The city and parish of Manchester
Introduction

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1911

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174-187

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'The city and parish of Manchester: Introduction ', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 174-187. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41404 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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MANCHESTER

SALFORDMOSTONDROYLSDENLEVENSHULME
BROUGHTONHARPURHEYOPENSHAWBURNAGE
MANCHESTERNEWTONWITHINGTONDENTON
CHORLTON-UPON-MEDLOCKFAILSWORTHDIDSBURYHAUGHTON
BRADFORDCHORLTON-WITH-HARDYHEATON NORRIS
BLACKLEYGORTONREDDISH
CHEETHAMARDWICKMOSS SIDESTRETFORD
CRUMPSALLBESWICK (Extra-par.)RUSHOLMEHULME

The ancient parish of Manchester, with an area of 35, 152 acres and a population in 1901 of 878, 532, has from time immemorial been the most important in the county. The situation of the town from which it derives its name being at the junction of two important roads—from the south to the north-west of the country and from the port of Chester to York— must have attracted an urban population from very early times, (fn. 1) and the convenience of its position beside the Irwell and between two of its tributaries, if not the original reason for a settlement, was a concomitant attraction. The Romans established a fortified station, of which various fragments are known, (fn. 2) and from which great roads branched off in five directions. (fn. 3) Their English successors also occupied the place, which in the 10th century was included in Northumbria. In 923 King Edward sent a force to the town to repair and man it. (fn. 4) History is again silent for a century and a half, and then reveals the existence of an endowed church at Manchester and of a royal manor at Salford, to which not only the parish but the hundred owed service. (fn. 5)

By the Norman kings the town of Manchester with the greater part of the parish was granted to the Grelley family, who constituted it the head of their barony; (fn. 6) but Salford, with the adjacent townships of Broughton, Cheetham, Hulme, and Stretford, and the more distant one of Reddish was retained by the king as demesne or bestowed on the great nobleman to whom he entrusted 'the land between Mersey and Ribble' or in later times the honour of Lancaster, the holders of which received the title of earl and duke successively. (fn. 7) The duchy having long been annexed to the Crown, Salford may still be regarded as a royal manor.

A borough grew up at Manchester in the 13th century, and a market and fair were granted in 1227, while four years later Salford also became a borough. (fn. 8) The inhabitants of the former town were already probably to a great extent artificers and traders; a fulling-mill, a tanner, and a dyer are named about 1300. (fn. 9) Its earliest known charter was granted in 1301. The town appears to have grown and prospered; non-resident lords, represented by their stewards, at least did nothing to hinder its progress, and the foundation of a well-staffed collegiate church in 1421, when the lord of the manor, at that time also rector, gave to the new body of clergy his manorhouse as their residence, made the parish church the most important institution of the place, a position which it retained until the 18th century. (fn. 10) It drew round it numerous benefactions, such as the chantries and grammar school.

Adam Banastre and his associates displayed the king's banner at Manchester on 1 November 1315, at the outbreak of their insurrection. (fn. 11) John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, was at Manchester on 7 September 1393. (fn. 12)

The district was visited by some form of plague about 1350—perhaps the Black Death itself (fn. 13) —and many later visitations are on record, two of the most notable being in 1605 and 1645. (fn. 14)

A bridge over the Irwell, connecting Manchester and Salford, existed from early times. (fn. 15) In 1368 Thomas del Booth of Barton left money for this bridge. (fn. 16) Another, over the Irk, is named in 1381. (fn. 17) These rivers were noted for their floods, often very destructive. (fn. 18)

About 1536 Leland thus described the place: 'Manchester, on the south side of the Irwell River, standeth in Salfordshire, and is the fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire; yet is in it [but] one parish church, but is a college, and almost throughout double-aisled ex quadrato lapide durissimo, whereof a goodly quarry is hard by the town. There be divers stone bridges in the town, but the best, of three arches, is over Irwell. This bridge divideth Manchester from Salford, the which is a large suburb to Manchester. On this bridge is a pretty little chapel… . And almost two flight shots without the town, beneath on the same side of Irwell, yet be seen the dykes and foundations of Old Mancastel in a ground now inclosed. The stones of the ruins of this castle were translated towards making of bridges for the town.' (fn. 19) The quarry named was that at Collyhurst. (fn. 20)

The privilege of sanctuary which had been allowed to the town (fn. 21) was in 1541 transferred to Chester, having proved injurious to good order. (fn. 22)

The prosperity of the place was uninterrupted during the religious changes of the 16th century. (fn. 23) The endowments of the parish church were confiscated by Edward VI, but restored in great measure by Mary. No resistance was openly offered to any of the changes. The two great families of the parish—the Byrons of Clayton and Radcliffes of Ordsall—though at first adverse to Protestantism, declined in fortune in the time of Elizabeth, and their estates were early in the 17th century dispersed among the smaller gentry and prosperous traders; the great manor of Manchester itself was about the same time purchased by a wealthy merchant. The smaller gentry, excepting the Barlows, appear as a rule to have gone with the times, often becoming zealous Puritans, while the trading and artisan classes, in Manchester as elsewhere, soon embraced the new doctrines. (fn. 24) Thus by the end of Elizabeth's reign the population was almost wholly Protestant, and of the more extreme type. The change was, of course, chiefly due to the clergy of the parish church, the more respected and influential of the ministers serving there and in the dependent chapelries being of the Puritan school.


INDEX MAP to the PARISH of MANCHESTER

INDEX MAP to the PARISH of MANCHESTER

William Camden visited the place in 1586, and appears to have been pleased with it; he found the notable things to be the woollen manufacture, the market, church, and college. (fn. 25) John Taylor, the 'Water Poet,' passed through it about thirty years later. (fn. 26)

The Marprelate press was set up in 1588 at Newton Lane near Manchester, but discovered and suppressed soon after starting work. (fn. 27)

The number of recognized townships was formerly but small. In the Subsidy Roll of 1541 only seven are named—Salford, Manchester, Cheetham, Reddish, Withington, Heaton Norris, and Stretford—but Moston was taxed with Ashton. (fn. 28) The contributions to the ancient tax called the Fifteenth were arranged on the following basis:— When the hundred paid £41 14s. 4d., Salford paid £1 2s., Manchester with its members £3, Cheetham 4s. 10d., Reddish £1 2s., Withington £3 15s., Heaton Norris 13s. 6d., Chorlton 3s. 4d., and Stretford £1 1s. 8d. (fn. 29) The county lay, established in 1624, also recognized eight townships:—Manchester paying £9 3s. 11½d., Salford £3 1s. 3¾d., Stretford £1 4s. 6¼d., Withington £5 4s. 2¾d., Heaton Norris £1 16s. 9½d., Chorlton Row 12s. 3¾d., Reddish £1 10s. 7¾d., and Cheetham 11s. 2¾d., or £23 5s. in all, when the hundred contributed £100. (fn. 30) At this time, however, the 'members' or 'hamlets' of Manchester had separate constables, and were therefore townships. (fn. 31)

The geology of the parish of Manchester is represented by the New Red Sandstone, the Permian Beds, and the Carboniferous Rocks. The formation lying on the west side of a line drawn from Reddish through the Manchester Waterworks, Fairfield, Newton Heath, and Blackley, consists almost entirely of the New Red Sandstone, the exception being a long and irregular-shaped patch of the Permian Rocks and, at the widest part to the north-east of Manchester, of the Coal Measures, and lying on the west side of, and brought up by, a fault which extends northward from Heaton Norris, through Kirkmanshulme and Openshaw, trending north-west around Cheetham to Crumpsall. At the widest part this patch of the Coal Measures is 1½ mile in width, tapering out at Crumpsall Hall on the north and at Kirkmanshulme on the south. Further to the east a broad belt of the Permian Rocks, varying in width from ¾ mile to 1½ mile, crops out above the Coal Measures. These occur over the remainder of the parish on the east side of a line drawn from Hyde Hall in Denton through Audenshaw to Failsworth, and from Newton Heath between Blackley and the River Irk to the limits of the parish near Heaton Park.

The principal features of the town of Manchester as it was about 1600 still exist, though changed (fn. 32) — the church with the college (fn. 33) to the north of it, the bridges over Irk and Irwell adjacent, and the marketplace a little distance to the south—originally on the edge of the town. In Salford the small triangle formed by Chapel Street, (fn. 34) Gravel Lane, (fn. 35) and Greengate (fn. 36) was the village or inhabited portion, the dwellings naturally clustering round the bridge over the Irwell. (fn. 37) Then, as now, the road through Manchester from this bridge (fn. 38) went winding east and north round the church as Cateaton Street, (fn. 39) Hanging Ditch, (fn. 40) Toad or Todd Lane, (fn. 41) crossing the Irk (fn. 42) and mounting Red Bank. (fn. 43) Half Street, (fn. 44) at the east end of the church, was continued as Millgate, (fn. 45) which wound along by the Irk, to reach the lord's mills on that stream. The grammar school, on its original site, and some old timbered houses (fn. 46) still distinguish the street, though the mills have gone. From the northeast corner of the church Fennel Street (fn. 47) led eastward past Hyde's Cross, (fn. 48) at the corner of Todd Lane, to Withy Grove (fn. 49) and Shude Hill. (fn. 50)

From the south Deansgate, (fn. 51) on the line of the old Roman road from Chester, ran northerly towards the church, but curving to the east near the bridge was continued as Cateaton Street or Hanging Ditch; at the junction Smithy Door (fn. 52) led south to the marketplace, which was probably always an open square, though the area may have been diminished by encroachments through traders desiring to have their houses and shops upon it. Smithy Door has gone and Deansgate has been straightened, but the eastern side of the market-place remains; from it Mealgate, now Old Millgate, (fn. 53) leads north to Cateaton Street.

