Townships
Culcheth

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

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156-166

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'Townships: Culcheth', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 156-166. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41400 Date accessed: 24 July 2014.


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CULCHETH

Culchet, 1201; Kulchit, 1242; Culchith, Kilchiche, Kylchiz, 1292. The usual spelling is Culcheth or Culchith; the local pronunciation is shown by the surnames Culshaw and Kilshaw, derived from it.

Peasfurlong, Holcroft, and Risley: there has been no material change in the spellings.

This large township, with an area of 5,369 (fn. 1) acres, has long been divided into four quarters, though the boundaries are not always clearly defined, viz.: Culcheth proper in the north; Holcroft and Peasfurlong, the eastern and western parts of the centre; and Risley in the south. The eastern and northern boundaries are formed by the Glazebrook and its tributary the Carr Brook; another brook on the west divides Peasfurlong from Croft. The southern boundary appears to be drawn chiefly through moss-land.

The surface of the country is flat, the highest elevation at Twiss Green being but 107ft. above sea level. In the north is agricultural country, fairly well timbered. In the south the land is but sparsely inhabited, and consists of reclaimed moss-land; some patches still exist where peat is cut for fuel and moss litter.

The characteristic vegetation of the moss-land is still in evidence here and there, where birch and bracken and nodding cotton sedges flourish. Potatoes and corn, more particularly oats, thrive in a clayey soil, where the land has been cleared of the bulk of the peat. The geological formation is represented by the Bunter series of the New Red Sandstone, and consists mainly of the Upper Mottled Sandstone of that series. Between Risley and Holcroft Mosses the pebble beds extending from the north-west almost touch an area of the Lower Keuper Basement Beds, which juts into this county from south of the Mersey.

The population in 1901 numbered 2,294.

Cotton is manufactured, and bricks and tiles are made. In the 17th and 18th centuries many of the inhabitants followed the occupation of linen weaving.

Culcheth proper has Carr, Hurst, Fowley and Twiss Green in the north-west, north-east, south-east, and south-west corners; the village of Glazebury (fn. 2) has sprung up in the last thirty years by Hurst, on the banks of the Glazebrook. The hall is to the east of Twiss Green. The area measures 1,310½ acres.

Holcroft Hall is near the Glazebrook; to the north is Eshot Lane, and a mile to the south Schole-field. The chapel was built in this division, at the corner where the boundaries of Holcroft, Peasfurlong, and Culcheth meet. The area of this quarter is 1,206½ acres.

Peasfurlong, which measures 1,296 acres, has Kingnall, or Kinknall, and Wigshaw in the northwest corner and Flitcroft near the centre.

Risley Old Hall is near the northern boundary of the quarter; the area is 1,556 acres. In Risley Moss pre-Roman and Roman remains have been discovered.

The principal road is that leading north and north-east from Warrington to Leigh. It is joined near the church by the road from Winwick through Croft. The Wigan Junction Railway of the Great Central system crosses the township, having a station (Culcheth) near Kinknall.

Culcheth Wake ceased in 1822. (fn. 3)

The township is governed by a parish council, and has been divided into three wards: Newchurch, Glazebury, and Risley.

MANORS

The first notice by name of the manor of CULCHETH is that in the survey of 1212, when it was within the fee or barony of Warrington. (fn. 4) It so continued with some modification of tenure (fn. 5) until 1601, when Thomas Ireland of Bewsey, in consideration of 100 marks, released all his rights in the tenures, suits and services, ward, homage and reliefs in Culcheth held of the barony of Warrington. (fn. 6)

In 1212 Hugh son of Gilbert held the manor, by knight's service, of William le Boteler, as four plough-lands paying 4 marks a year. A certain Reynold had held it of Pain de Vilers, and as nothing is said as to the origin of his tenure, he may have been in possession when the Warrington fee was granted to Pain. (fn. 7)

Gilbert de Culcheth, probably a son or grandson of Hugh son of Gilbert, held the manor in 1242. (fn. 8) He was killed in 1246 by unknown malefactors, and the township was fined because it made no pursuit. (fn. 9) He left four infant daughters as co-heirs, Margery, Elizabeth, Ellen, and Joan, who became wards of the lord of Warrington; and in course of time William le Boteler granted their marriage to Hugh de Hindley. (fn. 10) Hugh married them to his own four sons, and Culcheth was divided among them, (fn. 11) its four quarters becoming the manors of Richard de Hindley, who took the name of Culcheth; Adam, called de Peasfurlong, and later de Hindley; Robert, called de Risley; and Thomas, called de Holcroft.

I.—Margery, the wife of Richard de Culcheth, was dead in 1276 when Richard son of John de Haydock complained that he had been disseised of his common of pasture in CULCHETH. Richard de Culcheth replied that the land had been divided, and that the tenement for which common rights were claimed was in his late wife's portion, and Thomas, their son, should have been joined as defendant. (fn. 12) Thomas probably died soon after, for he is not mentioned again, later suits involving either Richard or Gilbert, sons of Richard and Margery. (fn. 13) Gilbert seems to have been the elder, and in 1291, that is, no doubt, as soon as he came of age, he brought a suit against his father respecting houses and land in Culcheth, which had been exchanged by his mother Margery with her mother Cecily. (fn. 14) In the following year he had entered into possession of his share of the dower of his grandmother Cecily, who was then dead. (fn. 15) Richard his father was still living in 1292, he and his son Richard being involved in several suits with the other parceners, as also with tenants and others. (fn. 16) The father, however, died in or before 1298, (fn. 17) and Gilbert seems to have been lord of Culcheth until about 1342. (fn. 18)

He was succeeded by his son Gilbert, (fn. 19) who, by his first wife, had a son and heir Gilbert, married in 1345 to Joan daughter of Adam de Kenyon, (fn. 20) their son Gilbert being born about a year afterwards. (fn. 21) There were thus four Gilberts in succession, lords of Culcheth. (fn. 22) The last of them, who died between 1393 and 1402, had several children. His eldest son Thurstan dying about 1430 without male issue, (fn. 23) a younger son, Thomas, succeeded, (fn. 24) and had four sons, Gilbert, (fn. 25) Nicholas, Oliver, and George. Gilbert's two sons, John (fn. 26) and Randle, (fn. 27) successively held the manor, which, on failure of male issue, reverted about 1495 to their uncle Nicholas, rector of East Bridgeford, (fn. 28) whose youngest brother Oliver thus became heir. In the year named he married Douce daughter of Gilbert Langton of Hindley, (fn. 29) but died in or before 1512, leaving Gilbert his heir, born in 1496, a minor. (fn. 30) Gilbert died in 1559 (fn. 31) leaving several children by his wife Margaret daughter of John Holcroft. (fn. 32)

John, the eldest of these, married Cecily daughter of Thomas Southworth, and died in 1593. (fn. 33) He adhered in heart to the ancient faith, and in 1590 was reckoned among the 'more usual comers to church,' though not a communicant. (fn. 34) His son John succeeded him, (fn. 35) and was followed by another son also named John in 1626. The latter died in 1640, just before the outbreak of the Civil War. (fn. 36) His eldest son, John, a 'papist delinquent,' had his estates sequestered by the Parliamentary authorities, (fn. 37) and died without issue in 1647, soon after attaining his majority, of wounds received in fighting for the king. (fn. 38) His brother Thomas, (fn. 39) admitting recusancy, petitioned the Commonwealth authorities to be allowed a third of his estate; he was also admitted as lessee of the sequestered two-thirds, agreeing to pay £86 a year for it. (fn. 40) His two brothers became Jesuit priests. (fn. 41) He married Anne daughter of James Bradshaw of Haigh, and by her had a numerous offspring; (fn. 42) two of his three sons became Jesuits, one being a priest, and four of his six daughters were nuns. (fn. 43) The descendants of the other daughters, Anne and Catherine, ultimately inherited the manor. He died in 1683, (fn. 44) and was succeeded by his grandson Thomas, whose father had died a year or two previously. (fn. 45)


Culcheth of Culcheth. Argent an eagle sable preying on an infant swaddled gules banded or.


Trafford. Argent a griffon segreant gules.

Thomas Culcheth, the last of the male line, died childless in 1747, (fn. 46) and in accordance with his dispositions the manor passed to his cousin Thomas Stanley of Eccleston in the Fylde, son of Richard Stanley by his wife Anne Culcheth. (fn. 47) Thomas Stanley enjoyed the estate only two years; (fn. 48) his son Richard was declared a lunatic, and on the death of the daughter Meliora, wife of William Dicconson, (fn. 49) the manor went in 1794 to John Trafford of Trafford, grandson of John Trafford of Croston, who had married Catherine Culcheth. (fn. 50) The new possessor died in 1815, and about ten years later the manor and lands were sold, Peter Withington being the purchaser; from him the estate has descended to his grandson, the present owner, Mr. Thomas Ellames Withington. (fn. 51)

II.— To Elizabeth, the second daughter of Gilbert de Culcheth, was assigned PEASFURLONG. (fn. 52) By her husband, Adam de Peasfurlong, she had two daughters, Margery (fn. 53) and Beatrice, (fn. 54) the former of whom carried this quarter of Culcheth to her husband, William son of Richard de Radcliffe of Radcliffe. (fn. 55) It descended regularly in this family until the time of Henry VIII, (fn. 56) when on a failure of male issue it passed to a junior branch represented by Robert Radcliffe, Lord FitzWalter, created Earl of Sussex in 1529. (fn. 57) This and other Lancashire estates were sold to provide his daughters' dowries. Sir John Holcroft purchased it, (fn. 58) and it descended to a younger son Hamlet, (fn. 59) whose son, John Holcroft, sold it in 1605 to Ralph Calveley. (fn. 60) It appears afterwards to have reverted to the Holcroft family (fn. 61) and to have descended with their principal manor, until the division of their estates, when it was assigned to the Standishes.


