Index
Commodities

Sponsor

London Record Society

Publication

Author

H.S. Cobb (editor)

Year published

1990

Supporting documents

Pages

174-189

Citation Show another format:

'Index: Commodities', The overseas trade of London: exchequer customs accounts: 1480-1 (1990), pp. 174-189. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36089 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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GLOSSARY AND INDEX OF COMMODITIES

References in Roman numerals are to pages in the introduction; all other references are to serial numbers in the text. All the commodities in the text are listed below and the English (unless identical with the modern form), Latin or French spelling of the MS is given in round brackets. A reference is provided to each entry for a commodity, with the exception of a few very common commodities, e.g. woollen cloth, for which the first six references only are given. Descriptions are provided of the less familiar commodities and weights and measures. The following books have been especially useful in supplementing the Oxford English Dictionary:

S. W. Beck, The Draper's Dictionary (1886)

Claude Blair, European Armour circa 1066 to circa 1700 (1953)

E. M. Carus-Wilson (ed.), The Overseas Trade of Bristol in the later Middle Ages (1937)

H. Hall and F. J. Nicholas (eds.), 'The Noumbre of Weyghtes' in Select Tracts and Table Books Relating to English Weights and Measures, 1100–1742 (Camden Society, 3rd series, xli, 1929)

E. M. Veale, The English Fur Trade in the later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1966)

T. S. Willan (ed.), A Tudor Book of Rates (1962)

R. E. Zupko, A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles: the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century (American Philosophical Society, 1985)

Aglets (auglett'), metallic tags, pendents or spangles, 100, 176, 184; see also girdles

agnus dei, ?badges with the figure of a lamb bearing a cross or flag, an emblem of Jesus, of latten (latonis), 46

almonds, 156

aloes, used as a purgative, 156

alum (alom'), chiefly used as a mordant in dyeing, 12, 16, 43, 184, 200

amber (ambr'), 35, 169–70, 185, 197

aniseed (agnes sede), 20

annulets (annelettez), small rings, 28, 56, 89, 94

Anthony's bells (Anthoni bell'), 178

anvils (andfeldum), 45

apes (cimie), 156

apples (poma, pomes), 46, 70, 99, 156

aprons, mail (mayle), 114; see also faulds

archers' sallets (salett' archers), 102, 134; see also sallets

arm plates (arme plat'), 114

armour see aprons, archers' sallets, armour for a horse's neck, arm plates, bevors, brace, breastplates, breeches, brigan- dines, chamfron, corslets, cuirasses, falls, faulds, flanchards, flaps, gard- braces, gauntlets, gorgets, gussets, habergeons, harness, helmets, hoods of mail, leg-harness, mails, plates for horses' heads, rests, sallets, shoulder- plates, skulls, sleeves of mail, splints, steel bonnets, vambraces, visors

armour for a horse's neck (armour' for an hors nek), 93

Arras cloth, imitation (counterfet Araas), 28

arrow-root (cowe and calfe), 26, 96

ashes (cineres), wood-ashes for making lye, the alkalised water used in cloth manufacture, 1, 13, 32, 40, 88, 106, 114–15, 117, 120–2, 125, 127, 137, 141, 143, 169–71, 182, 197, 202, 204, 206, 212–13; see also pot ashes

awl blades (alblad', alleblad', alle bladys), 24, 30, 37, 60, 139, 147, 181, 184

awl hafts (allehaft', alhaft'), handles of awls, 91, 181

axes, coopers' (couper axes), 205

Backs, ? metal backs for hearths, 183

bacon (bakon, baconus), 220, 266, 305, 354, 374, 408, 424, 454, 472, 474, 508, 571, 575

bags (bagg', bag'), 1, 26, 30, 38, 94, 96, 100, 102, 139, 174, 181, 183–4, 186; for children (pro pueris), 1

bag rings (bag reng', ryng'), 1, 26, 102, 174, 18–4

balances (balanc'), 24–5, 30, 70, 94, 181–2, 184, 186; latten (latonis), 79

balls (pile), probably tennis balls, 5, 9, 11, 23, 25, 60, 68, 82, 84–6, 92, 95–7, 100, 138, 140, 143, 147, 159, 172, 178–9, 187; see also chasing balls

band, a weight for iron, 24 stone in 1600 (Zupko)

barbers' stones (barbour stonys), 46

barley (ordeum), 61

barrel, a cask and a measure of capacity, varying with the commodity, e.g. 8 barrels of wine and oil to the tun, 12 barrels of herring to the last

basan leather (basen ledd'), lower quality leather made from sheepskin, 103, 147, 182

'bascheron' (basskeron), a measure (amount unknown) of battery (q.v.)

basins (basyns, bason), 90, 94, 121, 368, 527; barbers' (barbours), 90; 'bottom of a basyn', 82; brass (enea), 508; lat- ten (latonis), 23

bast ropes (bast ropis), made from the inner bark of the lime tree, 169–70

battery (battry), articles of metal wrought by hammering, basins, kettles, etc., 1, 10, 33–5, 37, 59, 77–8, 90, 94–5, 97, 100, 117, 134, 139, 147, 150–1, 154, 159, 181, 183, 189, 204, 206–8, 211, 237

baudekin (bawdkyn', bawdekyns), a rich embroidered silk cloth, 33, 184, 190

bays, bay berries, fruit of the laurel or bay- tree, 107, 111, 116

beads (bed', bedys'), 114, 139, 152, 156, 181, 190; black (blak), 180; bone, 94, 139; boxwood (box), 27, 30, 33, 183–4; coral (corall'), 156; glass (glas, glas- sez), 17, 23, 25, 27, 33, 94, 147, 153, 156, 162, 178, 181–2; jet (cole, kole), 23, 27, 33, 82, 91–2, 181, 207; red, 94; wooden (treen, lignea), 17, 20, 23–4, 37, 90, 93, 139, 153, 165, 178; see also mistletoe beads

bead-stones (bedeston'), ?beads for rosaries, 147

bead strings (bede stryng'), 1

beaver skins (bevirs), 190

beaver wombs (bevir wombys), beaver skins from the belly, 170

beer, (beir', beyr), 169–70, 222, 225, 243, 291, 298, 301, 305, 312, 342, 349, 354– 5, 385, 421, 454, 478, 512, 516, 536, 541, 546, 550–1, 553, 557, 561, 577, 582, 586, 594–5

bellows (belowes), 588

bells (bell'), 17, 24, 46, 56, 139, 153, 174, 180–1, 184–5; brass (campana enea), 475, 560; latten (latonis), 24, 114; sheep's (ovium, shepis), 178, 184; see also Anthony's bells, sacring-bells

bench-covers (banker'), 139, 290, 567

bevors, plate (bavers plate), plate defence for the chin and neck, 114, 139

bills (billes), long-handled weapons, 117

bits (bytf, bittes, bittez), 2, 30, 56, 82, 117, 197; horse bits, 207

'blowers', bellows, 170

blowing horns (blowyng horns), 587

boards (bord'), between which shanks (q.v.) were packed, four skins at a time

boards for shoemakers (ligna pro sutoribus), 10, 169–70, 206

bocals (bocal'), glass bottles or jugs with short wide necks, 156

bocasin (bocarsyn'), a cotton fabric of the fustian type, 134

bodkins (botkyns, botkins), 25, 56, 94, 184

bolsters (bolstr'), 183

'bolt wombs', fur of, 204

bonnets (caleptra, bonnet'), 93–4, 121, 498, 506, 508, 527, 542; double (dupl', dowble), 121, 205; half grain (dimidium granum), dyed partly with grain (q.v.), 227; scarlet, 166; single, 121, 205, 290; without grain (sine grano), 227; see also steel bonnets

books (libri), xxxvi, 1, 139, 156; painted (depicti), 178; see also histories, printed books

boots of calaber fur (boot' de calabre fur- res), 30

borax (borace), 156

bord Alexander (bord' Alisaundr', Alasaundr', Alizandr'), a rich striped silk originally from Alexandria, 2, 93, 141

bottles (bottell'), glass (glasse), 96, 114, 178; pint (pynt'), 23; tin (tyn'), 147; see also wicker bottles

bowls, round maple (ciphi maple rotundi), 212

bowstaves (bowstav', boustaves, bow- stawes), 15, 16, 32, 59, 77, 156, 169– 70, 197, 200

boxes, 94, 139

Brabant linen cloth (telum lineum Braband'), 1, 9, 17, 21, 23–4, 26, 30, 33–5, 82, 91, 120–1, 134, 139, 144, 165, 173, 177–9, 181, 184, 186, 189, 196, 205; raw (rawe), 121