In the open space stood the market cross, the toll booth or town hall in which the courts were held, and the pillory and stocks. (fn. 54) The south side of the market-place was formed by a lane leading east and west; the eastern part was called Market-stead Lane, (fn. 55) and the western St. Mary's Gate. (fn. 56) The conduit stood in it. (fn. 57) Beyond this lane southward was the field where the fair was held, called Acres Field. (fn. 58)

Other street-names occur. (fn. 59) In the town the principal houses were that of the Radcliffes of the Pool near the Conduit, and that called Olgreave, Culcheth, or Langley Hall in Long Millgate; further out were Alport Lodge, Garrett, Ancoats, Collyhurst, and one or two others. To the south of Alport was Knott in Mill Hulme; a licence for the mill-dam was given in 1509. (fn. 60) The cockpit lay to the south-east of Old Millgate. (fn. 61) There exists a small town plan, of unknown origin but apparently trustworthy, which may be dated about 1650. (fn. 62)

Apart from the streets above mentioned the parish was mainly agricultural, areas of wood, (fn. 63) heath, (fn. 64) and moss (fn. 65) being intermixed with arable and pasture lands; the dwellings were the scattered manor and farm-houses and small villages. The rural population probably then, as later, combined tillage with weaving. The chapels existing in 1650 serve to indicate the chief centres of population—Blackley, Newton, Gorton, Denton, Birch, Didsbury, Chorlton, Stretford, and Salford. (fn. 66)

In the Civil War Manchester, as might be expected, took the Parliamentary side. (fn. 67) On an outbreak of hostilities becoming imminent, Lord Strange, who soon afterwards succeeded his father as Earl of Derby, fully alive to the disaffection as to the importance of Manchester, endeavoured to secure it for the king. A small quantity of powder was for convenience stored at the College, then Lord Strange's property, and in June 1642, it being expected that the sheriff would endeavour to secure it for the king's use, Mr. Assheton of Middleton managed to obtain possession of it, and removed it to other places in the town. (fn. 68) Lord Strange thereupon demanded its return, and on 15 July, after summoning the able men to meet him at Bury in virtue of a commission of array, (fn. 69) he came to Manchester, intending to lodge at Sir Alexander Radcliffe's house at Ordsall. The people of Manchester invited him to dine in their town, and he accepted the invitation; the matter of the powder was discussed and an agreement made. (fn. 70) But on the same day the Parliamentary Commissioners had issued their summons to the militia, and the banquet was followed by an encounter between the opposing forces, in which was shed the first blood of the struggle. (fn. 71)

The war did not formally begin until September, (fn. 72) and Manchester was speedily involved. (fn. 73) On Saturday the 24th and the following day Lord Derby assembled his troops against it, and the townsmen summoned assistance from their neighbours. (fn. 74) Lord Derby's forces were variously estimated—from 2,600 up to 4,500—and he had some ordnance, which he planted at Alport Lodge and Salford Bridge, thus commanding two of the principal roads into the town. (fn. 75) After some skirmishing he proposed terms, but being refused he continued the siege for a week without any success; on Saturday 1 October he drew off his troops, having been ordered by the king to join him. The success of the townsmen was chiefly due to the skill of a German soldier, Colonel Rosworm, who began on the Wednesday before the siege to set up posts and chains for keeping out horsemen and to barricade and block up street ends with mud walls and other defences. (fn. 76) After the raising of the siege he continued his fortifications, and led the 'Man chester men' in various excursions to places in South Lancashire, by which the town added to its reputation and the king's forces were harassed or defeated. The remuneration promised him having been refused later, he wrote a bitter complaint of the townsmen; 'never let an unthankful man and a promise-breaker have another name' than Manchester man. (fn. 77) A grant of £1,000 was made for the relief of Manchester out of the sales of 'delinquents'' estates by Parliament in 1645. (fn. 78)

The Restoration appears to have been welcomed with hearty loyalty, for the clergy and principal inhabitants were Presbyterians and had in 1659 shown their dissatisfaction with the existing government (fn. 79) ; but soon afterwards the religious cleavage between Conformists and Nonconformists (fn. 80) was supplemented by the political cleavage between Tories and Whigs. The 'Church and King' riots of 1715, (fn. 81) which led to the destruction of Cross Street chapel and other Dissenting meeting-places, showed that the Tories, headed by the collegiate clergy, Sir Oswald Mosley, and others, had a considerable following; while the Whigs, headed by Lady Bland, included all the Nonconformists and many Churchmen. The composition of the town is shown by the abortive proposal of 1731 that a workhouse should be built, with a board of twenty-four guardians, of whom a third should be High Church, a third Low Church, and a third Nonconformist. (fn. 82) The town, not being a borough, had no means of enforcing its political opinions, though public 'town's meetings' were called by the borough reeve and constables on occasion; the court leet confined itself to local business.

The postmaster is mentioned in 1648. (fn. 83) A number of local tradesmen's tokens were issued about 1666. (fn. 84) An official survey of the town was made in 1672. (fn. 85) A 'wonderful child' appeared in 1679, speaking—so the story went—Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at three years of age. (fn. 86)

Celia Fiennes about 1700 rode most of her way from Rochdale between hedges of quickset cut smooth and even. She writes: 'Manchester looks exceedingly well at the entrance. Very substantial buildings; the houses are not very lofty, but mostly of brick and stone; the old houses are timber work. There is a very large church, all stone; and [it] stands so high that walking round the churchyard you see the whole town. There is good carving of wood in the choir.' After describing the Chetham Hospital and Library, with its curiosities, she proceeds: 'Out of the Library there are leads on which one has the sight of the town, which is large, as also the other town that lies below it, called Salford, and is divided from this by the River Irwell, over which is a stone bridge, with many arches … . The Market place is large; it takes up two streets' length when the market is kept for their linen cloth [and] cotton tickings which is the manufacture of the town. Here is a very fine school for young gentlewomen, as good as any in London; and music and dancing and things are very plenty here. This is a thriving place.' (fn. 87)

A traveller, supposed to be Defoe, about 1730 calls Manchester 'the greatest mere village in England.' Its trade and population had much increased within the previous forty or fifty years; abundance not of houses only but of streets of houses had been provided. It boasted of four extraordinary foundations—a college, a hospital, a free school, and a library, all very well supported. 'I cannot but doubt,' he remarks, 'but this increasing town will some time or other obtain some better face of government and be incorporated, as it very well deserves to be … . There is a very firm but ancient stone bridge over the Irwell, which is built exceeding high, because this river, though not great, yet coming from the mountainous part of the country swells sometimes so suddenly that in one night's time they told me the waters would frequently rise four or five yards, and the next day fall as hastily as they rose.' Salford he calls 'the suburb or village on the other side of the bridge.' (fn. 88)

The Jacobites in 1745 hoped that Manchester would give them substantial assistance. (fn. 89) Mr. Clayton, one of the chaplains of the collegiate church, was an ardent partisan, and the other clergy were sympathizers. (fn. 90) One of the nonjuring bishops, Dr. Deacon, lived in the town, ministering to a small congregation. On 28 November a daring sergeant of the Pretender's, having hurried forward, appeared in the town and began to invite recruits. (fn. 91) His reception was not cordial, but sufficient supporters were obtained to secure his safety and freedom until the vanguard of the army arrived in the evening. The whole force reached Manchester the following day, the prince himself riding in during the afternoon, when his father was proclaimed king as James III. Mr. Dickinson's house in Market Street was chosen as head quarters and was afterwards known as 'The Palace.' At night many of the people illuminated their houses, bonfires were made, and the bells were rung. Some three hundred recruits had joined the invaders, and were called 'The Manchester Regiment.' Money due to the government was seized. (fn. 92) The army marched south on Monday 1 December, and returned to Manchester in its retreat on the 9th. Out of a contribution of £5,000 then demanded, £2,500 was collected and accepted, and the prince and his forces left the town next day. The Manchester Regiment still accompanied him, and was entrusted with the defence of Carlisle, which surrendered at the end of the month. The officers were tried for high treason in July 1746, and some were executed at Kennington. (fn. 93) The heads of two—Thomas Theodorus Deacon and Thomas Siddall—were sent down to Manchester, and fixed on the Exchange. (fn. 94) The men of the regiment were tried at Carlisle in August and September, and many of them executed. The successful party had their celebrations, the news of the capture of Carlisle and the victory of Culloden being welcomed by public illuminations and the distribution of liquor. (fn. 95) The ill-feeling between the two parties in the town — the Jacobites and the Whigs—continued for many years afterwards.

At this time begins the series of detailed plans of the towns of Manchester and Salford. (fn. 96) That of Casson and Berry, 1741–51, shows that the town had expanded considerably, along Deansgate, Market Street, and Shude Hill; a number of new streets had been laid out, but the principal improvement appears to have been the formation of St. Ann's Square on the site of Acresfield about 1720. (fn. 97) This drew with it other improvements, as a decent approach had to be formed from Market Street. Several large private houses are figured on the border of the plan of 1750, (fn. 98) which also gives a bird's-eye view of the town from the Salford side of the river, with a sporting scene in the foreground. Apart from churches and schools the only public building was the Exchange, built in 1729 by Sir O. Mosley, partly for trade and partly for a court-house. (fn. 99)

The first newspaper had appeared about 1719, (fn. 100) but was discontinued in 1726; four years later another appeared, and had an existence of thirty years. Some others were attempted from time to time, and in 1752 began the Manchester Mercury, published down to 1830. The first Directory appeared in 1772. (fn. 101) The old Subscription Library began in 1757–65 and was followed by others. (fn. 102)

From the middle of the 18th century the growth of Manchester was very rapid. (fn. 103) The improvement of means of communication was inaugurated in 1721 with the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, (fn. 104) and the Duke of Bridgewater's canal system followed in 1758, being imitated by other canals which within fifty years connected Manchester with the principal towns in the manufacturing districts. (fn. 105) A long series of road Acts began in 1724, resulting in the straight and good ways leading from the town in every direction. (fn. 106) Then came the great series of inventions which created modern industry—the spinning jenny, power loom, and others, followed by the substitution of steam power for the older water wheel. (fn. 107) With this development of manufactures the population also increased rapidly, and the town spread out in all directions. Externally the people of the district at that time were the reverse of attractive; an American visitor about 1780 describes them as 'inhospitable and boorish … remarkable for coarseness of feature; and the language is unintelligible.' (fn. 108) The Sunday schools, begun about 1781, probably had a good effect in that respect.

