposed reopening. Gymnasium rebuilt 1906. Continued as Sun. sch. until 1919 or later.

Satchwell Street Brit. Opened 1859 as Sun. sch. under supervision of Cong. minister Geo. Kelsey with 60 children in Orange St. dist. of Lond. City Mission. Day sch. for 130 M opened 1862, when a.a. 130. (fn. 9) Mission sch. associated with Cong. and Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc., financed by sch. pence. Roll 1871: 43 B, 39 G; a.a. 20 B, 30 G, mostly I. Bldg. condemned 1871. Probably replaced by Turin St. bd. Sun. sch. united with Blythe St. (Abbey) Sun. sch. 1873. (fn. 10)

Sewardstone Road Temp. Opened 1911 by L.C.C. in former St. James the Less B sch. for 675 SM, JM, I. a.a. 1912: 564. Reorg. 1930 for 320 JM, 141 I. a.a. 1932: 442. Closed 1940.

Shoreditch Nichol Street Bd., see Rochelle Street.

Somerford Street Bd., see Stewart Headlam primary.

Squirries Street Mission Hall. (fn. 11) Opened as Bapt. Sun. sch., a.a. 70, (fn. 12) and possibly day sch. by 1851, when schoolmistress resident in street. (fn. 13) Day sch. by 1868. Day and evg. schs. given up by 1871, when 20 G taught free on Sun. Closed 1871.

Stewart Headlam Primary, Somerford St. Designed by E. R. Robson and opened 1881 as Somerford St. bd. for 1,643 B, G, I between Somerford (originally Summerford) and Tapp streets. (fn. 14) a.a. 1887: 998 B, G, I. Accn. 1908: 465 B, 465 G, 616 I; a.a. 411 B, 388 G, 358 I. First L.C.C. day nursery opened 1917. (fn. 15) Renamed Stewart Headlam 1925. (fn. 16) Reorg. 1930 for 392 JB, 392 JG, 457 I. a.a. 1932: 372 JB, 374 JG, 373 I. Roll 1944: 394 M & I. (fn. 17) After war reorg for JM & I and absorbed Wilmot primary 1955/8. Roll 1988: 310 JM & I. (fn. 18)

Summerford Street Bd., see Stewart Headlam primary.

Teale Street. I and day sch. built by 'benevolent individual' 1825. a.a. 70–90 and financed by subscriptions and sch. pence 1835.

Teesdale Primary, Teesdale St. Opened by 1873 as Claremont St. bd. for 257 B, 273 G, 289 I in Claremont St. New bldg. called Teesdale St. bd. opened 1878 for 409 B, 387 G, 416 I at junction of Claremont and Teesdale streets. a.a. 1887: 1,093 B, G, I. Improvements 1899. (fn. 19) Accn. 1908: 358 B, 348 G, 449 I; a.a. 310 B, 334 G, 393 I. Remodelled 1909. Reorg. 1931 for 304 JB, 297 JG, 290 I. a.a. 1932: 268 JB, 178 JG, 241 I. Roll 1944: 656 M & I. (fn. 20) After war reorg. as Teesdale primary, with nursery class by 1964. Amalg. with Lawrence primary 1975 to form Lawdale primary.

Thomas Place Ragged, see North Street ragged.

Thorold Square. Lower part of ho. used for Zehovah chapel and I sch. 1851. (fn. 21)

Trinity, Peel Grove. Sun. sch. started 1846 by Theodore Habershon in NE. part of Bethnal Green moved by 1851 to Trinity chapel, a.a. 60 a.m., 70 p.m. Nos. rose and new schs., under patronage of earl of Shaftesbury and financed by vol. subscriptions and collections, built in Gothic style on E. side of Peel Grove 1859. Roll Sun. 400, with 30 vol. teachers; weekday evg. classes. (fn. 22) Sun. and day schs. c. 1861. (fn. 23) Called Ashley mission from 1880 and connected with Ragged Sch. Union 1903. (fn. 24)

Turin Street. Opened 1875 E. of Turin St. and designed by Bodley & Garner, winners of S.B.L. competition, for 466 B, 468 G, 697 I in adjoining bldgs., for B & G and for I. (fn. 25) a.a. 1887: 1,424 B, G, I. Remodelled 1903. Accn. 1908: 284 B, 284 G, 423 I; a.a. 263 B, 265 G, 354 I. B and G depts. closed 1927, I 1929.

Turk Street. Roll 1843: 50. (fn. 26)

Turville Street Brit. Opened 1839 in hired rooms at no. 43. Roll 1843: 60. Probably replaced by other Nichol schs. (fn. 27)

Twig (fn. 28) Folly Brit. Opened 1830 as Lancasterian schs. for 120 B and 80 G in adjacent bldgs. in Sidney St. Financed by sch. pence but rooms 'almost untenantable'. (fn. 29) Sch. for 250 B built with parl. and Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc. grants on W. side of Bonner Lane and conveyed to trustees 1837. a.a. 1838: 120 B. (fn. 30) G sch. opened in Green Pl., William St., by 1840, when a.a. 80. Singlestoreyed G sch. built S. of B sch. 1849. (fn. 31) As Royal Victoria Park sch., partly financed by sch. pence, a.a. 1850: 186 B, 150 G. Accn. 1871: 285 B but roll only 60 due to illness and death of teacher; accn. in leased G sch. 153; a.a. 170 B sch. housed Bonner Lane temp. bd. 1874–6 and 1878–80 (fn. 32) and subsequently used as Cong. Sun. sch. (fn. 33) G sch. replaced by Bonner St. bd., later Bonner primary.

Twig Folly Ragged. Opened c. 1849 for 70 on 4 evgs. a week with 12 vol. teachers. Roll 1849: 45 B, 50 G. Accn. by 1850: 120. Roll by 1851: 30 B, 30 G with one paid teacher and 8 vol. teachers. Listed as active 1854 but not thereafter.

Victoria Park Chisenhale Road, see Chisenhale primary.

Victoria Park College Institute, Albert (later Waterloo) Rd. Opened 1851 by incumbent of St. Jas. the Less for children of 'intermediate class', professionals of limited income, clerks, and tradesmen. C.E. sch. managed by dist. chs. (fn. 34) Bldg. needing repair 1861 and sold 1862, probably to become commercial, non-Anglican sch. (fn. 35)

Virginia Primary, Virginia Rd. Opened 1875 as New Castle St. bd. for 156 B, 161 G, 270 I. Enlarged and reorg. 1887 for 210 B, 260 G in old bldg. and 360 JM, 469 I in new bldg. (fn. 36) a.a. 1887: 541. Renamed Virginia Rd. 1899 as part of Boundary St. rebuilding scheme. (fn. 37) By 1901 many Jewish children. a.a. 1908: 204 B, 225 G, 299 JM, 373 I. JM dept. closed 1913. Reorg. 1932 for 464 SM, 323 I; a.a. 274 SM, 189 I; 'almost entirely Jewish'. Roll 1944: 330 M & I. (fn. 38) After war reorg. as primary sch. Special English teaching needed; turnover of 15 supply teachers in 3 months 1968. (fn. 39) Roll 1988: 228 JM & I. (fn. 40)

Virginia Row Ragged. Opened 1856 with roll 100 I day, 35 B, 59 G evg., and one paid teacher.