Radcliffe of Radcliffe. Argent a bend engrailed sable.

III.—HOLCROFT was the share of Joan, the daughter of Gilbert de Culcheth who married Thomas de Hindley. (fn. 62) William le Boteler conceded to them that they should in future provide puture for one bedell instead of two, when doing the services pertaining to the court and fee of Warrington; he also acquitted them of 'bode and witness.' (fn. 63) From Thomas the manor descended to his son Adam, (fn. 64) after whom no satisfactory account can be given till the beginning of the 16th century, (fn. 65) when Sir John Holcroft was lord of it. (fn. 66) He was elder brother of Sir Thomas Holcroft, who shared largely in the plunder of the religious houses, (fn. 67) and Sir John himself had a grant of Upholland Monastery and its lands. (fn. 68) His son, another Sir John, succeeded him, (fn. 69) and left an only daughter Alice as heir, who married Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth. (fn. 70) Shortly afterwards Holcroft came into the hands of Ralph Calveley of Saighton, Cheshire. (fn. 71) In 1642, as previously stated, the manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong were in the possession of Sampson Erdwick and Anne Erdwick, (fn. 72) widow. Ten years later John Holcroft and Margaret his wife were in possession. (fn. 73) Of his son Thomas's children two daughters became coheirs; (fn. 74) Eleanor married Thomas Tyldesley of Myerscough and Morleys, and Margaret married Sir Richard Standish of Duxbury, (fn. 75) and afterwards Sir Thomas Stanley of Bickerstaffe. The manors were divided; Peasfurlong went to the Standish family and Holcroft descended with the Tyldesleys until 1761, after which there is no trace of them in the records. (fn. 76)


Holcroft of Holcroft. Argent a cross and a bordure both engrailed sable.


Tyldesley. Argent three mole-hills vert.

IV.—To Ellen, the remaining daughter of Gilbert de Culcheth, and her husband was assigned RISLEY, (fn. 77) and the family descended from them retained possession until the 18th century. Robert de Risley and Ellen his wife were among the defendants in pleas already cited of the time of Edward I. (fn. 78) The next steps in the descent are not quite certain, (fn. 79) but in 1324 Robert de Risley and Isabel his wife made a settlement of their fourth part of the manor of Culcheth, three daughters only being mentioned. (fn. 80) Robert was still living in 1365, (fn. 81) and had a son Henry, (fn. 82) whose sons were William and Nicholas. William in 1397 released to his brother and his heirs all his right to his father's lands in Risley, Culcheth, Kenyon, Croft, Lowton, Warrington, and Penketh, except a messuage and 20 acres; and his daughter Katherine in 1422 gave a similar release. (fn. 83)

Nicholas Risley remained in possession till the year 1454 or later. (fn. 84) He had a dispute with Richard de Radcliffe concerning a certain moor and moss which had been reclaimed and on which a dwelling-house had been built. The evidence adduced contains one of the rare allusions to the 'foreign death' or plague of 1348. (fn. 85) He was succeeded by his son Gilbert, (fn. 86) his grandson Richard, (fn. 87) and his great — grandson Henry. The last-named did homage for his lands to the lord of Warrington in 1492. (fn. 88) He had a son Robert, (fn. 89) who succeeded about 1509, and died in 1516, leaving a son and heir, Richard, then eighteen years of age. (fn. 90) The guardianship was granted to Sir John Ireland, who married the ward to his daughter Alice. The union was not permanent, for in 1536 Alice sought a divorce on the ground that her previous husband, Thomas Stanley, was still living, and her plea being successful, her son Thomas Risley was declared illegitimate, and the manor of Risley and other estates were in 1543 adjudged to be the right of John, the younger brother of Richard. (fn. 91)


Risley of Risley. Argent three antique drinking-horns with legs azure.

John Risley and his descendants held the manor from this time. (fn. 92) His son John (fn. 93) had 'conformed' to the established religion before 1590, and was then reported to be 'soundly affected' in the matter. (fn. 94) The family do not appear to have taken any prominent part in public affairs, (fn. 95) and Captain John Risley, who died in 1702, without issue, (fn. 96) was succeeded by his uncle Thomas, and he by his sister Elizabeth, wife of Hamlet Woods of Risley. She died in 1736; the manor was acquired by the Blackburnes and descended with Orford and Hale until about 1850, when it was sold to Richard Watson Marshall Dewhurst, at whose death it was sold to — Ainscough.

An agreement for inclosing and dividing the commons and waste grounds in Culcheth was made in 1749 and confirmed next year by a private Act of Parliament. (fn. 97) The lords of the manors were Richard Stanley of Culcheth, Sir Thomas Standish of Peasfurlong, John Blackburne of Risley, and James Tyldesley of Holcroft. (fn. 98)

The estate of HURST, sometimes called a manor, was for a long period held by a branch of the Holcroft family. (fn. 99) Geoffrey Holcroft in 1577 made a settlement of his 'manor' called Hurst and lands in Culcheth. (fn. 100) He died in or before 1591, holding Hurst and other lands of John Culcheth by a rent of 2s. His son and heir was Geoffrey. (fn. 101) A settlement of the 'manor' was made by Geoffrey Holcroft in 1613. (fn. 102) Thomas Holcroft son of Geoffrey died 31 March 1637, holding the Hurst, a water-mill, and lands in Culcheth of John Culcheth; also lands in Bedford, Pennington, and Kenyon; Geoffrey his son and heir was twenty-three years of age. (fn. 103)

KINGNALL

KINGNALL or Kinknall was another quasi-manorial estate, which in the 16th and 17th centuries was the seat of an Urmston family. William Urmston died in 1600, holding the capital messuage and lands of John Culcheth by the hundredth part of a knight's fee. Richard his son and heir was ten years old. (fn. 104)

Some minor families occur in early times, deriving their surnames from the Twiss, (fn. 105) the Hurst, (fn. 106) the Shaw, (fn. 107) and Kinknall. (fn. 108)

In 1600 the freeholders not already named were William Lewis and Thomas Richardson. (fn. 109) Those who paid to the subsidy in 1628 were John Calveley, John Culcheth, Geoffrey Holcroft, Richard Risley, Richard Thomasson, and Richard Urmston; of these the last, as a convicted recusant, paid double. (fn. 110) Besides Thomas Culcheth, Robert Guest of Culcheth in 1653 petitioned to compound for two-thirds of his estate, sequestered for recusancy. (fn. 111) In addition to the Culcheths, a considerable number of persons, as 'papists,' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 112)


Urmaston. Sable a cheveron between three spear-heads argent.

A number of extracts from the Culcheth town books of the 17th and 18th centuries have been printed. (fn. 113)

The land tax returns of 1787 show the principal proprietors at that date to have been John Blackburne, Sir Frank Standish, John Trafford, and Samuel Pool, these contributing about two-thirds of the total sum levied. (fn. 114)

CHURCH

Before the Reformation there was at Culcheth a chapel of ease known as Trinity Church. (fn. 115) It was perhaps not then very old, and the name NEWCHURCH has remained attached to it till the present time. After the changes of the reigns of Edward VI and Mary, the building probably ceased to be used for a time at Culcheth on Elizabeth's revival of the Edwardine services. (fn. 116) Sir John Holcroft by his will of 1559 left his chain of gold or £10 towards the payment of a priest and clerk if the other inhabitants of the township could be induced to subscribe. (fn. 117) The service was probably read occasionally, but in 1592 there was neither surplice nor 'table cloth.' (fn. 118) In 1612 this chapel had 'seldom a curate,' (fn. 119) but ten years later there was one who contributed £1 to the subsidy. (fn. 120)

The Commonwealth Surveyors in 1650 recommended that Newchurch should be made into a parish; the endowment was less than £4 a year, but £10 was added by the rector of Winwick, and £40 out of the sequestered property of Royalists. (fn. 121) After the Restoration, with some exceptions, there was no curate (fn. 122) specially appointed to Newchurch until 1749, when a grant was about to be made from Queen Anne's Bounty. The church was rebuilt in 1743, a plain brick structure. This was burnt down in April 1903, and has been rebuilt in the Norman style. A communion cup is believed to be an old chalice altered. (fn. 123) The registers 1599–1812 have been printed by the Lancashire Parish Register Society, 1905.

In 1845, under the Winwick Rectory Act, a separate parish was created for Culcheth and Kenyon, the incumbent being styled rector of Newchurch and receiving the tithes. (fn. 124) The Earl of Derby is patron.

The following is a list of the curates in charge—the most noteworthy being Thomas Wilson, afterwards Bishop of Sodor and Man—and the rectors:— (fn. 125)

oc. 1563 Henry Abram
oc. 1599 William Pennington (fn. 126)
oc. 1611 Richard Mallory
oc. 1617 James Whitworth
oc. 1622 — Hopwood
oc. 1627 John Burtonwood (fn. 127)
oc. 1630 H. Atherton
oc. 1635 Thomas Hall, 'incumbent'
oc. 1636 Richard Wilson, 'curate of Newchurch'
oc. 1639–40 Robert Gee (fn. 128)
oc. 1645–54 William Leigh (fn. 129)
oc. 1654 John Bird
Jan. 1657–8 Thomas Potter (fn. 130)
Feb. 1686–7 Thomas Wilson, B.A. (T.C.D.) (fn. 131)
Perpetual Curates
Jan. 1748–9 John Hilton, B.A. (Brasenose College, Oxford) (fn. 132)
Aug. 1772 Hugh Grimshaw
Apr. 1783 Robert Barker
Feb. 1785 Thomas Heyes, M.A. (Oxford) (fn. 133)
Aug. 1816 Joseph Jones, M.A.
June 1841 John Healy
Apr. 1842 Joseph Wilding Twist, B.A. (Queen's College, Oxford)
Rectors
Feb. 1845 Frederick Augustus Bartlett (fn. 134)
Sept. 1855 Wm. Henry Strong, B.A. (T.C.D.)
June 1862 Robert William Burton, M.A.
Mar. 1864 Wm. Faussett Black, D.D. (T.C.D.)
May 1897 Eugene Walter Whittenbury Kaye

The church of All Saints, Glazebury, was erected in 1851, and had a district assigned to it in 1878. (fn. 135) The Earl of Derby is the patron.

