Introduction chapter V: the subsidies and the London population
1: immigration into London

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Eilert Ekwall

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1951

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43-71

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'Introduction chapter V: the subsidies and the London population: 1: immigration into London', Two Early London Subsidy Rolls (1951), pp. 43-71. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=31907 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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CHAPTER V.
The Subsidies and the London Population. I. Immigration into London. A. Immigration from abroad. 1. The Subsidy of 1292. (a) People of French or possibly French origin. (b) Italians. (c) Flemings or Dutchmen. (d) Germans. (e) Hungarian. 2. The Subsidy of 1319. (a) People of French or possibly French origin. (b) Italians. (c) Spaniard. (d) Flemings and Dutch. (e) Germans. B. Immigration from the English provinces (inclusive of Wales, Scotland and Ireland). 1. The Subsidy of 1292. The Home Counties. Middlesex. Buckinghamshire. Hertfordshire. Essex. Kent. Surrey. Home Counties (unspecified). The East Midlands. Bedfordshire. Cambridgeshire. Suffolk. Norfolk. Lincolnshire. Northamptonshire. Leicestershire. The East Midlands (unspecified). Southern and South-western Counties. Sussex. Hampshire. Berkshire. Oxfordshire. Wiltshire. Gloucestershire. Monmouthshire. Southern Counties (unspecified). The West Midlands. Herefordshire. Worcestershire. Warwickshire. Shropshire. Northern England and Scotland. Yorkshire. Durham. Northumberland. Scotland. Ireland. Various Counties. 2. The Subsidy of 1319. The Home Counties. Middlesex. Buckinghamshire. Hertfordshire. Essex. Kent. Surrey. Home Counties (unspecified). Home Counties or the East Midlands. The East Midlands. Bedfordshire. Huntingdonshire. Cambridgeshire. Suffolk. Norfolk. Lincolnshire. Northamptonshire. Leicestershire. Nottinghamshire. The East Midlands (unspecified). The East Midlands or the North. Southern and South-western Counties. Sussex. Hampshire. Berkshire. Oxfordshire. Wiltshire. Dorset. Somerset. Devonshire. Cornwall. Gloucestershire. Southern Counties (unspecified). The West Midlands. Herefordshire. Worcestershire. Warwickshire. Shropshire. Staffordshire. Derbyshire. Cheshire. The West Midlands (unspecified). Wales. Northern England and Scotland. Yorkshire. Durham. Northumberland. Westmorland. Cumberland. Scotland. The North. Various Counties. 3. Summary and Conclusions. Footnotes

CHAPTER V.

The Subsidies and the London Population.

I. Immigration into London.

Taxpayers were normally London citizens, and the persons mentioned below must be considered to have been generally freemen of London. People resident in London who were not freemen did not contribute to the subsidies, except sometimes voluntarily. But in the earlier subsidy several taxpayers seem not to have been freemen, and even some aliens may have been contributors.

A. Immigration from abroad.

In order to determine whether a taxpayer was of alien origin, we have some direct information, but mostly there are only the names to go on. Evidence of the latter kind must be used with caution, since some people with a foreign surname may have belonged to families that had been resident in England for generations, or else have adopted a surname of foreign origin, because it was that of a master.

In the lists below an attempt is made to distinguish between people who may be supposed to have immigrated in the period of the subsidies and such as were descendants of London citizens. The persons are generally arranged alphabetically in the various sections.

1. The Subsidy of 1292.

(a) People of French or possibly French origin.

Persons known to have been of French origin.

William Barache, vintner (Vintry). Called merchant of Cahors in 1268. Arnaud Barache, vintner (Vintry), was connected with him.

Janin Monchaud de Paris, merchant (Cordw).

William Seruad, merchant and alderman (Cordw). Called merchant of Cahors in 1272. See on him also F. Arens, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, XI, pp. 477 ff. (1913).

Persons with local surnames derived from places in France.

John Darmenters, (fn. 1) draper (Dowg). A "foreigner" (that is, not a freeman) in 1275.

Alice de Arraz (Cordw) was the widow of Robert de Arras, merchant, alderman, who occurs in the records from 1268 on. There were people with this surname in London about 1200. Hankin de Arras (Cordw) may have been connected with Robert.

Henry de Araz, vintner (Vintry), was the son of Hubert (or Wybert) de Arraz, a London citizen; doubtless of English birth.

Matthew Darraz, draper (Dowg). A "foreigner" in 1275. With him was probably connected John Darraz (Dowg).

Peter Berneval, probably a vintner (Ports).

William de Betoyne, alderman of Queenhithe, was probably connected with John de Betoyne (1275 ff.) and London born.

Thomas de Boloyne, merchant (Bill). The surname is found early in London, but Thomas may well have immigrated from France.

William Busy (Vintry). A doubtful example.

Lionet (Dowg), perhaps identical with Leonius de Cambrey.

Roger de Cheyni (CripI). This is an old Norman family name in England.

Peter de Corboylle, perhaps a goldsmith (Crip E).

Staci de Gynes (Cordw).

John de Gysorz, alderman of Vintry, belonged to an old London family.

Richard de Mounpellers, apothecary (CripI), was a son of Robert de Mounpeillers (1278-9 Will) and evidently London born.

John de Orlyenes (CripI).

Gilian de Parys (Bas) was the widow of Robert de Paris (1290 Will).

John de Paris, cook (Bridge).

Robert de Parys, tailor (Walbr).

Roger de Parys (Dowg).

Stephen and William de Paris, drapers (Dowg).

William de Parys (Bridge).

It is probable that some of the persons with the surname de Paris had immigrated from Paris.

John de Sancto Saluatore, kisser (BishE).

Walter de Sancto Saluatore (CripI).

Richard Savsemer (Qu). This is an old Norman family name.

Robert de Spaigne (Dowg). Perhaps connected with John de Ispannia (1286 Will). This is an old Norman family name in England.

Michael de Tolesan (Walbr) was a son of John de Tolesan and grandson of John Tolesan, draper (dead in 1259); evidently English born.

John de Vaus, dyer (Vintry).

Raboc (Dowg) is doubtless identical with Rabot de Warloys 1298, a foreign lodging-house keeper.

Persons with a national adjective or noun as a surname.

Eustace le Fraunceys, Gateron le Franceis, and Katherine la Fraunceyse, probably vintners (Vintry).

Matthew le Fraunceys, hosier (BroadSt).

Roger le Fraunceis (Walbr).

Simon Fraunceys, mercer (?) (BroadSt).

John Normand (CripE).

(b) Italians.

A grouping according to the form of the surname has not been considered necessary in this and the following sections.

Jacolin Hugelin and Donne Lumbard (Cordw), merchants of Lucca.

Thomas Romeyn, pepperer and alderman (Cordw). The surname indicates Italian origin, but he may have been English born.

Nute le Marchaunt and Burgeys his brother (BishI), horse-merchants of Florence. Burgeys is elsewhere called Burgesius Fulberti of Florence.

William Gylemouche and Thonchelin his partner (BishI). Doubtless Italians, to judge by the names, and very likely horse-merchants.

Sire Bonruncyn (Walbr) is elsewhere called Bonruncin Walteri of Lucca.

John Lumbard, probably a fishmonger (Bridge). The surname may be an inherited one.

John de Fierins (Dowg). A doubtful case.

(c) Flemings or Dutchmen.

Lambert de Gant (Dowg). But cf. Simon de Gaunt 1275 (Dowg).

John Semblepain or Semblepani (Dowg). The surname indicates Dutch or Flemish origin. He was a lodging-house keeper for Flemings and Brabanters.

