||6,251, including 63 of inland water,
according to the census of 1901.
||Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 717.
Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xix, 235,
||Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 628;
no reference is given.
Lond. Gaz. 14 June, 1872.
V.C.H. Lancs. i, 286.
||Ibid. 366 n. It is regularly entered
among the members of Newton fee in the
inquisitions; see Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet.
Soc.), ii, 99.
Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc.
Lancs. and Ches.), i, 74, 75.
||i.e. reaching back to the time of
||Ibid. The grant to the Hospitallers
does not appear again.
Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), iii,
852; Thomas de Burnhull and his son
Peter attested a charter. Peter de Burnhull was in possession of Ashton by 1246;
Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.),
||See the account of Windle; her
manors were Windle, Skelmersdale, and
half of Rainhill.
Final Conc. i, 116. By this Robert
Banastre also released to Peter de Burnhull all right to any suit of mill from
Peter and his heirs and the men of his
fee in Ashton; for the grant and quitclaim Peter gave 35 marks, and promised
to render at Newton 2s. a year for
||Thomas Moody, of Ashton, in 1292
complained that Gilbert de Clifton
(guardian), and Peter son of Peter de
Burnhull had disseised him of certain
land, but they showed that it had never
been arable land in plaintiff's time, only
moor and marsh; Assize R. 408, m. 60 d.
Thomas Moody had another charge to
make against Gilbert de Clifton—that he
had been seized at Ashton and taken to
the church of Wigan, where he was imprisoned; ibid. m. 53 d.
||Alan son of Peter de Burnhull was
lord of Ashton in 1302 and 1305, as
appears by pleas of those years; Assize
R. 418, m. 4; 420, m. 3. He was lord
of Skelmersdale in 1300; Final Conc. i,
189; ii, 143 n. He is also called Alan de
||Assize R. 424, m. 2; De Banco R.
284, m. 119.
||It will be seen from the account of
Kirkby that William Gerard, the father,
had a share of the manors of Kirkby and
Melling in right of his wife.
An account of the Gerards of Kingsley is given in Ormerod, Ches. (ed.
Helsby), ii, 96, and 131, 132. Abstracts
of inquisitions and family deeds are there
||Ibid. ii, 628. In 1346 inquiry was
made as to why William Gerard, jun.,
and David de Egerton had not been made
knights: a list of their possessions was
made; Q.T. Mem. R. 122, m. 123 d.
||Ormerod, op. cit. ii, 96. William
and Joan were in possession of Ashton in
1338, when they made a sale of land;
Final Conc. ii, 108.
||Ibid. ii, 143, 144.
||The Bishop of Lichfield granted to
Sir Peter Gerard a licence for his oratory
at Brynn for two years from 7 Oct. 1379;
Lich. Epis. Reg. Scrope, v, fol. 33. The
writ of Diem cl. extr. after his death was
issued 20 Feb. 1380–1; Dep. Keeper's
Rep. xxxii, App. 353.
||Ormerod, ii, 96. Thomas Gerard
was knight of the shire in 1384, 1388,
and 1394; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre.
of Lancs. 40, 43, 44. In 1393 Thomas
Gerard received the royal pardon for
having entered into certain estates during
his minority and for having married,
when he should have been in ward to the
king; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 195.
In 1402 he made provision for the marriage of his son John with Alice daughter
of Sir John Boteler; ibid. 196.
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 123;
the clear value was 100 marks. His
name does not occur in Sir Harris
Nicolas's account of the Agincourt
||Ormerod, loc. cit. The writ of
Diem cl. extr. was issued 10 Dec. 1431,
and writ of livery 14 Mar. 1431–2; Dep.
Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 301. The
writ of Diem cl. extr. on the death of
Alice, widow of John Gerard, was issued
27 Feb. 1441–2; ibid.
||Ormerod, loc. cit. The Lancashire
inquisition taken after his death is preserved in Towneley MS. DD, no. 1465.