Brabant stones (brabanstone), ? floor tiles, 179

brace (brac'), a measure of length, about 64 inches

brace, mail (brace' mayle), complete armour for the arm, 114

brass (eneus), 311

brazil (brasill'), a red wood of the Sappan tree from which dye was obtained, 156

breastplates (brest plate), 58, 114, 187

breeches of mail (brechis mayle), 196

bricks (breke), 148

brigandines (brigandynes, brigandeyns), body armour composed of iron rings or small iron plates, sewed upon can- vas, linen or leather, 15, 93, 114, 129– 30, 139, 196; see also nails, brigandine

bristles (bristell'), 17, 25–6, 33, 117, 178– 81, 183

brooches (broches, brochis), 23, 165; brooch pins (spang' tong'), 174

brooms (bromes), 23

Bruges thread (filum Brug'), 184

Brunswick linen cloth (telum lineum Browneswyche, Browneswyk', Browneswiche), 10, 184, 190

brushes (broosh', brusches, brusshes, brus- shis), 4, 23, 26, 34, 46, 60, 85, 87, 93, 96, 103, 130, 144, 153, 172, 178–82, 184, 187, 205, 208; flax (flex), 94, 139, 174, 181; hair (here), 176, 190; stable (casch', craissh, crasche, cressh'), 26, 35, 56, 94, 147, 180; weavers' (wevir'), 93

Brussels leather (Brusell' leddir), 106

Brussels linen cloth (telum lineum Brus- sell'), 35, 37, 174, 181, 183

buck skins (buk pelles), 169–70

buckets (bokett'), 113

buckles (bokles), 2, 37, 40, 45, 94, 114, 174, 180, 184; hose (calege bokles), 189; latten (latonis), 1, 26, 28, 34, 96, 100, 114, 183

buckram (bokeram, bokram, bukram), could either be a coarse stiff linen or a fine one, 34, 45, 95, 103, 121, 134, 141, 156, 159, 183–4; of Constance (custans), 159; see also treillis

budge skins (pelles bogy), lambskins imported from north Africa and southern Europe, 30, 35, 134, 139, 174, 181, 189; Spanish (Spaynyssh'), 174; see also shanks

bullions (bullyons), knobs or bosses of metal, 58

Burgundy cloth (burgeis, borgoyn), 177

busk (buske), a coarse linen used for lining and stiffening, 24, 26, 28, 33, 35, 37, 56, 77–8, 94–5, 97, 114, 138, 159, 177, 181, 183, 187; white (album), 35

butter (butirum), 298, 305, 349, 454–5, 541, 561

buttons (botons), 20, 103

C (centum, centena, centenarium)
-, (a) a measure of weight, either decimal or the hundred-weight of 112 lbs. For 'great wares', i.e. woad, madder, alum, wax, dates, soap, copper, pew- ter, etc., C. was equal to 112 lbs. For 'subtle wares', i.e. pepper and other spices, Spanish grain, etc., C. was equal to 100 lbs.
-, (b) a measure of number varying with the commodity. The 'long hundred' of 120 was used for stockfish, eels, and most other fish, and certain other com- modities such as bowstaves and rabbit- skins. For certain linen cloths, e.g. Herford and Osnabruck, C. appears to equal 200 ells (q.v.) in this account. The 'short hundred' (100) was used for Holland and some other varieties of linen and many small manufactures. The 'great C' of clapholt contained 24 'short hundreds'

cable, ship's (cabill' navis), 99

caddis (cadas, cades), a worsted yarn, 56, 94; coarse (cors'), 174, 184

caddis webs (cadas webbes), worsted tape, 139

Caen-stone (canestone), building stone from Caen in Normandy, 70, 80

calaber furs (calabr'), squirrel skins, orig- inally from Calabria, S. Italy, but later from other parts of southern and central Europe, 37, 184, 186–7, 189, 192; wombs (wombes), belly fur, 189; see also boots

calamine (calmyn'), zinc ore for use in making brass alloy, xxxv, 30, 82

cade, a cask of herring holding five long hundreds (600), twenty to the last (q.v.)

calfskins (pelles vitulorum), 487; tanned (tanette), 250, 256, 262, 310, 332, 489, 495, 588

camlet (chamelott', chamelet), a long- haired cloth made of such materials as camel and goat hair, 33, 121, 156; long, 156; short coarse, 156

candles (candele), 220, 225, 237, 243, 266, 277, 279, 293, 295, 298, 302, 305, 312– 13, 317, 332, 342, 344, 354–6, 360, 385, 404, 423–4, 454, 478, 504, 508, 516, 527, 538, 542, 548, 551, 553, 557, 561, 594

candles, pipes for (pipes pro candels, can- dell' pipes), 139, 178, 184; see also candlesticks

candle-snuffers (candell' snoffers), 122, 139, 176, 184; see also snuffers

candlesticks (candelstykk', candylstick', candelstikk', candelabrum), 25, 93, 121, 135, 139, 159, 183, 368, 467; brass, 527; 'iron stickyng', 33; tin (tyn), 35; wire (wyron), 174

candle-wick (candellweke, candelewek, candelwyk), 35, 159, 168–70, 181, 197, 204; candle yarn (candell' yern') 184

cans (cannys), 170

canvas (canvas, kanvas), 4, 32, 45, 70, 89, 93–4, 159, 166, 179, 182, 184, 206; bar- ras (barowe), coarse linen cloth imported from Holland, 95, 183; Brabant (braban'), 94; Burgundy (burgon'), 186; spruce (sprewes), of Prussia, 32, 169–70

canvas linen cloth (telum lineum canvas), 4, 29

caps (cappis, capelle), 34, 157; double, with double turn-ups or facings, 34, 93, 103; single, 34, 93, 103; worsted, 205

capers (capres), 156

card-boards (carde bord'), boards for wool-cards (q.v.), 23

card heads (card hed), 157

cards see wool-cards

carpets, (carpett'), 156

caskets (caskett', kaskett', kark'), 26, 30, 33, 40, 93–4, 106, 117, 120, 147, 152, 174

cassia fistula (casa fistola), a laxative derived from senna leaves and cassia pods, 156

cats fur (catte furr'), 28; wild (furres wild catt'), 139

cat-skins (pelles mureligorum), 454, 504–5, 508

chafing-dishes (chafyng disshes), 139, 183; earthen (erthe), 113; latten (latonis), 121

chalcedony (calcedons), a precious (or semi-precious) stone, with a lustre like wax, 30, 35, 184–5; imitation (counter- fet), 27–8, 45, 82, 92, 94, 183, 186

chamfron (chamfre), armour for a horse's head, 93

chasing balls (chasyng ball'), 27

cheeses (chesis, casei), 205, 225, 237, 243, 266, 290, 298, 305, 308, 312, 349, 508, 541, 544, 550, 561, 565, 574–5; Suffolk (Suff), 538

chess boards (ches bord'), 27

chess-men (chesmen), 174

chests (cista), 165, 197

cinnamon (cynamonum, canella), 83, 156

citronade (sitrenade, citrenade), candied citron or orange peel, 156

clapholt (clappholt), small split timber, usually oak, for barrel-staves or panel- ling, 32, 168–70, 197

clarions, shrill trumpets, 20

clasps (clapsis, clapsez), 1, 56, 82, 84, 92, 94, 184

clavichord wire (clavicord weir), 174, 185

cloth, woollen (pannus), broadcloth, standard 1½–2 yds. wide and 24 yds. long: with broad selvages (largus cum brode lysts), 435–7, 498, 575, 577; half grain (de dimidio grano), dyed partly with the scarlet dye grain, 309, 319, 333–4, 368–594 passim; in grain (in grano), dyed with grain, 228, 262–3, 309, 315, 319–593 passim; without grain (sine grano), 69, 216–597 pas- sim; see also cotton russet, 'forlaken', frieze, Kendals, Northern, Welsh straits, worsted

cloths, miscellaneous (panni), 34, 179, 182; see also painted cloths, stained cloths

cloth of gold, 156

clout (clowt'), a measure of weight, of silk: 4 lbs.; also a piece of cloth containing a number of pins, needles, etc.

clove, a measure of weight, used for wool: 7 lbs.

cloves (clowes), 156

coal-fish (coll'), allied to cod, 163

cocks, 181

codfish (pisces cod'), 197

codsheads (cod' hed'), 71–2, 74

coffers (cofers, coffers), 20, 25, 30, 32–3, 36, 82, 84, 103, 106, 121, 147, 152, 156, 169–70, 181, 184, 197, 205, 207; covering of, 487; of cypress (cipres), 156, 184

Cologne thread (filum Col'), a linen yarn normally dyed blue, 1, 2, 27–8, 30, 33– 7, 54, 56, 58, 77, 94–5, 97, 147, 151, 154, 174, 177, 181, 183, 185, 187, 189; white and blue (album et blodium), 78

coloquintida (coloquintica), the bitter- apple used as a purgative, 156

combs (pectina, combys, kombes, kom- bis), 2, 4, 23, 26, 40, 46, 70, 79, 84, 109–10, 140, 176, 181–2, 184, 191; ivory (yvery, every), 40, 45, 185; wooden (treen, ligni), 93, 114, 165; see also kempsters' combs

compasses, 1, 24, 28, 56, 84, 139, 174, 176, 183–4, 205

confections, mixed drugs or comfits, 156

coopers' irons (couper irons), 103

copper (cuprum, coper), 32, 125–6, 147, 168–70, 185, 311, 324, 356, 544, 581; beaten (bet), 94; broad (brod), 169; split (spliter), 169–70, 181, 185, 190

copper gold (coper gold), ?red gold, gold with a small alloy of copper to enhance its colour, 26, 92, 94, 100

copper plate (plate coper, cupri), 32, 94, 169–70, 177, 183, 544

copper rolls (roll' coper), 28, 30

copperas (coprose), sulphate of copper used in dyeing, tanning and making ink, 10, 13, 125–6, 168, 423