It is probable that William fil. Marie and Walter Coxin (Dowg), both lodging-house keepers for Flemings and Brabanters, were of Dutch or Flemish origin.

(d) Germans.

Adam le Estreys fil. Ludekin, merchant and sheriff (Bill). Possibly English born.

Bartholomew le Estreys (fn. 1) (Bill). Probably a merchant of Hamburg.

Gerard Merbode, merchant (Dowg). He is called merchant of Almain in 1272 and was alderman of the German Hanse. (fn. 2)

John Winterman, merchant (Cordw). Called merchant of Almain in 1273.

(e) Hungarian.

Peter de Hungri, pepperer (Dowg), was the son of a London citizen.

2. The Subsidy of 1319.

Very few among the persons below can be connected with those found in 1292.

(a) People of French or possibly French origin.

Persons with a local surname derived from a place in France.

Robert de Amyas (alias R. Wynhelm), girdler (Cheap).

Philip Balum, cornmonger (Qu). The surname de Baalum occurs in London c. 1200.

John Beseuille, tailor (Cheap). Perhaps an old Norman family name.

Richard de Betoigne (Cordw) was a son of William de Betoyne 1292 S.

John de Bolonia (Tower) was a brother of Thomas de Boloyne 1292 S.

Reymund de Burdeux (Cordw) was a son of Reymund de Burdeux, saddler, a London citizen.

Adam de Burgoigne, taverner (Cheap). John de Burgoyne, saddler (Cheap).

John de Chaumpayne, saddler (BreadSt).

Robert Darry (FarrE). A doubtful case.

William de Furniual, tailor (Bas). An old Norman family name.

John de Fylers (Aldersg). A Bernard de Fylers is mentioned 1278 LBA 23 (deceased).

James le Sherman, alias de Gurnay (Bish).

John de Maundeuille, brewer (Bill). An old Norman family name.

John de la Marche, potter (Aldg). A doubtful case.

John de la Mare (FarrI). Probably an old Norman family-name.

Thomas de Maryns, apothecary (Cheap). An apprentice of Roger de Arcubus, adm. in 1314.

Richard Merk, tapicer (Langb). A Theobald de Merkes is mentioned 1302 HMC 9th Rep 3 b.

Richard Mongomery (Bish). Probably an old Norman family name.

John Morteyne (ColemSt).

John de Mountagu, tailor (Cheap). An old Norman family name or from Montacute So.

Thomas de Neuille, woolmonger (Tower).

Hugh de Parys, probably a chaloner (Langb). Perhaps connected with Richard de Parys, chaloner (1276).

Hugh de Paris (Walbr). Cf. Robert de Parys 1292 S (Walbr).

John de Parys (Cornh).

John de Parys, corder (FarrE).

Roger de Parys (FarrE).

Roger de Parys, mercer (Cordw).

Simon de Parys, mercer, alderman (Cheap). Parys is doubtless a master's surname.

Stephen de Paris, perhaps a surgeon (Walbr).

William de Parys, probably a shearman (Dowg).

John Perers (Cordw).

John de Reygnes (Bridge).

John de Sancto Saluatore, currier (Tower).

Thomas Seyncler, haymonger (Castle). An old Norman family name.

William de Synnyngham, cordwainer (FarrI).

Thomas de Spaigne (Dowg). Doubtless connected with Robert de Spaigne 1292 S.

Persons with a national adjective or noun as a surname.

Simon Fraunceis, mercer, alderman (Cheap).

Henry le Frensche (Aldg).

Richard le Freynshe, bokeler (Cheap). Admitted a freeman in 1310.

Hugh Pycard, tapicer (Langb). A son of Michael le Tapicer, who was admitted in 1310, and doubtless a Frenchman.

John Pycard, perhaps a smith (CripE).

Hugh and Roger Bret (Aldersg), Laurence le Bret, probably a goldsmith (FarrE), Robert le Bret, goldsmith (CripI). Laurence was a son of Philip le Bret (1316 Will), and Robert a son of Richard le Bret. Bret is a surname of old standing in London.

Persons with surnames of other kinds.

Surnames of an unusual or a peculiar kind may indicate French origin. A probable case is Henry Nasard, draper (Dowg). He became a freeman after 1306. Michael Myniot, vintner (CripI) does not seem to have been London born, since he was reminded in 1320 of the oath he had taken on his admission to the freedom (LBE 122). Other possible cases are James Maucouenant, cook (BreadSt), Robert Sayleben, cook (BroadSt), John Traynel (Cheap).

(b) Italians.

Persons stated to have been Italians.

Bankyn de Brounlexk (fn. 1) (Cand). A merchant of Florence. Not a freeman in 1319.

Bartholomew le Spicer (Langb). A Florentine.

Burnet Lespicer, pepperer (Cheap), alias B. de Luka.

Cambin Foulberd, taverner (Bish), was a son of Guy de Florencia, a brother of Nute le Marchaunt (1292 S), and probably Italian born.

John Pysselege (BreadSt). A merchant of Genoa.

Bartholomew Thomasyn, pepperer (Cheap). Called B. Thomesyn of Lucca, citizen of London in 1341.

Persons with surnames pointing to Italian origin.

Chiuel, the king's hosier (Cheap). Called Chevel de Pistorio in 1313.

John de Plesaunce (Langb).

Bernard de la Pouche (Tower).

John de Triple (Walbr). Admitted in 1312-13 and evidently a Lombard merchant.

Henry Lombard, fishmonger (Castle). Cf. John Lumbard 1292 S.

Pelle le Lombard (Bish), elsewhere called Pelle de Luka, kalendrer.

Philip le Lombard (Langb).

Ragace le Lombard (Bish) was a servant of Burgeys Fulberd of Florence [1292 S].

Persons with an Italian font-name.

Conel le Chaucer (BreadSt).

Mone le Kalendrer (ColemSt).

(c) Spaniard.

Peter Manioun, merchant (Cordw). Called Peter Lopice, mangoun in 1330-1.

(d) Flemings and Dutch.

John le Fullere, Brabantere (Dowg).

John Reynald, merchant (Cheap). Stated to have been of Dinant.

Mabel Rotelond (Bridge), a lodging-house keeper for Flemings and Brabanters.

Henry Scof, draper (Dowg). Elsewhere called Henry Scof of Malynes.

John Slabart, merchant (Cordw). The surname indicates Flemish or Dutch origin.

(e) Germans.

Bartholomew le Estrishe (Bill). Found already in 1292 S.

Herman le Skyppere, merchant (Dowg).

John le White (Tower) was a German merchant, who was exempted as not being a freeman.

B. Immigration from the English provinces (inclusive of Wales, Scotland and Ireland).

As already mentioned, a great many taxpayers in 1292 and 1319 have surnames derived from places or districts outside London. Such names point to immigration into London of people from these places or districts. But it must not be concluded that all taxpayers with such names had actually moved to London from the provinces. Many were descendants of people who had immigrated in an earlier period. Others had taken over a master's surname; some of them may have been London born. There are also some taxpayers with a surname not of the local type who can be proved to have come from the provinces.

Every local surname of the type under discussion gives evidence of immigration into London and is thus of interest. But what is of most importance is to try and find out to what extent such immigration had taken place in the period covered by the rolls. For the people in the earlier roll it is difficult to find sufficient material, because the London records for the early and middle thirteenth century are meagre. If a surname is first recorded towards the end of the century, we cannot be sure that it was introduced into London by the taxpayer of 1292, but we may suppose that many who had a local surname not with certainty evidenced earlier in London, at least in the same ward, were actually immigrants. For the early fourteenth century the material is abundant and allows of safer conclusions.