This recites among other deeds, that
John Gerard, the father, had in 1428
granted lands in Rainhill, with Smalley,
Lawfield, and other parcels in Ashton to
his son Peter and Isabel his wife. It
also appears that Peter was 'esquire' in
1440, when various lands were settled on
Douce, daughter of Sir Thomas Ashton,
in view of her marriage with Thomas
Gerard, son of Peter. The said Peter
died seised of 'the manor of Ashton,
otherwise called the manor or capital
messuage of the Brynn,' but the jury did
not know by what rent it was held of the
chief lord, Henry Langton. The custody
of the lands of the heir was granted to
Thomas Danyell, and afterwards to John
Ashton; Isabel, widow of Sir Peter, had
dower; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App.
||Proof of age was given at St. Mary's
Church, Chester, on 2 Aug. 1452. John
Leicester said that Thomas was of age on
15 July; he remembered being at Winwick Church on pilgrimage to St. Rhadegund on the day of the baptism. John
Abram remembered Sir Peter Gerard
asking Sir Thomas Stanley to be godfather to his son; Richard Clive remembered the same, and held a lighted
candle at the baptism. Others were at
Winwick Church attending a funeral,
when they heard of Thomas's birth, and
others heard of it while staying at Ashton
for a 'love day' between Sir William
Atherton and Henry Kighley; Ormerod,
A pension of £20 to Sir Thomas
Gerard granted by Edward IV was excepted from the Act of Resumption in
1464; Parl. R. v, 546.
||This appears from the later inquisitions, in which Peter is called the son of
Cecily. Other sons were Robert, mentioned in the will of Thomas Gerard, and
John, a clerk, to whom the Cheshire
manors were granted for life by his father;
Ormerod, loc. cit.; Dep. Keeper's Rep.
xxxix, App. 132.
||Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no.
21: the inquisition was not taken until
||Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xiii, fol.
121b; commission to receive the vow
and give the widow's veil, ring and
mantle, dated 22 May 1491. She died
24 May 1502, having a life interest in
the Gerard lands which had been assigned
to her as dower by her son Peter; Duchy
of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 95.
||Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 21,
where the date is given as 20 June 1494.
This does not agree with that on the
memorial brass in Winwick Church,
which sets forth the lineage of his wife.
In 1502, after the death of Dame Cecily,
the manors were granted to Margary,
widow of Peter, during the minority of
the heir; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxi,
32a. Cecily Gerard's Inq. p.m. states
that the Bromley lands were in Bromley,
Whittington, Beddill, Chadkilne, Ridges,
Podmore, Kaunton, Milwich, Woolsall,
and Selfort, with a moiety of the manor
of Hextell, in Staffordshire.
Margery, the widow of Peter Gerard,
requested that as various lands had been
assigned to feoffees on the marriage of Sir
Thomas Gerard with Cecily daughter of
Sir Robert Foulshurst, which Cecily was
still living, she should have the rule of
Thomas her son during his minority;
Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 112.
||In Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs.
and Ches.), i, 61–7, is an account
(wrongly dated) of a cock fight at Winwick in 14 Apr. 1515, attended by
Thomas Boteler of Bewsey, son of Sir
Thomas, and others of the neighbouring
gentry; James Stanley, Bishop of Ely,
though he had arranged to come, does not
seem to have been present. The meeting
was disturbed by the appearance of Sir
Thomas Gerard and a number of retainers, all fully armed, and determined
to wreak vengeance on some obnoxious
members of the party. His quarrel with
Thomas Gerard of Ince occurred a little
earlier; ibid. 3–7. Roger Platt of Ince
complained that Sir Thomas Gerard of
Ashton, 'of his own rigorous and malicious mind,' had seized his cattle and
carried them off to the Brynn, where he
detained them, and out of 'further rancour' set in the stocks one Lawrence
Charnock, who had taken fodder for the
cattle; ibid. 75.
A settlement of various manors was
made in 1511, Thomas Gerard and Margery his wife being in possession; Pal. of
Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 246.
Duchy Plead. ii, 234. He died
7 Nov. 1523 seised of the manors of
Brynn, Windle, and Brindle, and wide
lands in the district. In his will, dated
a year before his death, he recited the
provision made for his wife Margery
daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford; his
son and heir Thomas and his wife Joan;
Peter and other younger sons; Katherine,
Elizabeth, and Anne, his daughters. The
last appears to have been already married to Richard Ashton of Middleton.
