BANGOR
Bishops

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Institute of Historical Research

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M.J. Pearson

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2003

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1-4

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'BANGOR: Bishops', Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 9: The Welsh cathedrals (Bangor, Llandaff, St Asaph, St Davids) (2003), pp. 1-4. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=33746 Date accessed: 28 August 2014.


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Bangor 1066-1300

LIST 1 BISHOPS OF BANGOR

? Revedun

Said to have been cons. bp. of Bangor by Sulien bp. of St Davids, so presum. either 1073 x 78 or 1080 x 85 (De Invectionibus p. 140; below, list 34; see also Pearson, 'Bangor chapter' pp. 169-70).

Hervey (fn. 1)

Presum. appd. by kg. during vacancy at Canterbury (so after 28 May 1089), perhaps a chapl. of William II but does not occ. as such. Cons. by Thomas I abp. of York [1092], s.v. Canterbury (Hugh the Chanter: History of the Church of York, ed. C. Johnson, rev. M. Brett, C. N. L. Brooke and M. Winterbottom (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1990) pp. 12- 13). Prof. obed. not recorded (Cant. Profs. p. lxxxvii and n. 3). Left Bangor for England prob. late 1090s (Willelmi Malmesbiriensis de Gestis Pontificum, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton (RS lii, 1870) pp. 325-6; Liber Eliensis, ed. E. O. Blake (Camden 3rd ser., xcii, 1962) p. 245; and see C. P. Lewis, 'Gruffudd ap Cynan and the Normans', Gruffudd ap Cynan: a Collaborative Biography, ed. K. L. Maund (Woodbridge, 1996) pp. 61-77, at p. 74). Pope referred question of his transl. from Bangor back to abp. Anselm 12 Dec. 1102 (Eadmer, HN p. 139). Abp. refused kg.'s request for his transl. to Lisieux 28 Sept. 1106 x 11 Aug. 1107 (Councils and Eccles. Docs. 1304-5 = Letters of St Anselm of Canterbury, transl. W. Fröhlich (3 vols., Kalamazoo, 1990-4) III no. 404; cf. Ord. Vit. V 322 n. 4). Last occ. as bp. of Bangor in London 27 June 1109 (Diceto I 238). Transl. to new see of Ely: papal consent 21 Nov. 1108, enthr. Oct. 1109, d. 30 Aug. 1131 (1 Fasti II 45).

David 'the Scot' (fn. 2)

Master of cath. school of Würzburg before 1110, when he accompanied emperor Henry V to Italy, and wrote an account of the expedition at the emperor's request (Ekkehard of Aura's 'Chronicon', ed. G. Waitz, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores VI (1844) 33-267, at p. 243; Ord. Vit. V 198-9; Will. Malmes., GR I 764-5, 770-1; Sharpe, Handlist no. 228). (fn. 3) Described as a clerk, el. by prince [Gruffudd ap Cynan], clergy and people, conf. by kg. Henry I, pres. to abp. for cons. early 1120 (Eadmer, HN pp. 259-60; cf. John of Worcester III 146-7). Cons. by abp. 4 Apr. 1120 at Westminster (Eadmer, HN p. 260; John of Worcester III 146-7). Prof. obed. [same day] (Cant. Profs. no. 67). Last occ. at deathbed of prince Gruffudd [1137] (History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, ed. Arthur Jones (Manchester, 1910) pp. 156-7; cf. ibid. pp. 154-5). Possibly returned to Würzburg as a monk shortly before d. (Will. Malmes., GR II 385).

Meurig (Maurice)

Clerk, el. by clergy and people, conf. by kg. 3 Dec. 1139; at first refused to do homage to kg. at Worcester, but was persuaded to do so by attendant bps. of Hereford and Chichester (John of Worcester III 278-9). Cons. by abp. early 1140 (ibid. pp. 284-5). Appt. opposed by princes Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr, who protested at meeting with Bernard bp. of St Davids 1 Nov. 1140 (De Invectionibus pp. 140, 142-3, 146-7). At some point in his episcopate, prob. after c. 1154, he was forced into exile as a result of his attempts to reform the Welsh church and because of Owain's hostility (JS Epp. I no. 87). D. 12 Aug. 1161 (lost calendar of Shrewsbury abbey, cited Le Neve/Hardy I 96 n. 13; cf. Brut Peniarth Text p. 108a, Brut Peniarth Transl. p. 62, and Brut Red Book pp. 142-3, giving 1161). His three brothers, David, Moses and Rhys, were perhaps members of Bangor chapter (below, list 8).

[Arthur of Bardsey

Possibly nom. by prince Owain before Oct. 1163 (Corresp. of Becket I no. 12 and n. 5). Prob. received cons. in Ireland before 1165, summoned to abp.'s court for 2 Feb. 1166 (ibid. no. 61; cf. ibid. nos. 57-60, 114). Owain urged by abp. to give up el. to Bangor Apr. or May 1169 (ibid. II no. 202).]