'coppyn' (copin) hats, probably high- crowned hats of the form of a sugar- loaf (O.E.D. sub copintank), 17, 23, 27, 30, 84, 89, 91, 94, 96, 144, 179, 181, 184

coral (corall'), 156; white (album), 35; see also beads

cords (cord'), 120

cordwain (cordewyn'), Spanish leather, 1

cork (corke), 14, 16, 77, 101, 107, 111, 116, 138, 140–1, 165; for slippers, 116

corses (corsys), ribbons or bands used as girdles; of Oudenarde thread (filum Outenard'), 58; worsted, 37

corslets (corsett'), light half-armour cover- ing the upper body, 94, 96, 114

cottons, woollen cloth, 1, 34, 159

cotton russet, cheap woollen cloth, 308, 385, 465, 469–595, passim; see also Welsh straits

couch-bed (couche bed'), 141

counters (countours), pieces of metal or other material used in counting or keeping accounts, 27, 92, 94, 174, 178; of horn, 178

counters (countours, counters tables), tables or desks for counting money, 32, 169–70, 172, 177, 185, 197

coverings for pots (couveryng' pro pott'), 33

coverlets (coverlet', coopertoria), 34, 77, 94, 103, 124, 183, 204, 290, 324, 349, 487, 566–7, 574, 576; tapestry (tapstry, tapserye), 56, 83, 139, 175, 567

cow and calf see arrow-root

crane, an upright revolving axle with a horizontal arm, fixed by a fireplace, for suspending a pot or kettle over the fire, 56

crocks, earthen (erthen crock'), 163

cropling see stockfish

crossbows (cros bowes), 25, 184; see also thread, trusses, windlass

crosses, 139; copper (coper), 147; latten (latonis), 94; mother of pearl (modir perle), 174; tin (tynne), 131

crucifixes, 178

cruets (cruett'), small vessels for sacramen- tal wine, holy water or chrism, 27, 94, 100, 183–4; tin (tyn'), 33

cruses (crusys, cruc'), earthenware pots or jars, 5, 20–1, 23, 31, 55, 87, 96, 138, 140–1

cuirasses (curas), 93

cupboards (copbord), 93, 135, 147, 172

curtain rings (cortein ryng', curteyn'), 94, 181, 185

curtains (corteyns), 155

cushion-cloths (quisshon clothis, quosshyn clothis, quoisshon leves), 77, 135, 139, 181, 183

cushions (quysshons, quysshyns, ques- shons, cusshyns), 139, 141, 324; leather (leddir), 30, 56, 181, 184; round, 204; skins for (pelles pro), 181

cypress cloth (cipres), 93

Cyprus kerchiefs (cipers kerchieff'), 156

D, a measure equal to 5 C. (q.v.)

daggers (armicudia), 20, 23, 25, 30, 33, 37, 45–6, 90, 93–4, 103, 106, 117, 121, 139, 152, 171, 174, 176, 183–6; sheaths for, 165

damask (damaske), costly figured silk, 184

dials, sundials, clocks or compasses, 184

dates (dactuli), 12, 156, 198, 203

diaper, a linen cloth, woven with small, often geometric, patterns, 26, 106, 175, 177, 204; see also napkins, table- cloths, towels

dicker, a measure of ten, used here for razors

dishes (dic', dischis, dys), 79; pewter (elec- tri), 446; wooden (ligni), 588

distaffs (distaves), 23, 178–9; cases for (cases pro rokk'), 103; coverings for (coveryng pro distaves), 165

dog-hooks (dogk hok'), 100

dog-stones (dog' stonn', dogstonys), stones used for millstones, 1, 30–1, 147, 150, 183

dolls see puppets

Dornick linen cloth (telum lineum dornyk), a fine linen cloth taking its name from Doornik in Flanders, 23

dossals (dusshels), ornamental cloths to cover the backs of chairs, 205

dripping pans (drepyng pann'), 21, 176

Ear-pickers (ere pikers), 184

eels (anguille), the meaning of most of these varieties is uncertain: dole, 204; fresh (recences), 49–53; kive (kyve), 49–53, 56, 58–9, 77, 105; pimpernol (pympernell'), a broad-nosed variety of the common eel, 49–50, 53, 56, 58, 62, 87; stub (stoble, stuble), 49–51, 53, 56, 58–9, 77, 204

elk skins (elk pelles), 204

ell, a measure of length, 45 inches

enamel (amellum), applied as a decoration to metal or glass, 156, 162

ermines (ermyns), 169

euphorbium (euforbium), a gum resin used as an emetic and purgative, 156

ewers (euer, ewours), 121, 368

'Fac', ? fasculum, a small vessel, 178

falls (falles), pointed peaks of helmets, 139; mail (maile), 196

farts of Portugal (fart' de Portingale), light pastry or sweetmeats, 16

faulds, mail (fold' maile), skirts of metal hoops, 139; see also aprons, mail

feather-beds (fedyrbedd', fedirbed'), 21, 34, 124, 134, 139, 141, 155, 173, 178, 180–4, 196, 204, 206, 213, 215

feathers (pluma, fethers), 20, 58–9, 125–6, 168, 178, 204, 206; double, 117; for hats (fethirs pro hatt'), 56; single, 117; see also ostrich feathers

figs (fygys, fici), 42, 61, 112, 116

files (viles), 156

filings (filyng', fyling'), 27, 30, 34, 40, 82, 86, 93, 118, 122, 147, 179, 208; of iron (de ferr), 25

fire-irons (feir' yron', fyre irons), 27, 174

fish, salt (pisces salci), 10, 13, 44–5, 50, 55, 57–9, 62, 65–6, 73, 77, 88, 114, 120–3, 128, 132, 134, 142, 147, 167, 199, 213, 285; see also coal-fish, codfish, eels, gull-fish, haddock, herring, ling, mackerel, plaice, sprats, staplefish, stockfish, sturgeon, whiting

fishing hooks (fisshing hokes), 205

flanchards (flancard'), armour for a horse's flanks, 139, 196; 'falland' flanchards, 159

Flanders lace (Flaundr' lac', lac' Flaun- dres), 60, 139, 186

Flanders scouring stones (Flaundres skoryng stone), 68

Flanders tiles (Flaundres tyle), 127

flaps, mail (flappis mail, flappetts), 117

flax (linum), 5, 8, 10–11, 13, 20, 23, 26, 30, 32, 34, 37–8, 68, 77–8, 82–4, 89, 91, 93, 102, 118, 122, 125–6, 134, 138, 140, 143, 147, 155, 163, 165, 168–71, 175–9, 181, 183, 187, 189, 197, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210–13, 215, 447

Flemish linen cloth (telum lineum Fl'), 1, 20, 25–6, 34, 45, 83, 93, 95, 97–8, 106, 135, 156, 174–5, 177–80, 182, 206, 215

flour, 454

flowers of horn and silk (floures de home et sylk), 45

forcers (focers, forsers), chests or coffers, 20, 26, 56, 103, 152

'forlaken' cloth, made from the first crop of wool, 125

fother (fodr'), a measure of weight for lead: 19½ cwt.

fox-skins (pelles vulpium), 398, 419, 424, 454–5, 470, 476, 504–5

frail, a basket made of rushes, that could generally hold between 30 and 75 lbs. (Zupko)

frankincense (frank ensence), 156

frieze (fryse, frice), coarse woollen cloth made especially in Ireland and Wales, 235, 290, 296, 305, 349, 356, 373, 383, 385, 398, 446, 451, 455, 503, 518, 542, 557, 567–70, 574–5, 588; Welsh (Wall'), 508

frying-pans (frying pann'), 20, 45, 143, 176

full, a measure of kettles, three in 1507 (Gras, 699)

fullers' handles (fullers handl', handles pro fullers), 20, 45

furs see beaver, budge, calaber, cat furs, ermines, grey skins, lamb furs, leopards' wombs furs, lettice, marten, miniver, mink, red skins, schönwerk, shanks, spruce skins, squirrel, white skins; see also skins

fustian (fustyan), cloth of cotton and flax made principally in Italy and south Germany, 28, 30, 33, 35–7, 56, 97, 134, 139, 141, 147, 151, 154, 177, 179, 181, 183–5, 189–90, 206; ? Augsburg (osborons, osburn), 177–8; Tournai (Torney), 20; Ulm (hosmys), 177

fustic (fostyk), a wood used for dyeing yel- low, 20

Galley pots (galy pott'), small earthen glazed pots used by apothecaries for ointments or medicines, 544