The remainders were to Robert Gerard,
his uncle, and to the issue of his grandfather, Sir Thomas Gerard; Duchy of
Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 13.
Margery, the widow, afterwards married Sir John Port, and died 10 May
1540, when the son, Thomas Gerard,
was thirty-eight years of age; ibid.
||In 1533 he 'would not be spoken
with' by the herald; Visit. (Chet. Soc.),
182. He was made a knight in 1544
during the invasion of Scotland; Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 78. In 1536
Thomas Gerard of Brynn was expected
to bring a contingent of 450 men to
serve against the Pilgrimage of Grace;
L. and P. Hen. VIII, xi, 511. He was
sheriff of the county in 1548 and 1553;
P.R.O. List, 73. In 1552 he was claiming exemptions for the suppressed chantry
of Windle; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i,
254. He appears to have had several
illegitimate children, of whom one,
Thomas, was employed as trustee.
Another Thomas Gerard, contemporary
with these, was the natural son of William
Sir Thomas married Jane, a daughter
of Sir Peter Legh of Lyme, from whom
he was separated; Raines MSS. (Chet.
Lib.), xxii, 170; Ormerod, Ches. (ed.
Helsby), iii, 677. Her will, in which
she is described as Dame Jane Gerard of
Bromley, is printed from the Lyme deeds
in Wills (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 78;
she makes bequests to her son, Sir
Thomas Gerard and his wife Elizabeth,
and to her brother Sir P. Legh.
||Ormerod, op. cit. ii, 96.
||With this Sir Thomas and his wife
the pedigree recorded in 1665 begins;
Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 116. His
sons on matriculating at Oxford in
1575 were said to be 'of Derbyshire';
and ten years later Sir Thomas was described as 'lurking' in his house at
Etwall; Morris, Life of John Gerard, 6
(quoting Clifford, S.P. of Sir R. Sadler, ii,
Sir Thomas Gerard was sheriff in 1557
(P.R.O. List, 73), and knight of the shire
in 1562; Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 5.
||Morris, op. cit. 5, quoting Murdin,
Coll. of S.P. 771, 35. Those committed
to the Tower with him were Sir Thomas
Stanley, probably of Winwick Rectory,
and Francis Rolleston; 'they were reconciled to the pope according to the late
bull.' The story as to Bromley is quoted
in Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 237,
from Wotton, Baronetage, 55. John
Gerard says simply that his father
'obtained his release by the payment of a
large sum'; Morris, loc. cit.
||The story that he abandoned his
religion and adopted a licentious course
of life is discredited by Gillow, Bibl. Dict.
of Engl. Catholics, ii, 426.
Lydiate Hall, 244; quoting S.P.
Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4. Another Thomas
Gerard, perhaps the bastard, was 'soundly
affected in religion'; ibid. 246.
||His adventurous life is told, mainly
from his autobiography, in the work of
Fr. Morris already cited; see also Dict.
Nat. Biog. and Gillow. The confusion
created by the mistakes he made as to his
age at entering Oxford, &c. is cleared by
the record in Foster, Alumni Oxon. showing that he and his elder brother Thomas
entered Exeter College, Oxford, in Dec.
1575, at the ages of thirteen and fifteen.
When admitted to the English College at
Rome in 1587 as a scholar—he had
already lived there seven months—his
age was recorded as 'in his twenty-third
year'; Foley, Rec. S.J. vi, 173. He is
said to have been born 4 Oct. 1564. His
country upbringing stood him in good
stead in his later life, suspicion on one
occasion being averted 'as he spoke of
hunting and falconry with all the details
that none but a practised person could
command'; Morris, op. cit. 43.
||A number of settlements were made
during the reign of Elizabeth, of which
the fines give evidence. In 1573 Sir
Thomas claimed from Thomas Gerard,
base son of Sir Thomas Gerard deceased,
the manors of Ashton in Makerfield,
Brindle, Windle, and Skelmersdale, with
messuages and wide lands, twelve watermills, twelve windmills, two fulling-mills,
two horse-mills, six dovecotes, &c.; Pal.
of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 35, m. 3. This
would be just after Sir Thomas's release
from the Tower. A settlement apparently
on behalf of his wife Elizabeth was made
in the following spring; ibid. bdle. 36,
m. 230. Shortly afterwards he purchased
Lord Mounteagle's lands in Ashton; ibid.
bdle. 36, m. 102.
