Bishops

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J.S. Barrow

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2002

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'Bishops', Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 8: Hereford (2002), pp. 1-7. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=34422 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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Hereford 1066-1300

LIST 1 BISHOPS

Walter (fn. 1)

Chapl. to queen Edith (John of Worcester II 586); appd. bp. at or just afterChristmas 1060 (John of Worcester II 586); together with Giso, bp.-el. of Wells(The Life of King Edward who Rests at Westminster, ed. F. Barlow (2nd edn., OMT,1992) p. 54; Symeon of Durham II 194) cons. by pope Nicholas II in Rome c.15Apr. 1061 (John of Worcester II 586-88 states 1061 but not the day; Will. Malmes.,G.P. p. 251 says at time of 1061 Rome council, which occ. at Easter; cf. also F.Barlow, The Life of King Edward, pp. 52-4, and for discussion of date of Giso'scons., see further S. Keynes, 'Giso, bishop of Wells', in Anglo-Norman StudiesXIX, ed. C. Harper-Bill (Woodbridge, 1997) p. 228). Bp. Walter swore an oath ofloyalty to William I at Berkhamsted before Christmas 1066 (John of Worcester II606). Occ. 29 Aug. 1070 (John of Worcester III 14) and 27 May 1072 (RegestaRegum Anglo-Normannorum (1066-1087), ed. D. Bates (Oxford, 1998) no.68). D. before 29 Dec. 1079, when his successor was cons. Will. Malmes.,G.P. p. 300 says he d. in the fifth year of the reign of William I, but he thenadds that Robert succeeded 'non multo post', so this is clearly an error. Lelandreports that Walter d. 1077, but without stating a reference for this (Leland'sItineraries V 162).

Robert the Lotharingian (fn. 2)

Prob. can. of Liège cath., or at least an ex-schoolboy of Liège cath., since he isreferred to as 'frater noster' in the Liège cath. obit book (L'obituaire de lacathédrale Saint-Lambert de Liège (Xle-XVe siècles), ed. A. Marchandisse(Brussels, 1991) p. 89); may have been invited to England by William I, since hecannot be identified with the Robert who occ. as a royal clk. pre-1066, and sinceWilliam was happy to invite Lotharingian clks. (cf. Walcher, bp. of Durham) toEngland (discussion forthcoming in NDNB); ordained pr. by bp. Wulfstan ofWorcester at an unknown date before 29 Dec. 1079 (John of Worcester III 32);cons. by abp. Lanfranc 29 Dec. 1079 at Canterbury (ibid.); prof. obed. n.d. (Cant.Profs. no. 41); laid foundation stone of new church of St Peter's abbey Gloucester29 June 1089 (Hist. Cart. Mon. Glouc. I 11); attended transl. of relics of St Oswaldof Worcester into new cath. building there, 8 Oct., perhaps 1089 (VW p. 52); d.26 June 1095 (John of Worcester III 76); commem. 26 June at Hereford (app. 1fo. 24r) and 27 June at Liège (A. Marchandisse, L'obituaire de la cathédrale SaintLambert de Liège p. 89). (fn. 3)

Gerard (fn. 4)

Cantor of Rouen cath., date uncertain (D. Spear, 'Les dignitaires de la cathédralede Rouen pendant la période ducale', Annales de Normandie xxxvii (1987) 121-47 at 122); also, by 1091, archdcn. of Rouen (D. Spear, 'Les archidiacres de Rouenau cours de la période ducale', Annales de Normandie xxxiv (1984) 15-50 at 22,43); royal chanc. under William I and William II (Regesta Regum AngloNormannorum (1066-1087), ed. D. Bates (Oxford, 1998) pp. 101-2); sent to Romeby William II to negotiate with pope Urban II about how Anselm should receivethe pallium 1095 (Councils and Synods I ii 646, citing Eadmer, HN p. 68); appd.bp. of Hereford by William II 1096 (Eadmer, HN pp. 68, 74); cons. at St Paul'scath., London 9 June 1096 (ibid. p. 74); prof. obed. n.d. to abp. Anselm (Cant.Profs. no. 53); assisted at cons. of Gloucester abbey 15 June 1100 (Symeon ofDurham II 230); transl. to York 1101 (1 Fasti VI 2, citing Hugh the Chanter pp.24-5 and n. 5).