A plan prepared about 1790 shows that the network of modern, regular streets had covered a large part of the central township of Manchester, and was spreading over the boundaries into Hulme, Chorlton, and Salford. These streets, often narrow, lined with small and poorly-built houses, did not add to the attractiveness of the town. (fn. 109) Though little attention was paid to beauty by the busy and prosperous traders, it became necessary, in the interests of business itself, to widen the old streets in the heart of the town. In 1775, therefore, an Act was sought for raising money for this purpose, (fn. 110) and similar Acts have been obtained frequently since, the result being a great improvement in the appearance of the growing town. (fn. 111)

New bridges over the Irwell also became necessary. Blackfriars Bridge was erected in 1761 in a temporary manner by a company of comedians playing in the riding school in Salford, in order to induce Manchester people to patronize them, and was afterwards kept up at the public charge. It was at first a wooden bridge, flagged, for foot passengers only; the approach from the Manchester side was down twenty-nine steps, to gain the level of Water Street in Salford. (fn. 112) In 1817 the old bridge was taken down and replaced by a stone one. (fn. 113) In 1783 was laid the foundation of the New Bailey Bridge, opened in 1785; it was built by subscription, and a toll was charged until 1803, the capital having by that time been refunded. (fn. 114) Regent's Bridge was opened in 1808, (fn. 115) about the same time as Broughton Bridge leading from Salford to Broughton. (fn. 116) The Strangeways Iron Bridge was built in 1817, (fn. 117) and others have followed. Aston's Picture of Manchester in 1816 states that there were also seven bridges over the Irk, including Ducie Bridge, completed in 1814; nine bridges over the Medlock, and others over Shooter's Brook and various canals. (fn. 118)

The same guide book notices the following public buildings in addition to churches and schools: The Infirmary and Asylum in Piccadilly, (fn. 119) the Lying-in Hospital in Salford, close to the old bridge, (fn. 120) the House of Recovery for infectious diseases, near the Infirmary, (fn. 121) the Poor House (fn. 122) and House of Correction (fn. 123) at Hunt's Bank, the Poor House (fn. 124) and New Bailey Prison (fn. 125) in Salford, the Exchange, built in 1806–9, (fn. 126) somewhat behind the old one, also libraries and theatres. (fn. 127) The compiler could urge little in favour of the appearance of the town at that time: 'The old part of the town is sprinkled with a motley assemblage of old and new buildings, and the streets, except where they were improved by the Acts of 1775 and 1791, are very narrow. The new streets contain many capital modern houses, but they are more distinguished for their internal than their external elegance.' After noticing Mosley Street and Piccadilly, he proceeds: 'There are few other streets which can claim credit for their being pleasantly situated, attention having been too minutely directed to the value of land to sacrifice much to public convenience or the conservation of health. This, perhaps, has occasioned the present prevalent disposition of so many persons, whose business is carried on in the town, to reside a little way from it, that the pure breath of Heaven may freely blow upon them.' (fn. 128)

The agricultural land still remaining in the parish is utilized as follows:—Arable land, 4,835 acres; permanent grass, 9,460; woods and plantations, 56. (fn. 129)

In addition to the older charities mentioned many have since been founded, providing for most of the ills of humanity. (fn. 130) A number of scientific and literary societies, beginning with the Literary and Philosophical Society in 1781, have also been established. (fn. 131) There are many musical societies and a vast number of religious organizations.

While the development of Greater Manchester in these respects was proceeding steadily the religious and political progress of the people was comparatively peaceful. The Methodist Revival soon affected Manchester, and John Wesley paid the town many visits between 1747 and 1790; but perhaps the most singular religious movement was Swedenborgianism. The American Shakers owe their foundation to Ann Lee, a Manchester woman born in Todd Lane in 1736. She joined herself to an obscure sect, believed to be the 'prophets,' mentioned as having meetings in 1712, and being accepted as 'Ann the Word' emigrated to America, where she died in 1784. (fn. 132) Many churches and chapels for different denominations were built, but some have disappeared, the congregations having migrated or become extinct. The Manchester Socinian Controversy of 1825 was brought about by speeches made at the departure of one of the ministers of Cross Street Chapel for Liverpool. The 'Orthodox' Nonconformists resented the assumption that the Unitarians represented the Presbyterians and Independents ejected from their cures in 1662. (fn. 133)

After the retreat of the Pretender the internal conflicts were those resulting from scarcity of food and work—one of which, in 1757, was known as the Shude Hill fight—and the later ones due to party politics. (fn. 134) A body of volunteers, known as the 72nd or Man chester Regiment, was raised in 1777 to serve in the war of American Independence. It took part with distinction in the defence of Gibraltar in 1781–2, and was disbanded in 1783. (fn. 135) In 1789 the Dissenters petitioned Parliament for the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, and this led to a revival of dissensions. The advocates of reform were stigmatized as Jacobins, and refused admission to public houses. (fn. 136) The Government was suspicious, and in 1794 indicted Thomas Walker and others for conspiring to overthrow the constitution and aid the French in case they should invade the kingdom. The charges rested on perjured evidence and were dismissed. (fn. 137) The fear of invasion at the same time led to the raising of two regiments of 'Volunteers' in 1794, and others were raised later. (fn. 138)

The misgovernment of the town, the disagreements between employers and employed, and occasional periods of famine or bad trade all contributed to quicken the desire for reform both in the town and in the country at large. (fn. 139) In 1812 Radical meetings were held, at one of which, in Ancoats, thirty-eight workmen were arrested on charges of sedition; they were acquitted on trial. (fn. 140) The agitation began again in 1816, when meetings were held in St. Peter's Field, on the south side of Peter Street; they excited alarm and were stopped for a time; but were resumed in 1819. (fn. 141) This resulted in what was denominated the 'Peterloo massacre.' A meeting on 9 August having been prohibited, another was summoned for the 16th, which the magistrates resolved to disperse by arresting Henry Hunt, the leader of the agitation, in the face of the meeting, supposed to number 60,000. There were regular troops at hand, but the duty was assigned to the Manchester Yeomanry, described as 'hot-headed young men who had volunteered into that service from their intense hatred of Radicalism.' (fn. 142) These drew their swords and dashed into the crowd, while Hunt was speaking, but were unable to effect their purpose, and were themselves in danger from overwhelming numbers; whereupon the hussars charged and dispersed the assembly. Some were killed, and about 600 wounded. The magistrates considered they themselves had done well, and received a letter of thanks from the Prince Regent; but a fierce storm was aroused in Manchester and the whole district. (fn. 143) Henry Hunt and four others were brought to trial and condemned for unlawful assembly. For a time the agitation in this form ceased, but Manchester showed itself clearly on the side of reform in 1832, (fn. 144) and was the birth-place of the Anti-Corn Law League of 1838. (fn. 145) The Chartist movement of 1848 had adherents in Manchester, and many arrests were made by the police. (fn. 146) The rescue of Fenian prisoners in 1867 was a startling incident. (fn. 147)

The first royal visit to the district was that of Henry VII in 1495. (fn. 148) The next, after a long interval, was that of Queen Victoria in 1851; she stayed at Worsley Hall and came through Salford to Manchester. (fn. 149) She visited the Art Treasures Exhibition at Old Trafford in 1857, and in 1894 formally opened the Ship Canal. More recently, on 13 July 1905, King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra opened a new dock of the Ship Canal.

The government of the district was greatly altered by the formation of the municipal boroughs of Manchester in 1838 and of Salford in 1844. After several extensions of the former the ancient townships then within its bounds were in 1896 reduced to three —Manchester, North Manchester, and South Manchester; more recently the borough has been enlarged again. The township of Reddish has been added to the borough of Stockport.

While Manchester has taken a prominent part in English commerce and politics, it has not neglected learning. Its University is a typical modern one. (fn. 150) It traces its origin to the bequest of some £97,000 by a local merchant, John Owens, who died in 1846. He desired to found a college for higher studies which should be free from all religious tests, and in 1851 his wish took effect, the Owens College being opened in Quay Street, with a staff of five professors and two other teachers. Its first principal was A. J. Scott, the friend of Edward Irving. After a struggling existence it seemed about to fail, but in 1857, under Dr. J. G. Greenwood as principal, and with (Sir) Henry Roscoe as professor of chemistry, it began to grow. In 1870–1 it was reorganized, (fn. 151) and the management was transferred from the founder's trustees to a court of governors, and in 1873 the old site was left for the present one in Oxford Street. Not long afterwards came proposals to raise the college to the position of a degree-giving university. After opposition from other colleges it was agreed with the Yorkshire College at Leeds that the new university should have its seat at Manchester but should not bear a local name. (fn. 152) Thus Victoria University came to be founded by royal charter in 1880, the Owens College being the first college in it. From the outset attendance at courses of lectures was required from candidates for degrees, the university being a teaching body. (fn. 153) University College, Liverpool, was admitted in 1884, and Yorkshire College, Leeds, in 1887. This federal constitution was dissolved in 1903, when Liverpool and Manchester became seats of separate universities, the Owens College being then incorporated with the latter under the name of the Victoria University of Manchester. (fn. 154)

The charter defines the constitution. The governing body is the court, consisting of the chancellor, vice-chancellor, and other members, in part representative of local bodies; it appoints the council which acts as an executive committee. The studies are controlled by the senate, which consists of the professors; under it are the boards of the eight separate faculties in which degrees are given: Arts, Science, Law, Music, Commerce, Theology, Technology, and Medicine. The staff comprises fortyfour professors and a large body of lecturers. Women are admitted to all degrees. Liberal endowments have been given by Manchester men and others, (fn. 155) and the university receives annual grants from the national treasury, the county councils of Lancashire and Cheshire, and Manchester and other local corporations. (fn. 156)

The corporations of Manchester and Salford provide great technical and art schools. There is a training school for candidates for the Church of England ministry, and important colleges of several of the chief Nonconformist churches—Wesleyan, Primitive and Free Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, and Unitarian—have long been established on the south side of Manchester for the education of ministers. (fn. 157)

Secondary and elementary education is well provided for by the Grammar School, the High School for girls, and a multitude of others.