gardbraces (gard brases, gardebrace'), reinforcing armour plates on the shoulder and elbow, 82, 94, 114

garlic (alleum), 9, 11, 20, 55, 63, 85, 89, 209–10

gauntlets (gauntlett'), 139

Gelder linen cloth (telum lineum Gelder), 184

Ghentish Holland cloth (Gent' Hod'), a linen cloth, 36, 77, 184, 186

Ghentish linen cloth (telum lineum Gen- tish), 6, 81, 181, 183; coarse, 174

gilt cases, 60

gimlets (gemelott', gemelett'), 46, 174, 181

ginger (gynger, zinziber), 35, 147, 156; green (viride), 56, 60, 114, 143, 156

gipsers, purses, pouches or wallets sus- pended from a belt or girdle, 93: with rings (cum ryng'), 93

girdles (zone), xxxvii, 27, 94, 114, 117, 165, 181, 187; gilt (deaurate), 156; latten (latonis), 2, 26–7, 35, 56, 94, 120, 147, 165; leather (leddir'), 23, 26, 33, 37, 46, 56, 100, 102, 147; silk (serice), 178; thread (fili'), 82, 92, 94; wire (weir'), 23–4, 26–8, 37, 82, 94, 140, 174, 183–4, 186; with aglets (cum aglett', auglett'), 100, 174, 184; see also corses

girdle hooks (zone hok'), 140

girth-webs (gerthe webbes), woven material of which girths are made, 90

glass (vitrum, glasse), 10, 87, 109, 125–6, 131, 141, 159, 166, 178–9

glasses (glassez, vitra), 34–5, 46, 56, 83, 117, 156, 172, 178, 180–3; 'cole', 20; crystal drinking (drynkyng cristall'), 162; drinking (drynkyng), 21, 23, 35, 94, 156, 173, 176, 178–9; foot (fote), 87, 179; great (magna), 23, 93; table, 215; ivory (yvery), 33; ? pouring (pere), 91; standing (stondynglassez), 174; see also looking glasses, pots, 'trumpe' glasses

gloves (cirotece), 1, 25–6, 30, 40, 45, 56, 82, 91, 93–4, 114, 117, 120, 147, 166, 174, 183–4, 207, 215

goad, a measure of cloth, 4½ ft.

goatskins (gote pelles), 139, 204

gold, rolls of, 2

gold pipes (gold pippes), tubes or rolls on which gold thread was wound, 35

gold skins (gold' pelles), 5, 96, 156, 184

gold thread (gold' filum), 184

gold weights (gold weyght'), for weighing gold, 46, 79; latten (latonis), 46; wooden (treen), 4

gorgets (gorgett'), collar of armour enclos- ing the neck and extending down over the top of the chest and back, 24, 60, 85, 93–4, 106, 114, 117, 121, 139, 159, 196; Dutch (douche), 196; mail (mayle), 93, 139

grain (granum), scarlet dye for cloth made from the dried body of the grain-like insect kermes: of Portugal (Port- ingale), 16, 201; of Seville (Civile), 12, 37, 198; of Spain (Hispanie), 16, 130, 152, 198, 203

graters, 26, 139, 178, 182

graving hafts (gravynghaft'), handles of engraving tools, 91

grey skins (pelles grey, greywork), the grey backs of winter squirrel skins, 1, 34, 146–7, 170, 190, 192, 204; coarse (cours), 126, 139, 168

griffin's egg (grypes hegg'), 156

gull-fish (gull'), small fish allied to the cod, 128

gum (gumma), 12

gunpowder (gunne poudir), 181

guns (gonnys), 150

gunstones (gonnestones), cannon-balls, 173, 176

gussets (gussett', gossett'), pieces of mail or plate filling up spaces at the joints in a suit of armour, 93, 114

Habergeons (habergons, habergens), sleeveless coats or jackets of mail or scale armour, 24, 58, 93, 103, 114, 121, 183, 196, 205

haddock, dry (hadd' drie), 160

hafts, 139

Hainault linen cloth (telum lineum Hene- goys, Henoud', Hennoud', Henogos), 1, 10, 13, 95, 97, 184

hair (here), 2, 37

Hamburg linen cloth (telum lineum Ham- burgh'), 126

hammers (hamers, mallys), 1, 27, 136

hangers, type of short sword originally hung from the belt, 46, 176, 187; blades, 94

Hannovers (hennovers), linen cloth, 13, 34, 125–6, 140, 168, 181, 186–7

hare skins (har' pelles), 146

harness, coarse (cors harneys), ? cheap armour, 106

harness, complete (complet harneys, harnes), probably a light half-armour, (cf. Blair, 118–9), 82, 89, 121, 129, 139

harness barrel (harnes bar'), for storing armour, 23

harp-strings (harp stryng', harpstring'), 33, 92, 186

hart skinv (hert' pellis), 26

hastrey linen cloth (telum lineum haustr'), 28, 33, 35, 37, 77, 94, 97, 178, 181, 183, 187

hatbands (hatbond'), 26, 82, 100, 185

hats (hatt'), 34, 124, 567; boys' (pro pueris), 124; children's (childr'), 117; double (dowble), 117, 124; felt, 23, 26, 63; rolls for, 175; single, 117, 124; split, 213; see also coppyn, St. Omer, straw hats

hatters' cards (hatter card', halt' kard'), instruments for raising a nap on hats, 20, 30, 93, 103, 121, 147

hatters' stocks (hatter stockys), 93

hawks' hoods (hauk' cappis), 174, 184

hearts (hert'), ? heart-shaped ornaments, 26, 94, 185

helmets (helmett'), 85, 114

hemp (canabis), 23, 25–7, 30, 38–9, 45, 60, 68, 77, 82, 84, 86–7, 89, 91, 94, 96, 102, 117, 135, 138–41, 144, 147, 151, 159, 173–4, 176, 178–9, 181, 183–5, 187, 189, 196, 206–7

hens (galline), 156

Herford linen cloth (telum lineum Hert- ford, Herford, Hereford), 1–3, 7, 22, 30, 58, 77–8, 90, 94–5, 114, 126, 138– 40, 147, 150, 159, 174, 182–5, 187, 189–90, 204, 207

herring (allecium), 9, 55, 59, 62, 68, 73–4, 77, 86–8, 92, 142, 149, 212; red (rubrum), 368; shotten (shotyn), her- ring that have spawned, 62; white (album), 40, 44, 49–50, 56–7, 60, 65, 68, 71–6, 87, 145, 368

histories (historic, istorie), 1, 23, 30, 34–5, 58, 82, 139, 174, 178, 181, 184

hogshead, a measure of capacity for wine etc.: 63 gallons

Holland linen cloth (telum lineum Hod'), 1, 24, 26–8, 30, 33–5, 37, 58, 77–8, 90– 1, 94, 96, 121, 125, 139, 141, 152, 159, 165, 174, 177–8, 181–7, 204–5, 207, 215; coarse (cors, cours), 28, 35, 103, 117, 156, 159, 181

holy-water sticks (holy water styck'), sprinklers, 176

holy-water stoups (holy water stoppys, stock'), 174; latten (latonis), 33

honey (hony, mel), 15, 66, 298, 302, 385, 408, 454, 516, 565

hood, mail (capron mayll'), 114

hooks (hokes), 40, 102, 140; see also fishing hooks, marking hooks

hops (hopp'), 21, 23, 40, 68, 86–7, 96, 106, 115, 118–21, 137–40, 143–4, 147, 159, 165, 171–3, 175–6, 178–9, 182, 184, 194–6, 208

horns (hornys, homes), 392, 423; see also blowing horns

horse-combs (hors komb'), 46

Imagery (ymagery), carved figures or decorations, occasionally pictures (O.E.D.), 33

images (imag', ymage, ymagine), pictures or carvings, 30, 139; of the Blessed Mary (Beate Marie), 103, 204; parch- ment (parchemyn'), 30; ? plaster (parket), 30; stone (stoon), 178; see also tables with images

indigo (ynde), 156

ink-horns (inkhornes, ynkhornes, hynck- hornes), 25, 30, 37, 60, 91–2, 94, 103, 181, 183–4, 186, 206

inkle (inkyll'), a kind of linen tape or the thread or yarn from which it is made: inkle chest (cista), ? linen chest, 169; counters (countours), 169

'iperling' see 'Yperling'

iron (yron', ferrum), 32, 61, 107, 139, 165, 169, 175, 178

iron plates (yron plate), 184

irons (yrons): butchers' (bocher), 205; cob- blers' (souters), 205; for weavers (pro wevers), 28; see also coopers' irons, marking irons

ironware, 174, 178, 180–1

Japes see toys

'Jesus', ? badges with the figure of Christ, 33

Jews' harps (jue harpes, jue trumpes), 147, 183

'Kateram', not identified, 156

kempsters' combs (kempster kombis, kemster kombys), for combing wool or flax, 96, 178