There are Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels at Glazebury, and an Independent Methodist one at Twiss Green.

After 1662 those who were attached to the Presbyterian worship (fn. 136) were ministered to by one Thomas Risley, of the local family. He was fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, and though he was, on the Restoration, ordained according to the Anglican rite, he refused to conform further, and was ejected in 1662. A chapel was built by him at Risley in 1707, (fn. 137) and has continued in use to the present time. As in most other cases, Unitarian tenets prevailed in the latter part of the 18th century; but in 1836, after appeal to the Court of Chancery, the Unitarian minister and congregation were ejected, building a new chapel for themselves at Croft, and Risley was given to the Scottish Presbyterians, who still use it. (fn. 138)

After the Elizabethan settlement of religion a large number of the people remained steadfast to the ancient faith, (fn. 139) and with the connivance and assistance of the Culcheths and Urmstons it is probable that the missionary priests were able to minister here from time to time, but no records exist until 1670, when Fr. John Penketh, S.J., was resident. (fn. 140) The succession can be traced for over a century, when, owing probably to the failure of the Culcheth line, the hall ceased to have a chapel, Rixton and Croft sufficing.

A schoolhouse on the common was built before 1720. (fn. 141)

The Salford Guardians' Cottage Homes for children are built in Culcheth.

Footnotes

1 5,373 according to the census of 1901, including 9 acres of inland water.
2 The old name was Bury Lane; see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 2.
3 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 647.
4 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 9.
5 In 1548 four rents each of 2s. 2½d. were payable to Sir Thomas Boteler from Culcheth, Peasfurlong, Holcroft, and Risley, the tenants being Gilbert Culcheth, Sir John Holcroft (two), and John Risley; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 142. The total rent of 8s. 10d. shows a great reduction from the 4 marks of 1212, being one-sixth only.
6 Culcheth D. no. 253; these abstracts are printed in Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, and to them are added a large number of abstracts of wills, &c., compiled by Mr. J. P. Rylands.
7 Inq. and Extents, loc. cit.
8 Ibid. 147.
9 Assize R. 404, m. 18b. As he is named as defendant in the same roll (m. 1 d.) he must have been killed in or just before 1246. His widow, Dame Cecily de Layton, in 1275 at Thornton in the Fylde demised to Richard de Culcheth, her son-in-law, her dower in the mill at Culcheth, and granted that her tenants should grind there as in Gilbert de Culcheth's life; Culcheth D. no. 23.
10 Culcheth D. no. 20; it would appear from no. 2 that 40 marks was paid by Hugh.
This Hugh was lord of the manor of Hindley, or a moiety of it, which descended with Culcheth. There were others of the name.
11 This appears from various suits referred to, and from the deeds preserved by Dodsworth, cxlii, fol. 113; by one, Richard's approvements in the Little Twiss, Blind Hurst, Kinknall, and the mill houses were allowed. Richard and Margery's acknowledgement of the justice of the partition is no. 22 of the Culcheth D.
12 Assize R. 405, m. 2. The defendants were Richard de Culcheth, Thomas de Holcroft, and Joan his wife, Robert de Hindley and Ellen his wife, Adam de Hindley and Isabel his wife, also Roger del Twiss, this last being a tenant of Richard's. In the following year Richard and his son Richard, together with Adam and Elizabeth, Thomas and Joan, were summoned to answer Hugh de Hulme, who charged them with taking his goods; De Banco R. 21, m. 53 d.
In 1278 John de Haydock continued his suit against Richard del Twiss, Adam and Thomas and their wives being joined, also Roger del Twiss and Henry son of Robert de Paris; but Richard, 'chief lord of Culcheth,' was not named; Assize R. 1238, m. 34 d.; 1239, m. 39 d.; also 1268, m. 11.
13 Richard son of Richard has been mentioned in the preceding note. Gilbert occurs in a plea by Cecily de Layton in 1284; Assize R. 1265, m. 22; he must at this time have been regarded as the heir.
14 Assize R. 1294, m. 8.
15 Ibid. 408, m. 50 d. Gilbert de Culcheth and Robert de Risley and Ellen his wife and others were at the same time plaintiffs against the Abbot of Cockersand, regarding a tenement in Hutton in Leyland, probably Dame Cecily's; ibid. m. 58d.
16 Ibid. m. 27, 57, &c.; Richard the son; m. 32. In Aug. 1294 William le Boteler, lord of Warrington, agreed with Richard de Culcheth not to distrain the demesne of Culcheth for services during the life of Richard, the latter being allowed to distrain his men for them as if he were their immediate lord; Culcheth D. no. 27. In 1300 William le Boteler agreed that in future Gilbert de Culcheth should find only one bedell for the court of Warrington; Hale D.
17 In this year Gilbert son of Richard de Culcheth granted to Hugh de Hindley all his manor of Culcheth for life, with remainder as to one half to his wife Beatrice for life should she survive him; Culcheth D. no. 28. This was regranted in 1307; ibid. no. 33. See also no. 29, 31.
18 The name of Gilbert de Culcheth occurs constantly in the charters of the time. In 1330 he 'put in his claim' in a settlement of the Risley portion of the manor; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 74.
The most probable date for his death is that named in the text. In 1338 Gilbert de Culcheth granted to Gilbert his son his mills in Hindley and all his part in the water of Glazebrook and Ballisdene in Hindley; Culcheth D. no. 48. In later deeds Gilbert 'the elder' is named; no. 49, 50; and in 1341 Gilbert de Culcheth and Gilbert his son were the first witnesses to a local deed; no. 51. Two years later Gilbert de Culcheth, no longer called 'elder,' and therefore probably the 'son' of the foregoing deeds, agreed with Sir Geoffrey de Warburton as to the marriage of his son and heir Gilbert; the latter was to marry by Sir Geoffrey's advice; ibid. no. 52.
19 Mentioned in the preceding note. His first wife is said to have been the daughter of Sir Geoffrey de Warburton; his second was Cecily daughter of Richard de Bradshagh; she afterwards married Hugh de Worseley or Wirley; no. 53, 57, 63, &c. See also Assize R. 438, m. 3 d.; 441, m. 5; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 7, m. 2 d.
20 Culcheth D. no. 53; a grant by Gilbert the father to his son Gilbert and Joan of the manor of Hindley, with remainders to the father's children by Cecily, John and William, and then to William son of Gilbert de Urmston. Immediately afterwards the son released the manor to his father, 'on condition that he maintained himself and his wife Joan with reasonable food and clothes'; no. 54. Eight years later (1353) a similar surrender of the manor of Hindley was made by the son, and Gilbert the father agreed to find his son in a house, horse, attendant, &c., fitting his rank; no. 57.
Gilbert de Culcheth the elder and Cecily his wife made grants in 1356; no. 59–61; but early in the following year Gilbert son and heir of Gilbert de Culcheth granted an inspeximus of a charter made to his father and Cecily his wife in 1351; no. 62.
21 The date appears from his acknowledgement in the parish church of Manchester in Feb. 1365–6, when he was 'nineteen years of age and upwards,' of his marriage with Katherine the daughter of Thomas del Booth; ibid. no. 67. Gilbert de Culcheth, son of Gilbert who married Joan, son of Gilbert whose widow was Cecily, was plaintiff in 1362 and 1364; De Banco R. 411, m. 217d.; 418, m. 227. Gilbert the father, husband of Joan, must have died therefore before 1362; he had arranged his son's marriage in 1358; Culcheth D. no. 64, 65.
Other charters in the collection concern the younger Gilbert. One of these is curious; by it Sir William de Legh, Katherine, 'late wife' of Gilbert de Culcheth, John de Worsley, and William de Hulme, delivered to John de Holcroft 113 charters relating to the inheritance of the said Gilbert, and he agreed to deliver them to Gilbert, 'if alive,' or to his heir if dead; no. 79. This was in 1374. It appears from later deeds that Gilbert was not dead; in 1393 he established his title to a water-mill and land in Hindley; no. 82. Katherine was a widow in 1402, in which year she assigned her dower lands in Culcheth and Hindley to trustees, and was still living in 1431; no. 83, 87–90, 95; see Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 337; xxxiii, App. 9; Final Conc. ii, 67.
22 This appears clearly from a release in 1373 by the trustee to Gilbert de Culcheth of all the lands in Culcheth which he had by the gift of Gilbert de Culcheth, great-grandfather of the said Gilbert; Culcheth D. no. 73. This ancestor cannot be the original Gilbert de Culcheth who was killed in 1246, and must therefore refer to the Gilbert son of Richard who died probably about 1340.
23 Thurstan's name occurs in 1373, when his father Gilbert settled lands upon him and his issue, probably on the occasion of his betrothal; no. 76, 77. Nine years later the marriage seems to have taken place, Thurstan's wife being Elizabeth daughter of John de Holcroft; no. 80, 81; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 2, m. 35; see also m. 34.
Thurstan was in possession of the manor in 1400; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 159. He had three brothers, Thomas, Nicholas, and Henry, on whom lands were settled in 1420; Culcheth D. no. 91–4.
24 Thomas appears to have come into possession of the manors by 1430, when the arbitrators decided that Katherine his mother was entitled to dower out of Culcheth Carrs; no. 95.
Thomas Culcheth, as son and heir of Gilbert and Katherine, was claimant of lands in Culcheth in 1443 and later years, the defendants being John Eccleston and Agnes his wife and Oliver Anderton and Ellen his wife. The defendants were warranted by Thurstan Anderton, who called John son and heir of Richard del Crosse, who called William son and heir of Henry Perpoint; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 5, m. 13b; 6, m. 15b; 11, m. 9.
In 1444 Thomas Culcheth and Alice his wife were in possession of the manor house of Hindley; Culcheth D. no. 98. They leased to their son George this manor in 1458 at a rent of £4 13s. 4d., allowing sufficient timber to repair the house and the mill; no. 111.
