1. The Survey of 1559. E. 159/34, rot. 222.
Note: the survey was authorised by letters patent under the exchequer
seal, dated 14 June 1559 and addressed to the lord treasurer, his undertreasurer Sir Richard Sackville and the chancellor, Sir Walter Mildmay.
The three, or two of them, were required to survey the creeks, wharfs and
quays of the port and recommend which should be used for handling
cargoes, in accordance with the statute 1 Eliz. I, c. 11. (fn. 1) Their survey and
recommendations were recorded in the following schedule or certificate.
The certificate of vs William marques of Winchester lorde treasourer
of England Richard Sackevile knight vnderthreasourer of the quenes
highnes courte of theschequier at Westminster and Walter Myldemay
knight chauncellor of the same courte appoynted and auctorised by the
quenes highnes letters patents hereunto annexed for the lymytacon
assigninge and appoyntinge of all kayes and wharfes and places apperteyninge and belonginge to the porte of London for the charginge and
landinge discharginge vnlodinge and laynge on lande there of wares and
merchaundizes accordinge to an Acte of Parliament made and enacted
in the Parliament begonne at Westminster the xxiijty day of January in
the first yere of the raigne of our soueraigne lady Elizabeth by the grace
of God of England France and Ireland Quene defendour of the faithe
etc., and there proroged vntil the xxvth day of the same moneth and then
and there holden kept and contynued vntill the dissolucon of the same
beinge the eight day of May in the said first yere of our said soueraigne
lady the quenes majesties reigne. Be it remembred that we the commyssioners aforesaid accordinge to the quenes majesties commyssion to vs
directed dated the xiiijth day of June in the yere of her graces reigne above
written have the xxiiijth day of August in the firste yere of our said
soueraigne lady the quene searched surveyed and vywed by all the wayes
and meanes we can all the open places kayes and wharfes and other
ladinge and discharginge places for the chardge and dischardge of
merchandizes within the porte of London and in all creeks to the same
apperteyninge. And vpon deliberate advise by metes and boundes have
by thauctorite of the said statute and commyssion aforesaid appointed
assigned and limyted the places here vnder written to be open ladinge and
discharginge places of wares and merchaundizes accordinge as they be
hereafter seuerally lymytted and assigned and all other places of ladinge
and dischardginge of wares and merchaundizes heretofore accustomed
within the said porte and all creekes and places to the same porte belonginge vtterly to be abolyshed and debarred by force of the said statute and
other the premysses. First we have appoynted limitted and assigned by
force of the premysses these kayes or places next folowinge that is to say
the quenes majesties twoo kayes in London lyenge together at the Custome
House there the one called the Newe Wolle Kay otherwise called the
Custome House Key conteyninge by estymacon est and west in length
fourescore and eleven footes. And from the water of Thames southe and
northe in breadeth fourtie and three footes. The other of the quenes
kayes is called the Olde Wooll Kay and conteyneth est and west in length
one hundreth and seven footes and a half and from the water of Thames
south and north in breadeth fortie and eight footes and a half. One other
key in London aforesaid called Galley Kay next the Tower of London
conteyninge est and west in length one hundreth and fyftene footes and
from the water of Thames south and north in breadeth fiftie and one
footes. One other kay in London aforesaid called Andrewe Morys Kay
conteyninge est and west in length threscore footes and from the water
of Thames north and south in breadeth fiftie and one footes and a half.
One other Kay in London aforesaid called Ambrose Thurstanes Kay
conteyninge est and west in length thirtie and twoo footes and from the
water of Thames south and north in breadeth twoo and twenty footes.
One other kay in London aforesaid called Raffs Kay conteyninge est and
west in length fourescore footes and from the water of Thames north
and south in breadeth xxxviij footes. One other kay in London aforesaid
called Cocks Kay in the tenure of William Lothbury conteyninge est and
west in leingth thre and fiftie footes and from the water of Thames south
and north xxxiiij footes eight ynches. One other Kay in London aforesaid
called Gybsons Kaye conteyninge est and west in length liij footes and from
the water of Thames south and north in breadeth lx footes. One other
kay in London aforesaid called Haddocks Kay conteyninge est and west
in breadeth fiftie and fyve footes and in length from the Ryver of Thames
vnto the strete beinge south and north clxxvij footes. One other kay in
London aforesaid called Dyce Kaye conteyning in length from the water
syde to the strete south and north clx footes and in breadeth est and west
liiij footes. One other kay in London aforesaid called Beare Kay conteyninge est and west by the Thames syde in breadeth xxxij footes and in
length from the Thames south and north lxij footes. One other kay in
London aforesaid called Somers Kaye conteyninge est and west in length
lxxiiij footes and from the water of Thames south and north xxx footes.