In 1582 a settlement or mortgage was
made by Sir Thomas Gerard, Elizabeth his
wife, and Thomas his son and heir apparent; ibid. bdle. 44, m. 226.
Four years later a large number of settlements were made, separate properties
being dealt with. In some the remainders
after the death of Sir Thomas and Elizabeth were to Thomas the son and heir
and Cecily his wife, and then to John
Gerard, second son of Sir Thomas. In
many others the further remainder was to
Sir Gilbert Gerard, Master of the Rolls,
and then to the male issue of William
Gerard, late of Harrow, Henry Gerard of
Rainhill, and William Gerard, late of
Ince; ibid. bdle. 48, m. 118–198, 262,
305. A number of similar feoffments
were made in 1598; ibid. bdle. 60, m.
4–22, 43, 47.
||Feoffments were made by Thomas
Gerard in 1587, his father being then in
the Tower; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F.
bdle. 49, m. 271–9. He had gone up to
Oxford in 1575, as above stated; but he
and his brother John soon left, finding
that 'at Easter the heretics sought to
force them to attend their worship, and
to partake of their counterfeit sacrament'—so John Gerard in Morris, op. cit. 14.
Their tutor, Edward Lewknor, followed
them, 'being resolved to live as a Catholic in very deed, and not merely in desire.'
For the knighthood see Metcalfe, op.
cit. 140; and for the baronetcy G.E.C.
Complete Baronetage, i, 21. The fee of
£1,000 is said to have been remitted in
consideration of the father's services to
the king's mother. He represented
Liverpool in the Parliament of 1597, and
Wigan in that of 1621; Pink and Beaven,
op. cit. 184, 224.
In 1612 a settlement was made by Sir
Thomas Gerard of the manors of Ashton,
Garswood, and Windle—the other Lancashire manors having been disposed of—
and lands in Ashton and neighbouring
townships; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle.
81, no. 26.
Lydiate Hall, loc. cit. In 1592
Thomas Gerard of High Carr was reported to have had a 'notorious recusant'
as his schoolmaster for some years; ibid.
258 (quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxv, 19).
His sister Dorothy and her husband Ralph
Layton of the Brynn were in like case.
Dame Anne Gerard, widow of Sir
Gilbert Gerard, was in 1590 living at
Highley Carr, indicted of recusancy; ibid.
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and
Ches.), iii, 297–301. The fine above
cited is given, as also another relating to
the Derbyshire manors. The remainders
were to Thomas, eldest son of Sir Thomas,
and his sons by Frances his wife; in default to John, the second son, &c.
||Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no.
57; funeral certificate (with coat of
twenty quarters) in Lancs. and Ches. Fun.
Cert. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 203.
Sir Thomas had been made a knight in
1615; Metcalfe, op. cit. 165. He was
member for Liverpool in 1624; Pink
and Beavan, op. cit. 186. As a convicted
recusant he paid double to the subsidy of
1628; Norris D. (B.M.). Gilbert, one
of his sons, became a Jesuit priest, and
died of a disease contracted while acting
as chaplain to some English troops in
Belgium in 1645; Foley, Rec. S.J vi,
337; vii, 294.
Richard, another son, cup-bearer to
Queen Henrietta Maria, acquired the
manor of Ince in Makerfield.
||Sir William Gerard, Sir Cecil Trafford, and four other convicted recusants,
joined in a petition to Charles I that their
arms might be restored to them 'in this
time of actual war,' for the security of
the king's person as well as of their own
district and families, 'who are not only in
danger of the common disturbance, but
menaced by unruly people to be robbed.'