Warley Street Bd., see St. Simon Zelotes Nat.

Wilmot. Opened 1873 as Wilmot St. bd. for 542 B, 472 G, 686 I in bldg. designed by Giles & Gough on site bought from Industrial Dwellings Co. on E. side of street. Damaged by rioting B 1877. (fn. 41) a.a. 1887: 1,426 B, G, I. Alterations 1887, 1901, 1904, 1905. Accn. 1908: 465 B, 456 G, 616 I; a.a. 429 B, 426 G, 454 I. Reorg. 1930 for 352 SG, 406 I; a.a. 1932: 268 SG, 240 I, when rebuilt (fn. 42) I dept. closed 1936. Roll 1944: 398 M & I. (fn. 43) After war reorg. as Wilmot primary for I and Wilmot sec. for SG. Primary sch. amalg. with Stewart Headlam 1955/8. Wilmot sec. closed 1965. (fn. 44)

Wolverley Street. Opened by S.B.L. 1877 for 355 B, 355 G, 414 I E. of Wolverley St. Enlarged 1887 for additional 48 I. (fn. 45) a.a. 1887: 971 B, G, I. a.a. 1908: 316 B, 303 G, 331 I. Alterations 1895, 1897, 1912. Remodelled 1916 for 272 B, 272 G, 324 I. Reorg. 1931 for 320 SB, 280 SG, 261 I. a.a. 1932: 233 SB, 227 SG, 204 I. Closed during Second World War and not reopened.

Wood Close Primary. Plan for bd. sch. in Wood Close 1894 opposed by neighbouring schs. New free sch. between Wood Close, Hare (later Cheshire) St., and St. Matthew's Row opened 1901 for 242 B, 242 G, 244 I. (fn. 46) a.a. 1908: 218 B, 204 G, 238 I. Reorg. 1929 for 400 JM, 218 I. a.a. 1932: 359 JM, 189 I; 'almost entirely Jewish'. Shared premises with St. Matthias primary by 1944, when joint roll 396 M & I. (fn. 47) Closed when St. Matthias moved to Granby St. 1953, premises being occupied by St. Anne's R.C. sec. (fn. 48)

Zion (Old), Old Bethnal Green Rd. Chapel blt. 1836 by Ind. min. Thos. G. Williams (fn. 49) housed 'charity sch.' by 1846. (fn. 50) Sun. and I day schs. 1851, when roll 100 a.m., 150 p.m. (fn. 51) After closure of chapel 1865/9, bldg. used for overflow of Abbey Sun. sch. (fn. 52)

Zion, Thomas Street (Passage), see North Street ragged.

Special schools.

Abbey Street. Opened 1896 for 80, by 1909 for an additional 20, mentally deficient children. Closed 1927.

Beatrice Tate, St. Jude's Rd. Begun as vol. enterprise in temp. bldgs. in Bethnal Green Gdns. New bldg. for handicapped children aged 6–16, between St. Jude's Rd. and Poyster St., authorized 1967. (fn. 53) Opened 1970 as Junior Training Centre by Social Svces. Dept. of Tower Hamlets L.B. Transferred to I.L.E.A. 1971 as M sch. for educationally subnormal. Roll 1989: 82. (fn. 54)

Cranbrook Road. Dept. for myopic children at bd. sch. 1920–4. (fn. 55)

Daniel Street. Opened 1900 as temp. centre for mentally defective children in bd. sch. Singlestoreyed bldg. with 4 classrooms for 90 children built 1901 adjoining bd. sch. Roll 1921: 81. Roll 1929: 58. (fn. 56) Closed 1929 and children transferred to Mowlem St. and Hoxton Ho., Osborn Pl. (Whitechapel). (fn. 57) Reopened 1929 for 45 partially sighted children. Roll 1938: 32. (fn. 58) Scheduled for closure 1947 and gone by 1951. (fn. 59)

Mansford Street. Opened 1901 for 40 physically defective children in 2 classrooms in bd. sch. previously used as centre for deaf. Closed 1914 and children transferred to Tollit St., Mile End. (fn. 60)

Mowlem Street. Opened 1908 in single-storeyed brick bldg. with hall and 4 classrooms for 90 mentally deficient children. By 1921 JM only, roll 93. (fn. 61) Roll 1933: 64. Closed 1935. (fn. 62) Reopened 1941 for partially sighted but closed by 1951. (fn. 63)

Rochelle Primary, Arnold Circus. L.C.C. in 1947 planned sch. for deaf in new and enlarged bldg. on site of former bd. sch. (fn. 64) Instead prim. sch. for educationally subnormal opened by 1951 and closed 1976. (fn. 65)

Somerford Street. Opened 1882 for 40 deaf children as classroom in bd. sch. Closed 1909/18.

Virginia Road. Opened as New Castle St. special 1893. (fn. 66) Was room at bd. sch., used for mentally defective children but needed for ordinary sch., 1900. (fn. 67) Closed by 1909.

Weavers' Field, Mape Street. Opened 1965/70 for M maladjusted children aged 5–16 in former Hague primary sch. Roll 1989: 52. (fn. 68)

Wood Close. There were depts. for 25 mentally defective and 25 physically defective children at council sch. before 1941, when temp. suspended. Finally closed by 1945. (fn. 69)

Adult and technical education.