25 Hugh Culcheth, chaplain, in 1444 granted lands in Hindley to Gilbert son of Thomas Culcheth and Agnes his wife; no. 99. In 1456 Gilbert confirmed his father's grant of a moiety of Culcheth Carrs to Oliver Anderton and Ellen his wife; no. 109.
26 John son and heir of Gilbert Culcheth was in 1462 contracted to marry Parnell daughter of Hamlet Mascy of Rixton, deceased, and Joan his wife; Gilbert was dead, his widow Agnes being the wife of Ralph Langton; Alice, the widow of Thomas Culcheth, was still living; Culcheth D. no. 112.
John Culcheth occurs again ten years later; no. 113. He left two daughters, Agnes and Isabel, living in 1500; no. 121–3.
27 In 1483 Thurstan Anderton released to Randle Culcheth his right in Culcheth Carrs, inherited from his grandfather Oliver Anderton and Ellen his wife, to whom it had been given by Thomas Culcheth in 1448; no. 114, 106. Three years later arbitrators were appointed in a dispute between Robert Rixton and his wife Parnell, formerly wife of John Culcheth, and Randle Culcheth, brother and heir of John; no. 116.
In July 1491 Randle did homage for Culcheth to Thomas Boteler of Warrington, and paid 10s. 10d. relief; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 13, 14.
28 Culcheth D. no. 124, dated 1502.
29 Ibid. no. 120. Master Nicholas made an estate to her of lands in Hindley of the value of 8 marks a year for her life. At the same time he declared he had not encumbered the lands of Thomas his father, or Gilbert his brother, or of John and Randle Culcheth his 'cousins,' except certain lands granted for life to Agnes, late the wife of Gilbert but then of Ralph Langton, and to Parnell, later the wife of John. Nicholas was living in 1499; B.M. Add. Chart. 17700.
Oliver Culcheth did homage in 1503–4, paying 10s. 10d. relief; Misc. (Rec. Soc.), i, 16, 22. In 1505 he made a feoffment of his manor of Culcheth and his lands there and in Hindley; Culcheth D. no. 126.
30 Ibid. no. 128; an assignment of dower to Douce widow of Oliver Culcheth, with a proviso that when Oliver's son Gilbert came of age it should not prejudice her claim to a reasonable part of the lands in Hindley held for the use of George Culcheth, brother of Gilbert.
In 1515 Sir Thomas Boteler sold the wardship and marriage of Gilbert Culcheth to Thomas Langley, rector of Prestwich, and others, for 80 marks; ibid. no. 130. In the same year bond was given to perform the covenants of marriage in an indenture between Gilbert Culcheth and Sir William Leyland; ibid. no. 131. This marriage appears to have been with Jane, daughter and heir of Guy Green of Naburn, Yorkshire, for in 1533 Gilbert was holding her lands as tenant by courtesy; ibid. no. 147.
Gilbert was of full age in 1517, when he covenanted to pay his mother Douce, then wife of James Strangeways, an annuity of £6 10s. as her dower, in the chapel at Lowe in Hindley; no. 132, 133. George Culcheth also had an annuity; no. 141.
By 1526 he had married Margaret daughter of John Holcroft; and in the following year his father's trustees released to him the manor of Culcheth; no. 138, 140.
31 Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. (ed. Earwaker), i, 51.
32 A pedigree was recorded in 1567; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 82. It begins with Oliver Culcheth.
33 Culcheth D. no. 160–9. By one of these (no. 165) John Culcheth in 1566 covenanted with Sir John Southworth to levy a fine of his lands to the use of himself for life, with remainders to his sons John, Thomas, and Gilbert; in another deed (no. 269) his wife Cecily is named, and his daughter Mary. Cecily was living in 1595; no. 182.
For his death see Manch. Ct. Leet. Rec. ii, 76.
34 Gibson, Lydiate Hall, quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4.
35 John the son was married in 1576 to Maud daughter of John Poole of Wirral; her portion was 500 marks; Culcheth D. no. 171. The marriage licence was granted 23 Aug.; Henry Pennant's Acct. Bk. (Ches. Dioc. Reg.). For fines relating to his lands in 1594 and 1597 see Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 56, m. 78; 58, m. 30. In 1598 he settled his lands and manors in Culcheth, Hindley, Ince, and Manchester, with remainders to his son John and the father's brothers, Thomas and Gilbert; Culcheth D. no. 186. In 1601, as stated in the text, he purchased the enfranchisement of the manor of Culcheth; no. 190. He was deforciant in 1603 in a fine regarding the manors of Culcheth and Hindley, and messuages, water-mill, windmill, dovecotes, lands, &c., there and in Ince and Manchester; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 63, no. 367.
He died 24 Sept. 1625; Culcheth D. no. 211. The inquisition taken after his death is given in Towneley MS. C. 8. 13 (Chet. Lib.), p. 267; the manor of Culcheth with water-mill, houses, and lands, was held of John Southworth (as trustee): the son and heir John was said to be twenty-six years of age; see Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 122.
36 John Culcheth was baptized at Newchurch 10 Dec. 1599, as appears by the registers. Before he was five years of age he was contracted in marriage to Christian, daughter of John Hawarden of Appleton in Widnes, 'if the young persons agree when they are of age'; Culcheth D. no. 193.
In the Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc. p. 88) Christian is entered as 'wife of — Culcheth'; but she probably died soon afterwards, and John Culcheth married her half-sister Jane, as appears by his will and the Visit. of 1664 (Chet. Soc. p. 91).
He paid a fine of £15 in 1631 on refusing knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 212.
In 1626 he purchased the tithes of Culcheth from Sir Edward Fitton for £1,000; Culcheth D. no. 208–10, 213.
He died 17 July 1640. The manor of Culcheth and the lands there were found to be held of John Minshull of Minshull in Cheshire, by the tenth part of a knight's fee and a rent of 8s. 10d.; the manor of Hindley was held of Sir Richard Fleet-wood in socage; a tenement in Manchester was held of Sir Edward Mosley as lord of Manchester; and the tithes in Culcheth of the Earl of Derby, being worth per annum clear 20s. John Culcheth was his son and heir, and fifteen years of age on 8 Feb. 1640–1; Jane, the widow, was in possession; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 67 (printed in Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 307). In his will (ibid. 374) he desired to be buried in his ancestors' burial place in his chapel called the Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Winwick Church. The inventory showed a total of £908 2s. 8d.
The premises in Manchester were called Oldgrave Hall, or Culcheth or Langley Hall.
37 From reports of the Committee of Lords and Commons for Sequestrations in 1648, preserved among the Culcheth family papers. These recite a settlement of 1601 made by John Culcheth the grandfather, and other deeds. Jane Culcheth, the widow, was living, and a recusant, and it was submitted to the judgement of the committee whether the £60 a year payable to her during the minority of her sons Charles and William should not be paid instead to 'some well-affected Protestant,' who should educate them in the Protestant religion, the said committee to take care that they and also the daughters Mary and Katherine be so educated. See also Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 73.
38 So stated in Dugdale, Visit. loc. cit.; and in Castlemain, Apology, quoted in Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. i, 608.
39 Baptized at Newchurch 5 May 1628, and therefore still under age at the time of his petition. His brother Charles was baptized 11 Apr. 1631, and his sister Mary 23 Apr. 1633; Lancs. and Ches Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 310.
40 Culcheth family papers as above. See also Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 108.
41 Foley, Rec. S. J. vii, 188, 189. Charles Culcheth died at Ghent, 1667, in attending the victims of the plague. William Culcheth served on the mission in Durham and Lincolnshire, and died in 1684.
42 In 1677 a settlement was made of the manors and lands by Thomas Culcheth and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 198, m. 65.
43 From a pedigree in Foley, op. cit. vi, 690, said to be taken from one compiled in 1692. Thomas Culcheth alias Parker mostly resided at Liège, where he died in 1730, aged 76; he served the London mission for a short time. James Culcheth died at Liège during his period of study, in 1692, aged 27; ibid. vii, 188.
44 He was buried in linen at Winwick 20 Dec. 1683.
45 John, the son of Thomas Culcheth, was buried at Winwick, 4 Feb. 1681–2.
46 He was buried at Winwick 8 Oct. 1747; his wife Anne had been buried 16 July previously.
Thomas Culcheth was vouchee in a recovery of the manor in 1710; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 492, m. 4.
As a 'papist' he in 1717 registered his entailed estate, with remainder to sons by Anne his wife, charged with annuities to his mother Mary and his brother John, who also registered their estates. It included the capital messuage called Culcheth Hall, with 170 acres of land; the tithes of Culcheth, out of which £10 was payable to the rector of Winwick, &c.; there was a mortgage of £1,000; Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 115–16; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 274. In the latter place are printed some other deeds of the period. The brother John is said to have been a lawyer of Gray's Inn.
47 Ibid. i, 276. The disposition of the estates is recited in the Cal. of the Exch. of Pleas, C, 301; Culcheth Hall went in the manner described in the text; Hindley Hall, otherwise Strangeways Hall, with the fourth part of the manor, was granted to John Trafford of Croston.
48 He was buried at Winwick 21 July 1749. His brother Henry, a Jesuit priest, was buried there four years later.
49 William Dicconson and Meliora his wife were vouchees in a recovery of the manor in 1783; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 637, m. 7, 10.
50 See the accounts of Stretford and Croston.
51 Burke, Landed Gentry.
52 The agreement for partition assigned to Adam de Peasfurlong all the waste between the Southwood and Westwood, and between Peasfurlong and Croft, which could be ploughed and sown; the remainder of the waste to be held in common, a right of way being allowed to Robert and the other brothers and their men. Adam was also to hold all the land and wood which he had inclosed between his house and Southwood, with part of Halghus carr; and his grant to Robert son of William de Sankey was ratified; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 113.