The king writing from Chester, 27 Sept.
1642, very readily granted the permission;
War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 12–14.
||Etwall is said to have been sold to
secure the barony of Newton, but the
money was spent in providing funds for
the campaign of 1651; see Visit. of 1533
(Chet. Soc.), 184.
||'The last night this king lodged at
Brynn, six miles from Warrington, being
Sir William Gerard's house, who is a
subtle jesuited Papist'; letter dated
Stockton Heath, 16 Aug. in Civil War
Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 288.
||G.E.C. op. cit. and Royalist Comp.
Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii,
51–71, where details are given of a settlement made in 1632; see also Pal. of
Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 122, no. 5. It
appeared that in 1632 Sir William had
compounded with the king for a lease of
two-thirds of his Lancashire lands sequestered for recusancy, he having been in
ward to the king until April of that year;
Royalist Comp. Papers, iii, 62. 'Getting
coals' is named among the disbursements;
66. A survey of the lands in Ashton,
taken in 1652, is printed on p. 68; it
gives the names, areas, and values of the
fields. Tootell, Leachfield, Tunstall
Heads, Coalpit Banks, Mill Hill and
Pingotts appear among the field names.
For the sale see ibid. 70; Index of
Royalists (Index Soc.), 42.
||Dugdale, Visit. 116. Sir William
Gerard and William his son were recusants
in 1678; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App.
iv, 109. Two of the younger sons went
to the English College in Rome—Thomas
who entered in 1660, and became a
Jesuit, and died in Yorkshire in 1682,
while attending victims of an epidemic;
and Cuthbert who entered in 1662, and
left for England two years later; Foley,
op. cit. vi, 401, 404; vii, 296. Thomas,
on entering, gave details of his parentage,
stating that 'his parents and himself had
suffered much for the Catholic religion';
he had been baptized by Fr. Howard in
||Foley, op. cit. v, 361; the time referred to seems to be early in the 18th
An anecdote of Sir William Gerard is
given in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App.
iv, 142. He remained loyal to James II,
and was carried off to Preston a prisoner
in 1689, and accused of a part in the
'Lancashire Plot' of 1694; ibid. 294,
359, &c.; inquiry was also made as to
whether Garswood Hall was not devoted
to 'superstitious uses'; Exch. Dep. (Rec.
Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 84. His son
William was also among the accused. A
number of the baptisms of Sir William's
children are recorded in the Winwick
||See the account of Cansfield of
||Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 114. The estate was the 'manor
of Ashton, &c., entailed with remainders
successively to sons by Mary his wife, to
John his brother, to Thomas Gerard of
Ince, and to Richard Gerard of Wigan;
subject to £100 per annum to Dame
Mary Gerard of Birchley. Also the rectory of Childwall, for lives of his wife
Mary, the granddaughter of James Anderton, and of his daughters Anne and Elizabeth—£1,272 11s. 8d.'
The brother, John Gerard of Garswood,
registered an annuity of £80; and the
father's widow, Dame Mary of Birchley,
also registered; ibid. 99, 97.
||The brief summary of the descent
here given is quoted from G.E.C. Complete
Baronetage, loc. cit. The following references to Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. may be
useful: Lent 1693—Recovery of the
manors of Ashton and Windle, &c., Sir
William Gerard and William Gerard
vouchees; R. 457, m. 9. Aug. 1703—
King's Silver, manor of Windle, &c., Sir
William Gerard and Mary his wife, John,
Thomas, and Richard Gerard; R. 478,
m. 8. Lent 1721—Recovery of manor
of Ashton, Sir William Gerard and William Gerard vouchees; R. 512, m. 6.
Aug. 1745—Recovery of manors of Ashton and Windle and a fourth part of
Billinge, Sir Thomas Gerard vouchee;
R. 563, m. 4. Lent 1796—Recovery of
manors of Ashton, Windle, and Aspull,
and parcels in Aspull, Billinge, Ince, Golborne, Parr, Winstanley, Prescot, Wigan,
Hindley, Hale, Halewood, and Halebank;
Lent Assizes 1796, R, 12.
||A short notice of him is printed in
Pal. Note Bk. iv, 57.
||He was described as of Windle Hall.