A school of industry, run by women, was housed in Friar's Mount school in 1811. (fn. 70) The Sunday schools established by the East London Auxiliary to the Sunday School Union by 1816 taught reading and, on weekday evenings, writing to pupils who included adults. (fn. 71) An adult school existed at Hare Street by 1819. (fn. 72) St. Matthew's, Bethnal Green's first National school, included evening classes in 1820. (fn. 73) Only two parishes, St. James the Great and St. Matthias, ran evening schools in 1846, St. James's with 13 pupils and St. Matthias's two schools (one at Prince's Court) with 92 pupils. (fn. 74) By 1858 St. James the Great had an evening school in winter for 150 children and one for 20 adults and St. Matthias ran one for adults; St. Matthias ran an industrial school in Thomas Street off Brick Lane in 1892. (fn. 75) Five other parishes in 1858 ran evening schools and St. Bartholomew's reported that it had provided one for four winters with little success. St. John's was for 20 women and St. Philip's included classes and reading for adults. Many ragged schools ran evening classes, needed particularly in districts where both adults and children worked in the day-time. (fn. 76)

A total of 3,115 people were enrolled and an average of 1,568 attended evening schools in 1871. Of these 648 were enrolled and 463 attended schools run by 8 parishes; 662 were enrolled and 479 attended 2 British Schools, all but 30 of them the large Good Shepherd schools. The still bigger Nichol Street ragged school had an evening roll of 1,200, although only 275 usually attended; 270 were enrolled and 148 attended four other ragged schools and the remainder belonged to 5 other schools. (fn. 77)

The education provided by evening schools shifted after the Education Act of 1870 led to the replacement of simple teaching of the elements by continuation classes. Stewart Headlam, the local school board representative, headed a campaign for continuation classes at board schools, (fn. 78) where they existed at Wilmot Street by 1882, (fn. 79) Cooper's Gardens by 1887, (fn. 80) Globe Terrace by 1890, (fn. 81) Columbia Road by 1896, (fn. 82) Somerford Street (a women's evening institute) by 1899, (fn. 83) Chisenhale Road by 1904, (fn. 84) and Bonner and Mowlem streets, Portman Place, Daniel, Lawrence, Mansford, and Rochelle streets and Wood Close by 1909. Classes were also held at Oxford House by 1909. (fn. 85) There were 1,673 evening scholars in 1904. (fn. 86) In 1918 there were six evening institutes: (fn. 87) Rochelle Street for men, Daniel Street, Somerford Street, Olga Street (probably opened in 1914), (fn. 88) and Lawrence for women, the last described as a junior commercial institute. Mansford Street was a junior technical institute and the Cordwainers' technical college at no. 42 Bethnal Green Road from 1879/1902 to 1923 provided day and evening classes in footwear manufacture and fancy leather goods. The Craft School occupied nos. 137–41 Globe Road from 1879/1902 to 1905/12. (fn. 89)

By 1930 there were five evening institutes: Daniel Street and Olga Street for women, Mansford Street as a junior commercial and technical institute, Stewart Headlam at Portman Place with a branch at Pritchard's Road as a junior men's institute, and Bethnal Green's men's institute at no. 229 Bethnal Green Road, long a social club. (fn. 90) As the host schools closed and merged, the institutes contracted, Pritchard's Road closing during the war and Portman Place soon afterwards. Mansford Street housed a junior commercial and technical section until the school closed in 1965 after which, tenanted by a branch of St. Bernard's R.C. school, it functioned as an evening branch of Bethnal Green College for Further Education which had its headquarters in Jubilee Street, Stepney, and provided general, technical, and commercial courses. (fn. 91) Bethnal Green women's institute survived in 1955 but apparently not in 1964. (fn. 92) Daniel Street was replaced in 1965 by Daneford, which was used as a branch of Bethnal Green Institute. (fn. 93) By 1966 the latter, classed as an adult evening educational institute, had branches in Turin and Buckfast streets, and in Haggerston and Shoreditch, and provided courses at 17 other places, former University settlements, old people's homes, clubs, and halls. (fn. 94) By 1974 it had branches at Daneford, Morpeth, and Olga schools. (fn. 95)

Other adult institutes included one for community studies at no. 18 Victoria Park Square from 1959 to 1988/92, when it was replaced by the Open College of the Arts, (fn. 96) and an urban studies centre on the site of St. Simon Zelotes Vicarage in Morpeth Street from 1983. (fn. 97)

Private schools.

There may have been a Roman Catholic school for girls in Bethnal Green before the Civil War. (fn. 98) A schoolmistress Mrs. Green, who was not a Roman Catholic, lived near the green in 1642 and accused Balthazar Gerbier of harbouring papist priests. Gerbier himself opened an academy at his house on the west side of the green in 1649 where, as an alternative to sending sons abroad, he offered languages, history, philosophy, mathematics, geography, cosmography, military architecture, and the 'art of well-speaking'. He also gave public lectures, several of which were printed. The academy closed, probably for financial reasons, in 1650. (fn. 99)

Shortly afterwards Bishop's Hall housed a dissenting academy. William Walker, a schoolmaster there in 1653, (fn. 1) may have been William ludimagister at Bishop's Hall, who 'taught school and carried his scholars to conventicles' in 1673. (fn. 2) Thomas Walton, an ejected minister presented for the same offence, (fn. 3) lived in Bethnal Green from 1671 or earlier until 1674 when his assessment for hearth tax suggests he had charge of all Bishop's Hall. (fn. 4) One of his pupils, to whom he taught the classics, was the biographer Edmund Calamy (1671–1732). (fn. 5) By the late 1680s when St. George's chapel served as a schoolhouse 'for the use of Bishop's Hall', (fn. 6) the academy was conducted by the Presbyterian Thomas Brand (d. 1691), assisted by John Kerr (d. 1708), another Presbyterian, who succeeded Brand until John Short took over in 1692, when Kerr went to Leyden for five years. Short became a Congregational minister in Cannon Street (Lond.) in 1698 but the academy probably continued under Kerr until 1708 or later. Samuel Palmer (d. 1724), author of Defence of the Dissenters' Education in answer to Samuel Wesley, described his education at Bishop's Hall c. 1700. The course covered logic, rhetoric, metaphysics, ethics, natural philosophy, the classics, Hebrew, and Jewish antiquities, besides theology. (fn. 7)

Samuel Morland, dissenter and classical scholar, kept a school at Bethnal Green where the mathematician William Jones (1675–1749) was a tutor. (fn. 8) In 1694 Mrs. Palfryman kept a boarding school and Mr. Haines a grammar school in Bethnal Green. (fn. 9) A 'considerable boarding school' providing an intensive Latin course was kept c. 1698 by the lexicographer Robert Ainsworth (d. 1743). (fn. 10)