Gwion (Wido) (fn. 4)

Cons. by abp. 22 May 1177 at Amesbury (Diceto I 420; Gesta Hen. II I 165- 6). Prof. obed. [same day] (Cant. Profs. no. 113). Forced to take Cross 12 Apr. 1188 (Gir. Cambr. VI 125). Occ. at Richard I's coronation 3 Sept. 1189 (L. Landon, Itinerary of King Richard I (Pipe Roll Soc., n.s., xiii, 1935) p. 3). D. 1190 or 1191 (Brut Peniarth Text p. 133a; Brut Peniarth Transl. p. 74; Brut Red Book pp. 172-3). (fn. 5) His son Philip was archdcn. of unidentified archdcnry. (below, list 7). He had three brothers: Madog, Gervase and Philip (Cart. Haughmond nos. 785- 6, 1212, 1220).

Alan (fn. 6)

Prior of hosp. of St John of Jerusalem in England, appd. by abp. 1195 (De Invectionibus pp. 95-6; see R. W. Hays, 'Rotoland, subprior of Aberconway, and the controversy over the see of Bangor, 1199-1204', Journal of Hist. Soc. of Church in Wales xviii (1963) 9-19, at p. 10). Cons. 16 Apr. 1195 (Flores Historiarum, ed. H. R. Luard (3 vols., RS xcv, 1890) II 113; ann. Southwark, BL Cotton MS Faust. A. viii fo. 137r). Prof. obed. [same day] (Cant. Profs. no. 134). Spent most of episcopate in England (Hays, 'Rotoland' p. 10). D. 19 May 1196 (Cart. of Knights of St John of Jerusalem in England, Secunda Camera, Essex, ed. M. Gervers (British Academy, 1982) p. 570, giving 19 May; Brut Peniarth Text p. 136a, Brut Peniarth Transl. p. 75, Brut Red Book pp. 175-6, and Ann. Tewkes. p. 55, giving 1196).

[Rotoland

Subprior of Aberconwy (Cist.), el. bp. c. 1191 and 1196 (De Invectionibus pp. 95-6; Gir. Cambr. III 193, 195, 240 etc.; and see Hays, 'Rotoland').]

M. Robert of Shrewsbury (fn. 7)

Dean of Shrewsbury (Cart. Shrewsbury nos. 286, 351; cf. ibid. nos. 16, 106, 283, 300, and EEA II no. 312); also preb. of Wolverhampton (Petri Blesensis Opera Omnia, in Patrologia Latina, ed. J.-P. Migne, ccvii, Epistolae no. 147, at col. 436). Appd. by abp. without el. (Gir. Cambr. I 114; cf. ibid. III 193). Cons. by abp. [16] March 1197 (Ann. Merton, Cambridge Corpus Christi Coll. MS 59 fo. 168rb, giving 'xvi kal. Aprilis', 17 March, doubtless in error for 'xvii kal.', 16 March, which was Sunday). Prof. obed. n.d. (Cant. Profs. no. 136). Non-resident for most of episcopate (Hays, 'Rotoland' p. 10). Abducted 1211 (Ann. Camb. p. 67 n. 4). D. 1212 (Brut Peniarth Text p. 155b; Brut Peniarth Transl. p. 85; Brut Red Book pp. 190-1; Ann. Worc. p. 401; Ann. Tewkes. p. 60); buried at Shrewsbury (Ann. Waverley p. 273).

Cadwgan of Llandyfái (fn. 8)

Abbot of Whitland (Cist.) (Heads II 323; also ibid. I 147, 274-5). Royal letters of protection for unnamed abbot of Whitland 27 Dec. 1214 (Rot. Litt. Pat. p. 125b). Lic. to el. gr., with royal nom. of abbot of Whitland, 13 March 1215 (ibid. p. 130b). Royal assent to el. of 'O.' abbot of Whitland 13 Apr. (ibid. p. 132b). Cons. by abp. 21 June at Staines (ann. Southwark, ed. M. Tyson, 'Annals of Southwark and Merton', Surrey Archaeol. Collections xxxvi (1925) 24-57, at p. 50; cf. Ann. Worc. p. 404, 'xvi die Iunii', doubtless for 'xix'). Prof. obed. [same day] (Cant. Profs. no. 154). Res. before 1 March 1236 (CPL I 151). Entered Cist. abbey of Dore (Herefs.) (Brut Peniarth Text p. 196a; Brut Peniarth Transl. p. 104; Brut Red Book pp. 234-5). D. at Dore 11 Apr. 1241 (Ann. Tewkes. p. 122; cf. Brut Red Book pp. 234-5). Writer of theological works (Sharpe, Handlist no. 176; J. Goering and H. Pryce, 'The De modo confitendi of Cadwgan bishop of Bangor', Mediaeval Studies lxii (2000) 1-27).