For an account of the accident see Bland,
Ann. of Southport, 79.
||Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 639.
||Ibid. iii, 637; it is by Barritt, the
||The earliest record is in 1302, when
Hugh de Atherton claimed reasonable
estovers in Ashton, with heybote, housebote, &c., against Alan son of Peter de
Burnhull, William de Atherton, and Jordan the Woodward. Thus William de
Atherton appears to have been then the
lord of a third; Assize R. 418, m. 4.
Alan de Burnhull in 1313 claimed William
and Hugh de Atherton, Hugh Spark,
Henry Tootell and others as suitors at
his mill; De Banco R. 199, m. 134 d.
Hugh de Atherton was a brother of
William's; Culcheth D. nos. 35, 44 (in
Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes,
i). Hugh had a son Henry who may be
the Henry de Atherton of Aintree in
1332; his daughter Joan married Robert
de Nevill of Hornby, who in 1346 claimed
Hugh de Atherton's lands in Ashton and
elsewhere; De Banco R. 345, m. 393 d.;
346, m. 349. The claim was no doubt
successful as lands were held here by Lord
Mounteagle in the time of Henry VIII
as of the inheritance of James Harrington; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 64,
xi, no. 1. They were sold, as already
stated, to Sir Thomas Gerard in 1574.
The Molyneux lands in Ashton may have
been part of the inheritance; ibid. xiii,
Various suits are on record involving
the principal Atherton family. In 1332
Hugh de Atherton claimed common of
pasture in Ashton against Henry son of
William de Atherton and others; Hugh
de Atherton the younger and Henry his
brother were sureties; Assize R. 1411,
m. 12d. At the same time Hugh de
Atherton charged Alexander de Atherton
with carrying off his goods; De Banco R.
292, m. 231 d. In 1346 Henry son of
William de Atherton made a claim for
waste against Alexander de Atherton;
Agnes de Atherton was the lessee; De
Banco R. 348, m. 427 d. She may be
the Agnes, widow of Henry de Atherton,
who contributed to the subsidy of 1332;
Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and
Ches.), 18. Hugh de Atherton in 1347
succeeded in a claim against Adam son
of William de Atherton; Assize R. 1435,
m. 41 d. This Adam de Atherton who
was a chaplain, was in 1352 and 1353 a
plaintiff; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2,
m. 4 d.; R. 435, m. 28 d. (where a long
list of tenants is given).
In 1367 Ralph de Langton claimed
from Sir William de Atherton a certain
rent in Ashton in Makerfield due to the
lord of Newton, from a third part of the
wood and pasture called Garswood within
the demesne of the manor of Newton.
This rent had been granted in 1331 by
Henry son of William de Atherton, and
father of the defendant. The latter said
that William his grandfather had held the
third part, and so settled it that Henry,
when the charter was made, had nothing
except fee tail only; De Banco R. 438,
A later Sir William de Atherton died
in 1414 seised, among other estates, of a
third part of the manor of Ashton, held
of Henry de Langton by fealty and the
service of 2 marks a year; its clear
value was 40 marks; Lancs. Inq. p.m.
(Chet. Soc.), i, 107. The increase of the
rent from 10s. to 26s. 8d. may be accounted for by the statements in the preceding case.
The manor is named in 1443 in a settlement by William son of Sir William
Atherton on marrying Isabel daughter of
Richard Balderston; Towneley MS. C. 8,
5 (Chet. Lib.), Hen. VI, no. 43. Isabel
was a widow in 1479; ibid. Edw. IV,
John Atherton of Atherton, who died
in 1488, made various provisions for his
illegitimate children from his manor of
Garswood and lands in Ashton; at the
inquisition taken in 1507 it was stated
that the manor was held by fealty only,
and the lands by a rent of 26s. 8d.; Duchy
of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 39. For the
settlements alluded to see also Dods. MSS.