All information bearing on this question is collected and discussed in the commentary to the text, and in this section only a summary of the results and some general conclusions will be given.

In the lists below are included also people exempted from taxation and the aldermen mentioned in the Subsidy of 1292. The word "taxpayer" is thus here used somewhat loosely. The persons with surnames of the kind under discussion who were exempted are few, only a dozen or so.

1. The Subsidy of 1292.

The taxpayers with surnames of the type under discussion or otherwise known to have come from the provinces are just over 300.

The Home Counties.

Middlesex.

16 taxpayers, inclusive of Richard le Heymongere [CripI 32]. Gilbert and Robert de Fulham were very likely connected with earlier fishmongers called de Fulham. John de Stebeheye was a nephew of John de Stebenhethe senior (1281-2 Will). These were probably London born.

The people in this group were small taxpayers, with the exception of Henry de Cherring (tax 1 m.). For the remainder the assessments range from 2s. to 6s. 8d.

Buckinghamshire.

Only 9 taxpayers, inclusive of Robert Podyfat. Alice de Eure (£1) was the widow of John de Evere, ironmonger, the first bearer of this surname in London noted. High taxpayers: Adam Bekenisfeld, fishmonger, and William de Heure, ironmonger (£2), Robert de Colebroc and William de Graue (£1).

Hertfordshire.

22 taxpayers. Peter de Brauhinge, bureller (£2), and Gilbert and William de Pelham (the latter's tax 2 m.) probably had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Chelse, chandler (1 m.), John de Hertford (50s.), William de Red, skinner (1 m.), Vincent de Sterteford, woolmonger (£1), Margaret de Sterteford, widow of a glover (2 m.), William de Storteford, pepperer (£5), Richard Toterich, hosier (2 m. with his partner), William de Ware of Qu (£5).

Essex.

35 taxpayers, inclusive of John le Joignur (Vi). Wolmar de Essex, alderman of Bill, may have been connected with Eadwin (early 13th) and Edmund de Essex (1260 ff.), Gilbert de Assindone, mercer (1 m.), with Robert (1276 ff.). Thomas de Frowyc, goldsmith, and Robert Frowick, cordwainer, belonged to an old London family. Lucas and Richard de Hauering (Lucas's tax £5) and Reginald de Thonderle, draper, sheriff (£2), may have inherited their surnames. Most taxpayers had small assessments (2s. to 6s. 8d.), but we may note Richard de Chigewelle, fishmonger (£6), Roger de Essex, pepperer (£2), Henry de Fingrie, fishmonger (£4), Adam de Alingbery, skinner (30s.), William de Leyre, pepperer (£4), Walter de ripa de la Leye and Henry de St. Osy, vintner (£1), John de Wrytele, cheesemonger (30s.).

Kent.

27 taxpayers, inclusive of Boydin Massecre. The Rokesles belonged to a family that had long been settled in London, or had derived the surname from members of it. They had taxes of from £3 to £1. Otherwise taxes were small, except for John de Boctone, coffrer, Thomas de Kent and Roger de Schorne, fishmongers (2 m.), Hary de Kent, hosier (£1), John de Romeneye, cornmonger (£2), John de Sandwic, cordwainer (1 m.).

Surrey.

12 taxpayers. Richard de Bernes, fishmonger, seems to have had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Gildeford, pepperer (£2), William de Kersauntone, cordwainer (16s.), Richard de Wendlesworthe, corder, sheriff (£3), and William de Wendesworthe, corder (£2).

Home Counties (unspecified).

Five taxpayers: Rand' de Boreham, Walter de Borham and his brother, Hugh de Clopham, Thomas de Waledene (the last son of a London citizen). Adam de Fulmere (10s.) and John de Fulmere, woolmonger (£1), may have come from Bucks or Cambridgeshire, John le Mareshal (Walbr) from Surrey or Cambridgeshire, and William de Renham (1 m.) from Kent, Essex or Norfolk.

The East Midlands.

Bedfordshire.

Four taxpayers, inclusive of Bartholomew Nicolas (1 m.). John de Dunstaple, skinner, and Richard de Bedeford had a tax of 30s. each.

Cambridgeshire.

13 taxpayers. Nicholas de Lintone, Robert de Queie (1 m.), and John de Ryplawe, ironmonger (1 m.), had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Brinkele, cornmonger (£1), Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger (£2), Reginald de Meldeburne, armourer (1 m.).

Suffolk.

14 taxpayers, inclusive of Alan le Potere (Ports). John de Meleford, fruiterer, is called "junior" in 1292-3. Alan de Suffolk, cordwainer (£1) and A. de Suffolk, taverner (both of Vi), may have been connected with Alexander de Suffolk (will enrolled in 1277). The highest taxpayers were Fulk de St. Edmund, bureller, sheriff (£5), Thomas de Suffolk, skinner, sheriff (£4), Edmund de Suffolk of BishI (10s.).

Norfolk.

7 taxpayers. Thomas de Fullesham, mercer (2 m.) was connected with Robert (1295 Will). Robert de Worthestede, mercer, had a tax of £2.

Lincolnshire.

Four taxpayers, three with the surname Lincoln. Katherine de Lincolne was the widow of John de L., draper, apparently a son of Adam de L., mentioned 1266 Pat. John de Lincolne of Vintry had a tax of 10s.

Northamptonshire.

13 taxpayers, 6 with the surname Northampton. High taxpayers: Peter de Bosenham, skinner, sheriff (£4), Philip de Norhamptone, fripperer (£1), Robert de Tiphelde, skinner (1 m.), Walter de Waldegraue, chandler (£1).

Leicestershire.

Henry de Boudene, skinner (£1).

The East Midlands (unspecified).

Henry de Brune, cordwainer, and Robert de Guntorp, clerk. Thomas de Collingham, fishmonger (£1) and Robert de Rothewelle may alternatively have come from the North.

Southern and South-western Counties.

Sussex.

Two taxpayers, William de Lewes, draper (4 m.), and William de Chicestre, glazier.

Hampshire.

10 taxpayers, 5 with the surname Winchester. Thomas de Basinge, woolmonger, alderman (£5), William de Wyncestre, woolmonger (1 m.), and probably Ralph de Wincestre and William de Wyntonia of CripI, draper (£1), belonged to old London families. The others generally had small taxes.

Berkshire.

5 taxpayers. John Dabindone, draper (£3), may have been connected with Richard de Abindon (1272-84). Relatively high taxpayers: Richard de Hakeburne, mercer (£1), and Sarah de Hakeburne (1 m.).

Oxfordshire.

8 taxpayers, 5 with the surname Oxford. Highest taxpayers: John de Burford, pepperer (£3), and Thomas de Oxonia, skinner (£2).

Wiltshire.

Only Martin de Aumesbery, goldsmith, sheriff (£2), doubtless connected with Geoffrey de Ambresbure, goldsmith (1272-3 Will).

Gloucestershire.

Robert de Gloucestre, saddler (1 m.), and William de Bittone (2s.).

Monmouthshire.

William de Monnemue (2s.) and perhaps Henry le Waleys, alderman of Cordw.

Southern Counties (unspecified).

William de Lynham, tailor, and Auncel de Thele (both 2s.).

The West Midlands.

Herefordshire.

Three taxpayers: Thomas de Hereford, bereman, perhaps connected with Henry de H. (1286-7 Will), John de Brimyerd, mercer (£1), William de Brimyerd, potter (30s.).