Kendals (kendale, kendall), a woollen cloth from Kendal in Westmorland, 296, 414

kerchiefs see Cyprus kerchiefs

kettles (ketyll', ketill'), 20–1, 23, 26, 34, 135, 159, 176, 178–9, 182–4; brass (enea), 446, 475, 487; copper, 204

key-bands (kai thongs, key thong', kay band'), 17, 20, 103, 140, 169, 174, 178, 205

kid skins (kydde pelles), 45

kilderkin (kyndirkyn), a cask for liquids, fish etc., half a barrel in capacity

kip (kippe), a measure of fifty gold skins

knives (cultelli), 1, 17, 20, 23, 25, 27–8, 30, 33–5, 37, 40, 45–6, 56, 58, 60, 70, 79, 82, 90, 92–4, 100, 108, 117, 120–1, 135, 139–40, 147, 152, 156, 159, 165–6, 174, 178, 180, 182–5, 205, 207; bowyers' (bower), 205; folding, 1, 56; ivory (yvery), 40; painted (depicti), 40; par- ing (paryng'), 205; patten (patyn'), 205; 'prage', 114, 178; standing, 1, 46; see also pen knives, pot knives

Laces (lac'), 20, 28, 35, 56, 174, 181–2; flat, 93; hair (her'), 140; leather (led- dir'), 23, 26–7, 33, 46, 84, 94, 165, 190; long, 165; red (rubea), 183, 186, 189; silver, 114; thread (fili), 1, 2, 23, 26,

Laces (lac') cont 30, 33–4, 37, 46, 82, 92, 94, 103, 140, 147, 165, 181, 183–6, 190; worsted, 37, 139

lamb furs (furres lambe), 146, 178

lambskins (pelles lambe, agnorum), 146; black (blak), 181; Irish (Irissh'), 204; 'mesandes and passlades', 595; tanned (tannete), 296; tawed, 574, 578, 588

lampreys (murene, lampres), 29, 101, 107, 111–12, 116, 440

lamps (lampes, lampede), 37, 183

lasch see red lasch

last, a measure, especially
-, (a) of fish: equal to (i) 12 barrels of her- ring or salt fish, or (ii) M. (i.e. 1200) stockfish
-, (b) of ashes, cork, osmund, pitch, soap, tar: equal to 12 barrels
-, (c) of quern stones: 12 pairs

lasts for shoemakers(formers pro sotularibus) , 215

lath-nails (lathe naill'), 147

latten (lato), metal alloy identical with or very like brass, 181, 183; broken, 35; see also buckles, girdles, plate, wire

laver, vessel for washing, 527

lawn (lawen), a fine linen, 1, 33, 114, 177, 181, 196, 204

lead (plumbum), 226, 237, 269, 332, 356, 368, 544, 581, 588, 622n.

leather (ledd'): black (nigrum, blak'), 139, 174; diverse colours (diversorum col- orum), 130; red (rubeum), 139, 174; white (album), 174; see also basan leather, Brussels leather, cordwain, ox-hides, red hides, red lasch, red skins, sheeps' leather, split skins

leg-harness (legharnes, legg' harnes, legharneis), armour for the whole leg, 85, 89, 93, 114, 129, 139

'Lemagois' cloth, ? cloth of Limoges, 126

lemons (lymons), 156

leopards' wombs furs (lybert wombes), 161

lettice (letewis), skins of the snow-weasel, 102, 106, 120, 126, 134, 147, 161, 169– 70, 177, 192

linen cloth (telum lineum), xxxv–xxxvi; brown, 124; narrow (strictum), 10, 125–6, 166; raw (rawe), 206; see also Brabant, Brunswick, Brussels, diaper, Dornick, Flemish, Gelder, Ghentish, Hainault, Hamburg, Hannovers, hastrey, Herford, Holland, lawn, min- sters, 'Niperfeld', Osnabrück, pick- ling, soultwich, spruce, tuke, 'Ulsom', Zeeland

ling (lyng'), 123, 149

linseed oil (lynsed oleum), 182

litmus (lytmos, litmose), a blue dye obtained from lichens, 19, 20, 23, 111– 12, 116

locks (lokk'), 1, 23–4, 26, 28, 30, 56, 84, 89, 92, 94, 96, 139, 147, 153, 174, 178, 181, 183–6, 206; 'button lokk', ? door catches, 1; of Nuremberg (Norbour', Norborgh), 28; see also padlocks

looking glasses (locked glassez), 23

lutes (lutez), 170; for boys (pro pueris), 170

M (mille), ten hundreds or hundredweights and therefore varying according to the size of the hundred, see C

mace (mas'), 156, 190

mackerel (makerell'), 18, 57, 63

madder (mader, madir'), a red dye, 1, 23– 4, 33, 35, 54, 56, 58–9, 63, 77–8, 82, 90, 94–5, 97, 134, 138, 140–1, 147, 177–8, 181–4, 187, 196; mull-madder, the lowest of the four qualities of Dutch madder, 178, 196

mails (mayles), metal rings or plates of which mail-armour was composed, 26

manacles, 20

mantle of furs, a number of skins sewn together to form a fur lining

mark, a measure of shears, scissors, ironware etc. Cf. 'sheres for sempsters the mark conteyning two dozen' (Wil- lan, Rates, 53).

marking hooks (markyng hokes), 205

marking irons (markyng irons), branding irons, 28, 84, 185, 205

marline (merlyng'), a small line of two strands, 170

marten fur (furr martrons), 190

maslin (mistelyn', mystlyn), mixed grain, usually rye and wheat, 61, 305; see also meal

mast, a measure of gold, weight 2\ lbs. Troy.

mattresses, 470

mazers (masers), 156; wooden (trees, tries), 32, 170, 177

meal (mele), 266; maslin (mystelyn) meal, 298; rye-meal, 516

mease (mec'), a barrel, also a measure of copper, 1, 200 lbs.

meat, salt (carnes sake), 243, 266, 277, 295, 298, 302, 305, 309, 312, 317, 354, 454, 508, 553, 561, 565, 577–8

millstones (myllestonys, milstones), 4, 113, 131, 193; see also dog-stones

miniver (menyver), a variety of squirrel, 1, 146; coarse (cors), 1

mink (mynk'), 161, 170, 192; coarse (cors), 134

minsters (minstrys, mynstres), a linen cloth originally manufactured at Munster, 24, 28, 33, 35, 183

mirrors (specula, merrours, mirrours), 23, 25–6, 35, 45, 56, 79, 82–3, 89, 93, 102– 3, 121, 139, 152, 165, 174, 176, 184–5, 205, 215; barbers' (barbours), 184; of Nuremburg (Norburgh, Norborough), 23, 37, 60, 84, 94, 178–9

mistletoe (mystelyn), 35

mistletoe beads (mistell' bed', mystell'), 26–7, 82, 94, 103, 147, 181, 186; imitation (conterfet), 147, 153, 207

mittens (mitt'), 25

mortars (mort'), 185

mount (monys), a measure of plaster, 30 cwt.

musk-balls (muske ball'), receptacles for musk, 17, 35, 82, 207

mustard (cenapium), 368

mustard-querns (mustarde quernes), small hand-mills for grinding mustard seed, 147

mustard seed (mustardsede, semen cenapii), 237, 523

mustard stones, stones on which to pound mustard seed, 193

Nails (clavi, nayll', naile), 11, 23, 90, 93–4, 96, 100, 102–3, 114, 134, 147, 154, 159, 176, 180–2, 187, 189–90; brigandine (brigandyn'), 56, 94, 117, 156, 183; card (carde), for wool-cards, 147; lat- ten (latonis), 147, 174; patten (pat- tyn'), 27, 159; red (rede), 147; see also lath-nails

napkins (napkens), 1, 85, 93; diaper, 26, 85

needle-cases (nedil cas'), 183, 185

needles (nedles, nedyll', nedels), 24, 33, 139, 153, 156, 174, 180, 184–5, 190; tack (tak), 187; see also pack-needles, sail-needles

nest, a measure (three) of counters, cof- fers, chests, bits etc.

nets (rethis), 305, 455, 508, 561

'Niperfeld' linen cloth (telum lineum Niperfeld'), ? of Nivelles, 13, 125–6, 168

Northern cloth (North'), a cheap woollen cloth produced in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 377; straits (stricti), single width (1 yd.), 378–9

nutcrackers (notcrakkers, notte crakkers), 174, 205

nutmegs (notmyg', notmug'), 156, 185, 187

nuts (nuces, nott'), 156; filberts (avelana), 61, 67, 70, 85, 92

Oars (orys), 68, 125, 171, 330

oats (avena), 409

oil (oleum), 12, 16, 59, 82, 97, 100, 112, 137, 150, 156, 201; see also linseed oil, rush oil, train oil

oil of spikenard (oleum spike, oleum de spyke), 79, 117

olives, 68

onion seed (semen caparum), 35

onions (cepe), 14, 55

oranges (oreng', oryng'), 42, 101, 107, 111–12, 116, 440

orchil (orgyll'), a purplish red dye obtained from lichens, 121

orpiment (orpyment, orpyn'), yellow arsenic, used as a pigment, 156, 544

osier rods (virge de osyer), 164

osmund (osmond'), high quality iron, 10, 13, 32, 58, 77, 94, 125–6, 150, 168–70, 197