lviii, fol. 164b, no. 9; Pal. of Lanc. Plea
R. 33, m. 7, 7 d., where it is stated that
Thomas Harrington of Hornby, Thomas
Totehill, and John Standish had paid
rents to Sir William Atherton. A similar
statement as to the tenure of the manor
of Garswood and the lands in Ashton is
made in the inquisition taken in 1518
after the death of George Atherton, son
of John; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v,
Thomas Hesketh of Rufford, who died
in 1523, held lands of John Atherton,
son of George, by fealty and a rent of
20d.; ibid. v, no. 16. Peter Gerard of
Aughton, who died in 1528, held lands
in Ashton of the same John Atherton
in socage by the rent of 13s.; ibid. vi,
||In 1562 Sir John Atherton and
Margaret his wife sold the manor of Garswood and messuages, lands, windmill, and
rents in Ashton to Sir Thomas Gerard;
Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 24, m. 89;
also Plea R. 211, m. 5, reciting a feoffment and recovery.
In 1554 Sir John Gerard—an error for
Sir John Atherton or Sir Thomas Gerard
—declared that he was the owner of 'the
manor or chief mease place called Garswood in Ashton in Makerfield, and certain lands, meadows, and tenements, with
the windmill in the town of Ashton.'
This was in reply to a complaint by Jane
Taylor, widow of Thomas Taylor, who
had in 1539 obtained a lease from John
Atherton, then lord of Garswood, of certain tenements there, from which she had
been in part ejected by John Gerard and
his sons John and Thomas; Duchy Plead.
(Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 165;
compare Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i,
249, 272, 282, 289. This John Gerard
and his wife Anne, and his son John and
wife Ellen, occur in a Gerard fine of 1599;
Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 53, m. 304.
||Mascy of Rixton D.
Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.),
i, 239, 240, 243.
John Ashton in 1561 purchased the
lands of Lionel Gerard of Aughton and
Miles his son and heir; Pal. of Lanc.
Feet of F. bdle 23, m. 104. James
Ashton purchased a messuage and lands
from Thomas Gerard in 1594; ibid.
bdle. 56, m. 126. In the same year a
child of 'Mr. John Ashton of Ashton'
was baptized at Winwick.
William Slynehead purchased a messuage, &c., from Henry Lathom in 1579;
ibid. bdle. 41, m. 38.
In a settlement of land in Ashton
made by Sir Thomas Gerard in 1586, is
a lease of it to Richard Stanley for the
life of his brother William's second son
Thomas Stanley, at a rent of 30s.; ibid.
bdle. 48, m. 262.
James Downall of Ashton occurs in
1549; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), ii, 99.
||Ralph Hasleden died in 1636 holding a messuage, &c., of Sir Richard Fleetwood as of his manor of Makerfield, and
leaving a son and heir Thomas, fifty years
of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxviii,
David son of Lawrence Pendlebury
died in 1640 holding a messuage, &c.,
of Sir William Gerard as of his manor of
Ashton by suit of court and a rent of 14d.;
Robert, his son and heir, was twenty-three years of age; ibid. xxix, no. 72.
Royalist Comp. Papers, iv, 236.
Cal. of Com. for Compounding, v, 3186;
her husband Richard was living in 1641.
Roger Lowe's Diary (published in Local
Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i) contains many
particulars of local interest about the
Restoration period, the writer having been
Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 97, 98, 99,
110, 124, 127, 153. For John Darbyshire see Payne, Engl. Cath. Rec. 25.
||Thomas son of Mr. John Gerard
of New Hall was baptized at Winwick,
10 Dec. 1608.
The Launder or Lander family afterwards acquired the property, and were
described as 'of New hall' in 1687. An
account of them is given in Local Glean.
Lancs. and Ches. i, 216; ii, 95, from
G. S. Master, Family of Master. John
Launder of New Hall was a benefactor
to the poor of Ashton; he died in 1692
and was succeeded by his son Thomas,
who died in 1695, and whose daughter
Margaret carried the New Hall estate to
the Master family. See also pedigree in
Burke, Landed Gentry (Master of Barrow
||Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 639.
||George Sorocold of Ashton is mentioned in 1651; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 2787. See further in the
account of Leigh.
Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 205,
Duchy Plead. i, 5.
||Humphrey Winstanley and Alice
Worsley were married in 1559 'in a
chapel within the house of Sir Thomas
Gerard, by one Oswald Key, chaplain
singing at Ashton Chapel;' Furnivall,
Child Marriages (Early Engl. Text Soc.),
3. The domestic and public chapels were
thus quite distinct.
Oswald Key appeared at the first visitation in Queen Elizabeth's reign.
||Foley, Rec. S. J. ii, 26. Nicholas,
who was gouty and unable to move, sang
psalms in Latin as loud as he could, and
was taken out again.
Lydiate Hall, 248.
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 13.
Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc.
Lancs. and Ches.), 48. The order as to
the tithes was made in 1645 upon the
petition of the inhabitants; Plund. Mins.
Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 6.
||Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconformity,
Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 267.
Even the £1 12s. was not ancient, consisting of £1 for an anniversary sermon
and 12s. interest on sums left at various
times. To have a resident curate was
obviously a recent innovation.
||The site was conveyed in 1745,
and the chapel was consecrated in 1746;
Church Papers at Ches. Dioc. Reg. An
article on the church appeared in the
Liverpool Dioc. Gaz. Nov. 1904.
Notitia, 268; note by Canon Raines.
See also Lond. Gaz. 8 Aug. 1873.
||From information in part supplied
by the present vicar, the Rev. H. Siddall.
||Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 298.
||He 'came in by free election of the
whole town;' he was 'a very godly
preacher, a man of good life and conversation,' but had not kept the fast day
appointed by Parliament; Commonwealth
Ch. Surv. 48. He was in charge as early
as Aug. 1645; Plund. Mins. Accts. i, 6.
From the Winwick registers it seems that
Thomas Potter, afterwards of Culcheth,
was assisting in 1656.
Woods continued to preach for about a
year after his ejection, and then removed
into Cheshire; Roger Lowe's Diary in
Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 170, 173.
||Ibid. 186; Roger Lowe, being rebuked by Mr. Atkinson for not standing
up at the reading of the gospel, 'told him
his mind to the full.'
||Stratford, Visitation Bk. at Ches.
Dioc. Reg. He seems to have lived at
Newton. Vicar of Garstang, 1712.
||This name occurs in the Winwick
||See preceding note.
||The church papers at Chester begin
||He contributed an account of the
Roman roads to Baines' Lancs. (ed. 1836),
iii, 573. There is a eulogy of him in
Beamont, Warrington in 1465 (Chet.
Soc.), p. lxxviii.
||Gastrell, Notitia, loc. cit.
||Nightingale, op cit. iv, 52–60.
||Information of Mr. J. Spence Hodgson.
||John Hasleden's house and his barn
in Park Lane were licensed in 1689;
Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 232.
||Nightingale, op. cit. iv, 44–52.
||See the Recusant Roll of 1641 in
Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 245.
||Foley, Rec. S.J. v, 360–1. Fr.
Thomas Tootell was resident at Garswood
in 1663. At Brynn Fr. Waldegrave was
serving in 1680. In 1701 both Garswood
and Brynn are named; ibid. 321. In
1784 ninety-three persons were confirmed
at Brynn, where the Easter communicants
numbered 180; the corresponding numbers at Garswood were 39 and 100; ibid.
Fr. Cuthbert Clifton probably served
Brynn and Garswood as early as 1642;
he died there in 1675, being regarded by
his brethren as 'a pious man, who laboured
with fruit for many years in the Lord's
vineyard,' and by Roger Lowe, the Puritan
undertaker, as 'the great and profane
monster of Jesuitical impiety'; Foley, vii,
139; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 196.
Some further particulars as to the priests
here may be gathered from Lowe's Diary.
Liverpool Cath. Ann. 1901. For
E. Arrowsmith see the account of Haydock. The Holy Hand was preserved at
Brynn and Garswood till the erection of
St. Oswald's; Harland and Wilkinson,
Lancs. Legends, 41.
||Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. v,
259. His father was steward to the