Worcestershire.

Two taxpayers, both with the surname de Kid(e)menstre.

Warwickshire.

Rois de Couentre (£2), widow of Henry de C., vintner, probably of an old London family, and Jake de Couentre, cornmonger.

Shropshire.

Walter de Wenlok, tailor (£5) and Hugh de Lodelawe.

Northern England and Scotland.

Yorkshire.

7 taxpayers. John de Euerwic, glover, and Roger de Jork, skinner, had a tax of 1 m.

Durham.

Ralph de Dureme (2s.).

Northumberland.

John Morpah (6s. 8d.), if Morpah is for de Morpath.

Scotland.

The surname Scot is found thrice. Geoffrey Scot, fishmonger, had a tax of £1.

The surname le Norreys, found thrice, may mean "the Northerner".

Ireland.

Andrew le Hirreys, tailor (2s.).

Various Counties.

Some 60 taxpayers have surnames whose provenance cannot be determined, because derived from place-names found in various parts of England. For some connection with earlier Londoners can be established or made probable, as for Peter de Kumbe, woolmonger (30s.), William de Graueley, painter, John de Affeld, bureller (£1), William de Hanintone, skinner, Robert de Staundone, probably a plumber, Roger de Wautham (1 m.).

Comparatively high assessments have been noted for Adam de Burtone, skinner (£1), John de Dene, woolmonger (£2), Ralph de Langeford (1 m.), Thomas de Neunham, goldsmith (£1), Robert and Stephen de Prestone, corders (2 m. jointly), Andrew de Staunford, skinner (2 m.), Stephen le Chaucer, alias de Upton (2 m.), Richard de Weleford, hosier (2 m. with his partner), John atte Wode, fishmonger (2 m.).

A number of taxpayers with other than local surnames in the roll of 1292 seem not to have been freemen, but became such later. Several cases have been noted. They will be discussed in Chap. VI, I, a. The probability is that these people were not of London birth.

2. The Subsidy of 1319.

The taxpayers with local surnames taken from places in England outside London, or otherwise associated with such places, number no less than about 870. Many of these were doubtless London born and had inherited the surname or adopted it from a master. But a considerable number of taxpayers must have come to London in the period just before the time of the subsidy. Many are known to have been admitted freemen in the first or second decade of the fourteenth century.

Not a few taxpayers with non-local surnames were admitted in the same period. About 35 certain cases are on record.

The Home Counties.

Middlesex.

53 taxpayers. Some of these were doubtless London born. The three woolmongers with the name de Hakeneye, Richard, alderman, Simon (both of Bill) and Robert (of Tower), were doubtless connected with Osbert de Hakeneye, woolmonger (of Bill) and William de Hakeneye, woolmonger (1277-1302). These were high taxpayers (10 m., £10 and £1 respectively). Gregory de Fulham was a son of Adam de Fulham, alderman, whose real name seems to have been Blund. Others belonging to this group were Nicholas de Haleforde, goldsmith (10s.), Walter de Stebenhuthe, chaloner, Simon de Thornham, fishmonger.

9 taxpayers are known to have been admitted shortly before 1319, Thomas ate Brom, kisser, William de Hakeneye, currier, Nicholas de Hestone, currier, James le Kissere (of Heston), Roger de Mimmes, chandler, John de Totenham, chandler, Nicholas de Totenham, brewer (tax 10s.), Thomas de Westminster, goldsmith, and John Gubbe, alias de Woxbregge (Uxbridge), stockfishmonger.

There were few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned: Thomas de Braynforde, fishmonger (£1), Roger de Edelmetone, tanner, and Gilbert de Istelworthe, dyer (both 11s. 8d.), William de Stanes, cordwainer, and John de Stebenhuthe, cornmonger (both 1 m.). Most had small taxes, 23 only 2s. or less, and the majority were craftsmen such as curriers, tanners, chandlers, fusters, or small dealers.

Buckinghamshire.

Only 12 taxpayers. William de Merlawe, cutler, may have been an apprentice of Henry de Merlawe 1292 S. Three are known to have been admitted in 1310-11 or later, Henry de Amondesham, capper, John de Amondesham, an apprentice of Henry, and John de Bledelowe, baker. There was one very high taxpayer, John de Wengraue, clerk, alderman and Mayor (£20), and two medium ones, Reginald de Aylesbur' (1 m.) and Thomas de Chetyngtone (11s. 8d.), both probably merchants.

Hertfordshire.

67 taxpayers. Not a few of these were very likely sons or apprentices of London citizens, as Geoffrey Anesty, perhaps a draper (16s.), William de Braughyng, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Gatesdene, brewer, Benedict de Rikemersworthe, capper, Peter and Thomas de Ware, stockfishmongers, John and Thomas de Ware, butchers.

John de Chelse and Vincent de Storteforde are in 1292 S.

Many are known to have been admitted about 1309 or later, but a few of them may have taken a master's surname, as Thomas de Crokesle, cornmonger, Laurence de Haddham, tanner, and Henry de Ware, ironmonger. Others were: Geoffrey le Goldbeter (or de Aldenham), John de Benyngho, woolmonger, William Payn, fuster (of Bovingdon), Robert atte Hulle and John Neuman, tanners (both of Hadham), Richard de Hodesdone, fishmonger (22s. 3d.), Thomas de Hoddesdone, fripperer, William de Hodesdone, apothecary, Adam de Sancto Albano, ironmonger (£1), John Blaket, cornmonger (of St. Albans).

There were a few high or relatively high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned: Ralph de Berkwey, cornmonger (1 m.), Agnes de Braughyng (33s. 4d.), Ralph de Braghyngg, girdler (10s.), John de Chelse, chandler (22s. odd), Geoffrey de Gedelstone, cutler (10s.), Ivo Persiual, woolmonger, of St. Albans (2 m.), John de Redeburne, poulterer (£1), Richard Lusscher, alias de Tateregge, tanner (8s. 4d.).

Essex.

95 taxpayers. Essex is the county that has left numerically the greatest contribution to the London population. The surname de Berkyng has been supposed to have been taken from Barking Ess.

Several taxpayers had early London connections. Roger de Frowyk, goldsmith and alderman (tax £4), came of an old London family, and so doubtless did Thomas de Conyngham. Some people with surnames such as Berkynge, Canefelde, Hallingbury, Manhale, Peryngdon, Writele were sons of London citizens or connected with such. William de Leyre is also in 1292 S.

16 are known to have been admitted in 1309 or later, but some doubtless had a master's surname and need not have come from Essex: Adam de Kanefelde, butcher, Alan de Chikewelle, fishmonger (tax £2), Thomas de Chikewelle, cordwainer (10s.), Richard de Herlawe, butcher. Others were: John de Asshyndone, tailor, Ernald le Chaundeler (of Berden), John de Claktone, tailor, John de Herwardstok, mercer, William de Matthyng, William le Lacer, alias de Aungre (10s.), John Belamy, merchant, of Great Sampford (£2), John de Shenefelde, cordwainer, William de Schenefelde, tanner, Sewal de Godesname, alias de Springefeld, paternostrer (8s. 4d.), Ralph de Wandlesworthe, corder (of Broomfield), John de Warle, merchant (1 m.). Hamo de Chikewelle, fishmonger, alderman and Mayor (tax £2) was really Hamo de Dene, but this surname may have been taken from a place in Essex.