Of the various social movements of the last century there may be mentioned as originating in Manchester: the Rechabite Society, founded in 1835; the Vegetarian Society, 1847; the United Kingdom Alliance, 1853; and the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows. (fn. 158) Co-operative societies were organized in 1859.

Out of the multitude of useful and distinguished men who have been associated with Manchester either by their birth or labours, notices of some will be found in the accounts of their families, or of the townships to which they belonged; for example, Hugh Oldham, Humphrey Chetham, and Thomas de Quincey. Among those whose office or work brought them to the district, may be named Dr. Dee and others of the wardens of the Collegiate Church; Bishop Fraser; (fn. 159) John Dalton, enunciator of the atomic theory and one of the greatest chemists, who lived in Manchester from 1793 until his death in 1844; (fn. 160) Thomas Henry, also a chemist of distinction, who died in 1816; (fn. 161) four distinguished engineers: Eaton Hodgkinson, who died in 1861, (fn. 162) Richard Roberts, who died in 1864, (fn. 163) Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1803–87, founder of the Whitworth scholarships, (fn. 164) and Sir William Fairbairn, 1789– 1874; (fn. 165) Sir Charles Hallé, the musician, who founded the celebrated Hallé concerts in 1858; (fn. 166) Richard Cobden, the free-trade leader; (fn. 167) William Robert Whatton, who, born at Loughborough, 1790, settled in Manchester and wrote a history of the school; (fn. 168) John Harland, journalist, a diligent explorer of the antiquities of the city and county in which he had settled; (fn. 169) Thomas Jones, 1810–75, librarian of the Chetham Library for many years; (fn. 170) John Ferriar, M.D., who became physician to the Infirmary in 1785 and died in 1815; (fn. 171) Thomas Cogan, sometime master of the Grammar School, who died in 1607; (fn. 172) James Crossley, born in 1800 at Halifax, but resident in Manchester from 1816 till his death in 1883, distinguished as an essayist, antiquary, and book collector; (fn. 173) Richard Copley Christie, 1830– 1901, another bibliophile, who was chancellor of the diocese of Manchester, professor at Owens College, and one of the Whitworth Trustees. (fn. 174) Andrea Crestadoro, born at Genoa in 1808, librarian of the Free Library in 1864 until his death in 1879. (fn. 175) Benefactors of the town were Oliver Heywood, 1825–92, (fn. 176) and Herbert Philips, 1834–1905. (fn. 177)

The list of noteworthy natives of the parish is a long one, and, as might be expected, many of the more famous have found their opportunities outside its bounds. The names (fn. 178) include Thomas Sorocold, 1591–1617, author of Supplications of Saints; (fn. 179) John Booker, 1601–67, a notorious astrologer; (fn. 180) Samuel Bolton, D.D., 1607–54, a Puritan divine, born in Manchester; (fn. 181) John Worthington, D.D., 1618–71, master of Jesus College, Cambridge, during the Commonwealth period; (fn. 182) John Chorlton, Presbyterian divine, 1666–1705; (fn. 183) Henry Gore, who died in 1733, a mathematician; James Heywood, author, 1687–1722; (fn. 184) Thomas Falkner, S.J., 1706–84, author of an account of Patagonia; (fn. 185) Robert Thyer, born in 1709, was Chetham Librarian from 1732 till his death in 1781; (fn. 186) Thomas Patten, a divine, 1714–90; (fn. 187) Samuel Ogden, D.D., 1716–78, Woodwardian professor at Cambridge; (fn. 188) Charles White, M.D., 1728–1813, an eminent surgeon; (fn. 189) John Whitaker, 1735–1808, a fanciful antiquary, who published two volumes of a History of Manchester; (fn. 190) Thomas Barritt, 1743–1820, saddler and antiquary; (fn. 191) George Hibbert, merchant and collector, 1757– 1837; (fn. 192) John Hampson, miscellaneous writer, 1760–1817; (fn. 193) William Green, 1760–1823, the Lake artist; (fn. 194) John Hadden Hindley, oriental scholar, 1765–1827; (fn. 195) Daniel Orme, portrait painter, c. 1766–1832; (fn. 196) Joseph Entwisle, the 'boy preacher,' 1767–1841; (fn. 197) James Crowther, botanist, 1768–1847; (fn. 198) John Allen, D.D., 1770–1845, Bishop of Ely; (fn. 199) William Ford, bookseller and bibliographer, 1771–1832; (fn. 200) James Townley, a Wesleyan divine, 1774–1833; (fn. 201) Charles Hulbert, miscellaneous writer, 1778–1857; (fn. 202) Jabez Bunting, D.D., 1779–1858, another celebrated Wesleyan minister; (fn. 203) Samuel Clegg, gas engineer, 1781–1861; (fn. 204) Samuel Hibbert, M.D., 1782–1848, who wrote a history of the Manchester Foundations; in 1837 he assumed the additional surname of Ware; (fn. 205) Edward Hobson, botanist, 1782–1830; (fn. 206) George Ormerod, 1785– 1873, the historian of Cheshire; (fn. 207) Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner, portrait painter, 1787–1849; (fn. 208) Francis Russell Hall, D.D., theological writer, 1788– 1866; (fn. 209) John Briggs, b. 1778, Bishop of Trachis, Vicar Apostolic of the northern district, 1836, and Bishop of Beverley 1850–60, died 1861; (fn. 210) James Heywood Markland, 1788–1864, antiquary; (fn. 211) Thomas Wright, philanthropist, 1789–1875; (fn. 212) John Blackwall, zoologist, 1790–1881; (fn. 213) John Owens, 1790–1846, founder of Owens College; (fn. 214) James Daniel Burton, Methodist preacher, 1791–1817; (fn. 215) David William Paynter, author of tragedies, 1791– 1823; (fn. 216) William Pearman, vocalist, 1792–1824 (?); (fn. 217) Sir Thomas Phillipps, baronet, 1792–1872, a great collector of books and manuscripts; (fn. 218) Edward Bury, engineer, 1794–1858; (fn. 219) Charles H. Timperley, printer and author, 1794–1846; (fn. 220) Samuel Robinson, Persian scholar, 1794–1884; (fn. 221) Nathaniel George Philips, artist, 1795–1831; (fn. 222) Thomas Heywood, 1797–1866, who edited several volumes for the Chetham Society, &c.; (fn. 223) Alfred Ollivant, D.D., 1798–1882, who was appointed to the bishopric of Llandaff in 1847; (fn. 224) Elijah Hoole, orientalist, 1798– 1872; (fn. 225) Richard Potter, scientific writer, 1799– 1886; (fn. 226) John Stanley Gregson, 1800–37; (fn. 227) Sir Edwin Chadwick, Poor Law Commissioner and miscellaneous writer, was born at Longsight in 1800, he died in 1890; (fn. 228) Frank Stone, painter, 1800– 59; (fn. 229) Henry Liverseege, 1803–29, an artist; (fn. 230) Mary Amelia Warner, actress, 1804–54; (fn. 231) William Harrison Ainsworth, 1805–82, novelist; (fn. 232) Thomas Bellot, surgeon, 1806–57; (fn. 233) William Harper, minor poet, 1806–57; (fn. 234) William Knight Keeling, painter, 1807–86; (fn. 235) James Stephenson, engraver, 1808–86; (fn. 236) William Rathbone Greg, 1809–81; (fn. 237) John Bolton Rogerson, poet, 1809–59; (fn. 238) Charles Christian Hennell, author, 1809–50; (fn. 239) Fred Lingard, musician, 1811–47; (fn. 240) George Aspull, musician, 1813– 32; (fn. 241) Joseph Baxendell, astronomer and meteorologist, 1815–87; (fn. 242) Thomas Bayley Potter, politician, 1817–98; (fn. 243) John Cassell, 1817–65, temperance lecturer and publisher; (fn. 244) George John Piccope, 1818–72, an antiquary, whose collections are in the Chetham Library; Charles Brierley Garside, divine, 1818–76; (fn. 245) William Hepworth Dixon, 1821–79; (fn. 246) Isabella Banks, author of The Manchester Man, and other works, 1821–97; (fn. 247) Lydia Ernestine Becker, advocate of women's suffrage, 1827–90; (fn. 248) Charles Beard, Unitarian minister, 1827–88; (fn. 249) Shakspere Wood, sculptor, 1827–86; (fn. 250) James William Whittaker, painter, 1828–76; (fn. 251) James Croston, editor of Baines' History of Lancashire, 1830–93; (fn. 252) Constantine Alexander Ionides, connoisseur, 1833–1900; (fn. 253) Henry James Byron, 1834–84, author of 'Our Boys' and other plays; (fn. 254) Walter Bentley Woodbury, 1834–85, inventor of the Woodbury-type process; (fn. 255) Alfred Barrett, philosophical writer, 1844–81; (fn. 256) John Parsons Earwaker, 1847–95, author of a history of East Cheshire and other antiquarian works; (fn. 257) John Hopkinson, optician and engineer, 1849–98. (fn. 258)

Of minor matters to be noted there occur the institution of an omnibus in 1825, to run between Market Street and Pendleton; and the appearance of the cab in 1839. The British Association held its meetings in Manchester in 1842, 1861, and 1887.

Manchester does not seem to have had any rushbearing of its own, but the rush carts from neighbouring towns and villages were brought to it. (fn. 259)

At Hulme Barracks are stationed a battery of the Royal Horse Artillery and an Army Service Corps. There are numerous volunteer corps—the 7th L.V. Artillery, Hyde Road; 3rd L.R. Engineers; 2nd, 4th, and 5th V.B. Manchester Regiment, at Stretford Road, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, and Ardwick respectively; and a cadet battalion; also a Royal Army Medical Corps (Vol.).