Osnabrück linen cloth (telum lineum Osyn- brug'), 1–3, 24, 28, 33, 35, 37, 58, 77, 95, 139, 141, 147, 168, 183, 204, 207

ostrich feathers (estrich fethers), 474

Oudenarde thread (filum Outenard'), a linen thread, 1, 23

oxen, live (boves vivi), 513

ox-hides, 604n.

ox-tongues (lingue bovium), 508; salt (salce), 368

Pack-needles (pak nedels, nedles), 92, 103, 147, 181, 185

packthread (pak filum, packyng thread), 11, 23, 45, 60, 89, 100, 159, 165, 176, 178, 181, 184, 204

padlocks, 184, 190

'pailes', ? spangles, 20

painted cloths (panni depicti), hangings for a room, painted or worked with figures, mottoes or texts, 25, 30–1, 34, 77, 83, 93–4, 97, 103, 121, 130, 144, 147, 174, 176–8, 180–2, 184, 205, 215

pane, a number of skins sewn together to form a fur lining

pans (pannys), 33; copper, 35, 184

paper, 26, 30, 43, 46, 60, 79, 84, 178, 184, 204, 215; black (nigrum), 118, 182; brown, 5, 23, 86, 208; painted (depic- tum), 23, 26, 30, 33, 45, 144, 174, 180, 184; silver (silv'), 34, 114; white (album), 23, 78; wrapping (spend- able), 24, 179; writing (scribable, skrybable), 12, 178; see also printed papers

papers, paper packets of pins, points etc.

papers of the Passion of Christ (papers de passione Christi), 184

Paris cloth, imitation (conterfet), 159

Paris thread (parys thred'), 28

pavingstones (pavingston', pavyngstones), 9, 23, 68, 85–6, 96, 119, 172, 176, 179; white (alba), 118, 178

paving-tiles (pavyngtyle), 11, 55, 57, 63, 138, 144, 175, 182, 194, 202, 204, 206, 208; white (alba), 182

paxbreds (pax bred', paxis), tablets bear- ing a representation of the Cruci- fixion, kissed at Mass, 82, 94; ivory (yvery), 33; tin (tynne), 46

pearls, imitation (conterfet perles), 93

peas (pise), 399, 409

pen-cases (penners, calamaria), 20, 25, 30, 37, 82, 84, 92, 94, 140, 183–4, 186, 206

pen knives (penne cultelli), 1, 17, 56, 94, 102

pepper (piper), 156, 237

pepper querns (peper quernes), 169, 197

pewter (electrum), pieces of, 467, 475, 487, 567, 576, 581; pots (olle electri), 368, 446, 464, 467, 475, 487, 566–7; vessels (vasa electri), 243, 290, 302, 305, 309, 324, 349, 354, 356, 366, 368, 385, 421, 470, 472, 503–4, 508, 527, 542, 565–7, 573, 575–8, 588, 622n.

pickling linen cloth (telum lineum pyghl- ing, pightlyng'), 10, 58, 117, 125–6, 168–9, 178, 183, 204

piece (pecia), a measure of fruit, three to the sort (q.v.)

pieces (pecia), ? chess-men, 33

piercers (persers), 30, 182

pillows (pilows, pilowes, pelowis), 34, 60, 124, 139, 141, 155, 159, 163, 178, 183–4

pin-cases (pyncas', pyn casez, pynne cas'), 23, 60, 82, 84, 89, 91, 94, 181, 184–5, 190; gilt, 92

pincers (pynsons), 35, 205

pineapple kernels (pyneaple camels), the edible seeds of the pine-cone, 139

pinpillows (pyn' pilowes), pincushions, 165

pins (pynnes), 1, 25–6, 30, 33–4, 37, 40, 82, 85, 92, 94, 96, 108, 117, 119, 122, 139, 165, 174, 181, 183–4, 186, 189–90, 208, 349; 'dressyng', 152; eyelet (oylet), ? for inserting into an eyelet-hole, 205; iron (iren), 34

pipe, a cask, hence a measure
-, (a) of wine: equal to 126 gallons
-, (b) of woad, fish, fruit etc.: varying with the commodity

pipes (fistule, pipes), 2, 46, 84, 174, 191; see also gold pipes, tabor pipes

pippins (pepyns), 99

pitch (piche), 10, 32, 125, 136, 168–71, 178, 197, 206, 212–14, 237, 268, 324, 332, 356, 360, 368, 392, 423, 510, 544, 581

plaice (plais, plays): dry (drie), 176, 178

plaster (plaistrum), 131

plate, metal plates or plated ware, 58; black (nigrum), 28, 139, 180, 182, 184, 204; double (dowble), doubling was a normal method of strengthening metal plates, 96; latten (latonis), 28, 139, 184, 190; white (album), 26, 28, 139, 180, 184, 204; see also iron plates

plates for horses' heads(plates pro hors hed', hed plat' pro equis) , 114, 121

platters (platers), 446; wooden (treen), 197

playing-cards (playing card', cardys), 4, 23, 25–7, 38, 46, 58, 79, 93, 174–6, 178, 206

playing-tables (playng' tables), playing- boards for dice, chess etc., 169–70

points (poyntez, ligule, puncta), laces or cords used to tie one garment to another, 4, 25, 27, 34, 46, 70, 84, 93–4, 152, 181, 227, 349, 498; leather (ledd'), 165; silk (serici), 93; thread (fili), 140, 165

pomanders (pomambres), 156

pomegranates (pomegarnett'), 34

Portuguese skins (pelles Portyngale), 101, 107, 111, 116

pot ashes (pott ashes, aisshes), a mordant for fixing dyes, 1, 34, 170

pot knives (pott' cultelli), 27, 30, 120, 147, 174, 207; standing (standing), 56

pots (potte), 55, 527; brass (bras, enea), 34, 82, 159, 467; drinking (drynkyng), 163, 178, 196; gallon (galon), 567; glass (glasse), 156; pint (peynt), 567, 576; pottle (potell), holding half a gal- lon, 566–7, 576; quart, 566–7, 576; stone, 35, 176, 183; see also galley pots, pewter pots, stew pots

potters' earth, white (potters erth album), 565

pouch rings (pouche ryng', powche ryng'), 4, 23, 37, 182

pouches, 1, 23, 25–6, 30, 33–5, 40, 45–6, 56, 58, 60, 82, 84, 92, 94, 100, 103, 108, 117, 120–2, 137, 139–40, 147, 152, 165, 174, 178, 181–4, 206–7, 215; bar- bers' (harbours), 1; leather (ledd'), 1, 33, 181; shoulder (shyldyr), 174; with rings (cum ryng'), 34

powder-boxes (pouder boxes): of painted wood (tree pented), 156

presses (pressis), 172

printed books (prentyd' bok), xxxvi, 144

printed papers (prented papers), 144

prunes (prunys), 156

pullets (pultez, pultz), 169–70, 197

puppets (popetf), children's dolls, 24

purses (burse), 20, 34, 119, 147, 165, 169, 177

purse-wire (burs' weyr), 82

Quartern (quartron'), a weight or measure
-, (a) of salt: 28 lbs.
-, (b) of fruit: 12 quarterns to the sort (q.v.)

querns (quernys): hand, 183; see also mustard-querns, pepper-querns

quilts (quilt', quylte), 26, 56, 60, 155, 159, 178, 181

quintal (quintall'), a weight of 100 lbs. or a hundred-weight (112 lbs.); probably 112 lbs. for wax

Rabbit-skins (pelles cuniculorum), seasoned (sesinate), from animals taken in winter, 349, 354, 385, 398, 419, 421, 424–5, 440, 454–5, 469–70, 472, 476, 504–6, 508, 565; summer (stages), out of season, 233, 243, 273, 295, 298, 349, 354, 385, 398, 419, 421, 424–5, 440, 454–5, 469–70, 472, 476, 504–6, 508, 565

raisins (racemi, raysons), 12, 42, 61, 112; of Corinth (Cor'), currants, 48, 156

rattles (ratell'), 178

razors (rasours, rasers), 4, 24, 30, 33, 46, 56, 70, 94, 114, 139, 153, 174, 178, 180, 184–5

red hides (hid' rubra), 5, 23, 56, 58, 60, 82, 139

red lasch (lassh, lois rubra), a fine kind of red leather, perhaps morocco, 94, 102, 139

red skins (pelles rubra), summer squirrel skins or red leather, 1, 27, 45, 120, 138–9, 147, 169–70, 174, 177–8, 183–4; ? for bowyers (russe pelles pro bowers), 16

resin (rosyn'), 127, 163

rests (rist'), lance-rests, 114, 197

ribbons (rybans), 156, 181, 184

rings (ryng'), 147, 183, 207; black (nigra), 82, 94, 139, 184; copper with stones (coper ryng' cum lapidibus), 156; iron, 120, 147; latten (latonis), 24, 26, 30, 117, 147, 184, 196; tin (tynne), 46; white and black (alba et nigra), 35; see also bag rings, curtain rings, pouch rings