There were relatively few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned, the highest being William de Leyre, pepperer (40 m.), Thomas de Roqeswelle (10 m.), William de Hokkele, stockfishmonger (43s., 4d.), Richard de Berkyng, fishmonger (30s.) and William de Leytone, woolmonger (£1). A few had taxes of from 11s. 8d. to 10s.

Kent.

48 taxpayers, 12 with the surname de Kent. The three de Rokesles belonged to an old London family; their taxes were remarkably small (5s. to 20d.). Benedict de Shorne, fishmonger (10s.) was a son of Roger de Schorne [1292 S], and Gilbert de Lesnes, goldsmith (10s.), may have been connected with his namesake in 1292 S. Most had no obvious connection with earlier London citizens.

Henry de Kent is also in 1292 S.

Some were admitted about 1310, as John de Bekenham, mercer, Adam de Cantuaria, A. de Cobhampburi, cheesemonger, William de Craye, butcher, Alexander le Cordewaner (of Greenwich), John de Lesnes, tailor, Edmund de Leuesham, baker, and John de Leuesham, fishmonger (?).

Most were small taxpayers. The highest were Simon le Carpenter or de Cantuaria (1 m.), Stephen de Craye, stockfishmonger (31s. 8d.), Henry de Kent, hosier, and John de Kancia, dyer (£1 each), Thomas de Kent, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Sellyngg, apothecary (£2), Henry de Shorne, fishmonger (1 m.).

Surrey.

47 taxpayers. Connection with earlier Londoners is probable for some, as for Roger de Bernes, fishmonger (tax 30s.), Thomas do Dunlee, pepperer, Nicholas de Reigate, girdler, Richard de Wandlesworthe. John de Stokwelle, painter, is in 1292 S.

15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309: John de Benstede, wax-chandler, William Schep, potter (of Burwood), William le Faunt, alias de Camerwelle, skinner (16s. 8d.), Walter de Mordone of Croydon, stockfishmonger (16s. 8d.), John de Ewelle, glover, Thomas de Kauendishe of Ewell, mercer (1 m.), John de Godestone, hosier, Adam de Kyngestone, fishmonger, John Lok of Ockley, cornmonger (11s. 8d.), Walter de Pappeworthe, dyer, alderman (16s. 8d.), John and Richard de Porkesle, painters, Richard de Talleworthe, shipwright, John le Fayner, alias de Wandlesworth, haymonger, Richard de Yietyngg, fripperer (8s.).

There were few high taxpayers beyond those mentioned: William de Cheyham, cornmonger (46s. 8d.), John Lok (of Qu), cornmonger (£1), Robert de Pypehurste, gold-beater (1 m.).

Home Counties (unspecified).

23 taxpayers. The four Borehams may have been connected with earlier London citizens. Sampson de Waledene, bureller (1 m.), was doubtless connected with Thomas 1292 S. William de Nottele, carpenter (8s.), probably took the surname of Hugh de Notteleye.

4 were admitted in or after 1309: Richard de Chibbenham, hosier, John Pake, maltmonger (1 m.), Richard atte Rothe, chandler (1 m.), William atte Rothe, salter (£4).

Relatively high taxpayers were: John de Borham, girdler (8s.), Robert de Lambourne, bureller (£1), Reginald de Wodeham (1 m.).

Home Counties or the East Midlands.

9 taxpayers. Edmund de Grauele, painter, may have been connected with William 1292 S. Four were admitted in 1311: John de Denham, fishmonger (8s.), Richard Bokskyn, alias de Gravele, fuster, Peter de Henham, hoder, David de Reynham, brewer. Roger le Palmer senior, cornmonger and alderman, was originally called de Coulinges. John le Mareschal of Walbr is also in 1292 S. A high taxpayer was Richard de Renham, cornmonger (£2).

The East Midlands.

Bedfordshire.

15 taxpayers. Three, William de Alegate (of Ampthill), potter, Peter de Stoppesle, fuster, and Simon de Stoppesle, tanner, were admitted in 1311 or later; the last took his master's surname. Highest taxpayers: Nicholas de Donstaple (16s. 8d.) and John de Stoppesle, tanner (10s.).

Huntingdonshire.

Only four taxpayers, the highest taxation being 40d.

Cambridgeshire.

26 taxpayers, several of whom had early London connections: Yter de Compes, a son of Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger 1292 S, Geoffrey de Caumpes, perhaps an apprentice of the same, Maud de Cakestone, widow of William 1292 S (£2), David de Dullyngham, butcher, Roger de Eli, fishmonger (£2), Geoffrey de Meldeburne, merchant (£6 13s. 4d.), John de Pampesworthe (BreadSt), son of a London cordwainer. Denis de Cantebrigg' is Denys le Orfeure 1292 S.

6 were admitted in 1309 or later: John de Badburgham, hatter, Gilbert de Balsham, saddler (perhaps a master's surname), Thomas de Balsham, cheesemonger, Richard de Dokesworthe, ironmonger, Robert de Knapwelle, skinner (10s.), John le Quilter. (16s. 8d.).

High taxpayers beyond those mentioned: John de Balsham, pepperer (25s.), Robert de Ely, fishmonger and alderman (£2), Roger de Lyntone, probably a saddler (1 m.).

Suffolk.

29 taxpayers. John de Bradelee was probably connected with Geoffrey de Bradelee, girdler (1310-11 Will), and Thomas de Bury was a son-in-law and probably an apprentice of Roger de Bery 1292 S. The Cavendishes probably belonged to or were connected with a London family.

8 were admitted in 1309 or later: Hugh Herre, cornmonger, of Battisford (£1), John de Dallingg junior, mercer, Geoffrey Cocus (of Dennington), Roger de Donwyco, skinner, John de Ypeswiche, mercer, John Knapwedd of Ipswich, mercer (10s.), Alan Gille of Somerleyton or Somerton, cornmonger (2 m.), Geoffrey de Sudbury, pepperer.

Elyas de Suffolk, goldsmith and alderman, had a tax of 1 m.

Norfolk.

The number of taxpayers is no less than 61. Nicholas de Yernemuthe is in 1292 S.

15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309. Apart from those mentioned below they are: Thomas le Parchemyner (of Bawdeswell), Simon and Walter le Foundour (of Ellingham), Geoffrey le Foundour, William de Foundenhale, hatter, Hugh de Hecham, lime-burner, Thomas de Lodene, woodmonger, Henry le Fisshemonger, alias de Redenhale, John le Tableter.

The taxpayers of Norfolk offer particular interest and will be dealt with more fully than those hitherto discussed.

There were a good many high taxpayers, and many were merchants, as drapers, mercers, pepperers. Several had early London connections, but generally only for a generation back.