M. Richard (fn. 9)

Archdcn. of Bangor (below, list 3). Lic. to el. gr. 7 June 1236 (CPR 1232-47 p. 149). Royal assent 3 July (ibid. p. 152). Cons. by abp. 1237 and prof. obed. (Cant. Profs. no. 173). Opposed prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn 1241-6 (Stephenson, Governance pp. 169-70). Fealty to kg. at Windsor 20 Apr. 1246 (Litt. Wall. no. 21). After Anglo-Welsh agreement of 1247 left impoverished see of Bangor, staying at St Albans where he last occ. 2 Jan. 1258 (Chron. Maj. IV 647, V 2, 288, 432, 602, 608; Stephenson, Governance pp. 170-1), though with at least one visit to Bangor dioc., where he occ. 11 July 1252 (Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum 'The Record of Caernarvon', [ed. H. Ellis] (Record Commission, 1838) p. 252). Back in Wales by Oct. 1259 (CPR 1258-66 p. 57), and occ. Apr. 1261 (Councils and Eccles. Docs. I 489-93) and May 1265 (Close Rolls 1264-8 p. 117). Petitioned pope to be allowed to res. because of age and illness c. 29 Sept. 1267 (Councils and Eccles. Docs. I 496-7). D. before 8 Nov. 1267 (CPR 1266-72 p. 165).

M. Anian (fn. 10)

Archdcn. of Anglesey (below, list 4). Lic. to el. gr. 8 Nov. 1267 (CPR 1266-72 p. 165). Royal assent 12 Dec. (ibid. p. 173). Temps. 5 Jan. 1268 (ibid. p. 178). Cons. by abp. 1267/8 at Canterbury (Cant. Profs. no. 210). D. before 12 Jan. 1307 (Canterbury cath. Reg. A fo. 82v; 2 Fasti XI 3). The Bangor Pontifical prob. to be associated with him (T. Morris, 'The Liber Pontificalis Aniani of Bangor', Trans. Anglesey Antiquarian Soc. and Field Club (1962) 55-78; S. Harper, 'The Bangor Pontifical: a pontifical of the Use of Salisbury', Welsh Music History ii (1997) 65-99, suggesting an East Anglian origin).

Footnotes

1 A Breton (Ord. Vit. VI 186-7): William Brito, archdcn. of Ely, was his nephew (see I Fasti II 50, and Liber Eliensis p. 276). See DNB and ODNB.
2 Variously described as Irish (Will. Malmes., GR I 764-5, 'David Scottus'; Ekkehard of Aura, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores VI (1844) 243, 'David Scotigena'; cf. Ord. Vit. V 198- 9, unnamed 'Irensis scolasticus') or Welsh (Ann. Worc. p. 377, 'Walensis natione'). Prob. Welsh: for discussion, see Episcopal Acts II 551-2, accepted by F. Barlow, The English Church 1066-1154 (1979) p. 84. See DNB and ODNB.
3 Sharpe expresses doubt that the writer was the same person as the later bp. of Bangor. While there is no evidence for Barlow's statement that he was Henry I's clerk and ambassador (prob. based on a confusion between kg. Henry and emperor Henry), the link between the writer and the bp. is explicit in Will. Malmes., GR I 764-5.
4 A Welshman (H. Pryce, 'Esgobaeth Bangor yn Oes y Tywysogion', 'Ysbryd Dealltwrus ac Enaid Anfarwol': Ysgrifau Ar Hanes Crefydd Yng Ngwynedd, ed. W. P. Griffith (Bangor, 1999) pp. 37-57, especially pp. 47, 55-6), rejecting the erroneous identification with Guy Rufus, dean of Waltham, made by J. Hayward, 'Guy Rufus, dean of Waltham (c. 1162-1177) and bp. of Bangor (1177-1190)', Medieval History iii (Bangor, 1991) 34-47. Guy Rufus res. deanery of Waltham spring 1177 (Gesta Hen. II I 135, cf. ibid. p. 174), and last occ. c. Easter 1183 (Pipe Roll 29 Hen. II (Pipe Roll Soc. xxxii. 1911) pp. 7, 15); see Early Chs. of Waltham Abbey 1062-1230, ed. R. Ransford (Woodbridge, 1989) no. 280 n. 6.
5 Hayward, 'Guy Rufus', Medieval History iii (1991) 46 suggests d. before 19 Nov. 1190, but gives no source.
6 For his seal, see Williams, 'Episcopal seals' p. 110 no. 1-2.
7 For his seal, see ibid. p. 110 no. 3, and 'Welsh seals at Canterbury' p. 148 no. 1.
8 Son of an Irish pr. and a Welshwoman (Gir. Cambr. IV 161). He is called Martin in Ann. Worc. p. 404 and Ann. Tewkes. p. 61. This was prob. his monastic name. He is called Cadwgan of Llandyfái (Lamphey), one of the episcopal estates of St Davids, in Brut Red Book pp. 204-5; see also Episcopal Acts II 554. For his career, see J. Goering and H. Pryce, 'The De modo confitendi of Cadwgan bishop of Bangor', Mediaeval Studies lxii (2000) 1-27, at pp. 1-8; and see DNB and ODNB. For his seals, see Williams, 'Episcopal seals' p. 110 nos. 4-5.
9 For his prob. seal, see Williams, 'Episcopal seals' p. 111 no. 6.
10 For his seal, see ibid. p. 111 no. 7, and 'Welsh seals at Canterbury' p. 148 no. 2.