With the decline in dissenting academies and a changing social composition, the number and quality of private schools diminished. Before 1816 the daughter of Joseph Merceron attended a dame school run by Charlotte Cowdery. (fn. 11) Proximity to Hackney, noted for its private schools, probably accounted for the many early 19th-century schools in Hackney Road and Cambridge Heath. T. W. H. Askey ran College House in Hackney Road in 1822 (fn. 12) and eight out of seven gentlemen's and 14 ladies' academies in Bethnal Green were in Hackney Road or Cambridge Road in 1828. Two of the boys' and six of the girls' schools (one a preparatory school) took boarders. There was also a dancing academy in Camden Row and a 'drawing master in landscape' in Church Street (Bethnal Green Road). (fn. 13) The curate established a private school c. 1832. (fn. 14) Only one of the schools of 1828 survived until 1851, Ann Miller's in St. Matthew's Place, Hackney Road, with 14 girl boarders. (fn. 15) In 1851 some 87 teachers of public and private schools were living in the parish. (fn. 16) Ten private schools (four boys', three girls', and three unspecified) were listed for 1855 and seven for 1863 and 1872. (fn. 17) Most were short lived. Among the exceptions were no. 120 Cambridge Road, established in 1843, a middle class school providing a 'mercantile education' for 90 pupils under the Revd. W. Bradford in 1872, (fn. 18) Henry W. Rolfe's school at no. 252 Bethnal Green Road from 1845 to the 1880s, (fn. 19) where 12 boys boarded in 1851, (fn. 20) and Albion Academy or Grammar School, sometimes called Knight's school after its headmaster George Knight, in Oxford Street off Cambridge Road from 1851 or earlier to 1882 and possibly 1893. (fn. 21)

In 1871 there were 83 adventure schools teaching 1,921 children. (fn. 22) They included the Collegiate school at no. 50 Roman Road (fn. 23) and Wellington House preparatory school in Wellington Row, each with 85 pupils. Yelf's school in Elwin Street off Hackney Road had 55, mostly infants, Mrs. Mary Stillwell's infants' school in Orange Street had 50, (fn. 24) the East London Grammar school at no. 463 Bethnal Green Road had 45 'of the tradesmen class', and Mrs. Camp's school at no. 24 Warner Place off Hackney Road had 40. Most schools, at least 50 being infants', were very small and were condemned either for their premises, often back rooms or cellars, or for poor teachers. Dame schools, whether in the 1830s (fn. 25) or 1870s, were generally used for baby-minding and were 'in no sense educational'. (fn. 26) The schools charged between 2d. and 9d. a week for each child, generally 2d. – 4d. for infants and more for older children. Although found throughout the parish, schools were clustered most thickly in East ward, where 32 took 711 pupils.

Eight of the 13 private schools listed in 1879 lay east of Cambridge Road. The East London Grammar school, condemned in 1871, survived until 1902, then one of only three private schools listed for Bethnal Green. Another was Miss Millicent Gee's preparatory school at no. 37 Approach Road. (fn. 27) Miss Mabel Gee ran Ingleside House school with 80 pupils at no. 22 Approach Road from c. 1927 until between 1952 and 1958, apparently as the only private school. (fn. 28)

Gatehouse school, opened in Sewardstone Road in 1948 as an independent school for the handicapped, (fn. 29) was classified in 1994 as an independent secondary school with a roll of 300 mixed pupils aged 2–18. (fn. 30)