One other kay or wharffe in London called Botolphe Wharffe conteyninge
est and west in length lxxviij footes and from the water of Thames south
and north fiftie and twoo footes. One other kay in London called Sabbys
Kay conteyninge south and north in length Ixxviij footes and est and west
in breadeth xxxv footes. One other kay in London called Younges Kaye
conteyninge north and south in length twoo hundreth and tenne footes
and est and west in breadeth xlvj footes. One other kay in London called
Crowne Kay conteyninge est and west in length fiftie and foure footes
and from the water of Thames south and north xxxvij footes. One other
kay in London aforesaid called Smartes Kaye adioyninge to Byllingesgate
conteyninge est and west in breadeth xix footes and from the water of
Thames south and north cx footes. And one other wharfe or kay called
Freshe Wharfe conteyninge north and south xxxj footes and est and west
xlij footes. And one other kay or wharfe called Gaunts Key liynge betwixt
the said kayes or wharfs called Cocks Kay and Freshe Wharff conteyninge
xxxvj footes euery wey fouer square to be open places for ladinge chardginge or shippinge landinge discharginge and vnladinge of all manner of
wares and merchaundizes both inwardes and outwardes within the porte
of London. Item we have appoyncted and lymyted by vertue of the
premisses one open place called Byllingesgate in London aforesaid
conteyninge one the west side from the water of Thames south and north
in length clx footes and at thend of the same est and west xl footes and more
est and west all the length of the same clx footes it conteyneth fouretene
footes in breadeth to be an open place appoyncted for the landinge or
bringinge in of any fyshe corne salt stones victualls and fruicts (grocery
wares except) and to be a place of carienge furth of the same or the like
and for noe other merchaundizes. Item we have further appoyncted
assigned and lymyted by vertue of the premysses one place in London
aforesaid commonly called the Three Cranes in the Vintre conteyninge
from Dunghill Lane on the est towards the west in length cclxj footes and
from the water of Thames south and north in breadeth Iviij footes to be
an open place for the landinge or dischardginge of all maner of wynes and
oyles. And also we have appoincted the same Three Cranes one kay in
the tenure and occupacon of Thomas Johnson beinge in the parishe of
great Alhallowes in Temmestrete in London conteyninge fourtie footes
est and west that is to say from Cosyn lane one the west to the Styllyard
on the est and from the water of Thames northwarde twenty footes.
And one wharffe or kay called Busshers wharfe beinge above London
Bridge in the parish of St. Magnes conteyninge est and west in lengthe
Ixxij footes that is to say from the Stockefysshemongers hall one the west
vnto Churcheyarde Alley on the east and south and north in breadeth
xlviij footes to be open places for the landinge or dischardginge and
layenge on lande of any the goodes hereafter ensuynge that is to say
pytche tarre flaxe iron waynescotts clapbordes deles ores rasters ashes
to make sope osmonds eles cabells halsers hemp stones chests playenge
tables and all manner of fyshe and hoppes and to be open places for the
shippinge and ladinge of any wollen clothes of the price of sixe poundes
or vnder the cloth and conyskynnes and for no other merchaundizes.
Item we have further appoincted assigned and lymyted bv vertue of the
premisses that the Bridgehouse in Southwarke shalbe an open place for
the landinge dischardginge or layenge on lande of any kinde of corne
bought and provided or to be bought and provided for the provision of the
victuallinge of the citie of London and for no other merchaundizes.
Item we have further ordred and appoincted by vertue of the premisses
that all sea coles otherwise called Newe Castell coles prouided or to be
provided to be caried to the parties of beyonde the seas shall and may be
shipped in any place within the porte of London. So that the same coles
from tyme to tyme be shipped and laden in the presence of the searcher
to and for the quenes highnes her heires and successors within the said
porte of London or in the presence of one of his servaunts sworn to serve
in that office. Item we have appoynted assigned and lymyted that all
manner of beare shipped and to be shipped over the seas by way of
merchaundize from any parte of the porte of London shalbe firste entred
in the quenes majesties custome bookes in the Custome House within
the said porte and then to be shipped or put in any vessell or vessells at
any staires or wharffs within the Citie of London Southwarke or St.