The press has long been active in Manchester The following are the principal newspapers now issued: (fn. 260) Daily—the Manchester Guardian, Liberal, started in 1821; Courier, Conservative, 1825; Evening News, Liberal, 1868; Evening Chronicle, and Daily Dispatch; Weekly—City News, 1864; also the Sunday Chronicle, 1885; Umpire, 1884; and Weekly Times, 1857. A large number of magazines is published. Tit Bits first appeared in Manchester in 1881. (fn. 261) .

Footnotes

1 For pre-Roman relics see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 254; v, 327; x, 250.
2 See Thompson Watkin's Roman Lancs. 92—124; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xvii, 87; xxiii, 66, 73, 112; and the Roman section of the present work. The legend of Sir Tarquin, enemy of King Arthur, who was attacked and slain by Sir Lancelot du Lake, was in the 17th century attached to the old Roman castle. 'Near to the ford in Medlock about Mab house (he) hung a bason on a tree,' on which bason a challenger must strike; Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 21.
3 To Chester, Stockport, York, Ribchester, and Wigan.
4 Angl.-Sax. Chron.; also V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 178. Hoards of coins have been found near Alport; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. ii, 269; Pal. Note Bk. iv, 152, 203.
5 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 287.
6 Ibid. 326.
7 Ibid.
8 See the accounts of the townships.
9 The fulling-mill existed in 1282; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 245.
An undated deed in the possession of Manchester Corporation relates to land in [Long] Millgate between the croft of Hugh the Barker and Henry the Dyer. Another deed (of 1324) calls the former Hugh the Tanner.
Robert Olgreyff (Oldgreave) of Manchester, goldsmith, in 1524 leased the Four Acres to Ralph Sorocold; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 140. A family surnamed Goldsmith appears in Manchester and Salford; in 1417 William the Goldsmith granted a burgage in Millgate to Henry de Buckley; Hopwood D.(Harland).
A number of 'blade smiths' were summoned in 1467; Pal. of Lanc. Writs, Proton.
10 See the account of the church.
11 Coram Rege R. 254.
12 a Duchy of Lanc. Chan. Warrants, ii. This reference is due to Mr. S. Armitage Smith.
13 This is gathered from the account of Didsbury burial ground, opened in a time of great mortality and sanctioned in 1351 and 1362.
14 A contemporary note states that 2,000 died in the 1605 visitation; Birch Chapel (Chet. Soc.), 35. See also Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, Introd. and pp. 197, 210, 280; Manch. Constables' Accts. ii, 155. For the plague of 1645 see ibid. iv, 115; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.) 232, 233; Manch. Constables' Accts. ii, 119; and generally Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xii, 56.
15 It is mentioned in 1226; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 138.
16 His will is printed in Baines's Lancs. (1868), i, 283.
17 Hunt D. no. 52 (Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 169); see also Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), iii, 506.
18 In 1480, in the testimony of the burgesses respecting the highway between Manchester and Collyhurst occurs the statement that 'the water of Irk had worn out' the said highway; Hulme D. no. 22. In 1787 part of Salford Bridge was carried away by a flood of the Irwell.
19 Leland, Itin. v, 94.
20 Manch. Court Leet Rec. iv, 107.
21 The Act of 32 Hen. VIII, cap. 12 (1540), abolishing the right of sanctuary, excepted parish and other churches, also Westminster, Manchester, Lancaster, and some other places. It is not quite clear from this that Manchester's privilege of sanctuary was new, but this is shown by the subsequent Act. See also Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xvii, 64.
22 33 Hen. VIII, cap. 15. The particular reason alleged for revoking the privilege was that the 'linen yarn must lie without as well in the night as in the day continually for the space of one half year to be whited, before it can be made cloth; and the woollen cloth there made must hang upon the tainter to be dried before it could be dressed up.' Hence only honest and industrious persons were welcome.
23 The Act last quoted describes Manchester as 'a town well inhabited,' with manufactures of linen and woollen, whereby the inhabitants had 'come unto riches and wealthy livings,' and thus kept at work 'many artificers and poor folk.' Acts for regulating the size and weight of 'Manchester cottons' were passed in 1552, 1558, and 1566 (the Aulnagers Act).
24 Ellis Hall, known as 'Elias, the Manchester prophet,' was born in 1502. Probably acted upon by the religious excitement of the period he began to have visions, and in 1562 went to London to see the queen. He was condemned to the pillory and whipped by two ministers; see W. E. A. Axon's Lancs. Glean. 312; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 72, 84. A monstrous birth in 1579 appealed to the superstitious in another way; Pa'. Note Bk. iii, 269.
25 Camden, Brit. (1695), 746, 747. He mentions the famous quarries of Collyhurst. Saxton's map of the county was published in 1577; he visited the town again in 1596 and made a survey of it, spending several days on the work; Dr. Dee's Diary (ed. Bailey), 36–8.
26 Quoted in Procter's Manch. Streets, 218.
27 Acts of P.C. 1589–90, p. 62; also W. Axon in N. and Q. IV, iii, 97, quoting Strype's Annals (1824), III, ii, 602. Coining was suspected in the same district in 1577; Acts of P.C. 1577–8, p. 63.
28 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 138, &c.
29 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 18.
30 Ibid. 22.
31 There were in 1623 constables for Newton, Droylsden, Ardwick, Bradford, Blackley, Crumpsall, Failsworth, Openshaw, Gorton, and Harpurhey; and in some of these places the appointment of constables can be traced back somewhat earlier; Manch. Constables' Accts. i, 92.
32 In appearance one of the greatest changes has been the concealment of the steep and rocky banks of the Irwell at Hunt's Bank. There was a rookery on the banks of the Irk, near the site of Ducie Bridge, as late as 1770; Procter, Manch. Streets, 39.
33 In 1600 this belonged to the Earl of Derby, from whom it was rented by the famous warden, Dr. Dee.
34 This name did not come into use until some time after the chapel was built in 1634. The old name was Lower Gate, Lower Lane, or Lower Street; see Salford Court Leet (Chet. Soc. new ser.). It was also called Serjeant Street, and in the plan of 1751 is named Salford Street.
35 As 'the Gravel Hole' it is frequently named in the Salford Port mote records.
36 This name occurs regularly in the Salford Port mote records. The street is called Back Salford in the plan of 1751. The court house and cross stood there, so that it was probably the main thoroughfare.
37 It was for the three streets named that scavengers were appointed in the 16th and early 17th centuries.
38 There were steps down to the river near the bridge; Manch. Court Leet Rec. ii, 50.
The fishmarket, which had been in Smithy Door, was in 1618 removed to the end of Salford Bridge; ibid. iii, 9. Hunt's Bank, where the House of Correction was, then as now went north to Irk Bridge, but there were probably houses on the Irwell side of it.
39 Cateaton Street occurs by name in the Hearth Tax return of 1666.
From Cateaton Street Hanging Bridge, now concealed, led to the church. The name points out the course of a brook, which eventually became the 'common shore' or sewer, descending from Shude Hill to the Irwell; Court Leet Rec. iii, 50, 53; Ogden, Manch. (ed. W.E.A. Axon), 13.
A description and plans of a bridge built over it about 1420 are given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii, 97. This bridge still exists, and is occasionally exposed on rebuilding adjacent business houses. There must have been an earlier one, for to Ellen daughter of Geoffrey de Hulme were, in 1343, given a burgage in the market-place, a half burgage adjoining Hanging Bridge (Hangand Brigge), and land north of the Irk called Wrenowe Yard; Booth's Coll. liber H, p. 47.
40 A burgage in Hanging Ditch was in 1469 granted to William son of Thomas Pendleton of Salford; De Trafford D. no. 52.
41 'Towdlane' is named in 1552; Court Leet Rec. i, 6. There was a well in it; ibid. ii, 268. In 1609 it is called 'Crooked Lane alias Tode Lane,' and in 1618 'New Street alias Toade Lane'; ibid. ii, 245; iii, 6.
42 The name Scotland at this point occurs in 1762; Procter, Manch. Streets, 45.
43 Red Bank is named in 1557 and 1573; Court Leet Rec. i, 40, 159 (a highway). In later times there was bull baiting at Red Bank, at the wakes, with other sports; Procter, Manch. Streets, 43. Knoll Bank, on the east side of the road from Manchester to Cheetham, is mentioned in a deed of 1596 by John Beswick and Elizabeth his wife, as formerly the property of Philip Strangeways; Chetham Papers, and Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxvi, 424.
44 This descriptive name of the present Cathedral Street occurs in 1622; Court Leet Rec. iii, 59.
45 Millgate (Mulnegate) is named in deeds from about 1300; it gave a surname to resident families; Manch. Corp. D. undated, 1324, 1343.
46 a These and other remains are described below.
47 Fennel Street is named in 1506; De Trafford D. no. 71. It was perhaps the same as Middlegate mentioned from 1331 to 1498; a burgage in Middlegate stood next to Todd Lane on the west side of it; ibid. no. 6, 29, 68. Middlegate has sometimes been identified with Half Street. In Fennel Street was Barley Cross, where in 1816 the corn market was held; Aston, Manch. 217; see also Procter, Manch. Streets, 38. The continuation of Fennel Street west to Hunt's Bank was in 1769 used as the apple market and so called; Court Leet Rec. viii, 125. Perhaps it was the Churchyard-side of earlier times.
48 Hyde's Cross is supposed to have been the place of sanctuary. In 1662 a place was described as in Todd Lane and near Hyde Cross. At that time the swine market was there; Court Leet Rec. v, 62.
49 The old name was Within-greave; Court Leet Rec. i, 3. The Dove-house Field was in this lane; ibid. iii, 60. A house known as Within-greave Hall was part of the Hulme trust estate; see Procter, Bygone Manch. 42.
50 In 1554 James Chetham was ordered to make 'the highway at the Shude Hill as [= which] he hath made, sufficient for carts to come and go'; Court Leet Rec. i, 11.
In later times at least the lord's pinfold was in Shude Hill, at the end of Withy Grove. The pinfold is mentioned in 1535 as 'in the east end' of the town, and lying west of land bounded on the north by the highway and on the south by the Claypits; Manch. Corp. D.