Footnotes

79 Below, charities. Introductory account of educ. based on accounts of individual schs. below.
80 P.R.O., PROB 11/369 (P.C.C. 48 Cottle), ff. 371–2v.
81 Below, private schs. and colleges.
82 Rayner, Story of Christian Community.
83 K. Heasman, Evangelicals in Action (1962), 16.
84 G. F. Vale, Old Bethnal Green (1934), 130.
85 G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
86 W. Hale, Letter to Sam. Whitbread . . . Observations on Poor of Spitalfields (1806), 26.
87 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 11/21.
88 Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs. 75, 77.
89 Ibid. 4–7; Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders in Metropolis, H.C. 427, pp. 53, 73 (1816), iv.
90 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders in Metropolis, H.C. 495, pp. 231 sqq. (1816), iv.
91 Ibid. p. 188.
92 Ibid. H.C. 469, p. 123 (1816), iv.
93 Educ. of Poor Digest, 551, 562.
94 Kello was min. of Bethnal Green Cong. chapel.
95 B.L. Add. MS. 38275, ff. 42–45.
96 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders in Metropolis, H.C. 427, p. 85 (1816), iv; ibid. H.C. 469, pp. 114, 122 (1816), iv; ibid. H.C. 495, p. 231 (1816), iv.
97 G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1; ibid. N/M/14/1; B.L., Add. MS. 40413, f. 211.
98 Educ. Enq. Abstract, 85–6.
99 Depts. were often listed as separate schs.
1 Rep. Sel. Cttee. on Educ. H.C. 465, pp. 271–4 (1835), vii.
2 BNC, Second Ser. [Tower], 148, letters from Revd. G. Casson 4 July, 11 Aug. 1835.
3 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 174–7.
4 Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846–7, Mdx. 2–3.
5 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. of H.L. on Deficiency of Divine Worship in Metropolis, H.C. 387, p. 11 (1857–8), ix.
6 Final Rep. Metropolis Chs. Fund, 1836–54, App. IV, pp. 97–100.
7 Above, prot. nonconf. (undemon. missions).
8 A. M. Babler, 'Educ. of the Destitute: study of Lond. Ragged Schs. 1844–74' (N. Illinois Univ. Ph.D. thesis, 1978), 23, 25.
9 Educational Record, iii. 220.
10 P.R.O., HO 129/21.
11 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/6–18. No returns for St. Paul's and no numbers given for St. Matthias's; total for the other pars. is 5,784 and excludes evg. schs.
12 All the so-called private schs. provided some free places.
13 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518 (tables of elem. schs. 1871).
14 Rep. Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1887 [C. 547-I], H.C. p. 663 (1888), xxxviii.
15 Final Rep. of Sch. Bd. for Lond. (1904); L.C.C. Lond. Statistics, xvi. 264.
16 Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1919.
17 Ibid. 1932.
18 L.C.C. Lond. Statistics, xvi (1905–6), 293.
19 G.L.R.O., P72/MTW/23515.; below, charities.
20 G.L.R.O., P72/MTW/235/7; Char. Com. no. 312296.
21 Char. Com. no. 3 2296.
22 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer'a Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
23 Ann. Abstract of Gtr. Lond. Statistics (1967).
24 Private schs. are treated separately below.
25 Para. based on G. Morgan, Hist. 50 years work of Abbey St. Sun. Schs. (1890), 77 sqq.
26 P.R.O., RG 31/3/1605; M.L.R. 1842/1/671; above, settlement and bldg., the Centre.
27 P.R.O., C 54/12505, mm. 56–58.
28 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
29 Para. based on Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs.
30 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 36; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/1.
31 P.R.O., ED 21/345, no. 4164.
32 Educational Record, iii (1857).
33 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, no. 256.
34 Ibid. SBL 678, pp. 245 sqq.
35 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 36–8; P.R.O., ED 21/345.
36 P.R.O., HO 45/9868; below, special schs.
37 Char. Com. file no. 312430.
38 Morgan, Abbey St. Sunday Schs. 11.
39 Lond. City Mission Mag. xiv. 89. For chapel, above, prot. nonconf. (Congs.).
40 P.R.O., C 54/14592, mm. 7–10.
41 T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file 226.2 (corresp. between J. Avery and G. F. Vale 1932).
42 Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1893).
43 Lond. City Mission Mag. xxx. 208, 213.
44 Ibid.. xv. 167; Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861–2).
45 P.R.O., C 54/12474, mm. 14–17; ibid. RG 31/3/2080, 2037; above, prot. nonconf. (Bapts.).
46 G.L.R.O., CL/LOC/2/10, Map VII. 38.
47 Char. Com. file no. 312280.
48 Educ. of Poor Digest, 551; above, prot. nonconf. (Congs.).
49 Ret. of Grants to Nat. Soc. and Brit. and Foreign Soc. 1834–7, p. 356, H.C. 395 (1837–8), xxxviii.
50 P.R.O., C 54/13855, mm. 52–66; Cong. Year Bk. (1850), 194, 197.
51 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (list of temp. schs. provided by Bd. 1885).
52 The Times, 22 Dec. 1871, 10c.
53 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (list of temp. schs. 1885).
54 Robinson and Chesshyre, The Green, 29.
55 P.R.O., C 54/16415, mm. 2–10; Endowed Chars. Lond. (1904), 22 sqq.; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 256.
56 Bethnal Green Chs. and Schs. Fund [1854] (pamphlet in Guildhall Libr.).
57 P.R.O., C 54/16415. mm. 2–10.
58 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1904), 22 sqq.
59 G. Stamp and C. Amery, Victorian Bldgs. of Lond. 1837–87 (1980), 130–1.
60 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 19 sqq.
61 W. Wilford, Bonner Schs. 1876–1976 (pamphlet in T.H.L.H.L).
62 P.R.O., ED 21/34516.
63 Wilford, Bonner Schs.; G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
64 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
65 K. J. Heasman, 'Influence of Evangelicals upon Vol. Charitable Institutions in Second Half of 19th cent.' (Lond. Univ. Ph. D. Thesis, 1959), 697.
66 P.R.O., ED 30/52, no. 29833.
67 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1960); G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/BBK/LB/1–2; L.C.C. Sec. Schs. in Bethnal Green. (1965).
68 I.L.E.A. Sec. Schs. in Tower Hamlets, Div. 5 (1971).
69 Ibid. (1974); Reorganisation of ILEA schs. Sept. 1973– Jan. 1984.
70 Lond. City Mission Mag. xxvii. 63–4.
71 E. A. G. Clark, 'Ragged Sch. Union Educ. of Lond. Poor' (Lond. Univ. M.A. thesis, 1967), 299.
72 Not listed in G.L.R.O. SBL 1518 (tables of elem. schs.).
73 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, p. 50.
74 Ibid., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
75 Gtr. Lond. & Essex Newspapers Ltd. 29 Sept. 1978 (T.H.L.H.L., cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
76 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
77 Heasman, 'Influence of Evangelicals', 696; P.O. Dir Lond. (1870).
78 P.R.O., RG 31/3/1756.
79 Ibid. 2000; ibid. HO 129/21/1/unnumbered; above, prot. nonconf. (Meths.).
80 J. Reeves, Recollections of Sch. Attendance Officer (1913), 157.
81 P.R.O., ED 14/62.
82 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1945); L.C.C. Sch. Plan (1947), 111.
83 Tower Hamlets L. B. Boro. Plan Topic Paper no. 5: Educ., Nov. 1976, 86.
84 Personal observation.
85 Builder. 30 May 1874, 470.
86 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 3 sqq.; SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
87 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
88 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (index of sites 1903).
89 Ibid. (list of bd. schs. 1896); SBL 678, pp. 267 sqq.