From the suits already cited it appears that Isabel or Elizabeth died between 1278 and 1284; Assize R. 1238, m. 34 d.; 1265, m. 22.
Another family had taken a name from the place, for John son of Thomas de Peasfurlong in 1278 released to his lord, Richard son of Hugh de Hindley, all the land in Culcheth which he claimed to hold by right of inheritance; Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 123b.
53 Adam de Hindley and Margery his daughter were defendants in 1284 and 1285. In the latter year Agnes widow of John de Haydock claimed common of pasture in 25 acres of moor in Culcheth. Adam replied that it was the inheritance of Elizabeth, formerly his wife, and that they, with Robert de Risley and Ellen his wife and Thomas de Hindley and Joan his wife, were chief lords of the said town; Assize R. 1268, m. 11.
Adam son of Hugh de Hindley was defendant in several Culcheth cases in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 32, &c.
He appears also in the Culcheth Deeds as witness and as releasing his right in the water of Glazebrook to Richard de Hindley; no. 9. In 1280 he had a grant from his brother Richard of land at Wigshaw head next the land of William de Sankey, up to an oak tree marked with a cross; no. 24. In this he is called Adam de Peasfurlong, a surname he appears to have relinquished after his wife's death.
In 1302, as Adam son of Hugh de Hindley, he released to Gilbert son of Richard de Culcheth all his right to messuages, mill, and lands in Hindley, all which Gilbert had by the gift of his grandfather, Hugh de Hindley; no. 31.
54 Adam de Hindley had a daughter Beatrice, identified with the Beatrice wife of Richard de Molyneux of Crosby whose descendants had a share of the manor of Hindley; see no. 31, 32. It is not clear why she had no share of the manor of Culcheth; but in 1314 John de Lancaster and Margery his wife, daughter of Richard and Beatrix de Molyneux, had the fourth part of the manor settled upon them; Final Conc. ii, 18, 19. The Lancasters of Rainhill do not again appear in Culcheth. As Adam de Hindley had sons, who inherited lands in Hindley and Aspull, there must have been some special settlement for the daughter Beatrice. See account of Aspull.
55 They were married in or before 1303, when they claimed certain lands in Culcheth from Adam de Hindley; De Banco R. 148, m. 71. In the following year Gilbert de Culcheth, Hugh de Hindley and Beatrice his wife granted to William de Radcliffe and Margery his wife a messuage at Wigshaw in Culcheth; Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 123b. A settlement of their part of the manor was made in 1311; Final Conc. ii, 10. Gilbert de Culcheth and Thomas de Holcroft and Joan his wife put in their claim.
Thirteen years later, in 1324, William de Radcliffe and Margery his wife and Richard their son put in a similar claim on a settlement by the Risley family; ibid. 59. About the same time William de Radcliffe and Margery his wife and Robert de Risley were lords of Culcheth; Assize R. 426, m. 7 d. Margery was living, a widow, in 1333; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 152b/188b.
In 1349 Margery daughter of Gilbert de Culcheth, a widow, released to Richard de Radcliffe all her claim to lands which he had by the gift of her father; Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 123b. She may be the same as the Margaret daughter of Gilbert of 1324; Culcheth D. no. 44.
56 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 94—James de Radcliffe, 1409, with a son and heir Richard, who died about 1441; ii, 121. John Radcliffe, 1485; ii, 148, 152. In 1483 a dispute about lands in Culcheth between Sir Christopher Southworth and John son and heir of James Radcliffe was decided in the latter's favour by John Hawarden of Chester; Towneley MS. HH, no. 2139. Richard Radcliffe, who died in 1502, held the fourth part of the manor of Culcheth of Sir Thomas Boteler by knight's service and a rent of 3s. 6d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 98. His brother and heir John died about 1513, holding the same part of the manor by a rent of 3s. 4d.; ibid. iv, no. 7.
57 In the will of John Radcliffe, recited in the inquisition above referred to, it is said, 'Provided always that inasmuch as the manor of Culcheth came to my ancestors by marriage with a gentlewoman, therefore according to the entail thereof I will the said manor shall descend as it ought to have done before the making of this my will.' Lord FitzWalter, however, obtained the manor, and Ralph Eccleston in 1523 was found to have held lands in Culcheth of him; ibid. v, no. 46.
58 Sir John Holcroft was in possession by 1549; the rent payable to the lord of Warrington was 3s. 6d.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 77.
59 By a settlement in 1574 it went to Hamlet, the brother of Sir John Holcroft the younger, who had no sons; the estate included two water-mills, two dovecotes, and a free fishery in the Glazebrook; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 13. For Hamlet Holcroft see also Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 96, 188. He and his wife were returned as recusants in 1575.
60 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 68, no. 6; the sale (or mortgage) included the manor of Peasfurlong and lands, &c., 100 acres being 'covered with water,' in all four quarters of the township; there was added a clause of warranty against Hamlet Holcroft, the father of John.
Another fine was made in 1622–3, John Calveley being plaintiff, and John Holcroft, junior, son and heir of John Holcroft, deforciant, with a clause of warranty against Anne mother of the younger John; ibid. bdle. 96, no. 1.
The sale was alleged to be fraudulent; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iii, App. 57.
In 1634 Edward Calveley was in possession of Great and Little Woolden in Barton, Holcroft, Peasfurlong, and Wigshaw in Culcheth; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 113.
61 In Sept. 1642 the deforciants of the manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong were Sampson Erdwick and Anne Erdwick, widow; and there was a warranty against the heirs of Richard Erdwick, father of the former; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 141, no. 30. Anne Erdwick seems to have been the widow of John Holcroft previously mentioned.
62 Their share of the inheritance was Holcroft and Mill Houses, with the lands which Orm and Adam his son and Wyon had formerly held; the woods of Southwood, Westwood, and Ings were to be common to all the coparceners; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 114b.
63 Ibid. fol. 115b. An account of the Holcroft family by Mr. J. Paul Rylands, originally printed in the Leigh Chron., has been utilized; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii.
64 Final Conc. ii, 18. Adam's name occurs in the deeds down to 1347. In 1334 he was commanded to join the king in Scotland with horse and arms; and eight years later he was one of the commissioners for assessing the ninths; Rot. Scot. (Rec. Com.), i, 307; Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 40.
In 1330 Adam de Holcroft arranged for the succession of his part of the manor of Culcheth, except three messuages and certain lands. It was to descend to his son Hugh and heirs male; in default successively to John, Thomas, Richard, and Robert, his other sons. William the son of Adam de Holcroft by his second wife Margery put in his claim; Final Conc. ii, 74.
In 1331 John son of John de Woolden agreed with Adam son of Thomas de Holcroft concerning the latter's mill and mill pool upon Glazebrook, the embankment stretching across the stream; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 116.
The male issue of the eldest son Hugh appears to have failed, but he may have had a daughter, for in 1353 William son of Thomas de Sale alleged he was the heir of Adam son of Thomas de Holcroft, in a claim for lands in Bedford brought by William de Holcroft son of Adam and Margery; Assize R. 435, m. 30 d.
John de Holcroft, the second son, is probably the man of that name acquitted of killing John son of Simon de Holland at Culcheth in 1343; Assize R. 430, m. 32 d.; he was himself killed in 1352; Assize R. 433. Possibly it was on account of his character that Adam de Holcroft in 1347 settled the estate upon Thomas son of John de Holcroft; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 116b. The bounds are thus recorded: Beginning in the centre of Lynbrook where it falls into Glazebrook, up the former brook to the boundary of Kenyon, then by the bounds of Croft, Woolston, and Flixton to Glazebrook, and so back to the starting point; i.e. all his lands within Culcheth, Blacklow excepted.
65 As there were two families of the same surname in the township—of Holcroft and of Hurst—it is difficult to trace the descent of either, in the absence of documentary evidence. There is a pedigree in Harl. MS. 1925, fol. 59, showing the double line; also in Piccope, MS. Pedigrees (Chet. Lib.), i, 227.
John de Holcroft occurs at various times from 1373 onwards. He is probably the heir of Thomas son of John de Holcroft from whose guardian (Simon son of Henry de Byrom) Goditha widow of William de Holcroft claimed dower in Aug. 1355; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 18; 5, m. 24 d. See Culcheth D. no. 78, 79.
In 1382 his daughter Elizabeth was engaged to marry Thurstan de Culcheth; ibid. no. 80, 81; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 2, m. 35. He was plaintiff in later fines (from 1386 to 1394) regarding properties in Culcheth and Kenyon; ibid. bdles. 2, m. 4, 5; 3, m. 19. In 1394 he was escheator; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 49.
Thomas de Holcroft was serving beyond the seas in 1417 in the retinue of Thomas, Duke of Exeter; Towneley MS. CC, no. 510. He occurs as witness in 1400 and 1408; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2674, 2415; and John de Holcroft in various ways about forty years later (Culcheth D. no. 107, 108) as arbitrator in a dispute between Thomas Culcheth and Oliver Anderton in 1448; also no. 112. He was 'in mercy for defaults' in 1444; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 6, m. 11; 7, m. 4.
In 1492 John Holcroft did homage and service to the lord of Warrington and paid 10s. 10d. for relief; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 14. It was probably his son John who in 1505 did homage and service for lands in Culcheth and Pennington, paid relief, and three years later did fealty in the court leet; ibid. 18, 22. Margaret daughter of John Holcroft senior was in 1525 married to Gilbert Culcheth; her brother, John Holcroft, afterwards knighted, being the principal agent; Culcheth D. no. 137–9. In a plea regarding land in 1514 the descent of John Holcroft was thus alleged: John —s. Thomas —s. John —s. Thomas —s. John —s. John (plaintiff); Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 118, m. 13.