51 A burgage in the Deansgate, opposite the Parsonage, is mentioned in 1395; De Trafford D. no. 23. The Parsonage is a piece of land on the west or Irwell side of Deansgate; near it by the river side was the Lady Lode; Court Leet Rec. iii, 216. The southern end of Deansgate was called Alport Lane; ibid. i, 34, 177. Sowsehill, supposed to be the later Sotshole, was in 1564 a close paying a rent of 4d. to the lord of the manor; ibid, i, 86. For old Deansgate see also Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 180.
52 Smithy Door, afterwards a street name, seems to have been a door or house in 1560, when 'the highway leading from the Smithy Door to the Old Market stead' is named in a deed; Nugent Charity D. (Manch. Corp.). About this spot was Patrick's Stone; see Court Leet Rec. ii, 64; iii, 6.
53 Robert son and heir of Roger Marler in 1501 made a feoffment of his messuage, burgages, and land called the Melehouses in the Melegate; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 355. The Melehouse is again mentioned in 1529 and 1546; Manch. Corp. D.
54 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xv, 1; a new market cross was built in 1752 and taken down in 1815, the pillory and stocks being removed with it. See Procter, Bygone Manch. 124.
The toll booth, otherwise the Booths or the Town Hall (Court Leet Rec. iv, 262; vi, 73) was partly in private hands for shops, &c., for in 1656 Arthur Bulkley, woollen draper, agreed not to hinder the inhabitants of the town meeting in 'the great chamber' upon all public occasions; ibid. iv, 321.
The constables were ordered to rebuild the cross in 1666; ibid. v, 81. For the various crosses in Manchester, Salford, and Stretford see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 90–102, 108.
55 'A street called Markethstyd Lawne' is named in one of the Raines Deeds (Chet. Lib.) of 1526. The name was corrupted into Market Street Lane, and then shortened to Market Street. A 'Daub Hole' —perhaps that in the part of the lane afterwards called Piccadilly—existed in 1555; Court Leet Rec. i, 22. There was a 'Brick croft' somewhere near; ibid. and iv, 18, 30. The 'brick building' in Deansgate, c. 1650, appears to have been conspicuous by its contrast to other houses; ibid. iv, 67, 230.
56 St. Mary Gate occurs in 1482; De Trafford D. no. 57.
57 In 1493 there was in the Market stead a 'Waste place' known as the Corn Market stead, which in 1556 was more usually called the Conduit Place; Hulme D. no. 29, 49. It was perhaps the 'old market stead' of 1552 and later years; Court Leet Rec. i, 4, 15 n. 'Both the marketsteads' are in 1647 named together with the shambles; ibid. iv, 3.
A complaint made in 1676 shows the difficulties caused by increasing trade in the narrow streets. On market days, it was alleged, during the corn market at the conduit people could not pass or repass with coach or cart or horses laden or unladen from Marketstead Lane to Smithy Door, which was the best way from Stockport and Ashton on one side, to Bolton, Preston, and Warrington on the other. Lest therefore the corn market should suffer, the borough-reeve was requested to remove the dealers in crockery, wooden vessels, fruit, &c. to Hanging Ditch, and to move the butchers, who had stalls at the south side of the conduit, to the place thus cleared at its north side; thereby the corn dealers would obtain the additional room they needed; Court Leet Rec. vi, 11.
The Exchange of 1729 was built on the site of the conduit; ibid. vii, 66. The supply of water came from springs in Spring Gardens and the present Fountain Street.
58 For a note on the Acres see ibid. ii, 7. The Nether Acres and Over Acres, kept open from the time corn had been gotten until Candlemas, were parts of the field. A burgage in the Nether Acres is named in 1349; Lord Wilton's D.
59 Wallgate occurs in 1338, in a settlement respecting the burgage of John Gowyn, which adjoined it; the burgage was to descend to John's son Henry and his wife Ermeline; Vawdrey D. It was off Millgate, for a burgage in the latter street stood between a burgage called Peuey and a way called Wallgate; Hulme D. no. 14 (1443).
In 1484 land called Holcroft abutted upon the highway called Newton Lane and upon Emmot Outlane; Manch. Corp. D. The name Newton Lane was changed to Oldham Road about 1800. Millers Lane is named in 1564; Court Leet Rec. i, 195; Ashley Lane in 1506; ibid. i, 30. A field of 6 acres called the Smithfield was leased to Ralph son of Christopher Beswick in 1496; Manch. Corp. D.
The 'way that leadeth to Ancoats' (probably Great Ancoats) and Shooters Brook were two of the boundaries of a piece of land sold by Thomas Nowell of Read and Alice his wife to Thomas Willott in 1562; Burgess's D. Macclesfield.
60 Procter, Manch. Streets, 108. The mill seems to have derived its distinctive name from the miller.
61 The 'Cockfight Place' is named in 1587, and in 1598 an encroachment on the lord's waste at the cockpit was condemned; Court Leet Rec. ii, 8, 135. It is possible that the cockpit was transferred from one place to another.
62 a This plan is engraved in a corner of Casson and Berry's plan.
63 Blackley, Collyhurst, Bradford, and Openshaw were ancient wooded areas, but had probably been cleared by 1600.
64 Newton Heath, Chorlton Heath, and Barlow Moor indicate some of the greater heaths of old time.
65 The Great Moss stretched through Withington and Rusholme, giving name to Moss Side; but there were a great number of other mosses to the north, east, and south of Manchester town.
66 The trade of the place in 1641 is thus described: 'The town of Manchester buys the linen yarn of the Irish in great quantity, and weaving it returns the same again to Ireland to sell. Neither doth her industry rest here, for they buy cotton wool in London, that comes first from Cyprus and Smyrna, and work the same into fustians, vermilions, dimities, &c., which they return to London, where they are sold; and from thence not seldom are sent into such foreign parts where the first materials may be more easily had for that manufacture'; Lewis Roberts, Merchant's Map of Commerce, quoted in Reilly's Manch. 136.
67 Though opinion was divided and several influential families, like the Mosleys and Prestwiches, took the king's side, the great body of the people appear to have been zealous for the Parliament. At the report of the array of militia ordered in June 1642, the townsmen, it was stated, 'all stand upon their own guard, with their shops shut up; well affected to the king's majesty and both his houses of Parliament,' while the people of 'the country round adjoining' were 'very observant to any command … in readiness to attend there or elsewhere for the defence of their country, lives, liberties, and estates, and the defence of the true Protestant religion'; Ormerod, Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 14.
68 Sir Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsall and Thomas Prestwich of Hulme endeavoured to prevent the seizure, but Ralph Assheton was supported by Sir Thomas Stanley and other deputy-lieutenants; in their own words they 'thought good to take it into their hands for the defence of the king, both houses of Parliament, and this county of Lancaster.' 'Thus wisdom and honesty,' remarks the Puritan narrator, 'in a way of manifest authority, got the leading of subtlety and injustice'; ibid. 16, 112.
69 There were two such arrays, the first on Monday, 4 July; after it Lord Strange made a demonstration against Manchester, which led to circumstantial, but perhaps fictitious, reports of a 'great and furious skirmish'; ibid. 112, 25–28.
70 Ibid. 30–34. The agreement was that the principal inhabitants would buy powder to supply what had been taken away; ibid. 112.
71 Lord Strange's armed escort, consisting of some thirty of his own horsemen and about a hundred of the inhabitants who met him, was said to have behaved in an insolent manner on entering; ibid. 113. The Parliamentary leaders (Sir Thomas Stanley of Bickerstaffe, John Holcroft, and Thomas Birch) took alarm and assembled armed men at the Market Cross; as they refused to disperse at the sheriff's orders, Lord Strange, being Lord Lieutenant, came to them and was shot at. Finally the men were driven off by force, and one of them, Richard Percival of Kirkmanshulme, linen weaver, was killed; ibid. 32, 33. Lord Strange's host was Alexander Greene. After this incident Lord Strange and his friends left the town for Ordsall. For it he was impeached of high treason in Parliament; ibid. 35–7. See also War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 6.
72 The king raised his standard on 22 Aug.; the first important battle was that of Edgehill on 23 Oct.
73 The narratives of the siege are printed in Civil War Tracts, 42–60, 113–22, 220–3; also War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 7–9; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v, App. 142; Baines, Lancs. (1868), i, 320, 321; see also Mr. E. Broxap in Owens Coll. Hist. Essays (1902), 377–89.
74 About 2,000 came in, armed with muskets, pikes, &c.; also some of the gentry, as Holland, Egerton, Dukinfield, Arden, Butterworth, Booth, and Hyde. Civil War Tracts, 45.
75 The attack from Salford was that most dreaded, and Rosworm himself superintended the defence at this point; the rain swelled the Irwell, so that it could not be crossed except by the bridge; ibid. 221, 116.
76 Neither side seems to have been vigorous. There was fighting on Monday the 26th, and on Tuesday after further cannonading there were several parleys. Lord Strange continually reduced his demands: 1. Arms must be surrendered; 2. He must be allowed to march through the town; 3. £1,000 must be paid; 4. Two hundred muskets must be given up; and 5. Fifty would suffice; ibid. 48. Rosworm states that on Wednesday the 28th a hundred muskets were demanded as the price of withdrawal, and that Colonel Holland of Denton was in favour of yielding, on the ground that the defenders had neither powder nor match; but Rosworm counteracted such counsels by sending Mr. Bourne, one of the ministers of the church, an 'aged and grave' man, to encourage the different bodies of defenders; ibid. 222. Little was done on Thursday; on Friday there was more cannonading, but the guns were withdrawn in the evening, and the whole attacking force left next day. It is said that their men had been deserting all the time. On the other hand the town's soldiers 'from first to last had prayers and singing of psalms daily at the street ends, most of our soldiers being religious, honest men. … The townsmen were kind and respective to the soldiers; all things were common; the gentlemen made bullets night and day; the soldiers were resolute and courageous, and feared nothing so much as a parley'; ibid. 54–6. In addition to those named above, Captains Robert Bradshaw, Radcliffe, Channell, and Barrington did good service; Chetham of Nuthurst sent men; ibid. 46, 52. The thanks of Parliament were at once given to the town; ibid. 57.
