||See infra, p. 224, note; Vol. i. p. 385.
||See infra, p. 141, 263, note. Roger Coke mentions the opinion,
that "Cromwell had, by his last will, when he was compos mentis,
designed Fleetwood for his successor; whereas, Richard was substituted
in a surreptitious manner, by the craft of some of the Council, when
Cromwell had lost his senses." Detection, (1697,) p. 406.
||See vol. ii. p. 314, note. "Whitehall, July 29, 1657. This day,
the most noble Lord, the Lord Richard Cromwell, was installed Chancellor of the most famous University of Oxon.
"About four o'clock, afternoon, Dr. John Owen, Vice-chancellor of
the University, with the heads of houses in their scarlets, the proctors,
and a great number of masters of arts, came hither to the lodgings of
my Lord Richard in their formalities, the beadles of the University
preceding the Vice-Chancellor.
"The Convocation being set," and "the most noble Lord Chancellor
elect" being "admitted Master of Arts," he "came attended by the
reverend Dr. Wilkins," (his uncle, afterwards Bishop of Chester.)
"His Lordship's robe was scarlet, and after the manner of the Proctor's
habit." After "a speech in Latin to his Lordship," by the senior
Proctor, and the presentation of "the Book of Statutes," and the
various "ensigns of authority," and "an elegant speech in Latin, by
the Vice-Chancellor, the oath of Chancellor was administered. His
Lordship, in a short speech, declared his good acceptance of the honour
done him, with promises of performing whatever lieth in his power, as
becomes their Chancellor, for the security, honour, and advantage of
that renowned University.
"This ceremony being ended, banquets were prepared in several
rooms, for the entertainment of that learned body." Mercurius Politicus, No. 373.
Whitlock represents "the Council" as "satisfied, that the Protector, in his life-time, according to the Petition and Advice, had declared his son Richard to be his successor." Memorials, (1732,) p. 674.
||See infra, pp. 25–33, 87, 104, 105, 112, 113, 124, 125, 129, 141,
151, note, &c.
||See infra, p. 130. "The proclamation of Richard to be Lord Protector," says Whitlock, "was made in London, in the following words:—
"Whereas, it hath pleased the most wise God, in his Providence, to
take out of this world the moat serene and renowned Oliver, late Lord
Protector of this Commonwealth; and his Highness having, in his lifetime, according to the humble Petition and Advice, declared and appointed the most noble and illustrious, the Lord Richard, eldest son of
his said late Highness, to succeed him in the government of these
"We therefore, of the Privy Council, together with the Lord Mayor,
Aldermen, and citizens of London, the officers of the army, and numbers of other principal gentlemen, do now hereby with one full voice
and consent of tongue and heart, publish and declare the said noble and
illustrious Lord Richard, to be rightful Protector of this Commonwealth
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories
"To whom we do acknowledge all fidelity and constant obedience,
according to law, and the said humble Petition and Advice, with all
hearty and humble affections, beseeching the Lord, by whom princes
rule, to bless him with long life, and these nations with peace and happiness under his government.
"Richard Chiverton, Mayor. Henry Lawrence, President. Nathaniel Fiennes, C. S. John Lisle, C. S., &c.
"God save his Highness, Lord Protector." Memorials (1732); see
Parl. Hist. xzi. 227–232.
||See infra, p. 488, note.
||"In Oliver's time, they came in fashion," says the author of the
History of Addresses, (1709,) p. 2.
||"Richard had his addresses, as well as his father, and in a far
greater number, the custom prevailing more and more daily." Ibid.
Dr. Bates says: "cum petitionibus approbatoriis numero circiter nonaginta quaquaversus advolant, ut exorienti soli adblandirentur." Elenchus, (1676,) p. 334. (They hastened from all parts, with about ninety
addresses of congratulation, worshipping the rising sun.)
Roger Coke mentions "numerous companies of sycophants, from all
parts of the nation, to the number of ninety congratulatory addresses,
which Richard had as little good of, as King James II. had from those
above thirty years after." Detection, (1697,) p. 406.
Richard, like other sovereigns, was not left unacknowledged by the
flattering incense of dedications. See infra, p. 163, note *. The
learned lawyer, Rushworth, (whose name appears, disgracefully, in
1660, among the, witnesses for the crown,) now publishing the Historical
Collections, to which I have been very frequently indebted, thus concludes a dedication to the young Protector:—
"But few words are best to princes. Vouchsafe, your Highness,
pardon to him who thus presumes to make so mean an oblation at so
high an altar. Your good acceptation will be the greatest honour to
it." Parl. Hist. (1763,) xxiii. 218.