A pedigree was recorded in 1567, giving a few steps; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 117.
66 In 1536 John Holcroft had fifty-three men for service under the Earl of Derby against the Northern Rising; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xi, 511. He was sheriff of Cheshire in 1541–2; ibid. xvi, 644. He was made a knight at the coronation of Edward VI; Metcalfe, Book of Knights, 90.
From Sir Thomas Butler in 1549 he procured the enfranchisement of his manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong, with the lands there and in Pennington. The manor of Holcroft, with messuages, lands, and two water-mills, had been held by homage, fealty, uncertain scutage, and a rent of 3s. 6d. with suit to the court of the manor of Warrington; thenceforward it was to be held by fealty only for all services, customs, exactions, and demands; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 77. Sir John died in 1560 and was buried at Newchurch in Culcheth; Dods. MSS. cliii, fol. 46. His will with the inventory is printed in Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 148–57.
67 Thomas Holcroft first appears in the records as a gentleman servitor at the coronation of Anne Boleyn in 1533; L. and P. Hen. VIII, vi, 246. He had a place at court and was trusted by the king and Cromwell with various missions, including the visitation of the monasteries. He procured grants of the friaries at Warrington, Preston, and Lancaster; a portion of the Whalley lands, and Cartmel Priory; also Vale Royal Abbey in Cheshire; see L. and P. Hen. VIII; also Ormerod, Cheshire (ed. Helsby), ii, 153, 154. He was knighted during the Scottish expedition in 1544; Metcalfe, Knights, 74. His family very soon died out. His son Thomas in 1590 was 'professed in religion, but not so forward in the public actions for religion as was meet'; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 243.
68 See the account of Upholland. In 1539 he also procured a grant of the tithes of Culcheth for ever, paying a rent of £10 to the rector; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 302; Lichfield Epis. Reg. xiii–xiv, fol. 24.
69 An agreement between John Holcroft and Margaret widow of Sir Richard Bold, on the marriage of the former's son John with Dorothy Bold, is in Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 107. A fine as to the manor of Peasfurlong was made in 1553 between Sir John Holcroft senior and Sir John Holcroft junior; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 4. Sir John Holcroft was the plaintiff in a right-of-way case in 1565, the disputed road leading from Hollinfare through Culcheth to Leigh; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 285.
70 In 1589 a settlement of the tithes of Culcheth was made by Sir Edward Fitton and Alice his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 51, m. 148. In 1590 it was reported that he resided but little in Lancashire; he was 'of good conformity' to the religion established by law, but 'not much commended for any forwardness in the cause' thereof; Lydiate Hall, 243 (quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4). He was returned in 1600 as a freeholder; he was also a justice; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 238.
The male line of this branch of the Fittons quickly died out, and the inheritance passed to female heirs on the death of the third Sir Edward Fitton in 1643; see Ormerod, Cheshire (ed. Helsby), iii, 553.
71 Ralph Calveley died 23 Dec. 1619 holding Holcroft Hall, with its lands, mills, free fishery in the Glazebrook, and messuages and lands in Wigshaw, which he had purchased of Thomas Southworth and others, probably trustees of the Fittons; the hall was leased to Dame Alice Fitton, who resided there; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 258–61.
John Calveley, aged thirty-six, was Ralph's son and heir. The manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong were claimed by a John Calveley as late as 1661; Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 36.
72 See previous note. Sampson Erdwick (Erdeswick) was probably the grandson of the Staffordshire antiquary of that name, who died in 1603 leaving a son and heir Richard, the name of the Holcroft Sampson's father; Staff. Visit. (Wm. Salt Soc. v, 2), 124.
73 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 152, m. 77. The son, Thomas Holcroft, was married this year.
John Holcroft was the John Holcroft junior, grandson of Hamlet, already mentioned in the account of Peasfurlong. He sided with the Parliament from the commencement of the Civil War, and rose to be lieutenant-colonel; in 1643 he was in command at Lancaster when Lord Derby assaulted and took it; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 30–2, 85.
John's younger son Charles succeeded his brother Thomas (who died in 1667), but died without issue in 1672.
74 It was probably on the death of Charles Holcroft that the notorious Colonel Thomas Blood endeavoured to secure the manor of Holcroft as the right of his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Colonel John Holcroft. In a petition to the king he complained that to defeat him some of the Holcrofts had combined with one Richard Calveley 'to promote an old title . . . which title for this forty years hath been overthrown at law,' and further, 'about six years ago they hired several obscure persons out of Wales that went to the house of a gentleman, one Hamlet Holcroft, . . . and with a pistol killed him dead for not giving them possession . . . ; and some weeks since the said Richard Calveley being attacked by some of the sheriff's bailiffs . . . catched up a rapier and killed one of the said bailiffs dead on the place'; printed by Mr. Rylands, op. cit. 19, 20, from S.P. Dom. Chas. II, cxlii, 19. Hamlet Holcroft senior was buried at Newchurch in 1663, and another Hamlet on 2 June 1664.
75 A moiety of the manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong and of estates in Culcheth and Woolden was settled upon Thomas Tyldesley and Eleanor his wife in 1680; the other moiety being at the same time settled on Sir Richard Standish and Margaret his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 204, m. 11, 35.
In August 1700 Sir Thomas Stanley, Margaret his wife, and Sir Thomas Standish were deforciants of the manor of Peasfurlong and land there and in Holcroft; ibid. bdle. 245, m. 85. Two years later Sir Thomas Standish was plaintiff and Sir Thomas Stanley and his wife deforciants of the manor of Heapey, a moiety of the manors of Holcroft and Peasfurlong and various lands; ibid. bdle. 249, m. 32. In the following year Thomas Tyldesley and Edward his son and heir were vouchees in a recovery of the same manors; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 478, m. 4d. In 1709 a further settlement appears to have been made, the deforciants in the fine being Sir Thomas Stanley and Margaret his wife, Sir Thomas Standish, Thomas Tyldesley, Edward Tyldesley, son and heir of the late Eleanor Tyldesley, wife of Thomas; and Henry Bunbury and Eleanor his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 263, m. 110. Then in 1761 James Tyldesley and Sarah his wife were in possession, and sold or mortgaged it to John Lloyd; ibid. bdle. 366, m. 114.
A case prepared for counsel's opinion in 1740 respecting the settlement of 1700 was printed in Preston Guardian local notes, 1 Dec. 1877.
76 In 1787 Holcroft appears to have been owned by Samuel Pool; Land Tax Ret.
77 At the time of the partition of Culcheth Robert de Risley was allowed to retain all the approvements he had made, except 12 acres in Rossale, and pasture on the moss between Risley and Croft, without hindrance from his brother Adam; 20 acres in the Rough Hurst by Croft Wood were also allowed to him, but his horse-mill was to be taken down, being to the prejudice of the other parceners; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 113b, 114.
The consent of Robert son of Hugh de Hindley and Ellen his wife has also been preserved; ibid. fol. 118b. Their share lay 'in the southern part of Culcheth called Risley,' and included Rossale in Southwood. The bounds are carefully recited, Hollinhurst and Stockley Wood being named. A road for Robert and his tenants was allowed through Peasfurlong to the common of Westwood, then following the Halgh Field to Holcroft; by the Brook House to the mills at Culcheth and further to Fastonbrook. In compensation for the 'waste and desert' character of much of Risley, Robert and Ellen received Gilbert de Culcheth's lands in Lowton. This deed may be dated about 1270.
78 From these it appears that Robert and Ellen de Risley were living in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 44 d. Ellen in or before 1303 married John Gillibrand, and was living in 1314, when she and her husband 'put in their claim' in a settlement regarding Holcroft; Final Conc. i, 200; ii, 18. She had a portion of Longton in Leyland Hundred, which descended to Peter and Gilbert de Risley, younger sons; ibid. i, 200; ii, 63; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 100b, &c.
79 Robert and Ellen appear to have had sons, Robert and Richard; as also the Peter and Gilbert named in the last note.
Robert son of Robert de Risley, and Margery his wife, claimed various lands in Kenyon, Lowton, Culcheth, Warrington, and Pemberton, from Robert son of William de Sankey; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 151–87 (undated). Margery was the daughter and heir of William, elder son of William de Sankey, and in 1295 claimed her grandfather's lands in Kenyon, &c. Her father had died before the elder William, and she had been given in ward to Robert de Risley, who had married her to his son Robert; Assize R. 1306, m. 15. Margery seems to have married before 1321 William son of the John Gillibrand named in the previous note; Final Conc. ii, 44.
The Robert de Risley who had the reversion would be the grandson of the first Robert de Risley, and this settlement may have been made on his coming of age or marriage. 'John Gillibrand and William his son' occur in 1299; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1465; William had married Margery by 1311; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 151–87; Final Conc. ii, 7. In 1347, in a grant to the next Robert de Risley, his mother 'Margaret' is named as then living; from the deeds at Hale Hall, near Liverpool, among which are a large number relating to Risley.