90 Ibid. SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.; R. Ringshall, M. Miles, F. Kelsall, Urban Sch. Bldgs. for Educ. in Lond. 1870–1980 (1983), 22.
91 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. schs. file, Name changes.
92 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
93 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/CRA 1/LB/5; BBK/LB/1–2.
94 Not Collingwood St. near Shoreditch ch., above; Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861–2).
95 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1960); I.L.E.A. Sec. Schs. in Tower Hamlets (1971, 1980); Hackney Gaz. 2 Feb. 1965; Bethnal Green Civic News, no. 8, July 1964 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); L.C.C. Daneford Sch. Ceremonial Opening of New Bldgs. (1965).
96 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
97 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
98 Ibid. EO/DIV 5/DAN 1/LB/7.
99 P.R.O., RG 31/3/1936; ibid. C 54/12076, mm. 51–56.
1 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
2 P.R.O., HO 129/21/4/1.
3 P.O. Dir Lond. (1856).
4 Rep. Sel. Cttee. on Worship in Metropolis, p. 35, H.C. 387 (1857–8), ix.
5 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, no. 267.
6 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1883, 1884).
7 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
8 Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xix. 113; above, list of chs; above, plate 40.
9 Educ. of Poor Digest, 551.
10 P.R.O., C 54/10959, mm. 5–8; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVIII (1873 edn.).
11 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1895, 1896).
12 Based on G.L.R.O., N/M/14/1–2; ibid. Acc. 2330/86/1.
13 G. F. Vale, Old Bethnal Green (1934), 30.
14 Final Rep. of Metropolis Chs. Fund, 1836–1854, App. IV, p. 52.
15 Lewis, Topog. Dict. Eng. (1849), i. 225.
16 G.L.R.O., MR/UP 953, 1011.
17 Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861–2); G.L.R.O., MBO/DS/12A; Y/SP/72/3.
18 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 5917.
19 Rep. Educ. Cttee. of Council 1872 [C. 812], p. 663, H.C. (1873), xxiv; Builder, 22 July 1871, 566–7; 16 Dec. 1871, 992.
20 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
21 Ibid., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's file, Elem. Schs. open (1944).
22 E. Lond. Argus, 18 Oct. 1974 (T.H.L.H.L. Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
23 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
24 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (index of sites 1903).
25 Ragged Sch. & Mission Union, In His Name (1894), 95; Good Shepherd and Abbey St. Sun. and Ragged Sch. Ann. Rep. (1897, 1898) (T.H.L.H.L.).
26 Based on G.L.R.O., N/M/14/1–2; ibid. Acc. 2330/56, 57/1.
27 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders in Metropolis, p. 123, H.C. 469 (1816), iv.
28 P.R.O., C 54/12278, mm. 18–24.
29 Ibid. HO 129/21/1/1/3.
30 D. V. Evans, 'More Light, More Power' (1985) (T.H.L.H.L., pamphlet 226.2); above, prot. nonconf. (Bapts.).
31 P.R.O., HO 129/21/1/1/13.
32 Bapt. Handbk. (1877), 441; (1890), 367.
33 P.R.O., C 54/18859, mm. 3–6; G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 563 sqq.
34 Notes from S.B.L. mins. & reps. (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
35 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
36 Inf. from head teacher.
37 P.R.O., C 54/10118, mm. 5–9; G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1; A. M. Babler, 'Educ. of the Destitute: study of Lond. Ragged Schs. 1844–74' (N. Illinois Univ. Ph. D. thesis, 1978) (copy in G.L.R.O. libr.).
38 Pigot & Co.'s Lond. Dir. (1838).
39 P.R.O., HO 107/1542/21/4/5, ff. 91 sqq.
40 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
41 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1877, 1878); Reeves, Recollections of Sch. Attendance Officer, 51.
42 Reorganisation of ILEA Schs. Sept. 1973–Jan. 1984.
43 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
44 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 579 sqq.
45 T.H.L.H.L., BG 179.
46 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
47 Educ. of Poor Digest, 551.
48 Robson's Lond. Dir. (1833, 1836).
49 London St. led off Upper North St., parallel with rly.: Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862–5).
50 G.L.R.O., SBL 677, p. 473 sqq.; ibid. SBL 1527 (list of temp. schs. 1885).
51 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/LON/LB/1–2.
52 Ibid. SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
53 P.R.O., ED 20/70, no. 29366.
54 L.C.C. Municipal Map of Lond. (1930).
55 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
56 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1970).
57 E. L. A. 20 Sept. 1974 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); I.L.E.A. Changing Schs. at Eleven: Sec. Schs. in City of Lond., Tower Hamlets (1986), 16.
58 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
59 Lond. City Mission Mag. xiii. 57.
60 G.L.R.O., MC/R3, no. 299.
61 Ibid. SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
62 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
63 E. L. A. 9 Apr. 1971; ILEA Contact, vol. 4, issue 5, 16 May 1975 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
64 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
65 Based on Union Chapel. Story of 100 years 1799–1899 (1899); Nichol St. Mission, 'The Nichol' 1836–1936 (1936) (T.H.L.H.L. 226.4, pamphlet).
66 P.R.O., C 54/16175, mm. 11–19.
67 G.L.R.O., SBL 677, pp. 293 sqq.; ibid. EO/DIV 5/NIC/LB/1–2; ROC/LB/4.
68 Illus. Lond. News, 17 Apr. 1886, 405.
69 L.C.C. Opening of Boundary St. Area (1900), maps; Booth, Life and Lab. iii (2), 72.
70 R. Samuel, E. End Underworld. (1981), 286–7 n.
71 P.R.O., RG 31/3/2139.
72 Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862–5).
73 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
74 Inf. from Oaklands sch.
75 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 273 sqq.; 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
76 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
77 E. L. A. 9 July 1982 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); Ringshall, Miles, Kelsall, Urban Sch. Bldgs. in Lond. 162; inf. from I.L.E.A. and head teacher.
78 Cath. Dir. (1931).
79 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
80 Cath. Schs. in Eng. & Wales (1954).
81 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1970).
82 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
83 Para. based on M. J. Fletcher, Hist. Parmiter's Foundation (1971); 1st Rep. Com. Char. for Educ. of Poor, pp. 186–7, 322–5, H.C. 83 (1819), X–A; below, charities.
84 P.R.O., PROB 11/369 (P.C.C. 48 Cottle), ff. 371–2v.
85 Lysons, Environs, ii. 35.
86 Vestry mins. 1813–21, f. 100.
87 Photo. in Fletcher, Parmiter's Foundation, 18; G.L.R.O., Cat. to Acc. 1844.
88 G.L.R.O., Acc. 1844/A1/3/1–2.
89 Ibid. 4/1–2.
90 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 20–2.
91 List of Sec. Schs. Recognised as Efficient [Cd. 4374], pp. 304–5, H.C. (1908), lxxxiii.
92 G.L.R.O., Acc. 1844/A1/7/1–13.
93 Ibid. C 10/8.
94 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1980).
95 I.L.E.A. Planning for 1980 (1972), 17–18, 20–21; Reorg. of ILEA Schs. Sept. 1973-Jan. 1984; G.L.R.O., Cat. to Acc. 1844.
96 Rep. Com. Char. for Educ of Poor, pp. 75–76, H.C. 547, (1819), x-B.
97 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Randolph 11/21.