Roger

Henry I's larderer; invested with bpric. 29 Sept. 1102 at London (Eadmer, HNp. 141, quoted in Councils & Synods I ii 673; John of Worcester III 102; cf. Will.Malmes., G.P. p. 303); d. at London within a week ('infra viii dies') of theinvestiture, therefore presumably c.6 Oct. 1102 (Eadmer, HN p. 144; Will. Malmes.G.P. p. 303).

Reinhelm

Chanc. to queen Matilda, wife of Henry I, by 3 Sept. 1101 (Regesta RegumAnglo-Normannorum 1066-1152, II, Regesta Henrici Primi, ed. C. A. Johnstonand H. A. Cronne (Oxford, 1956) p. xi); pr. of the church of Rochester (BL HarleyRoll A 3); prob. identifiable with the Rainald, queen's chanc., who occ. 25 Dec.1102 (Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum II no. 613); invested with bpric., prob.shortly after Christmas 1102 (Eadmer, HN p. 144; John of Worcester III 102),but, suffering qualms at having received it from a layman, res. it into the king'shands before 29 March 1103 (Eadmer, HN p. 145; John of Worcester III 104;Councils & Synods I ii 657). Cons. by abp. Anselm 11 Aug. 1107 (Eadmer, HN p.187; John of Worcester III 112; Symeon of Durham II 239); prof. obed. to abp.Anselm (Cant. Profs. no. 57); assisted at cons. of Llanthony priory 1108 (F. G.Cowley, The Monastic Order in South Wales, 1066-1349 (Cardiff, 1977) p. 30).Since he was referred to as 'fundatoris ecclesiae' in Hereford cath. obit book (app.1. fo. 43v), he was prob. responsible for commencing the rebuilding of the cath.D. 27 Oct. 1115 (John of Worcester III 138); commem. at Hereford 28 Oct. (app.1 fo. 43v).

Geoffrey de Clive

Chapl. of Henry I; cons. 26 Dec. 1115 at Canterbury by abp. Ralph (Eadmer,HN p. 237; John of Worcester III 138); prof. obed. n.d. (Cant. Profs. no. 66); d. 2Feb. (Symeon of Durham II 254) or 3 Feb. 1119 (John of Worcester III 144);commem. at Hereford 4 Feb. (app. 1 fo. 4v).

Richard de Capella (fn. 5)

Keeper of the king's seal under the chanc. (John of Worcester III 148); el. bp.7 Jan. 1121 (Eadmer, HN pp. 290-1; John of Worcester III 148; just before 2 Feb.1121 according to Symeon of Durham II 259). Cons. 16 Jan. at Lambeth by abp.Ralph (Eadmer, HN pp. 290-1; John of Worcester III 148); no prof. obed. survives;d. 15 Aug. 1127 at Ledbury (John of Worcester III 172); commem. 16 Aug. atHereford (app. 1 fo. 31v).

Robert de Béthune (fn. 6)

Can. of Llanthony priory from an unknown date before 1115 (Anglia Sacra II301-2, before the d. of Hugh de Lacy); el. prior of Llanthony in succession toErnisius who res. mid 1120s (ibid. II 302). Recommended by Payn fitz John andMiles of Gloucester to Henry I as suitable candidate for el. to see of Hereford latein the 1127-31 vacancy (ibid. II 304: 'ut ecclesia Herefordensis rectore destitutaiam diebus multis miserrime laborasset'). Innocent II ordered bp. Urban of Llandaffto allow Robert to accept el. 1131 (Welsh Episcopal Acts II 630); Robert was cons.28 June 1131 at Rochester (Gerv. Cant. II 381); prof. obed. (Cant. Profs. no. 78);d. at Rheims 16 Apr. 1148 after attending the council there (Anglia Sacra II 319;Councils & Synods I ii 818-19; year is given as 1148 in Ann. Tewkes. p. 47, Ann.Oseney p. 26 but 1147 in Ann. Worc. p. 279). Commem. at Hereford 16 Apr. (app.1 fo. 14r).