It would thus appear that the first Robert de Risley died before 1303, and the second (his son) before 1311.
Adam son of Hugh de Hindley granted lands near Westwood in Culcheth, which he had acquired from John de Haydock, to Giles de Penketh. Giles was to render the following services to the chief lords: To John Gillibrand and Ellen his wife and the heirs of Ellen and Robert de Risley, 14d. a year; to Robert son of Robert de Risley, homage and 1d. at Christmas; to Gilbert son of Richard de Culcheth, 1 lb. of cummin and 8d. rent; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 118b, no. 48; Towneley MS. GG, no. 998.
Richard de Risley, probably another son of the elder Robert, had a confirmation of his estate from Richard de Radcliffe and Margery his wife; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 27. In 1321 John son of Richard de Risley released to Adam de Holcroft all his claim to land in Wigshaw lache, between Peasfurlong and the boundary of Croft; Hale D.
80 Final Conc. ii, 58; daughters Margaret, Margery, and Agnes are named. Robert must therefore have been born about 1300. Adam de Holcroft, Joan de Holcroft his mother, William de Radcliffe and Margery his wife, and William their son, put in their claims.
81 He contributed to the subsidy in 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 4, and he attested charters between 1341 and 1357; Culcheth D. no. 51, 62. Henry de Bradshagh and Joan his wife in 1353 claimed lands in Kenyon from Robert de Risley and Isabel his wife and Henry son of Robert. Joan was the widow of John, another son of Robert; Assize R. 435, m. 29; De Banco R. 418, m. 287 d.
82 De Banco R. 419, m. 52 d. He died in or before 1397, leaving a widow Margaret, as appears by deeds quoted below. A daughter Ellen married Thurstan de Penketh; Hale D.
83 Hale D. William son of Henry de Risley had released his lands to his father by a deed of 1398–9.
84 Henry de Ditchfield in 1437–8 granted to Nicholas de Risley and Gilbert his son the marriage of his son and heir William to Katherine daughter of Nicholas; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 247b, no. 43.
Nicholas was still alive in 1454, when his son Gilbert contracted with John Byrom for the marriage of his son Richard with John's daughter Alice; Gilbert, it appears, married Elizabeth daughter of Richard Bold; Hale D.; Towneley MS. GG, no. 1037.
85 Trans. Hist. Soc. iii, 106, 107. Richard Wilkinson the Wright said he was forty (? fourteen) years old at the foreign death, and was present when Richard de Radcliffe and Robert de Risley (grandfather of Nicholas) made an agreement as to the disputed land, one end lying to the Readyshaw. Atkin Jackson was sixteen years old at the foreign death, and was present when Margery, mother of Richard de Radcliffe, seized certain tenants of Southworth upon the 'mean moss' in dispute, and sent him to Robert de Risley 'to bid him come and help to punish for pasturing on their mean moss; and he said there was moor and moss enough for her and all her kine and him and all his kine for evermore, and he would punish no poor folk therefor.' Adam of Longshaw was four years old at the foreign death, and soon afterwards became servant to the wife of Robert de Risley. This evidence appears to have been taken early in 1411.
Seven years later an award was made between Nicholas de Risley and Richard son of James de Radcliffe, touching Readyshaw Moss; ibid. 107. The disputes continued till the end of the century.
In 1431 Richard Stanley, Archdeacon of Chester and rector of Winwick, decided a case of trespass between Nicholas de Risley and Dykone his son and others: there had been faults on both sides, but Nicholas was the more aggrieved and for compensation was awarded 'a hogshead of wine at Warrington, as good as the said Nicholas will choose, of red or white,' or two marks instead; ibid. 105.
86 The descent is thus given in 1494–5: Nicholas —s. Gilbert —s. Richard —s. Henry; Pal. of Lanc. Misc. 1–9, m. 14, 16; but in 1539 the descent was stated thus: Henry —s. Nicholas —s. Gilbert —s. Nicholas —s. Henry —s. Robert —sons, Richard, Henry, and John (plaintiff); Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 169, m. 14 d. The second Nicholas is an error for Richard (Nic. for Ric.); Pal. of Lanc. Sess. Papers, bdle. 5 Hen. VIII.
Gilbert de Risley made feoffments of his estates in 1457 and 1463; Hale D. He granted to his son John a messuage in Culcheth with remainder to another son, Thomas; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 46, m. 4 d.
87 Richard's son and heir apparent, Henry Risley, was in 1463 married to Margery daughter of Hamlet Mascy of Rixton; Hale D.
88 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 14. He is also named in Culcheth D. no. 126, 260, from which it appears that he was living in 1505.
89 In 1494 a marriage was agreed upon between Robert son of Henry Risley, and Elizabeth daughter of Richard Holland of Denton; Henry's mother was then Alice Southworth; Hale D.
90 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no 85. Besides Risley Hall he held twenty messuages, two burgages, a windmill, land, meadow, &c. in Culcheth, Warrington, Penketh, Lowton, Kenyon, and Croft. The premises in Culcheth and Warrington were held of Sir Thomas Boteler by the tenth part of a knight's fee, the yearly rent of 2s. 7½d., and suit at the court of Warrington every three weeks. A dispute between him and John Ashton as to the lands in Penketh had been settled in 1513 by an agreement to pay the free rent of 12d., all arrears being released; Hale D.
91 Hale D.; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 67. The dispossessed Thomas may be the Thomas Risley who in 1566 claimed lands in Culcheth by grant of Richard Risley; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), ii, 331.
92 He made a feoffment of his estates in 1556, expressing a wish that his son and heir John should marry Magdalen daughter of John Grimsditch; Hale D.
93 John, the son and heir of John Risley, was in possession of the manor in 1567, when he had a dispute with Richard Byrom and Margaret his wife, widow of John Risley; Ducatus (Rec. Com.). ii, 351; iii, 47. In 1588 he charged John Culcheth and Gilbert Unsworth with encroachments on the waste grounds called Southwood, Westwood, Twiss Green, Shaw Moss, Riggs and Fowley; ibid. iii, 513.
He died 24 April 1616, his son and heir Richard being then forty years of age. Besides Risley Hall he had lands and burgages in Culcheth, Warrington, Penketh, Lowton, Kenyon, and Croft; also an acre in the Twiss or Lockers meadow in Bruch. In 1593 he had settled his lands with remainders to his eldest son Richard and heirs by Anne his wife, and to his younger sons Henry and George, and then to his brother Richard. From the Inq. p.m. among the Hale D.
94 Lydiate Hall, 245; quoting S.P.Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4.
95 A pedigree was recorded in 1665 at Dugdale's Visitation (Chet. Soc. p. 246). There is a full one by Mr. J. P. Rylands, in Misc. Gen. and Herald. (new ser.), ii, 273.
Richard Risley in 1631 paid £10 on refusing knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 213.
96 His monument (a brass) was formerly in Winwick Church, and being found among the Risley deeds was restored to the church by the late Colonel Ireland Blackburne about 1880; see Beamont, Winwick, 123. The funeral sermon by Zachary Taylor is extant; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 130. He was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge. By his will he left £200 to build almshouses for the poor of Risley.
97 23 Geo. II, cap. 32. Wigshaw was owned, like Risley, by John Blackburne of Orford.
The commons were Fowley and Twiss Green (otherwise Higher and Lower Twist). Power was reserved to the owner of Culcheth Hall to turn the brook on Twiss Green to the moat of the hall at his pleasure, as had been the custom.
98 Richard Stanley had been adjudged a lunatic; his sister and heir apparent, Meliora, wife of William Dicconson, had charge of his estate, and John Chadwick of his person.
99 For a full account of the family see Mr. Rylands' work already cited.
John de Holcroft attested a Culcheth deed in 1355; no. 58.
Katherine widow of John de Holcroft in 1401 claimed dower in the manor of Hurst against Ralph de Holcroft; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 1, m. 26b.
Ralph de Holcroft occurs in 1443 and later; ibid. R. 5, m. 2b.
In a plea roll of the time of Edw. IV, Bartholomew son of Ralph Holcroft, and John his brother, were charged with having damaged the corn of John Sweetlove; ibid. R. 21, m. 24.
In 1498 Henry Holcroft claimed from Bartholomew Holcroft a fourth part of the manor of Culcheth, except three messuages, &c., by inheritance, alleging the following pedigree: Adam de Holcroft -s. Hugh -s. Ralph -s. John -s. Henry (plaintiff). The defendant called to warrant him George son and heir of John Atherton, a minor; ibid. R. 85, m. 1 d. If this descent be correct the Adam de Holcroft named cannot be the common ancestor of the Holcrofts.
Bartholomew Holcroft in 1506 acknowledged that he held his lands of the lord of Warrington by knight's service and did homage and fealty at Bewsey; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 18. In 1509 he paid 13s. 4d. as relief; ibid. 22. Ralph Holcroft his son and heir paid the same relief in 1513 on succeeding; but, dying before he did homage, was followed by his brother Richard, who in Dec. 1514 paid 13s. 4d. as relief, and did homage soon afterwards; ibid. 28, 30.
100 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 39, m. 10.
101 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 18. With this Geoffrey begins the pedigree recorded in 1664; Dugdale, Visitation (Chet. Soc.), 145.
102 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 83, m. 27.
103 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 4; the accounts of his executors are printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 87.
In 1654–5 Geoffrey Holcroft and Elizabeth his wife made a settlement of the manor of Hurst and their other lands; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 155, m. 137. This Elizabeth was daughter of William Spakeman or Speakman, whose family held lands in Culcheth and neighbouring townships; see Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, ii, 33, where two inquisitions are printed.