Katherins in the day tyme in the presence of the quenes majesties searcher
of and within the said porte for the tyme beinge or one of his servaunt
or servaunts sworne to serve in the said office and that done to be caried
over the seas at the pleasure of the owner thereof. Item we have appoynted
essigned and lymyted by these presents that all manner of deales bordes
clapbordes wainscotts sparres rasters owers corn roddes to make basketts
heath to make brushes bricks and salte which shalbe brought vnto any
parte of the porte of London shall and may be dischardged and layed
on lande in the day tyme at any place within the saide porte of London
in the presence of one of the wayters sworne belonginge to the quene
Custom Howse of and for the saide porte for the tyme beinge anythinge
before remembred to the contrary notwithstandinge. And we have further
appoynted assigned and lymyted by vertue of the premysses that the
stayers and wharfe or kaye at the house in the Citie of London called the
Styllard otherwise Guihalda Theutonicorum shalbe an open place for
landinge or shippinge layenge on lande and dischardginge of all manner
of wares and merchaundizes apperteyninge and belonginge to any
merchaunts of the hanse havinge the said house called the Styllard and
free of the same. And that the said merchaunts nor any of them nor any
other person or persons for them shall not shippe or put to the water
from the said stayers wharfe or kaye any merchaundizes but in the presence
of the searcher for the quenes majestie her heires and successors within
the porte aforesaid or one of his servaunts nor shall not take vp or discharge
or lay on lande any merchaundizes at the same stayers wharfe or kaye
but only in the presence of one of the wayters to the said Custome House
appeteyninge or belonginge and not to be vsed as a place for the ladinge
or dischardginge of any merchaundizes apperteyninge to any other person
or persons but only suche as be free of the said house. This order for the
Stilliard to endure duringe the pleasure of the quenes majestie her heires
and successors and no longer. Item for the better aunsweringe of the
revenues of the quenes majesties customs and subsydyes in the porte
aforesaid the said commyssyoners have ordred and further appoynted
that from and after the feast of Easter next comynge there shall no
straunger nor straungers borne whether be or they be or shalbe made
denyzen or not aswell inhabyte or be comorante in at or vpon any of the
said wharffes or kayes or any parte of theym (the Stillyarde excepte). And
that euery tenaunte or keper of euery of the said kayes wharfes and stayers
shall from tyme to tyme be bounden in suche some or somes of money to
the quenes highnes vse her heires and successors as by the lorde treasourer
of England or other officers of the quenes majesties courte of theschequor
for the tyme beinge shalbe thought good and convenient vpon condicon
that there shalbe no goodes whereof custome or subsidy is or shalbe due
layd on lande at their kayes wharfes or stayers or shipped or put from
thence vpon the water to be caried ouer the seas by way of merchaundize
before the said goodes be entred in the quenes custome bookes in the said
porte. And also to be laden in the presence of the said searcher or one of
his servaunts for the tyme beinge and dischardged and laide on lande in
the presence of one of the said wayters for the tyme beinge. And other
articles to be put in the said condicon as to the said treasurer and officers
hereafter from tyme to tyme shall seeme good mete and convenient as
the case shall require. And that all creeks wharfes kayes ladinge and
dischardginge places in Gravesend Wolwyche Barkinge Grenewych
Depford Blackewall Lymehouse Ratclyff Wappinge Saynt Katheryns
Tower Hill Redderethe Southwerke London Bridge and euery of them.
And all and singuler kayes wharfes and other places within the Citie of
London and the suburbes of the same citie or ells where within the said
porte of London (the seuerall kayes wharfes stayers and places before
lymyted and appoynted only except) shalbe from hensfourth no more
vsed as ladinge or dischardginge places for merchaundizes but be vtterly
debarred and abolyshed from the same for ever by force of the said
statute and other the premysses. In wytnes whereof we the commyssioners
aforesaid to thies presents have put to our seales the xxviijth day of August
in the yere aforesaid.