Gilbert Foliot (fn. 7)

Monk of Cluny, then prior of Abbeville (MB pp. 73, 147); el. abbot ofGloucester 1139 after nomination by Stephen on recommendation by Miles ofGloucester, and was blessed by Robert de Bethune Whitsunday (11 June) in thatyear (ibid. p. 79). In attendance at 1148 council of Rheims, which began 21 March,accompanying abp. Theobald, who subsequently obtained approval of popeEugenius III for Gilbert's el. as bp. of Hereford in succession to Robert de Béthune(ibid. pp. 96-7). Cons. by Theobald 5 Sept. 1148 at St-Omer (ibid. p. 97); prof.obed. (Cant. Profs. no. 91). Transl. to see of London March 1163 (MB p. 99).

M. Robert of Melun (fn. 8)

Robert of Melun was not archdcn. of Oxford, as often stated (e.g. U. Horst,Die Trinitäts- und Gotteslehre des Robert von Melun (Mainz, 1964) p. 10; also F.Courth, 'Robert v. Melun', in LMA VII 909); the office was misattributed to himthrough confusion with his successor as bp. of Hereford, Robert Foliot (see below,and list 36). Proposed by abp. Thomas Becket, perhaps on suggestion of AlexanderIII, for el. to see of Hereford (Materials for Becket III 24, V 344-5 and M. G.Cheney, Roger, Bishop of Worcester 1164-1179 (Oxford, 1980) p. 14); cons. 22Dec. 1163 at Canterbury by abp. Thomas (Gerv. Cant. I 176; however, Ann. Tewkes.p. 49 and Ann. Worc. p. 381 give date 1164). D. 26 Feb. 1167 (Ann. Tewkes. p. 50;Ann. Worc. p. 382); commem. at Hereford 27 Feb. (app. 1 fo. 8r).

Robert Foliot (fn. 9)

Archdcn. of Oxford 1151-73 × 1174 (1 Fasti III 35). Can. of Hereford by Apr.1173 × 6 Oct. 1174 (list 36). El. bp. after Easter 1173 (Councils & Synods I ii958, 962; Diceto I 368 places between 23 March and 17 May); cons. 6 Oct. 1174at Canterbury by abp. Richard of Dover (Diceto I 392); prof. obed. n.d. (Cant.Profs. no. 108). Attended Third Lateran Council, March 1179 (Houedene II 171).D. 9 May 1186 (Ann. Tewkes. p. 53; Ann. Worc. p. 385); commem. 9 May atHereford (app. 1 fo. 17v).

William de Vere (fn. 10)

Can. of St Paul's, preb. of Neasden, in which occ. once only, 26 May 1162 (1Fasti I 64; discussion J. Barrow, 'A twelfth-century bishop' pp. 176-7). Res. thispreb., soon after 1162, to become an Augustinian can. at St Osyth's at Chich inEssex (1 Fasti I 64 and J. Barrow, 'A twelfth-century bishop' p. 177); clk. ofworks at Henry II's new foundation of Waltham between 1177 and 1182 (ibid.pp. 178-9); itinerant justice 1185-6 (ibid. p. 182). El. bp. 25 May × 2 June 1186at Eynsham (Gesta Hen. II I 346, where described as 'clericum et familiaremdomini regis'; Eyton, Itin. Hen. II p. 268); cons. 10 Aug. 1186 at Lambeth (DicetoII 41); prof. obed. (Cant. Profs. no. 122); d. 24 Dec. 1198 (Gerv. Cant. I 573);commem. at Hereford 24 Dec. (app. 1 fo. 52v).