98 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Poor of Metropolis, p. 318, H.C. 495 (1816), iv.
99 Lysons, Environs, ii. 36; Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 7–8, 14–15, 38–42; T.H.L.H.L., TH/2255.
1 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 12–15, 50–1, 72.
2 J. N. Brewer, Beauties of Eng. & Wales, x(4), 281; Regency A to Z.
3 G.L.R.O., MBO/DS/A/12; MBO/505, f. 169.
4 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 14–15, 55.
5 Ibid. 33–5.
6 Ibid. 38–42; Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1872).
7 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1930, 1931).
8 G.L.R.O., P72/MTW/233, 234/5, 9.
9 P.R.O., ED 21/11282.
10 G.L.R.O., MR/PLT 5061.
11 Rep. Sel. Cttee. on Worship in Metropolis, 35.
12 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 289 sqq.; SBL 1527, p. 50 sqq.
13 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1942, 1949).
14 Inf. from head teacher.
15 For early hist., V.C.H. Mdx. i. 312–14.
16 T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings 820.1; Educ. Authorities Dir. (1988); inf. from head teacher.
17 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
18 Ibid. 661, pp. 205 sqq.
19 H. Davies, The Grades (1981), 19.
20 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/ROC/LB/2–3, 5.
21 Ret. of Sums Expended for Educ. 1840–2, p. 550, H.C., 444 (1843), xl.
22 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
23 P.R.O., C 54/13192, mm. 17–19.
24 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
25 The Oxford Ho. in Bethnal Green 1884–1948.
26 E.L.A. 1 Jan. 1971 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); L.C.C. Sec. Schs. in Bethnal Green Div. 5 (1965).
27 O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XXVIII (1873 edn.).
28 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518; ibid. Y/SP/72/10; Guildhall MS. 19224/191.
29 P.R.O., ED 21/346; L.C.C. Lond. Statistics, xvi.
30 Final Rep. Metropolis Chs. Fund, 1836–54, App. IV, 61, 97; P.R.O., C 54/13100, mm. 4–5.
31 P.R.O., C 54/15164, mm. 18–19; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/5.
32 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham papers, Tait 440/14.
33 P.R.O., ED 4/31.
34 Guildhall MS. 19224/201.
35 E. L. A. 1 Jan. 1971 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); L.C.C. Sec. Schs. in Bethnal Green. Div. 5 (1965); Tower Hamlets L. B. Boro. Plan Topic Paper no. 5: Educ. Nov. 1976, 89.
36 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1970, 1988).
37 Inf. from Oaklands sch.
38 Ret. of Sums Expended for Educ. 1840–2, p. 532, H.C. 444 (1843), xl.
39 P.R.O., C 54/13637, mm. 53–55; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/5.
40 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/15.
41 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 14–15, 61–2; G.L.R.O., A/FWA/C/B2/1.
42 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
43 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1885); Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1893).
44 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 61–62.
45 P.R.O., C 54/15407, mm. 31–5; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/7.
46 G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/6.
47 R. Postgate, Life of Geo. Lansbury (1951), 9.
48 E. N. Gowing, John Edwin Watts-Ditchfield (1926), 41–48; below, Sewardstone Rd. temp.
49 V.C.H.Mdx. x. 156; ILEA Contact, 20 Sept. 1974 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
50 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
51 Return of Sums Expended for Educ. 1840–2, p. 532; P.R.O., C 54/15296, mm. 33–7; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/8.
52 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
53 G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/8.
54 Opening of St. John's New Bldg. (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.); The Times, 29 May 1899, 10b.
55 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
56 G.L.R.O., Acc. 2330/86/1.
57 Ibid. MR/UP 671.
58 Ibid. Y/SP/72/9; ibid. MBO/505, f. 678; P.R.O., C 54/13730, mm. 27–9; Ecclesiologist, viii (N.S. vi, 1848), 317–18.
59 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham papers, Tait 440/9.
60 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
61 Ibid. P72/JUD/50.
62 L.C.C. Lond. Sch. Plan (1947), 117.
63 The Times, 29 Oct. 1959, 14b; I.L.E.A. Sec. Schs. in Tower Hamlets, Div. 5 (1971).
64 I.L.E.A. Sec. Schs. in Tower Hamlets (1980); Educ. Authorities Dir. (1988).
65 B.L. Add. MS. 38275, ff. 42–3; vestry mins. 1813–21, ff. 121, 123v., 144; 1820–3, f. 259; Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 55–56.
66 Gavin, San. Ramblings, 72–74.
67 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham papers, Tait 440/6.
68 G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/11.
69 Char. Com. file no. 312306; above, Parochial Charity sch.
70 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
71 P.R.O., C 54/14139, mm. 41 sqq.; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/12.
72 P.R.O., C 54/14344, mm. 20–24; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/12.
73 Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1854 [1926], p. 197, H.C. (1854–5), xlii; Lond. City Mission Mag. xvii. 67.
74 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
75 Ibid. Y/SP/72/12.
76 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 62.
77 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/ST MAT/LB/4.
78 Inf. from I.L.E.A. and headmaster.
79 P.R.O., ED 21/52824 no. 12908.
80 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, no. 252.
81 Endowed Chars. Lond. (1897), 63–4.
82 G.L.R.O., P72/MTW/202/21.
83 Ibid. SBL 1527 (index of sites 1903).
84 Final Rep. Metropolis Chs. Fund, App. IV, p. 61.
85 Ibid. 106; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1854 [1926], p. 197, H.C. (1854–6), xlii; P.R.O., C 54/14245, mm. 37–41; G.L.R.O., MBO/DS/G12; Builder, 28 Dec. 1850, 622.
86 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/11.
87 P.R.O., C 54/17730, m. 44.
88 G.L.R.O., P72/PET/81.
89 The Times, 16 Mar. 1907, 14a; 24 Sept. 1907, 3f.
90 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
91 P.R.O., C 54/14375, mm. 49–53; Final Rep. Metropolis Chs. Fund, App. IV, 108.
92 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/17.
93 Reeves, Recollections of Sch. Attendance Officer, 57.
94 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1942, 1945); L.C.C. Lond. Sch. Plan (1947), 109.
95 Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861–2); Hollingshead, Ragged Lond. in 1861, 83; Reeves, Recollections of Sch. Attendance Officer, 57.
96 Hackney Dir. (1872), s.v. Bacon St.
97 Ret. of Sums Expended for Educ. 1840–2, 552; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/13.
98 P.R.O., C 54/12924, mm. 12–13.
99 Ibid. 14852, mm. 44–50; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/14; Lond. City Mission Mag. xxvii. 55; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862–5).
1 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/18.
2 Wilford, Bonner Schs.; P.R.O., ED 4/32–33; G.L.R.O., SBL 677, pp. 555 sqq.
3 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, (list of temp. schs. 1896, 1898).
4 T.H.L.H.L., BG 179.
5 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
6 P.R.O., C 54/14191, mm. 18–22; G.L.R.O., Y/SP/72/15.
7 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/13.