2. The Legal Quays. E. 178/7075.
Note: the following document was drawn up in 1584 when the extent of
the 'legal' port of London was re-examined. (fn. 2)
Porte of London
||The names of all the kays and wharffs in the Porte of London vsed for landinge of wares and merchandizes before the makinge of the statute in anno primo that doth appoynt landinge and ladinge places together with a declaracon with what kyndes of wares they were most occupyed before that tyme begynnynge att the kaye next the Tower and namyng them in order as they lye towards the Three Cranes in the Vyntrew.
||was greatly occupied with all kynde of merchandizes bothe inward and outward.
||was used only for shippinge of wolle and felts and when the Staplers had ended there shippinge then cost men occupyed it for woode and other cost wares.
|Custom Howse Kaye
||well occupied with all kyndes of merchandizes both inward and outwarde.
||well occupied with wares inward and outward for Fraunce and with cost mens goodes.
||occupied but with cost men.
||with Portingall commodities by reason the merchants of that contree did lye and had ther ware howses there and with some cost men.
||well occupied with all kynde of merchaundizes inward and outward.
||with pitche tar and sope ashes and such like.
||with lead and tynne and other cost wares.
||with wares belonginge to merchants of Portingale by reason they did lye there and was vsed for shippinge of straungers of clothes.
||with all kynde of merchandizes inward and outwarde.
||altogether with cost wares.
||with goodes of certan Flemyngs lyeinge there and with
||altogether with fyshe.
||wholly inhabited with Flemyngs and vsed for there merchandizes.
||with straungers goodes that ley and had ware howses
||there and with wynes and by cost men.
||Altogether for straungers goodes who had merchandizes and lodgings.
||for landinge of barrell fyshe and suche like havinge no crane.
||for fyshe and eele shippers.
||for all theire owne merchandizes only.
||for wynes and waynscotts onely.
3. Notes on the Legal Quays.
The quays are listed in the order as they lay west of Tower Dock.
Galley Quay. Owned by the Marowe family from the fifteenth century
at least until 1538, (fn. 3) it was acquired by alderman Sir Ralph Warren and
on his death in 1553 by his son Richard, who was leasing it out in 1582 for
£80 a year. It then had a crane and a jibbet. (fn. 4) The quay did not extend
right up to Tower Dock: there were several quays to the west which may
have been too small to be authorised as legal quays in 1559. Later,
however, they were merged into Brewers and Chesters Quays, which were
authorised lading and landing places when the port was surveyed in 1667
after the Great Fire. (fn. 5)
Old Wool Quay. One of the oldest quays in London (dating back at
least to the thirteenth century) it took its name from the wool-fleets which
used to land there. The crown bought it in 1556 for £400 from the coopers'
company which had acquired it four years earlier from a member, John
Charley, who was trustee of the estate of Nicholas Gibson, the owner on
his death in 1540. (fn. 6) The crown's tenant in 1582 was John Porter who paid
£22 a year rental.
Custom House Quay. Also called New Wool Quay, it was purchased by
the crown in 1558 from the heir of Phillip Linne of Bassingbourn for
£600. (fn. 7) The rental in 1582 was £40 a year. The quay then had two jibbets.
Subsequently it returned to private ownership, as did the Old Wool
Quay. (fn. 8)
Greenberries Quay. Known also as the Andrew Morrice Quay, it was
acquired by the fishmongers' company in 1518 as part of the bequest of
Sir Thomas Kneseworth's estate. It was then named after the owner but
had been given the name Greenberries, presumably from a tenant, by
1550. (fn. 9) The lessee in 1582 was John Porter, who was also tenant of the
fishmongers' adjacent Crown Quay. By 1666 the two quays had been
merged into one, named after Porter: as such it was known until the
company disposed of the property to the crown in the eighteenth century. (fn. 10)
In Porter's time the rent was £24; the quay then had 'a good crane'.
Crown Quay. Also acquired by the fishmongers, with Greenberries
Quay, in 1518; and also leased to John Porter in 1582. Porter sub-let for
£40 a year. The quay, used only for coastal traffic in corn and wood in
1559, had acquired a jibbet by 1582 and was used 'for merchaundize'.
Bear Quay. The property of the heirs of Sir William Roche (d. 1549),
it had a jibbet in 1582 but was considered 'very unfitt for merchaundize'.
The deputy searcher had his office on this quay.
Thrustans Quay. Or Ambrose Thurstons Quay, it was owned in 1582 by
William Page who leased it for £50 a year. It had one jibbet. By the time
of the Great Fire it had apparently lost its separate identity. (fn. 11)
Sabbes Quay. The property of Widow Bulley in 1582 with a rental of £50.