Geoffrey Holcroft was succeeded by a son and grandson, both named Thomas.
Hurst seems afterwards to have become the property of the Crooks of Abram, for in 1760 it was the subject of a settlement between the heirs of that family; Sir Samuel Duckinfield was plaintiff in the fine, and Isaac Worthington and Elizabeth his wife, James Andrews and Susan his wife, James Darbishire and Anne his wife, were deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 364, m. 130.
104 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 18. John Urmston of Kinknall is mentioned in 1624; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 433.
105 Roger del Twiss complained of trespasses on his lands at Culcheth by Hugh de Hindley and others in 1258; Cur. Reg. R. 160, m. 6. Richard and Roger del Twiss have been mentioned already as concerned in the suits of 1277–8; the former held his land under Richard de Culcheth; Assize R. 1238, m. 34 d.
Hugh del Twiss in 1314 secured three messuages and land from Thomas de Holcroft and Joan his wife; Final Conc. ii, 19.
Gilbert de Culcheth in 1339 leased to Richard del Twiss and his daughters Margery and Godith a plat of land near the boundary of Kenyon; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 158b/194b. Alan son of Richard del Twiss in 1338 released all his lands in Turnours carr to Gilbert de Culcheth the elder; Culcheth D. no. 49. These deeds contain many other references to the family. Matthew son of Gilbert del Twiss in 1361 claimed certain lands which had been taken into the Duke of Lancaster's hands because his father's widow, Godith, had granted them to Adam de Tyldesley, who had been out-lawed for felony; Gilbert was son of Alan son of Richard del Twiss, who had formerly held the lands; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 347.
John Culcheth, who died in 1640, bought the Twiss from Thomas Holcroft of Hurst; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 374.
The Paris family also occurs in the Culcheth Deeds, no. 15, 16; Robert de Paris and Henry his eldest son. Thomas son of Robert de Paris was a plaintiff in 1294; Assize R. 1299, m. 16; also R. 408, m. 11, which shows that Robert was still living in 1292.
106 In 1275 Roger son of Richard del Hurst granted to Robert de Hindley a rent of 2s. formerly paid by Norman son of Robert de North Meols; and at the same time Gilbert the Tailor, son of Thurstan del Hurst, granted to Robert de Hindley the rent of 3d., which Richard son of Richard de Martinscroft formerly paid for land of Norman son of Robert de North Meols, in the Hurst; Hale D. The rent of 2s. named seems to be that still paid for Hurst in 1591.
Mabel widow of Adam son of Simon del Hurst sought dower in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 27. Richard son of Norman del Hurst had a grant of lands in 1310; Culcheth D. no. 36. Adam son of Richard del Hurst complained that Thomas de Holcroft and others had disseised him of his tenement in 1313–14; Assize R. 424, m. 4.
107 Hugh son of John de Haydock granted land in the Shaw to Robert de Risley and Ellen his wife; Hale D. In 1310 John del Shaw released certain rights to Gilbert de Culcheth; and in 1326 he surrendered all his title in the Shaw to Margaret daughter of Gilbert; Culcheth D. no. 35, 44.
Adam son of Hugh del Shaw in 1360 granted lands by Westwood to Thomas son of Hugh del Hurst; this was next year resold to Robert de Southworth; Kuerden fol. MS. 387, S; Towneley MS. HH, no. 1980; GG, no. 1031, 1049; also Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 18b.
Giles de Penketh granted to John son of Robert de Allerton of Selby all his land in Culcheth, with remainder to John's sister Alice; Kuerden fol. MS. 314, no. 351. Agnes widow of Giles de Penketh released to Robert de Allerton all her right to dower in the Shaw in Culcheth in 1335; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 24b. In 1451–2 Gilbert Allerton sold his lands and rents in Culcheth to Henry Southworth of Middleton in Winwick; Kuerden fol. MS. 37, no. 104; 39, no. 701.
108 Robert de Kinknall granted land in Kinknall to William de Sankey; Hale D.
In 1311 and 1314 Adam de Kinknall obtained lands in Culcheth from William de Radcliffe and Thomas de Holcroft; Final Conc. ii, 12, 21.
In 1347 Thomas son of Adam de Kinknall had a grant from Adam de Kenyon; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 154b/190b, 155b/191b.
In 1399 John de Kinknall released to his brother Peter all his right to lands in Culcheth, and next year Emma widow of Adam de Kinknall gave to a trustee land called Hannecroft; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2674, 2225, &c.
109 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 238–43.
110 Norris D. (B.M.).
111 Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 3176. The Guest family were of long continuance in the township; possibly they were connected with the Guest House and mill leased by John Culcheth in 1601; Culcheth D. no. 191. About the same time Thomas Holcroft claimed Guests House or Farm from Gregory Holcroft and others; Ducatus (Rec. Com.), iii, 440, 482. John Guest of Abram built the schoolhouse on Twiss Green, Culcheth.
112 They were Thomas Guest, senr., John Guest, senr. and junr.; Mary Burchall, Jane Gregory, Thomas Hey, Elizabeth Litherland, Roger Richardson, Ralph Sanderson, John Speakman, and Sarah Yeates; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 116, 117.
113 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 10, &c.; ii, 20, 161. Lists of constables, churchwardens, &c., are given.
114 Returns at Preston.
115 Three sets of vestments belonged to it in 1552 and several bells, but nothing is said of plate; Ch. Gds. (Chet. Soc.), 63, with the accompanying note; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 368.
116 See the account of Winwick Church.
117 Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 153. He wished the tenants of Culcheth to buy lands of the annual value of £6 13s. 4d. for the wages of priest and clerk, the latter to have £1.
118 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), x, 190. There was 'no preacher' in 1590; Lydiate Hall, 248.
119 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 13.
120 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 55. At this time the chapel was in bad condition; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 188.
121 Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 50.
122 Bishop Gastrell about 1720 found that nothing belonged to the church but the interest of £50, given by some one unknown; £50 a year was allowed by the rector; Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 269.
123 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxi, 172 (with plate).
124 Notitia Cestr. ii, 270 n.
125 This list, compiled from the parish registers and documents at Chester, is mainly due to Mr. J. Paul Rylands. See also Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 180, and introduction to printed Registers.
126 Raines MSS. xxii, 64.
127 Previously at St. Helens.
128 For the Gee family see Local Glean. ii, 301.
129 'A very godly minister, of good life and conversation,' though he had not observed the day of humiliation appointed by Parliament in June 1650; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. loc. cit. He seems to have been in charge in 1645; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 6 ('Mr. Lee'); and in 1648 he signed the 'Harmonious Consent.' He was transferred to Gorton in 1657; ibid. ii, 183.
130 Ibid. ii, 214. He had been minister at Ashton. He continued as curate of Winwick after the Restoration, and was buried there 12 Nov. 1671.
131 Bishop Stratford's Visitation List, 1691. He was 'conformable' in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229.
132 He was the first of the perpetual curates of Newchurch; but had been licensed to the curacy of Winwick in 1742. The church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. begin at this point; among them the following is preserved: (13 Jan. 1748–9)—'Whereas the curacy of Newchurch in the parish of Winwick is shortly intended to be augmented by the Governors of the Bounty of Queen Anne, I do hereby nominate John Hilton, clerk (the person employed by me in serving the said cure), to be curate of the said chapel of Newchurch, and do allow him £50 per annum.—Thos. Stanley.'
133 In 1804 he gave the following account of Newchurch: '340 houses, without any village or hamlet or any family of distinction. About 155 Papists of the lower class with a public place of worship and a resident priest at Culcheth Hall of the name of Barry. About 70 Presbyterians of the lower rank of people, having a licensed meeting-house and a teacher of the name of Aspinal qualified according to law, without any school for religious instruction, and whose number I believe to be upon the decline.' Heyes was curate of Westhoughton also, and resided there, Newchurch having no parsonage house. There was a resident curate, with service twice every Sunday and two sermons; 'sacrament every first Sunday in the month, communicants about 40.' In 1814 a house was built by subscription, for the minister's residence. These details are from the Bishop's Registry at Chester.
134 a Afterwards of St. Olave's, York.
135 Lond. Gaz. 29 Nov. 1878.
136 In 1634 Robert Downing of Risley had been presented 'for receiving the cup standing, and refusing the bread unless out of another man's hands and not the minister's'; Beamont, Winwick, 4z. William Leigh, the minister under the Commonwealth, was chosen by the Puritan rector and the people of Culcheth; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. loc. cit.
137 An account of him is in Loca. Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 122.
138 Ibid. and Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconformity, iv, 252–61. The succession of ministers is given.
139 See the recusant roll in Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 245.
140 Foley, Records S. J. v, 346. The Jesuits were usually in charge. Edward Scarisbrick was at Culcheth in 1701 with a stipend of £9;—Smith in 1721, Thomas Maire about 1750, Thomas Walmesley in 1784, in which year thirty-five were confirmed; and — Carter in 1793; ibid. v, 321–5.
In 1767 it was reported to the Bishop of Chester that two priests were living at Culcheth—(Roger) Leigh, S.J., and William Dicconson; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xviii, 215; Foley, op. cit. vii, 449.
141 Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 270.