A little later proposals were made on behalf of Lord Derby for the neutrality of the town, but the inhabitants considered that they were able to defend themselves; ibid. 61.
In July 1643 the Earl of Newcastle called upon the Manchester men to lay down their arms, but he was unable to penetrate into Lancashire; ibid. 145–7.
77 For Rosworm's narrative see Civil War Tracts, 217–47. He had been promised an annuity of £60 for the lives of himself and his wife; it was paid for two years only, and he could obtain no redress by law, not being an Englishman. An account of him, with portrait, is given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii, 188.
78 Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iv, 113. For lists of the principal inhabitants of the town in the middle of the 17th century see Pal. Note Bk. i, 80, &c. (Protestation of 1642); Manch. Constables' Accounts, ii, 181, &c. Court Leet Rec. iv, 305; v, 246.
79 The Presbyterians and Independents united under an 'accommodation' signed on 13 July 1659. 500 men left the town at the end of the month to join Sir George Booth, who had raised the cry of a 'free parliament.' A day of humiliation was observed on 5 Aug., the people being afraid that Lilburne would march on the town; and the defeat of a rising at Northwich on 19 Aug. was followed by the occupation of Manchester by Birch and Lilburne, many of the fugitives having taken refuge there. See Newcome's Autobiog. (Chet. Soc.), 108–16; Adam Martindale (Chet. Soc.), 128–42; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, p. lxv.
The festivities at the king's coronation are described in Court Leet Rec. iv, 281. Afterwards, in 1663, there was an attempt, according to an informer, to bring an accusation against Presbyterians and others of forming a plot to overthrow the government; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. iii, 361, 421.
80 In 1669 it was reported to the Bishop of Chester that Nonconformists preached every Lord's day at the chapels of Denton, Gorton, and Birch, and had great numbers of hearers; Visit. P. at Chester.
81 The rioters were led by Thomas Siddall, a blacksmith. They damaged many of the Nonconformist chapels in the neighbourhood. Siddall was sent to Lancaster Castle, but soon afterwards released by the Jacobites, whom he joined. He was captured at Preston, tried for treason, condemned, and sent to Manchester to be executed. Four others were hanged with him in the same cause on 11 Feb. 1715–16; Pal. Note Bk. ii, 240; iv, 93. See also Harland's Manch. Coll. (Chet. Soc.), i, 208–25. General Willis passed through Manchester on his way to meet the Jacobites at Preston, and left some troops in the town to prevent any danger of a rising.
82 Reilly, Manch. 232; Mosley, Family Mem. 44; Pal. Note Bk. ii, 91. In the 'case for the Petitioners' against the bill it was stated that the workhouse project originated in Oct. 1729, with some few traders who wished to monopolize the labour of the poor for their own exclusive profit, and to preserve 'a perpetual succession of guardians of the poor in their own families and friends.' On the other side it was shown that the proposals had met with general approval at first.
83 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 9.
84 For a list see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 82, xiii, 119. Halfpenny tokens were issued by several traders in 1793. Two more recent tokens (1812) are noticed in Pal. Note Bk. i, 84.
85 Court Leet Rec. v, 194.
86 The tracts concerning it are printed in Chet. Soc. (new ser.), Misc. i.
87 Through Engl. on a Side-Saddle, 187, 188.
Lady Ann Bland was the leader of fashion in the place. She was the principal patroness of a weekly dancing assembly, for which a room in King Street was built; Aikin, Country round Manch. 183– 8. The same writer gives a sketch of the social life of the town in the early part of the 18th century. Its provisioning at the end of the century is also described; ibid. 203–5. An account of the Manchester ladies of 1709 is printed in Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 11. Some curious details are given in the diary of Edmund Harrold, wig-maker, 1712–16, printed in Manch. Collectanea, i, 172, &c.
Bonfires were lighted to celebrate the king's birthday and accession, as well as the Gunpowder Plot and Restoration of Charles II. Cockthrowing on Shrove Tuesday and 'lifting' at Easter also afforded diversion to the populace. See Constables' Accounts, iii, 1, 2, 7, 8, 66, 68.
88 A Gentleman's Tour of Great Britain (ed. 1738), iii, 173–9.
In the Gent. Mag. for 1739 (quoted in the Preston Guardian) is a statement that 2,000 new houses had been built in the town within twenty years.
89 The Hanoverians were not idle, but raised a fund for troops; see Pal. Note Bk. iii, 235. In the same work will be found a diary of 1745 (iv, 19), and some depositions (iv, 70); see further in Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 89, 153, &c.; and Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vii, 142; Byrom's Diary (Chet. Soc. xl); Var. Coll. (Hist. MSS. Com.), ii, 287, 288.
90 Mr. Clayton openly welcomed the Pretender; another clergyman, Thomas Coppock, a native of Manchester, was appointed chaplain to the Manchester Regiment and promoted to the see of Carlisle, in which city he was executed in 1746; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 153, etc.; Procter's Manch. Streets, 193.
91 See Ray's Hist. of the Rebellion, 156; Manchester was taken 'by a serjeant, a drum, and a woman.' Chevalier Johnston's account is reprinted in Reilly's Manch. 237, 238.
92 William Fowden, the constable, was brought to trial at Carlisle in 1747 for having executed the orders of Prince Charles Edward; it was proved that he acted under compulsion and he was acquitted. A full account of the matter will be found in Earwaker's edition of the Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 20–28, 354, 355.
93 The officers were: *Francis Towneley, the colonel; *James Dawson (M), *George Fletcher, John Sanderson, Peter Moss, *Andrew Blood, David Morgan, captains; *Thomas T. Deacon (M), Robert Deacon (M), *Thomas Chadwick, *John Beswick, John Holker (M), Thomas Furnival, *James Bradshaw, lieutenants; Charles Deacon (M), Samuel Maddock, Charles Gaylor, James Wilding, John Hunter, William Brettargh (M), ensigns; and *Thomas Siddall (M), adjutant. Those marked with an asterisk were executed; Moss and Holker escaped; Maddock turned king's evidence; others were transported. Those marked (M) belonged to the parish of Manchester. For James Dawson see Shenstone's ballad; Scott, Admiss. to St. John's Coll. Camb. iii, 88, 488; Eagle, xxviii, 229—last speech (from Raines's MSS. xxv, 370). The last speech of James Bradshaw is in Pal. Note Bk. iii, 274. There are notices of Dawson and Bradshaw in Dict. Nat. Biog.
94 A story as to the fate of the heads is told in Procter's Manch. Streets, 267.
95 See Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 28, 32, and notes.
96 For accounts of the plans of Manchester see Harland's Manch. Collectanea, i, 100, &c.; C. Roeder in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxi, 153.
97 One consequence was that the ancient fair had ultimately to be removed. A man living in 1787 could remember corn and potatoes growing on St. Ann's Square; they had to be carted away the day before the fair as the people had a right to come to hold the fair whether the crops had been removed or not; Manch. Collectanea, ii, 188.
The fair continued to be held on 10 Oct. in St. Ann's Square until 1821, when it was removed to Shude Hill. A popular holiday festival, known as Knott Mill Fair, had by that time grown up; it was held on Easter Monday. Acres Fair was transferred to Campfield about 1830. All the fairs were abolished in 1876. See Axon, Annals; Baines, Lancs. Dir. (1825), ii, 154.
98 The views are — Christ Church (Cathedral), Trinity (Salford), St. Ann's, the College, the Exchange, the Quay, and St. Ann's Square; the houses of Mr. Floyd near St. Ann's Square, Mr. Marsden and Mr. Dickenson in Market Street Lane, Mr. Croxton in King Street, Mr. Howarth in Millgate, Mr. Touchet in Deansgate, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Miles Bower and his son, Mr. Marriott in Brown's Street, Messrs. Clowes in Hunt's Bank, and Francis Reynolds, esq. (Strangeways Hall). An account of these plans (with a reproduction) will be found in Procter, Bygone Manch. 349, &c.
Lists of published views of old Manchester are given in the Pal. Note Bk. iii, 53, &c.
99 There was another Exchange in King Street; see Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 169.
100 This was called the Weekly Journal; it was printed by Roger Adams, Parsonage, who also issued the Mathematical Lectures of John Jackson, the first known Manchester-printed work; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iv, 13. For Orion Adams, son of Roger, see Pal. Note Bk. iii, 48; and for notices of the local press, Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 54, 67; ii, 6, 142, &c.
An account of the early Manchester booksellers (1600–1700) will be found in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 1. For the Lancs. Journ. 1738–9, see Pal. Note Bk. ii, 205.
Much information about the newspapers is collected in Procter's Manch. Streets, 165, &c. There were printers in Manchester as early as 1692.
101 An account of the earlier Directories will be found in Manch. Collectanea, i, 119–66. The dates are—Raffald, 1772, 1773, 1781; Holme, 1788; Scholes, 1794, 1797; Bancks, 1800; Dean, 1804, 1808; Pigot, 1811. Those of 1772 and 1773 were reprinted in 1889. There is a notice of the Pigots in R. W. Procter's Bygone Manch.
102 See W. E. A. Axon, Public Libs. of Manch. and Salford (1877). The books of the Old Subscription Library were sold in 1867. The New (or Exchange) Circulating Library was founded in 1792; the Portico in Mosley Street, 1802–6; the Law Library in 1820; the Medical in 1834; the Athenaeum in 1835, the building being opened in 1839; while the Free Public Libraries of Salford and Manchester date from 1849–52.
On the Hebrew Roll of the Pentateuch in the Chetham Library see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. ii, 54; on the Blackletter Ballads in the Free Library, and the valuable Owen MSS. in the same, see ibid. ii, 21; xvii, 48. A MS. in the Chetham Library (Civil War) is reported in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. ii, App. 156.
The Christie and Bishop Lee collections in the library of the University must also be mentioned.