Giles de Braose (fn. 11)

El. early in 1200, since he occ. as bp.-el. in Hilary Term, 1 John (Curia RegisRolls I 159-60); cons. 24 Sept. 1200 in St Catherine's chapel, Westminster (DicetoII 169; Chron. Maj. II 474); prof. obed., with endorsement dated 24 Sept. (Cant.Profs. no. 142). Fled to France May 1208 (Curia Regis Rolls V 152); royal custodyof episcopal lands gr. to Gerard d'Athies 23 May 1208 (Rot. Litt. Pat. p. 83b);remained in France in exile until summer 1213, arriving at Dover 16 July(Wendover II 81). D. by 18 Nov. 1215 (Rot. Litt. Pat. p. 159ab), prob. 17 Nov.,the date of his commem. at Hereford (app. 1 fo. 46r); d. 17 Nov. 1215 (Leland'sItineraries V 163). Ann. Tewkes. p. 61 gives the year as 1215, but Ann. Dunstablep. 52 mistakenly as 1216.

M. Hugh de Mapenore (fn. 12)

Previously dean (list 2). El. bp. 3 Feb. 1216 (Ann. Worc. p. 406) by chapteragainst wishes of king John, who appealed to the curia; case heard at CivitÀCastellana Aug. 1216 and delegated by Honorius III to Guala (CPL I 40). John'sd. 18/19 Oct. 1216 removed the obstacle to the el.; Hugh made prof. obed. 27Oct. 1216 to abp. Stephen Langton at Canterbury (Cant. Profs. no. 155: date andplace stated in endorsement); cons. bp. 18 Dec. 1216 by bp. Silvester of Worcester(Ann. Tewkes. p. 62; Ann. Worc. p. 406); however, according to Ann. Waverley (p.287) he was cons. 6 Dec. at Gloucester. Still alive 14 Apr. 1219 (Hist. Cart. Mon.Glouc. II 102-3; see comment EEA VII no. 296). D. 1219 (Ann. Worc. p. 411;Ann. Tewkes. p. 64), 'circa Pascha', i.e. c.7 Apr. (Chron. Maj. III 56). Commem.16 Apr. (app. 1 fo. 14r), so prob. d. 16 Apr. 1219.

Hugh Foliot (fn. 13)

Archdcn. of Shropshire from before 9 May 1186 (list 7); last occ. as archdcn.in 1219, prob. in Apr. (after 16 Apr.), when mentioned as the bearer of a letterfrom Hereford cath. chapter to the king seeking licence to el. a new bp. (CPR1216-25 p. 191). El. bp. of Hereford June 1219 (Ann. Worc. p. 410); cons. 27Oct. 1219 (ibid.) at Canterbury, together with William, bp. of Llandaff (Ann.Margam p. 33, giving year only; cf. also Ann. Tewkes. p. 64); however 1 Nov.1219 according to Matthew Paris (Chron. Maj. III 56); no prof. obed. survives; d.summer 1234 (ibid. p. 305; Ann. Tewkes. p. 93, giving year only; Ann. Oseney p.80, giving year only; Ann. Worc. p. 426). D. by 13 Aug. 1234 (Close Rolls 1231-4 p. 498), and since he was commem. 7 Aug. at Hereford he prob. d. c.7 Aug.(app. 1 fo. 30r; according to Leland's Itineraries V 163 he d. 7 Kal. Aug., i.e. 26July, 1234, but this is prob. an error for 7 Aug.).