8 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
9 Lond. City Mission Mag. xxvii. 60–62.
10 Above, Abbey.
11 Old O.S. Map Lond. 51 (1872).
12 P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/13.
13 Ibid. HO 107/1541/21/3/15, f. 443.
14 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 451 sqq.; Builder, 12 Apr. 1879, 414.
15 The Times, 19 July 1917, 8f.
16 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Schs., file on name changes.
17 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
18 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
19 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
20 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
21 P.R.O., HO 129/21/3/1/10.
22 Ibid. HO. 129/21/2/1/11; Illus. Lond. News, 16 Apr. 1859, 385; Morgan, Abbey St. Sun. Schs.
23 Cassell's Map of Lond.. (c. 1861–2).
24 Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 57; above, prot. nonconf. (undenom. missions).
25 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 369 sqq.; G. Stamp and C. Amery, Victorian Bldgs. of Lond. 1837–87 (1980), 130.
26 Lond. City Mission Mag. viii. 175.
27 Ibid.
28 Or Twigg.
29 Rep. Sel. Cttee. on Educ. pp. 271–4, H.C. 465 (1835), vii.
30 P.R.O., C 54/11657, mm. 1–4; Rep. Sel. Cttee. on Educ. pp. 609–14, H.C. 589 (1837), vi.
31 G.L.R.O., MBO/DS/E/12; Cassell's Map of Lond. (c. 1861–2).
32 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527 (list of temp. schs. 1885).
33 Old O.S. Map Lond. 52 (1894).
34 P.R.O., C 54/14417, mm. 37–41; G.L.R.O., E/COT/1560; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862–5).
35 G.L.R.O., E/COT/1561.
36 Ibid. SBL 659, pp. 211 sqq; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1891).
37 Above, bldg. 1876–1914.
38 G.L.R.O., L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
39 The Times, 27 July 1968, 3a.
40 Inf. from I.L.E.A.
41 G.L.R.O., SBL 659, pp. 401 sqq.; The Metropolitan, 2 Aug. 1873 (T.H.L.H.L., Cuttings file, Bethnal Green Educ.).
42 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/WIL/LB/2–6.
43 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
44 L.C.C. Sec. Schs. in Bethnal Green, County. of Lond. Div. 5.
45 G.L.R.O., SBL 1527, pp. 50 sqq.
46 Ibid.
47 Ibid. L.C.C. Educ. Officer's Dept., Elem. Schs. open 1944.
48 T.H.L.H.L., TH/8434/7.
49 Above, prot. nonconf. (Congs.).
50 G.L.R.O., THCS 521.
51 P.R.O., HO 129/21/2/1/10.
52 Above, Abbey.
53 Tower Hamlets News, 3(2), June 1967, p. 21.
54 Inf. from head teacher 1989.
55 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/CRA 1/LB/13.
56 P.R.O., ED 32/78, no. 29028.
57 Ibid. ED 32/501.
58 Ibid. ED 32/502, no. 28845.
59 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1945); L.C.C. Lond. Sch. Plan (1947), 189.
60 P.R.O., ED 32/79, no. 29137.
61 Ibid. ED 32/80, no. 29482.
62 Ibid. ED 32/504, no. 29482.
63 Ibid. ED 32/503, no. 30484.
64 L.C.C. Lond. Sch. Plan (1947), 190.
65 Reorganisation of ILEA Schs. Sept. 1973–Jan. 1984.
66 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/NEW/LB/6.
67 P.R.O., ED 32/78, no. 29028.
68 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1970, 1980); inf. from head teacher (1989); above, Hague sch.
69 P.R.O., ED 32/503; ED 32/505, no. 30482; ED 32/506, no. 30483; Educ. Authorities Dir. (1945).
70 G.L.R.O., N/M/14/1.
71 Rep. from Sel. Cttee. on Educ. of Lower Orders in Metropolis, H.C. 427, pp. 53–56 (1816), iv.
72 G.L.R.O., MR/PLT 5063.
73 Nat. Soc. Ann. Rep. (1820), 193.
74 Nat. Soc. Inquiry, 1846–7, Mdx. 2–3.
75 Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
76 Lambeth Pal. Libr., Fulham Papers, Tait 440/6–18.
77 G.L.R.O., SBL 1518.
78 C. Kerrigan, Hist. of Tower Hamlets (1982), 59.
79 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/WIL/LB/7.
80 Rep. Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1887 [C. 547–1], H.C. p. 663 (1888), xxxviii.
81 G.L.R.O., EO/DIV 5/GLO/LB/9.
82 Ibid. COL/LB/2.
83 Ibid. SOM/LB/7.
84 Sch. Bd. for Lond. 1870–1904, Final Rep. (1904), map, p. 32.
85 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1909–10), 224.
86 L.C.C. Lond. Statistics, xvi. 299.
87 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1918–19), 175.
88 Olga St. Women's Institute 1914–29 (MS. in T.H.L.H.L. 822.3, pamphlet).
89 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1918–19), 196; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1879, 1902, 1905, 1912, 1923, 1924).
90 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Partics. (1930–1), 176, 195; above, social.
91 I.L.E.A. Bethnal Green College for Further Educ. 1965–6 (T.H.L.H.L. 822.3).
92 L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1955, 1964).
93 L.C.C. Daneford Sch. Ceremonial Opening of New Bldgs. 1965 (pamphlet in G.L.R.O.).
94 I.L.E.A. Bethnal Green Institute prospectus, 1966–7 (T.H.L.H.L. 822.3).
95 I.L.E.A. Educ. Svce. Inf. (1974).
96 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1958, 1959, 1988).
97 Ibid. (1982, 1983, 1990).
98 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 254.
99 Ibid. 242; E. Lond. Papers, x(1), 19–34; Lysons, Environs, ii. 31; A Wicked and Inhumane Plot of Nich. Parney etc. (1642, Thomason Tract); To All Fathers of Noble Families and Lovers of Vertue (prospectus n.d.).
1 P.R.O., PROB 11/233, f. 177v. (P.C.C. 23 Alchin, will of John Wheatley).
2 Guildhall MS. 9537/20, p. 12.
3 Calamy Revised, 509.
4 G.L.R.O., MR/TH 16, f. 22; MR/TH 46.
5 Calamy Revised, 509.
6 P.R.O., C 10/512/66.
7 Freedom after Ejection, ed. A. Gordon (1917), 214, 221, 296, 351; Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. vi. 20–4; J. W. Ashley Smith, Birth of Modern Educ. (1954), 72–5; I. Parker, Dissenting Acads. in Eng. (1914), 55 n, 60, 140.
8 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 245–6; Lysons, Environs, ii. 32.
9 Adverts. in J. Houghton's Colln. 29 June 1694, quoted in A. S. Turberville, Eng. Men and Manners in 18th Cent. (1926), 162.
10 D.N.B.; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 245–6.
11 Rep. from Cttee. on State of Police in Metropolis, H.C. 510, p. 204 (1816), v.
12 E. J. Greenberg, 'Contribution by Private Acads. in first half of 19th cent. to Modern Curriculum and Methods' (Lond. Univ. M.A. thesis, 1953), App. I.
13 Boarding Schs. and Lond. Masters' Dir. (1828); Pigot's New Com. Dir. (1827–8).
14 BNC, Second Ser. [Tower] 148, letter from rector 17 Feb. 1832).
15 P.R.O., HO 107/1539/21/1/28, f. 617, p. 19.
16 Based on ibid. HO 107/1539–42.
17 P.O. Dir.Lond. (1855, 1863); Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
18 F. S. de Carteret-Bisson, Our Schs. and Colleges (1872), 260; Boro. of Hackney Dir. (1872).
19 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1844, 1845, 1879, 1890).
20 P.R.O., HO 107/1541/21/3/2, f. 28, p. 3.
21 Ibid. HO 107/1540/21/2/11, f. 307, p. 53; G.L.R.O., M93/150; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 1074; Ret. of Churches, Chapels, Bldgs. Reg. for Worship, H.C. 401, no. 1074 (1882), 1.
22 Para. based on P.R.O., ED 3/11.
23 P.R.O., ED 3/11, nos. 233, 274, 280.
24 Ibid. ED 3/11, nos. 270, 205, 159.
25 Lond. City Mission Mag. ii. 183; Rep. of Sel. Cttee. on Educ. H.C. 589, pp. 609–14 (1837–8), vi.
26 Reeves, Recollections of Sch. Attendance Officer, 29.
27 P.R.O., ED 3/11, no. 205; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1879, 1902).
28 P.R.O., ED 15/23; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1927, 1934, 1952, 1958).
29 Marcan, E. End Dir. 40.
30 Educ. Authorities Dir. (1994).