John de Aylesham, mercer and alderman (5s. 4d.), was admitted in 1312. John de Berlingham, woolmonger (10s.), was admitted in 1311. Thomas de Blakeneye, draper (£2), may have been an apprentice of Adam (1295 Will) or of Peter (1311 Will). John de Castelacre, goldsmith, had a tax of 10s. The Caustons, an important family of mercers, are first represented by William (1297-8 Will). A nephew of his was William, mercer and alderman (10 m.), and a relative probably John, mercer and alderman (£1). John de Colkirk, tailor, had a tax of 8s. 4d. John de Dallingg, mercer and sheriff, had a tax of 2 m. John de Depham, mercer, was admitted in 1309- 10. It is doubtful if Andrew de Depham (10s.) was connected with him. William de Elsyngg, mercer (1 m.), founder of Elsing Spittle, shows no early connections with London; his brother was Richard de Elsyngg, mercer. Benedict de Fulham (for Fulsham), pepperer, alderman (16s. 8d.) may have been connected with Thomas de Fullesham 1292 S. Elias le Callere of Garboldisham, mercer (44s. odd), was admitted in 1310-11. William de Hakeforde, mercer (11s. 1d.), had no known early London connections. William de Hedersete, mercer and alderman (£1), may have been connected with Nicholas, mercer (1290 Will). Richard de Horsham, mercer, was elected a sheriff in 1312. Simon de Parys (of Necton), mercer, alderman (10 m.). John de Pykenham, paternostrer (2 m.), had no known early London connections. The same is true of Richer de Refham, mercer, alderman, Mayor (8s. 4d.). Elias de Salle, mercer, had a master's surname; he was admitted in 1310-11. Andrew de Secheforde, mercer (6s.), was a son and Henry de Secheforde, merchant and alderman (1 m.), a kinsman of Albin de Seccheford, mercer, the first known bearer of the surname in London. Richard Starcolf, mercer (6s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311. Robert de Worstede, mercer (£4) may be identical with Robert 1292 S, the first known bearer of the surname in London. Nicholas de Yernemuthe, perhaps a skinner (£2), is first recorded in 1292 S.

Lincolnshire.

27 taxpayers, 7 with the surname Lincoln. Peter de Bolyngtone (1 m.), Richard de Bolyngtone (10s.), both fishmongers, and Hugh de Bolyngtone may have been connected with William (1281 ff.), John de Lyncolne, cordwainer (33s. 4d.), with John [1292 S.].

5 or 6 were admitted in or after 1309: John de Grantham, pepperer (70s.), Richard de Holebeche, hosier (1 m.), Robert de Casteuene, tailor, Hugh de Lyncolne, skinner, Notekyn de Lincolne, if identical with Richard, skinner (£2), William de Messyngham, mercer (1 m.). Again we note several members of the merchant class.

The highest taxpayer was Robert de Kelleseye, lawyer and alderman (£20). Relatively high taxpayers were Walter de Bardeneie, coffrer (16s. 8d.) and John de Lyndeseye, chandler (23s. 4d.).

Northamptonshire.

18 taxpayers, 9 with the surname Northampton. Robert de Dodeford, skinner (£2), is in 1292 S. Geoffrey and Margaret de Norhamptone (of Bas) may both have been connected with Philip 1292 S (of Bas).

Four were admitted in or after 1309: Luke le Chaucer, alias de Grendone, John de Kyslyngebery, hosier or draper (10s.), John de la Nonneys, draper (25s.), Henry de Norhamptone, fripperer (10s.).

Leicestershire.

7 taxpayers. The most prominent one was John de Pulteneye, (fn. 1) draper, alderman and Mayor (£1). Next as regards tax come John de Wymondeswolde (16s. 8d.) and Nicholas de Segraue (5s.), possibly a knight.

Nottinghamshire.

10 taxpayers. Ralph de Blythe, saddler (20s.), may have been connected with earlier London citizens. John de Nothyngham, fripperer, was admitted in 1310, Thomas le Mirurer, clerk, of Selston in 1312. Geoffrey de Notyngham, skinner, had a tax of 11s. odd.

The East Midlands (unspecified).

12 taxpayers. Thomas and William de Walepol, goldsmiths, may have had early London connections. The following were admitted after 1309: Richard Madour of Fakenham, capper (8s. 4d.), Adam Haudeby, brewer, John de Someresham, draper, Henry de Stowe, draper (2 m.). John le Mareschal of Barningham (of Cordw) had a tax of £1.

The East Midlands or the North.

10 taxpayers. Aubry de Appilby was probably of London origin. Relatively high taxpayers: Geoffrey de Brandone, mercer (27s. odd), Peter de Nouo castro, skinner (8s. 4d.).

Southern and South-western Counties.

Sussex.

Only four taxpayers. William de Canefelde, alias de Rygewyk, butcher, was admitted in 1312 and Henry de Denecoumbe, painter, in 1310, but both had master's surnames. The others were William de Arundel, horsemonger (11s. 8d.), and William de Wynchelse (15s.).

Hampshire.

18 taxpayers, 10 with the surname Winchester.

Richolda de Basyng was the widow of William, woolmonger and sheriff, who belonged to an old London family. William de Wyncestre, woolmonger (of Bill), was doubtless connected with William 1292 S (of Bill). Relatively high taxpayers were only John de Wyntonia, barber (1 m.), John de Wyntonia, cordwainer, and William de Wyncestre, brewer (both 10s.).

Berkshire.

18 taxpayers. Stephen de Abyndone, draper and alderman (£5) was a son of Richard (1272-84), and so was perhaps Simon de Abyndone, draper and alderman (5 m.). John de Neubury, corder, was a son of Alan, merchant (1277, etc.), while Robert de Hakebourne, mercer, will have been connected with Richard 1292 S.

Alexander Baudry, alias de Redynghe, tanner, and John de Warfeld, cornmonger, were admitted in or after 1309.

High taxpayers: William de Braye (£10), John de Braye (23s. 4d.), both woolmongers, Cristiana de Neubery (10s.). Thomas Cok, draper (40 m.), is also called Th. Cok of Abyndon, but the latter may be a master's surname.

Oxfordshire.

8 taxpayers, four with the surname Oxford. John de Hoynesham may be identical with John de Heynesham 1292 S.

Highest taxpayers: John de Charletone, mercer (5 m.), and John de Epwelle, parson (10s.).

Wiltshire.

Only four taxpayers. Walter de Aumesbery, goldsmith, was doubtless connected with Martin 1292 S. The other three had the surname Salesbury. Adam de Salesbir', pepperer, had a tax of 70s.

Dorset.

John de Schaftebury (10d.).

Somerset.

Four taxpayers, or five, if John de Mountagu, tailor, took his surname from Montacute, which is very doubtful. The highest taxpayers were Henry de Somersete, baker (9s.), and Gilbert de Tauntone, saddler (5s.).

Devonshire.

9 taxpayers, five with the surname Exeter. Henry de Coumbemartyn, woolmonger and alderman (£2), was a kinsman of William, alderman (1298-1318). Roesia Deueneys was perhaps the widow of Richard, tailor (1294-1310). Richard de Deuonia and Robert de Excestre were probably tailors, and Elyas le Armurer (or de Wodebere), admitted in 1310, a tailor or linen-armourer. The highest tax, apart from Henry de Coumbemartyn, was 40d.

Cornwall.

Thomas de Cornwaille, tailor (12d.).

Gloucestershire.

8 taxpayers, or 9, if Henry Dymmok took his surname from Dymock. Two had the surname Bristoll. six the surname Gloucester. Henry de Gloucestre, goldsmith and alderman (tax only 6s. 8d.), may have been a son of William de Gloucestre (1252-68). Two or three other taxpayers with this surname seem to have been goldsmiths. The only high taxpayer was Richard de Gloucestre, draper and alderman (£10).

Southern Counties (unspecified).

13 taxpayers. Agnes de Wobourne was the widow of Ralph, currier. Godfrey le Whittawier, alias de Yfeld, was admitted in 1312, William atte Wyche in 1311.

High taxpayers: John atte Sole, moneyer, and Roger de Suthcote, cornmonger (£2 each), William de Soudele (2½m.).

The West Midlands.

Herefordshire.

Four taxpayers, all with the surname Hereford. John de Hereforde, saddler, may have had earlier London connections. Stephen de Hereforde, hatter (11s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311, Richard de Hereforde, draper, in 1309-10.

Worcestershire.

Three taxpayers. The highest taxpayer was Hugh de Wircestre, skinner (8s. 4d.).