roasting pans (rosting pann'), 21

rods (rodd'), 127; see also osier rods

ropes see bast ropes

Rumney (romney), a sweet wine of Greek origin, 360, 544

running glasses (rynnyng glasses), hour- glasses, 26, 184

rush oil (russhe oile), 169

rye (sigalum, selignus), 61, 412, 421; rye- meal (rye mele), 516

Sack, a measure of weight used for wool: 364 lbs. For customs purposes 240 woolfells were equated with one sack

sacring-bells, small bells rung at the eleva- tion of the host, 94, 180–1, 185

saffron (crocus), 61, 77, 178, 180

sail-needles (sayle nedyll'), 92

sail thread (sayle filum), 32

St. Omer hats (Sertomerhattes, Sentomers hattes'), felt hats, 1, 24, 26, 30, 93, 106, 134

sallets (saletf), a light head-piece of armour without visor, 93–4, 96–7, 102–3, 106, 114, 129, 139, 196; leather coverings for (koveryng' led' pro salett'), 129; see also archers' sallets

salmon (samon), 57, 64, 120, 123, 134, 166

salt (sal): Bay (de Baye), cheap salt from Bourgneuf Bay, Brittany, 29; Berflete (barflet), 214; white (album), 148, 163

salt-cellars (salt', saltsalers), 27, 100, 508; pewter, 527

saltpetre (saltpetir), 59, 121, 168, 177, 200

sanders (saundrz), an ointment made from powdered sandalwood, 156

sarcenet (sarcynet), a very fine and soft silk material, 184

sarcocolla (circacola), a gum resin from Persia or Arabia, used in medicine, 156

satin (satan', saten'), 184; black (noir), 156; green (vert), 156; red and black (rubrum et nigrum), 33; tawny (tawney), 33

saws (saues), 205

says (sayes), a light-weight cloth usually made from worsted and woollen yarn, 179; fine (fyn'), 156; see also thread, yarn

schönwerk (skonewark), the finest and most highly priced squirrel skins, presumably from the far north, taken at the height of the winter, 170

scissors (cisours, sesers, sisoures, sisers, sesours), 79, 84, 181, 184–5

'scone Jesus', ? scones stamped with the figure of Christ, 23

scouring tiles (scowryng tyle), 215; see also Flanders scouring stones

seam of herring (heryng' sayme), fish oil or grease, 135

sendal (syndale), a fine silk cloth, 156

setwall (sedevall'), the root of the valerian plant, used in medicine, 156

shafts, 184

shanks (shank'), furs made of skins from legs of budge (lambskins), 37, 45, 134, 139; budge (bogy), 146; tavelon, often used to indicate a bundle of four skins of black budge but sometimes mean- ing the individual skins, 33, 189

sheaf, a weight or measure
-, (a) of iron: 5–6 lbs.
-, (b) of glass: quantity uncertain

shears (sheris, sherys), 1, 33, 46, 70, 84, 102, 139–40, 156, 159, 176; barbers' (barbours), 1, 4; cappers', 20, 93, 103, 152, 205; sewers', 205; shearmen's (sherman'), 45, 178, 181, 183–4; tailors' (taylours), 1, 4, 79, 185

sheaths see dagger sheaths

sheepskins (pelles ovium), 1, 91, 94, 147, 182–4; white (albe), 27, 120, 139

sheep's leather (shepis ledir), 207

sheets (linthiamina, shet'), 1, 26, 60, 89, 124, 134, 141, 155, 178, 181–3, 215; see also shop sheets

shell, silver (coclear argenti), 156

shirts (camisie), 34, 152, 176

shock or stock (skok, stok), a measure of quantity (sixty), used here for bast ropes, 'blowers', cans, glasses, lutes, marline (60 bundles), mirrors, soap boxes, trenchers, troughs, and win- nowing-fans

shoes, children's (sotulares), 45

shop sheets (shop shet'), ? packing sheets, 95

shoulder-plates (shuld' plat'), 114

shuttles (shetyll'), 17, 20, 23, 89, 93, 182; linen (lynen), 122; narrow (narow), 20; wool (wolle), 122

sieves (bultella), 181

signets, latten (signett' latonis), 139

silk (sericum, seta, seda), 93, 156; for mak- ing cauls (calle), 33, 36, 90, 139, 151, 183, 187, 190; Cologne (Col'), 33, 36, 90, 95, 134, 139, 151, 183, 187

skins (pelles), 93; cat, 454, 504–5, 508; col- oured, 83, 93, 121; diverse colours, 205; elk, 204; hare, 146; hart, 26; kid, 45; Portuguese, 101, 107, 111, 116; red leather, 103; spruce, 83, 169, 215; see also calf skins, fox-skins, lambskins, rabbit-skins, red skins, sheepskins, white skins and furs, leather

skive, a measure of teazles, approximately 100 in number

skull, steel (sculle stele), 139

sleeves, mail (manise mayle, manice mayll'), 93, 114, 130, 139, 196, 208; coarse (cours), 117

slip (slippe, slypp'), clay for pottery, 25, 35, 86, 94, 97, 118, 147, 173, 179, 208

snuffers (snoffers), 56, 181; see also candle-snuffers

soap (sapo), 4, 7, 36, 117, 156, 184, 204, 215, 332

soap boxes (sope boxis), 169–70

sort(s) (sortez), a measure used for fruit: apparently about half a hogshead (q.v.; 63 gallons); 3 pieces or 12 quarterns to the sort (Overseas Trade of Bristol, 338)

soultwich linen cloth (telum lineum suit'), probably from Salzwedel in Germany, 10, 26, 34, 37, 58–9, 114, 126, 147, 150, 168, 183, 190, 204

spear-heads (spere hed'), 46

spears (speris), 136

spectacle-cases (spectacle casez, brille cas'), 17, 33, 37, 82, 84, 94, 159, 183– 4, 186

spectacles, xxxvi, 26, 30, 35, 60, 70, 85, 94, 139, 153, 157, 159, 179, 181, 184–5

spice-bread (spise bred), 169

spice-cakes (spice cakes), 23, 86

spindles (spyndell', spyndels), 93, 183

spits (spitte), 34

splints (splent'), simple form of vambrace (armour) protecting the outside of the arm only, 93, 114, 180, 187, 196; nar- row (narowe), 129

split skins for hats (splitt pro hatt'), divided skins of leather, 117, 124

sponges (spong'), 156

spoons (cocleares), 165; copper (cupri), 181

spouts (spowt'), syringes, 27

sprats (sprotf), 385, 398

spruce linen cloth (telum lineum sprewis), of Prussia, 169

spruce skins (sprus pelles, spruis, pruse'), of Prussia, 83, 169, 215

spurs (sporis, spors, calcaria), 2, 24, 28, 30, 33, 35, 56, 82, 84, 91, 114, 117, 134, 139, 147, 174, 179–80, 186, 204, 207

squirrel skins (squerell'), 169, 197; see also grey, red and white skins, schonwerk

squirts (squyrt', squert'), 56, 174, 180–1; latten (latonis), 147

stained cloths (panni stayned), 33, 174

stamin, a coarse cloth of worsted, 573

standishes (standisshes), stands containing ink, pens and other writing materials, 46, 156

staplefish (pisces staple), fish, especially cod, not thoroughly cured, 122; salt (sake), 147, 149, 158, 160, 162–3, 199

starch (styrche, sterch), 309, 355, 451–2, 454, 467, 472, 508, 536, 542, 561, 565

staves (stavis), 136, 139, 178

stavesacre (stavisacr'), a plant, the seeds of which were used as an emetic, 156

steel (calibs, stele), 1, 28, 33–5, 37, 40, 45, 59, 77, 88, 94–5, 97, 117, 147, 150–1, 154, 159, 177, 183, 189

steel bonnets (stele bonett'), 97, 106, 134

stew pots, earthenware (stew pott' erthyn, stewyng), 210, 214

stirrups (styroppez, stirops), 2, 28, 30, 56, 114, 180; plate, 139

stock see shock

stockfish (fungia), cod and other gadoid fish cured by drying hard in the air, 1, 10, 13, 34, 40, 56, 58, 77, 88, 114, 117, 120, 122, 125–6, 168, 178, 199, 204; cropling (croplyng'), an inferior kind of stockfish, 19; titling (tytlyng'), a small size of stockfish, 22, 59

stones (ston'): jet (geet), 185; white (albe), 23; see also dog-stones, millstones

stools (stolys), 197

straw, a measure of weight, used for wax, usually between 8 and 11 quintals (q.v.)