It had a jibbet but was described as being 'very vnfitt to be vsed for
Gibsons Quay. Formerly called Asselynes Wharf after John Asselyne,
who owned it in 1366, it was purchased by Sir Christopher Draper a few
years before the survey of 1559. (fn. 12) The quay, with one jibbet, was let in
1582 for £50 a year to William Wiggens. It was subsequently known by
Yongs Quay. Worth £52 a year in rent, the quay was owned in 1582 by
Richard Warren, heir of Sir Ralph Warren (d. 1553). It had a jibbet.
Raffs Quay. The property in 1582 of a Mr. Hearsdon who received
£100 a year in rent. The quay had a crane and jibbet.
Dyse Quay. Owned by James Bacon who inherited from his father,
alderman James Bacon, in 1573. The alderman had bought it for £900
from Robert Brittein, who presumably acquired the property from
William Breton, the owner in 1559. (fn. 13) The quay, described in 1582 as being
'open without protection', was used almost entirely by coasters. The tenant
was alderman William Webb.
Old Thrustons Quay. Also called Haddocks Quay, it was owned in
1582 by alderman Webb who leased out part of the property with Dyse
Quay for £40.
Smarts Quay. This quay ran along the east side of Billingsgate. When
surveyed in 1559 it was in private hands, (fn. 14) but by 1582 it had apparently
become the property of the city chamber. It was then described as being
'very vnfitt for merchandize'.
Billingsgate. A 'common key or place' (fn. 15) Billingsgate was described by
Stow as 'a large Watergate, Port or Harbrough for shippes and boats,
commonly arriuing there with fish, . . . Orenges, Onions and other fruits
and rootes, wheat, Rie and grain of diuers sortes . . .'. (fn. 16) The landing
places for these cargoes were on the west-side and at the head of the
harbour. (fn. 17)
Sommers Quay. Adjoining Billingsgate on the west-side, it was also owned
in 1582 by the city chamber. It had a jibbet.
Buttolphe Wharf. Owned by the city chamber and leased to the Russia
company. (fn. 18) It had a crane.
Cocks Quay. The owner in 1573 was Sir Anthony Cooke of Gidea Hall,
Essex, who leased it to Lawrence Cockson, haberdasher. The rental in
1582 was £70 a year. The quay then had a jibbet. The Cookes subsequently
sold the property to Robert and Edward Thurston. (fn. 19)
Gaunts Quay. About the time of the 1559 survey Gaunts Quay was
owned by John Cheyne of Amersham, Buckinghamshire. In 1562 Vincent
Ancotts, a fishmonger of London, acquired the quay from Cheyne as
part of a property exchange. (fn. 20) The quay was small and ill-equipped.
Fresh Wharf. The last of the legal quays east of London Bridge In 1582
Sir Roger Manwood was owner; his will in 1597 also mentions the wharf. (fn. 21)
The rental was £100. The wharf had a jibbet.
Busshers Wharf. This wharf or quay was probably one of two wharves
which were part of a property owned in 1559 by Thomas Carter. His
tenant was a Christopher Bussher. (fn. 22) There are no further references to
the wharf, but Stow does mention two which were in the same area—
Drinkwater and Fish wharves. (fn. 23)
The Steelyard. Containing the Hansards' Guildhall and wharf. An
Elizabethan plan of the Steelyard shows stairs and a crane. (fn. 24)
Thomas Johnsons Quay. Like Busshers Wharf there is no mention of
Johnsons Quay after 1559. It must have been virtually an extension of the
Three Cranes Wharf. The largest lading and landing place in the port.
Its exact location is obscure since Dunghill lane, its eastern boundary
according to the 1559 survey, is difficult to identify. A Dunghill wharf or
stairs lay near to Anchor lane, (fn. 25) but this could not be the lane of the survey
unless it is assumed that the surveyors had confused east for west. Otherwise the land must have been east of Three Cranes lane, which is shown
on contemporary maps (e.g. the 'Agas' map and Wyngaerde's 'view') as
separating one of the cranes from the other two.
Bridgehouse, Southwark. The only authorised landing place on the south
bank, the Bridgehouse stood close to St. Olave's Church on the Thamesside. In Tudor times it had important connexions with the grain trade,
providing granaries for storage, ovens for baking as well as landing
places. (fn. 26)