Warwickshire.

Five taxpayers. Henry de Ardena, merchant, was a son of William de Arderne, tailor. Simon Pottarius, alias de Flechamstede, was admitted after 1310-11. The highest tax was 20d. John de Kileworthe, draper, had a tax of 13½d.

Shropshire.

Four taxpayers, two with the surname Shrewsbury. Highest tax 40d.

Staffordshire.

Only Thomas de Enefelde, alias Evenefeld, pepperer (£2). He was admitted before 1308-9.

Derbyshire.

Five taxpayers, three with the surname Derby. Hugh de Ayssheburne, cordwainer (10s.) will have been connected with Richard, cordwainer (1276 ff.). Heruy de Derbi, skinner, had a tax of 11s. odd.

Cheshire.

Only Richard de Blakenhale (20d.), probably an armourer.

The West Midlands (unspecified).

Three taxpayers: Bartholomew de Bordesle, fripperer, son of Geoffrey (1311-12 Will), Hugh de Madele, tailor, William atte Ok, butcher. Highest tax 3s.

Wales.

William de Bristenok, perhaps a baker or cornmonger (10s.) and Edmund Mohaut, fripperer, probably connected with Adam (1303).

Northern England and Scotland.

Yorkshire.

18 taxpayers. Salerna de Beuerle was the widow of William, vintner. Hugh de Gartone, mercer and alderman (£10), and William de Gartone, mercer, were evidently connected with William de Garton (1298-1312). Henry Darcy, draper, alderman and Mayor (50s.), was admitted in 1310, Simon le Callere in 1309, Walter de Scardburghe, cook, in 1311. Simon de Swanlonde, draper, alderman and Mayor, had a tax of £20.

Durham.

Three taxpayers: William de Bedik, pepperer, possibly connected with Adam de Bidik, tailor (1276-99), Thomas de Dureme, spurrier (10s.), and John le Cotiller, alias de Hertepol (20d.).

Northumberland.

Three taxpayers: Margareta Hawyk, no doubt a widow, Nicholas le Longe of Newcastle on Tyne, fripperer (11s.), admitted in 1309-10, and Andrew de Tyndale.

Westmorland.

John de Kendale (2s. 6d.).

Cumberland.

Four taxpayers. Two were potters, William Ingelwode and Robert de Raghtone. The latter had the highest tax (5s.).

Scotland.

Thomas de Galeweye, Geoffrey Scot, fishmonger, a son of Geoffrey 1292 S, Gilbert Scot. Richard le Hare (Cornh) may be for R. de Hare (Are), Are being the old form of Ayr. Highest tax 2s.

The North.

John le Northren, Thomas de Horneby.

Various Counties.

About 150 taxpayers had surnames derived from, or were associated with, places whose names are found in various parts of England, and it is generally impossible to determine which place was the name-giver. Most of the persons with such names were small taxpayers. Some can be connected with earlier London citizens with the same surname, as Nicholas de Bentele, John de Colewelle, mercer (1 m.), Thomas de Farndone, goldsmith, Laurence de Hanyntone, skinner (£1), connected with William 1292 S, Peter de Hatfelde, bureller, Geoffrey de Littlingtone, dyer, Roger de Netelstede, skinner, William de Neweport, fishmonger, Emma de Staunforde (1 m.), widow of Andrew 1292 S. Nicholas de Farndone, goldsmith, alderman and Mayor (11s. odd), was of London descent, the surname having probably been taken from a master.

Two are found in 1292 S: Stephen de Prestone, corder (£1), and perhaps John de Coton, skinner.

About 25 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309. Some evidently had taken over masters' surnames. Examples are: Elyas de Bamptone, skinner (8s. 4d.), Walter Bois, batour, Henry de Bramptone, cook, William de Cestre, bowyer, Philip de Farnham, pepperer, Walter Gorst, pepperer (30s.), Hervy de Hales, woodmonger (a master's surname), John de Heslewelle, bureller, William Robert, alias de Hatfeld, butcher, Richard le Coffrer, alias de Hortone, John Edward, alias de Mortone, butcher, Adam le Nayler, alias atte Newecastel, William de Ottele, dubber, Walter Stok, William le Peautrer, alias de Suttone, Robert de Suttone, lorimer, Walter Larblaster, alias de Thorp, Roger de Waltham, butcher, William de Waltham, cordwainer, Ivo le Joignour, alias de Wattone, Thomas de Welleforde, hosier (doubtless a master's surname).

The highest taxpayers were John de Assheforde, woolmonger (30s.), John de Codyngtone, woolman (50s.), John de Coton, skinner and alderman (£2), John de Prestone, corder (5 m.). Relatively high taxpayers: Richard de Farnberghe, coffrer (10s.), Richard de Farnham, pepperer (10s.), Thomas de Hales, woodmonger (15s.), William de Hanyntone (11s. odd), Gilbert de Mordone, stockfishmonger (£1), William de Mortone, bureller (16s. 8d.), Henry de Prestone, corder (1 m.), Stephen de Prestone, corder (£1), Alan de Suttone, saddler (£1), William de Waltham, goldsmith (10s.), Nigel de Whatele, oatmonger (8s. 8d.).

The following persons with non-local surnames, admitted in or after 1309, may be identified with taxpayers of 1319. The surnames are given in the form of the Subsidy: Ralph Abraham, girdler, Aubin Larblaster, Adam Ballard, cornmonger, John Barette, cornmonger, John Barun, batour, Simon Blak, tableter, William Bon emfaunt, saddler, Robert Burel, cordwainer, Nigel le Carpenter, John le Chaundeler of FarrE, Simon le Chaundeler, Walter le Coo, John Cosyn, cook, Richard Coterel, cordwainer, N. Crane, butcher, John Eliot, carter, Ralph Elys, stockfishmonger, Hamo le Fishmonger, Richard le Forester, baker, Richard Hayn, baker, John Heryng, fripperer, Denis le Haymonger, Gilbert le Hurer (?), John le Litel, hatter, Peter Mory, butcher (8s. 4d.), John Mounde, cornmonger, William Muriele, poulterer, Robert Newecome, sealengraver, Robert Pany, mason, William Paskes, saddler, Simon Robes, pepperer (?), Richard Rolf, lorimer, Robert Sayleben, cook, Richard Soyl, butcher, Richard Sorel, cordwainer, Roger Swetyng, Richard Swyft, fripperer, Richard Trugg, girdler.

3. Summary and Conclusions.

The material collected in the preceding pages shows that the number of London people with surnames derived from places in England outside London or otherwise known to have come to London from the provinces, is very considerable in both subsidies, but that such people are relatively more numerous in the later than in the earlier one (in 1319 about 900 out of about 1,850 persons mentioned). It must again be emphasized that a good many of these people were doubtless London born, being either sons or descendants of earlier immigrants or else apprentices of people with a local surname. But we may suppose that a considerable number of these taxpayers were actually immigrants or at any rate sons of immigrants. Indeed it can be proved that many taxpayers with local surnames in the Subsidy of 1319 were immigrants. Moreover, there is no reason to suppose that the taxpayers with other than local surnames were all Londoners by birth. We have been able to show that many people with non-local surnames in the roll of 1319 appear with local surnames in other sources or can be proved by other evidence to have come from the provinces, and that not a few of them are known to have been admitted freemen shortly before 1319. In all probability many taxpayers with surnames of occupation or relationship or the like, on whose early history nothing is known, were likewise immigrants. All things considered, it is probable that the percentage of actual immigrants from the provinces in London about 1300 was high, but an approximate figure had better not be suggested.