Even Mr. Locke has fallen into this absurdity of dedication. Thus,
presenting his Essay, in 1689, to the Earl of Pembroke, a respectable private nobleman, neither possessing nor affecting any uncommon
literary or scientific attainments, and scarcely known to posterity, beyond the peerage, he says:—
"A present I here make to your Lordship; just such as the poor
man does to his rich and great neighbour, by whom the basket of flowers
or fruit, is not ill taken, though he has more plenty of his own growth
and in much greater perfection. Worthless tilings receive a value,
when they are made the offerings of respect, esteem, and gratitude."
Works, (1740,) i. 10. See infra, p. 52, note ‡.
||See infra, p. 153, note; House of Cromwell, (1787,) i. 179–182.
||See Biog. Brit. (1789,) iv. 529. Yet Governor Hutchinson, says:
"An express acknowledgment of Richard Cromwell, was expected from
the Massachuset's, but they declined it." History, (1765,) i. 206.
||Isaac Walton relates, that Sir Henry Wotton, "at his first going
ambassador into Italy, (in 1604,) as he passed through Germany, was
requested," by a friend, "with whom he was passing an evening in
merriment, to write some sentence in his albo; a book of white paper,
which for that purpose, many of the German gentry usually carry about
them; and Sir Henry Wotton, consenting to the motion, took an
occasion from some accidental discourse of the present company, to
write a pleasant definition of an Ambassador, in these very words:
Legatus est vir bonus peregrè missus ad mentiendum reipublicœ causâ."
See the Life prefixed to Reliquiœ Wottonianœ.
||The Lord de Bourdeaux, "at an audience to which he was introduced by Sir Oliver Fleming, Master of the Ceremonies, presented
to his Highness two letters; one from his Majesty of France, the other
from his Eminency, Cardinal Mazarine, and delivered himself in a
speech to this effect:
"That his Master, the King of France, having heard of the death of
his late Highness, of glorious memory, did very much take to heart the
loss of so great a captain, and so good an idly of his crown. That his
Majesty rejoiced, at being informed, that in order to the repairing so
great a loss, it had pleased God to establish his Highness, as his father's
undoubted successor." Parl. Hist. (1760,) xxi. 237.
"Yet as soon as Cardinal Mazarine heard, at Paris, of Oliver's death,
he personally waited upon the Queen-Mother of England, to congratulate her thereupon, as the most probable accident that could have happened to advance her sdn's restoration." Ibid.
Whitlock mentions, "October 18th, audience given by Richard, to the
French Ambassador, when Richard did carry himself discreetly and
better than was expected." Memorials, (1732,) p. 675.
||The circumstances attending the accession" of his serene Highness,
Lord Richard Cromwell," are thus described by Prestwich, a contemporary.
"Instantly, on the death "of his serene Highness, Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, the Privy Council assembled, and summonses
were immediately sent to all the Lords and superior officers, both civil
and military. After which, his son and successor, Lord Richard Cromwell, was acknowledged by the Council, and was thereupon proclaimed,
as the rightful and most undoubted Heir, Prince, and Governor. And
the next morning, being Saturday, the following notice was forwarded
to all the chief towns in the dominions of the Commonwealth, with
orders to make the same public, by means of the Common Cryer, &c. &c.
"Public notice is hereby given and declared: That whereas, it hath
pleased Almighty God, by his providence, to take away the most serene
and most illustrious Oliver, Lord Protector; who, according to the
Petition and Advice, in his life-time, had declared the most noble and
illustrious, his son, the Lord Richard Cromwell, to be his successor; the
Council, the Lord Mayor, the officers of the army, therefore, do heartily
and unanimously, acknowledge the said Lord Richard, as rightful
Protector and Chief Magistrate, and do require all persons to yield
obedience; beseeching Almighty God, by whom Princes reign, and wise
men decree justice, to bless him with long life, and the nations under
him, with peace and happiness.
"This being finished, Sir Richard Chiverton, the Mayor, and the
Aldermen of London, according to order from the Council, that Saturday, in the afternoon, came down to Whitehall, and condoled and
congratulated Lord Richard Cromwell; and, in their presence, Fiennes,
the Lord Commissioner gave him his oath. After which, the Rev. Mr.
Manton, as Prelate of the Protectorship, said prayers, and blessed him,
his council, armies, and people. After this, on the Monday next, they
proclaimed in great triumph; the lords, great officers, with most of the
superior army and navy officers attending the solemnity, and this at the
usual places in London." Respublica, (1787,) pp. 204, 205. See supra,
p. ii. note ‡.
"Richard Cromwell," says Wood, "was proclaimed Protector, at
Ozon. (Sep. 6,) at the usual places where Kings have been proclaimed.
While he was proclaiming before Saint Marie's Church dore, the Mayor,
Recorder, Town-Clerk, &c. accompanied by Colonel Unton Croke, and
his troopers, were pelted with carret and turnip-tops, by young scholars
and others, who stood at a distance." Life, (1772,) pp. 115, 116.
Biog. Brit. iv. 530.
||Which was called on the antient model. See infra, p. 74, note.
Mercurius Politicus, No. 552.