M. Ralph of Maidstone (fn. 14)

Previously dean (list 2). Still titled dean, when Henry III gave royal assent toel. and gr. him temps. of the see of Hereford 30 Sept. 1234 (Close Rolls 1231-4p. 529); cons. bp. 12 Nov. 1234 by abp. Edmund of Canterbury at Canterbury(Ann. Tewkes. p. 94; cf. also Chron. Maj. III 305); prof. obed. n.d. (Cant. Profs.no. 170). Res. bpric. before 17 Dec. 1239, when he was received into the Orderof Friars Minor at Oxford; later moved to Franciscan convent in Gloucester, wherehe d. prob. 27 Jan. 1245, since his obit entry at Hereford says he spent as long atime as a Franciscan as he had as a bp.; commem. at Hereford 27 Jan. (app. 1 fo. 3v).

[Michael

Can. of Lichfield, el. by chapter after res. of bp. Ralph of Maidstone, but el.quashed Aug. 1240 (Hist. Angl. II 438, and cf. Chron. Maj. IV 48 and Ann. Tewkes.p. 116).]

Peter of Aigueblanche (fn. 15)

Briefly archdcn. of Shropshire (list 7). El. bp. of Hereford 24 Aug. 1240 (Chron.Maj. IV 48); royal conf. soon after el. (ibid.). Royal assent to el. and temps. 11Sept. 1240 (Close Rolls 1237-42 p. 222); cons. 23 Dec. 1240 in St Paul's cath.,London (Chron. Maj. IV 74-5); no (surviving) prof. obed.; enthroned afterChristmas 1240 (Ann. Tewkes. p. 117). Will dated Sugwas (Herefs.) 26 Nov. 1268(Woodruff, Will p. 1); d. 27 Nov. 1268 according to memorial inscription at hiscollegiate foundation at Aiguebelle (ibid. p. ix; 'about Christmas' 1268 accordingto Ann. Oseney p. 220; d. Nov. 1268 according to Leland's Itineraries V 163).Commem. 27 Nov. at Hereford (app. 1 fo. 48r).

John le Breton (fn. 16)

El. c.6 Jan. 1269 (Ann Oseney p. 221); referred to as bp.-el. 27 Jan. 1269 (CloseRolls 1268-72 p. 18). Temps. 14 Apr. 1269 (CPR 1266-72 p. 332); cons. 2 June1269 by bp. Nicholas of Winchester at Waverley (Ann. Waverley p. 376; Ann. Wint.p. 107 gives 3 June); prof. obed. to bp. Nicholas of Winchester acting on behalfof abp. Boniface of Canterbury (Cant. Profs. no. 215). D. 12 May 1275 (app. 1fo. 18r); licence to el. successor 23 May 1275 (CPR 1272-81 p. 90).

M. Thomas de Cantilupe (fn. 17)

Previously preb. of Preston (list 30). El. bp. 14 June 1275 (Ann. Oseney p. 263);royal assent to el. 20 June 1275 (CPR 1272-81 p. 96); temps. 26 June (ibid.);cons. 8 Sept. 1275 at Canterbury by abp. Kilwardby (Ann. Oseney p. 265); prof.obed. n.d. (Cant. Profs. no. 220); excomm. early 1282 by abp. Pecham, followingmeeting at Lambeth 7 Feb. (cf. D. Douie, Archbishop Pecham (Oxford, 1952) p.200); royal protection for journey to Rome, 17 Feb. 1282 (CPR 1281-92 p. 11);order by Pecham to publish sentence of excomm., 15 March 1282 (Reg. PechamII 142-3); appealed to pope and travelled to Italy to make his case against Pechamin person; received by Martin IV (Ann. Worc. p. 483; AASS Oct. I 577b); d. atFerento near Montefiascone 25 Aug. 1282 (AASS Oct. I 579b-80a, 607b; Ann.Worc. pp. 483-4 gives correct date but states incorrectly that Cantilupe d. atOrvieto). Canonized 17 Apr. 1320 by John XXII, who ordered the feast to becelebrated 2 Oct. (AASS Oct. I 540).