straw hats (hatt' straminis, strawen hatt'), 86–7, 90, 93–7, 134, 139–40, 143, 175, 178

string thread (stryng filum, streng'), 26, 56, 94, 184

stringing yarn (stringing yern', streng' yern'), 26, 176

sturgeon, 10, 13, 32, 68, 117, 168, 206

succade, fruit preserved in sugar, either candied or in syrup, 156

sugar (sugour), 12, 15, 16, 47–8, 107, 116, 201, 215; broken (broke), 215; loaves (loves, pannes), 35, 156; of Messina (Missene), 156; powdered (pouder), 15, 156

sum (somme), a measure of number (ten thousand) used for nails: (Willan, Rates, 41)

swords (gladii), 24, 37, 83, 93–4, 117, 120, 134, 139, 183; sheaths for (shethis), 197

Table-cloths (table clothe, mappa, pan- nus), 152, 176, 183, 215; diaper, 28, 93, 155

table-mats (warnappis), 175

tablemen (tabilmen), pieces used in board games, especially backgammon, 46

tables, 174, 181; painted (depicta), 93

tables with images (cum ymag'), pictures painted on boards or other flat sur- faces, 103

tabor pipes (taber pipes), pipe played alongside a drum, 114, 181

taffeta (tapheta), 33, 177

tallow, rendered (cepum molton'), 225, 237, 243, 266, 277, 288, 298, 302, 305, 332, 342, 349, 356, 385, 454, 470, 504, 508, 526, 541, 553, 557, 561, 565, 571, 594

tapestry (tapstr'), 30, 159; see also coverlets

tar (tarr', terr'), 10, 13, 32, 88, 125–6, 136, 138, 140, 169–70, 197, 204, 212, 332, 360, 368, 392, 423, 510

teazles (tasyh", tasell'), prickly flower- heads of the fuller's teazle used to raise a nap on the surface of cloth, 1, 20, 34, 45, 63, 83, 93, 103, 106, 130, 137, 140, 146–7, 152, 176, 178, 205, 215

terrets (terrett'), ring to which a string, rib- bon or chain is attached, e.g. on a dog's collar or to attach a leash to the jesses of a hawk, 26

thimble-cases (themels casez), 84

thimbles (thymels, themels), 20, 26, 28, 56, 94, 156, 174, 176, 180–1, 184–5; latten (latonis), 156

thread (filum), 94, 139, 176, 180, 184; blue (blodium), 23, 25, 30, 45, 58, 77, 82, 93–4, 96, 103, 134, 140, 165, 179, 181– 2, 184, 186, 189; brown, 168; for cross- bows (pro crossebowes), 120; for hats (pro hatt'), 117, 124; raw (rawe), 103, 169; say, 181; sewing (sewyng), 169; white (album), 77, 176, 179, 181, 184, 189; see also Bruges, Cologne, gold thread, Oudenarde, packthread, Paris, sail thread, string thread

ticks (tykes), linen bed coverings, 1, 21, 26, 70, 80, 91, 103, 178, 183, 185, 189, 204

timber, a bundle of forty skins

tin (stannum), xxxv, 295, 305, 349, 469, 471, 478, 556, 588, 622n.

tinfoil (tynne foyle), 182

tin-glass (tyn' glasse, ten glas), bismuth, added to fine pewter to produce a harder and more durable alloy, xxxv, 178, 183

titling see stockfish

tongs, 181–2

tongues, salt (lingue salce), 305; see also ox-tongues

towels, towelling (towell'), 85, 155; diaper, 26, 28, 166, 183

toys (japes), 33

train oil (trane), fish or whale oil, 10, 32, 107, 125–6, 165, 169–70, 179, 184, 197, 199

trays (treys), 126

treacle (triacle), a medicinal compound of spices and drugs (Flemish) or a syrup (Genoese), 114, 156

treillis (trilles, terlyson), a stout or coarse kind of cloth similar to buckram, 157, 177

trenchers (trenchours), 169–70, 197, 595

trivets (trevett'), tripods, 181

troughs (trowes), 169–70

trowels (trowell'), 182

'trumpe' glasses, ? flared or trumpet- shaped glasses, 156

trumpets (trumpes), 26, 181; latten (latonis), 56

trusses for crossbows (trosses pro cros- sebowes), 120

tucking hooks (tuckyng hok'), probably tenter-hooks since tucking was a term used for fulling, especially in the West Country, 23, 26, 140, 184: latten (latonis), 35

tuke, canvas or linen cloth, 23, 34, 77–8, 174, 178, 184

tun (dolium)
-, (a) a large cask, hence a measure for wine and oil containing 252 gallons. The measure varies for other commodities
-, (b) a measure of weight equal to 2, 240 lbs., used for iron etc.

turbith (turbytt, turbit), a purgative prepared from the root of the East Indian jalap, 156

turnsole (tornsoll'), a violet-blue or purple colouring matter, 93

turpentine (turpentyn'), 4

twine (twyn'), 34, 93

'Ulsom' cloth, ? a linen cloth from ülzen, prov. Hanover, 126

Vambraces (vambras), a complete arm- defence excluding the shoulder, 85, 89, 93, 139; half-vambraces (dimidium vambras), 85, 89

velvet, 184

verjuice (vergis), acid juice of green or unripe grapes, crab-apples or other sour fruit, used in cooking or for medi- cinal purposes, 542, 565

vine shoots (vyn' graffes), 131

vinegar (venegyr), 355

violet powder (pouder violet), ? sugar per- fumed with essence of violet, 4, 46, 79

visors (visour), 187

'vryas', not identified, 332

Wainscots (waynskott', weynskott'), 10, 13, 20, 32, 57, 68, 125–6, 165, 168–70, 182, 196–7, 202, 206, 212–13

wallets (pauteners), 37

walnuts (walnott'), 46

wax (cera), 1–5, 8, 10, 13, 24, 28, 32, 34–7, 58–9, 77, 88, 92, 95, 97, 111, 125–6, 134, 139, 147, 150, 154, 159, 166, 169– 70, 174, 177, 180–90, 197, 203, 205, 207, 360; Moorish (morysh), 156

weavers' spools (wewer spol'), bobbins, 157

weights, 184; Troy, 56

weld (wold'), a yellow dye from the plant reseda luteola, 208

Welsh cloths (panni vail'), 588

Welsh straits (stricti Wall'), a cheap wool- len cloth of single width (1 yd.), usu- ally only 12 yds. long, also known as cotton russet (q.v.), 221, 235, 242–3, 267', 276–573 passim

wey (vaga), a measure varying according to commodity
-, (a) of salt: 5 qrs. (140 lbs.)
-, (b) of cheese and tallow: 180 lbs. (Zupko)
-, (c) of glass: 40–60 'bunches', weight uncertain

wheat (frumentum), 61, 67, 99, 104, 302, 508, 511, 515, 520–2, 542–3

whipcord (whipcord'), 45

whips, latten (whippes lattonis), 93

whistles (whistels), 23, 33

white skins (pelles albe), probably white squirrel skins, 1, 120, 184

whiting (merlyng'), 32

whorls (wharvels), small fly-wheels fixed on the spindles of spinning-wheels to maintain or regulate the speed, 23

wicker bottles (wekerid botell', wiker), bottles encased in wicker, 99; glass (vitri), 178

wimbles (wymell'), gimlets, 181; wimble irons (wynnell' yrons), gimlet shafts, 181

windlass for a crossbow (wynlace pro crosse bowe), 120

wine (vinum), xxxiv, 605–22

wine lees (wine lyes), 34, 82, 86, 121, 139, 144, 176, 179, 181

winnowing-fans (wynnyng'), 169–70

wire (weyr, weir'), 20, 98, 190; copper (coper filum), 94, 120, 174, 183; gold, 183; latten (latonis), 17, 94; thread (filum), 174; see also clavichord wire

woad (gualda), 12, 16, 43, 94, 144, 200; Caen woad (gualda de Cane), 166; Cologne woad (Coleyn' wood', guald' Col'), 23, 59, 178, 181, 208; Gascon, 166; Portuguese (Portyngale), 166; Rochelle, 166; Toulouse woad (Tol- lowes gualda, Tollois wode), 109–10, 133, 571, 573

wool (lana), xxx, xxxiv–xxxv, 598–604

wool-cards (wollen kard, wolle card'), an instrument with wire teeth used for combing wool prior to spinning, 4, 20, 27, 34–6, 46, 61, 82–3, 93, 98, 103–4, 157, 174, 176, 181, 184, 215; small, 176

wool-combs (wolle comb'), 20

woolfells (pelles lanute), 598–604

woollen cloth see cloth

worsted, a woollen fabric made of long- staple combed wool: double (duplex), 1¼ yds. wide and 10 yds. long, 220, 297, 301, 308–9, 313–596 passim; single (simplum), 1¼ yds. wide and 6 yds. long, 308, 312, 340–1, 400, 424, 441, 460, 573; see also stamin

writing tables (writyng tables), small wooden tablets, coated with wax, for writing notes with a stylus, 24, 26, 36, 56, 94, 147

Yarn (yern'), 91, 93, 168, 206; linen (linei), 10, 93, 215; raw (rawe), 205; say, 182

'Yperlings', 'iperlings', ? cloth of Ypres or coverlets, 23, 96, 114–15, 118, 120, 178, 181, 208

Zeeland linen cloth (telum lineum Seland), 204



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