In the Subsidy of 1292 taxpayers associated with the Home Counties form the largest group among what we may for shortness' sake call "immigrants". They are about 125 or almost half the number. But the probability is that many among the 60 persons placed under Various Counties came from the Home Counties, for instance those with surnames such as Graveley, Hadle, Hatfeld, Langele, Mordon, Nettlestede, Preston, Saunford, Stanford, Waltham, since places with those names are found in these counties. Next come taxpayers associated with the East Midlands, just under 60. The remaining groups are quite small, the taxpayers associated with the South and South-West being 32, those with the North of England 12, and those with the West Midlands 9 only. The majority of the taxpayers belonging to the last three groups had names taken from towns, such as Winchester, Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Coventry, York, Durham.

In the Subsidy of 1319 (fn. 1) the relative figures show certain important differences from those for the earlier subsidy. In comparing the figures for the two subsidies it must, of course, be remembered that the known taxpayers of 1292 are less than half the number of those of 1319. The taxpayers associated with the Home Counties still form the largest group, numbering about 350, yet considerably less than half the number of immigrants. But those associated with the East Midlands are a good second, numbering over 200. Southern and South-Western England comes third with 88 taxpayers, followed by the North with 34 or 35 taxpayers, and the West Midlands inclusive of Wales with 28. Oxfordshire has exactly 8 taxpayers in both subsidies, which means a relative decrease in 1319.

The small contribution given to the London population by the Southern and South-Western counties is striking. It is surprising that only two taxpayers can with certainty be assigned to such a county as Sussex in 1292, four in 1319. The numbers for Worcestershire and Warwickshire are two each in 1292, three and five respectively in 1319, for Staffordshire none in 1292, one in 1319.

But the point of most interest is the considerable rise in the numbers of taxpayers from the East Midlands in 1319, and especially the rise in the number of those associated with Norfolk from 7 in 1292 to 61 in 1319. Lincolnshire has risen from four in 1292 to 27, Leicestershire from one to seven. It is clear that a considerable immigration took place about 1300 from the East Midlands, especially Norfolk.

However, it is not only the numerical rise that is of interest here. As was pointed out in the discussion of immigrants from Norfolk in the Subsidy of 1319, it is a remarkable fact that very many among the people from that county belonged to the merchant class and appear as large or relatively large taxpayers in 1319, and the same is true to a certain extent of immigrants from other East Midland counties. Not a few aldermen, sheriffs, and even Mayors are among their number. We may note in the Subsidy of 1319 such prominent citizens as John de Grantham, John de Pulteneye, Richer de Refham, aldermen and Mayors, John de Aylesham, John and William de Caustone, Benedict de Fulsham, William de Hedersete, Simon de Parys, Henry de Secheforde (all Nf), Elias de Suffolk, Robert de Ely, Robert de Kelleseye, perhaps Roger le Palmer senior, all aldermen, John de Dallingg, sheriff, Richard de Horsham, elected sheriff. Of South Yorkshire were Henry Darcy and Simon de Swanlonde, aldermen and Mayors, Hugh de Gartone, alderman. No similar list could be drawn up for taxpayers associated with the Home Counties in spite of their large numbers; there are only Richard de Hakeneye (Mx), John de Wengraue (Bk), Richard de Berkyngg, Roger de Frowyk, William de Leyre, perhaps Hamo de Chikewelle (Ess), Walter de Mordone and Walter de Pappeworthe (Sr). If Berks is included in the Home Counties, Simon and Stephen de Abyndone are to be added.

This means that the merchant class, which formed the upper stratum of London society, (fn. 1) in the first two decades of the fourteenth century was very strongly recruited from the East Midlands. Now it is a known fact that the language of London in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was of an East Saxon type, but that in the fourteenth century it changed its character and became in the main an East Midland dialect. It has been suggested that this change was due to an influx into London of people from the East Midlands. In this form the theory is hardly tenable, for the chief immigration into London was from the Home Counties, especially Essex and Herts. But the people who came from these districts were chiefly handicraftsmen and small dealers, only to a small extent of the merchant class. However, the theory may be modified in the following way. The immigration of numerous people belonging to the merchant class from the East Midlands may have influenced the language of the upper stratum of London society and given it a mainly Midland character, and the later Standard English may have grown out of this upper-class London dialect.

The material in the Subsidies of 1292 and 1319 is not sufficient for a definite solution of this problem. The influx of people from the East Midlands continued in the decades succeeding 1320 at least down to the middle of the century. The editor has collected voluminous material for London citizens with local surnames down to 1350 or slightly later, but it has grown so in bulk that it can hardly be published in full. It may be possible to work up the part of the material from the East Midlands and the North and publish it separately.

Footnotes

1 Persons with the surnames (de) Armenters, Arras, Betoyne may alternatively be classed as Flemings.
1 Perhaps identical with Bertram de Hamburk 1284 LBA 84. If so, Bartholomew is an Anglicized form of Bertram.
2 According to Kunze, <<Hanseakten aus England 1275-1412>> (Hansische Geschichtsquellen, VI, 1891), a native of Dortmund in Westphalia. There is hardly any definite statement to this effect, but in all probability Gerhard Merbode was connected with, probably a son of, Merbodo, a merchant of Dortmund, who is stated in 1265 to have recently died in England (Hohlbaum, Hansisches Urkundenbuch, III, no. 613).
1 The font-name Brunellesco was used in Florence in the 14th century. Filippo Brunellesco (or [dei] Brunelleschi), a famous sculptor and architect, born at Florence in 1377, was the son of one Brunellesco.
1 John de Pulteneye is stated in DNB to have been a son of Adam Neale de Clipston of Weston (Sx), and grandson of Hugh de Pulteney of Poultney (Leics.). Adam Neale succeeded to the estate in Poultney in 1308. Since John's mother was Maud de Napton, Adam Neale must have been a son of Hugh de Pulteney, in spite of his surname. John de Pulteneye was born at Poultney, according to CW I, 609 (foot-note 1), and must be looked upon as a native of Leicestershire.
1 With the figures here given may be compared those tabulated by Miss Thrupp, The Merchant Class of Medieval London, p. 209. Miss Thrupp has only made use of the local surnames with de preposed found in the Subsidy of 1319, and the number of taxpayers included is 564. Those of uncertain county, altogether 132, have been omitted. The figures in her table and those here given cannot be directly compared, since the taxpayers are to some extent grouped differently. The figures for the North, the West and the South seem to be too high.
1 It has often been pointed out that the merchants formed the upper stratum of London society in medieval times, and on a par with them were goldsmiths and clerks of higher standing. From the ranks of these citizens were nearly always chosen the aldermen and sheriffs of the City in the period we are concerned with. Exceptions from this rule are extremely few. We never find a baker or a brewer or a girdler or a saddler acting in these capacities. A tailor, John de Northampton [1292 S, CripI 35], was alderman of Aldgate c. 1260-86, but he really belongs to an earlier period. Salomon le Coteler, alderman of BroadSt 1294-1308, was a cutler, but a cutler might have been a merchant. One dyer appears as an alderman, Walter de Pappeworthe [1319 S, Cand 49], elected in 1324. The only butcher known to have been an alderman in our period is Nicholas Crane [FarrI 169], elected in 1336, but he is called a merchant in 1338. John de Prestone [1319 S, Dowg 6], alderman of Dowgate from 1321 and Mayor 1332-3, is sometimes stated to have been a girdler, but he was a corder. Hugh Marberer, a sheriff 1338-9, was a draper (LBF 7).