M. Richard de Swinfield (fn. 18)

Previously preb. of Hampton (list 17). El. bp. 1 Dec. 1282 (Reg. Swinfield p.273). Abp.'s conf. and spiritualities 31 Dec. (Reg. Epp. Peckham (RS 77) I 498-9; Reg. Pecham II 185). Temps. 8 Jan. 1283 (CPR 1281-1292 p. 54). Licencealibi cons. 5 March (Canterbury, Reg. A fo. 84b/99b). Cons. 7 March (Reg.Swinfield p. 273), at Gloucester (cf. D. Douie, Archbishop Pecham p. 184 fordiscussion); prof. obed. (Cant. Profs. no. 227, where misdated to 1282). D. 15March 1317, after a pontificate lasting (presumably from his el.) 34 years, 3 monthsand 13 days (Leland's Itineraries V 162, although Leland elsewhere gives the dateas the 5th day after the feast of Gregory I, i.e. 16 March, and states that the bp. d.at Bosbury (ibid. V 164)).

Footnotes

1 Lotharingian in origin (John of Worcester II 586: 'capellano Edithe regine Waltero Lotharingo').For his career, see F. Barlow, The English Church 1000-1066 (2nd edn., 1979) pp. 25, 76, 83, 88,109n., 114, 119, 157, 218, 238n., 303n., and NDNB.
2 Lotharingian in origin: 'Lotharingus' (Will. Malmes., G.P. p. 300); 'Lothogaringi' (app. 1 fo.24r).
3 For his career, see J. Barrow, 'A Lotharingian in Hereford' and NDNB; on Robert's land-grant toRoger de Lacy, see V. H. Galbraith, 'An episcopal land-grant of 1085', EHR xliv (1929) pp. 353-72and T. S. Purser, 'The origins of English feudalism? An episcopal land-grant revisited', HistoricalResearch lxxiii (2000) 80-92.
4 Nephew of bp. Walkelin of Winchester and of abbot Simeon of Ely (1 Fasti VI 1-2, citing Hughthe Chanter pp. 20-1 and Heads of Relig. Houses p. 45; cf. also V. H. Galbraith, 'Girard thechancellor', EHR xlvi (1931) 77-9). He was a writer of poetry (Sharpe, Handlist no. 351).
5 For his career, see NDNB.
6 Schoolmaster at an unknown school in England (Anglia Sacra II 299); studied divina paginaunder William of Champeaux and Anselm of Laon (d. 1117) (ibid. II 300). For his career, see NDNB;Robert was the subject of a vita written by William of Wycombe (pd. with some omissions AngliaSacra II 295-322; there is a more recent unpd. edn. by B. Parkinson, 'The Life of Robert de Bethuneby William de Wycombe: translation with introduction and notes' (unpd. Oxford B. Litt thesis, 1951));Robert's acta are ed. EEA VII nos. 13-58.
7 Prob. son of Robert Foliot, steward of the earl of Huntingdon, and of Agnes, sister of Robert deChesney, bp. of Lincoln 1148-66 (MB pp. 33, 39). For his career, see MB; NDNB; for letters andchs. see GFL.
8 English by birth, but of unknown family; studied at Paris under Abelard and Hugh of St Victor;succeeded Abelard as a teacher on the Mont-Ste-Geneviève 1137; taught theology at Melun from1142, returning to Paris 1147 (D. E. Luscombe, The School of Peter Abelard (Cambridge, 1969) pp.281-98). For Robert's theological works see Les oeuvres de Robert de Melun, ed. R. M. Martin (4vols., Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense xiii, xviii, xxi, xxv, 1932-52) and for an assessment of himas theologian see M. Grabmann, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode (2 vols., Freiburg imBreisgau, 1909-11) II 323-58; B. Smalley, The Becket Conflict and the Schools (Oxford, 1973) pp.51-8; U. Horst, Die Trinitüts- und Gotteslehre des Robert von Melun (Mainz, 1964). See also D.Knowles, Episcopal Colleagues of Thomas Becket (Cambridge, 1951) pp. 9, 28-9, 77, 87-8, 97, 104.
9 For his career, see NDNB. Kinsman of Gilbert Foliot (MB p. 44), although his immediate relativesmay have belonged to an Oxfordshire branch of the Foliot family (EEA VII p. xlii).
10 Son of Aubrey de Vere, chamberlain to Henry I, and of Alice de Clare, and brother of Aubrey deVere, earl of Oxford (J. Barrow, 'A twelfth-century bishop' pp. 175-6, 188-9); clk. in familia ofabp. Theobald of Canterbury by 1152 (A. Saltman, Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury (1956) pp.273, 321-2). For his career, see J. Barrow, 'A twelfth-century bishop' pp. 175-89; see also EEA VIIpp. xliii-xlv.
11 Son of William de Braose (d. 1211) and of Maud of St Valery (F. M. Powicke 'Loretta, countessof Leicester', in Historical Essays Presented to James Tait, ed. J. G. Edwards, V. H. Galbraith and E.F. Jacob (Manchester, 1933) pp. 248, 271-2, discussing genealogy of the Braose family preserved inBL Cotton MS Julius D × fos. 28r-30r). Giles's education and early career are uncertain; the designof his secret seal as bp. depicts a tonsured cleric holding a book (presumably a den.), and if Gilesused this seal before his el. as bp., this suggests that he was in dcn.'s orders and possibly was anarchdcn. (EEA XXII p. lxxiii; if Giles was an archdcn. before becoming bp., his archdcnry. is unlikelyto have been in England but might have been in France). For his career, see EEA VII pp. xlv-xlviand NDNB.
12 Son of Robert de Mapenore and his wife Matilda, from Hampton near Leominster (Herefs.) (EEAVII p. xlvii). For his career, see EEA VII pp. xlvi-xlviii; Biog. Ox. III 2194.
13 For his career, see EEA VII pp. xlviii-l and NDNB. Possibly son of Roger Foliot who held 3 feesof Walter de Wahull in Northants. (EEA VII p. xlviii; for Roger see W. Farrer, Honors and Knights'Fees (3 vols., London and Manchester, 1923-5) I 83).
14 For his career, see Biog. Ox. II 1203-4, and NDNB.
15 Aigueblanche, dép. Savoie, ar. St-Jean-de-Maurienne, chef-lieu du canton. For his career, seeDNB XV 946-51; NDNB; J. Barrow 'Athelstan to Aigueblanche', pp. 43-7.
16 Son of William le Breton, a royal justice; justice of court of common pleas 1266-8; justice of theking's bench 1268-9 (Foss, Judges II 259-60; M. Gibbs and J. Lang, Bishops and Reform 1215-1272 (Oxford, 1934) p. 192).
17 For his career, see Biog. Ox. I 349-50; M. Jancey, St Thomas Cantilupe; many details of his life are given in the dossier of his canonization process, Vatican Cod. Lat. 4016, from which excerpts pd. AASS Oct. I 539-705; for comment on the dossier, see R. C. Finucane. 'The Cantilupe-Pecham controversy', in M. Jancey, St Thomas Cantilupe pp. 103-23 and M. Richter, Sprache und Gesellschaft im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1979) pp. 173-201, 205-17; his register is published as Reg. Cantilupe; for his vita see AASS Oct. I 539-610; for his miracula see ibid. 610-705.
18 For his career, see 2 Fasti II I; Biog. Ox. III 1833-4. See also Reg. Swinfield pp. i-xiii; Household Expenses of Richard de Swinfield I pp. lxvi-lxxxiii; and 'A transcript of "The Red Book": a detailed account of the Hereford bishopric estates in the thirteenth century', ed. A. T. Bannister, in Camden Miscellany xv (Camden 3rd series xli, 1929). The surname may derive from Swingfield near Folkestone, Kent (Reg. Swinfield p. i).


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