103 It is stated in Baines's Lancs. (ed. 1836), ii, 306, that an endeavour was made in 1763 to have Manchester made into a borough, but that the same political and sectarian jealousies which operated in 1731 defeated the scheme. The High Church party celebrated their triumph by a procession and dinner at Chorlton, known as the 'Chorlton Rant.' It had been discontinued before 1783; see Ogden, Description (ed. Axon), 14, 15.
104 7 Geo. I, cap. 15; amended 34 Geo. III, cap. 37. The quay figured on the plan of 1751 was perhaps due to this enterprise; it gave a name to Quay Street.
105 The following are the canals (see W. Axon, Annals): Worsley to Manchester, 1759; opened 1761; 32 Geo. II, cap. 2, and 33 Geo. II, cap. 2. Manchester to Bolton and Bury, 1790; 30 Geo. III, cap. 68. Manchester to Ashton-underLyne and Oldham, with a later branch to Huddersfield; 32 Geo. III, cap. 84. Rochdale to Halifax and Manchester, 1794–1804; extended to the Irwell in 1836; 34 Geo. III, cap. 78; 6 & 7 Will. IV, cap. 115.
The Directory of 1772 shows that a stage-coach ran from Manchester to London three times a week, performing the journey in two days in summer and three in winter. A stage-coach from Salford to Liverpool also ran three days a week. There were a large number of wagons carrying to the principal towns of the country. A considerable number of vessels plied on the Irwell and Bridgewater navigation systems, including a boat between Knott Mill and Altrincham thrice a week.
106 The following list of Road Acts to 1830 is taken from Axon's Annals and W. Harrison's essay in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. x, 237, &c.:—
1724—11 Geo. I, cap. 13; Chapel-enle-Frith to Manchester.
1732—5 Geo. II, cap. 10; Manchester, Ashton, &c.
1735—8 Geo. II, cap. 3; Manchester, Oldham, &c.
1751—24 Geo. II, cap. 13; Crossford Bridge to Manchester; also 37 Geo. III, cap. 71.
1755—28 Geo. II, cap. 58; Manchester, Crumpsall, and Rochdale.
1793—33 Geo. III, cap. 139; Manchester to Ashton-under-Lyne, &c.
1793—33 Geo. III, cap. 170; Ardwick Green to Wilmslow; also 39 Geo. III, cap. 64.
1793—33 Geo. III, cap. 171; Buxton, through Stockport to Manchester; also 41 Geo. III, cap. 96.
1793—33 Geo. III, cap. 181; Salford to Wigan, &c.
1798—38 Geo. III, cap. 49; Manchester to Bury and Rochdale; also 54 Geo. III, cap. 1.
1799—39 Geo. III, cap. 25; Manchester to Oldham, &c.; also 46 Geo. III, cap. 63.
1804—44 Geo. III, cap. 49; Rochdale by Middleton to Manchester.
1806—46 Geo. III, cap. 2; Great Bridgewater Street, through Salford to Eccles.
1817—57 Geo. III, cap. 47; Manchester to Newton Chapel.
1818—58 Geo. III, cap. 6; Manchester to Hyde Lane Bridge.
1824—5 Geo. IV, cap. 143; Manchester to Bolton.
1825—6 Geo. IV, cap. 51; Great Ancoats to Audenshaw.
1826—7 Geo. IV, cap. 81; Hunt's Bank to Pilkington.
1830—11 Geo. IV and I Will. IV, cap. 23; Chorlton Row to Wilmslow.
107 What was called the 'Manchester Act' (9 Geo. II, cap. 4), legalizing the manufacture of stuffs made of linen yarn and cotton wool, was passed in 1736.
An account of the earlier development of the trade of the district, with statistics, will be found in Wheeler's Manch. (1836), 141–244. The first cotton mill in Manchester is said to have been built about 1782 in Miller Street; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 80.
108 Samuel Curwen, a refugee from the Revolutionary war, 1775–84; printed in Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 259.
109 In a guide book of 1857, quoting from the Cotton Metropolis in Chambers' Repository, is the following: 'The oldest and the worst working district of Manchester is the region known as Ancoats Here, however, you will find the truest specimens of the indigenous Lancashire population and hear the truest version of the old Anglo-Saxon pronunciation … The type of the true Lancashire spinner and weaver lingers in its dark alleys and undrained courts in greater purity than in any of the more recent, more improved, and more healthy districts.'
110 16 Geo. III, cap. 63. Exchange Street, leading to St. Ann's Square, was then formed. A deed referring to the improvements of this time is printed in Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 135.
111 A description of the town as it was in 1783 was reprinted in 1887, with a memoir of the author, James Ogden (1718–1802), a native of the town, by Mr. W. E. A. Axon. It was followed by numerous guide books.
In 1821 an Act (1 & 2 Geo. IV, cap. 126) was obtained for widening Market Street; the schedule contains a list of the owners and occupiers. The work was not completed till 1834. In 1832 an Act was passed for the improvement of London Road; 2 Will. IV, cap. 36.
112 Joseph Aston, Manch. (1816), 200. The author afterwards removed to Rochdale and lived at Chadderton Hall, Oldham; he died in 1844; Procter, Manch. Streets, 164–74.
113 57 Geo. III, cap. 58. The new bridge was opened in 1820, a toll of ½d. was levied on each passenger, the result being that passage by it was avoided. It was made free in 1848.
114 Aston, Manch. 200. It was rebuilt in 1844 and called the Albert Bridge.
115 Ibid. 202. A toll was levied until 1848.
116 Ibid. 201. It was built by Samuel Clowes in 1804–6, as an aid to the development of his Broughton estate. His tenants had a free passage, others paid a toll. It was rebuilt in 1869 and made free in 1872.
117 56 Geo. III, cap. 62. Lord Ducie's tenants were exempt from the toll.
118 Op. cit. 202–4. Six of the Irk bridges were low and liable to be overflowed in flood time, but the seventh, the Ducie Bridge (finished in 1816), was lofty.
119 Ibid. 116–25. The Infirmary was first established in Garden Street, Shude Hill, in 1752, and removed to new buildings in Piccadilly (then called Lever's Row) in 1755. In front of it were the old Daubholes, afterwards transformed into a piece of ornamental water, with a fountain; this was removed in 1857. A lunatic asylum was added in 1765, public baths in 1781, and a dispensary in 1792. The building was refaced with stone about 1835. The lunatic asylum was removed to Stockport Etchells in 1854.
Lever's Row was so named from the estate and town house of the Levers of Alkrington; see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xx, 238.
120 Aston, Picture of Manch. 127–33. The charity was founded in 1790 and at first housed at the south-west end of the Old Bridge; it was removed in 1796 to Stanley Street, Salford, by the New Bailey Prison. In 1821 it was again removed, finding a home on the Manchester side of the Irwell, near St. Mary's Church. From this it seems to have taken the name of St. Mary's Hospital, by which it is now known. To commemorate Queen Victoria's visit in 1851 a new building was erected, which was opened in 1856. This has now been abandoned, a new St. Mary's being opened in Oxford Road in 1904. The Southern Hospital formerly at Chorlton has been amalgamated with it.
121 Ibid. 134–7. It was opened in 1796.
122 Ibid. 161. It is on the north side of Victoria Station and was opened in 1793; the manufacture of cotton goods was carried on in the house, and in 1815 produced a profit of £222. The present workhouse, built in 1855, is in Crumpsall.
123 Ibid. 192. It is supposed to have represented the New Fleet Prison erected in the time of Queen Elizabeth for the punishment of 'Popish recusants.' A new building was erected in 1774 and removed in 1790. The prisoners at one time used to hang out bags for alms. There is a full account of it in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 89. A new borough gaol built in Hyde Road in 1847–9 was demolished about 1885.
124 Aston, Picture of Manch. 164. It was situated in Greengate, and opened in 1793. It was pulled down in 1856, the new workhouse in Regent Road having been opened.
125 Ibid. 194. The foundation stone was laid by T. B. Bayley in 1787; the building was a consequence of John Howard's prison reform.
126 Ibid. 204; the old building had become little more than 'a harbour for vagrants and dirt.' It was greatly extended and partly rebuilt in 1845–56, and from 1851 has been named the Royal Exchange. In 1866 an Act was obtained to enable the proprietors to pull it down and rebuild it. The eastern façade remains.
127 –9 For the libraries, see note 99 (p. 181).
The first theatre was built in Marsden Street in 1753, but not used till 1760; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1233. It was replaced by the Theatre Royal, under a special Act of Parliament, in 1775. A new Theatre Royal was opened in 1807, the old building being used as a circus; Aston, Manch. 181–6. The Theatre Royal was burnt down in 1844, and rebuilt in the following year.
The Assembly Rooms in Mosley Street were opened in 1792; ibid. 187. They were sold in 1850, new ones being built in Cheetham.
128 Ibid. 219–20.
129 The details are given thus :—
                                             ac.                    ac.                 ac. 
                                             Arable.            Grass.        Woods, &c.
Blackley                                         167            1,040            —
Broughton                                      126               185             —
Burnage                                         401                351            —
Cheetham                                      —                    85            —
Clayton                                          —                  167            —
Crumpsall                                        43                 258            —
Denton and Haughton                      291            1,477          40
Didsbury                                          311              548           5
Droylsden                                         3                 692            —
Failsworth                                         —              512            —
Gorton                                            39                 354            —
Levenshulme                                    2                  253           —
Manchester(part)                              462              452            —
Moston                                            110              702            —
Newton                                            19                172           —
Openshaw                                       —                    6            —
Rusholme                                        926               420           —
Stockport (part)                               262               658              3
Stretford and Chorlton-with-Hardy  1,663              771            —
Withington                                       926                 357              8
130 The following is a list of the existing medical and philanthropic charities of the Manchester district, in addition to the endowed charities to be recorded later:
Ancoats Hospital and Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary, 1841.
Ancoats Dispensary for Women and Children.
Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Rusholme and Moss Side Dispensary, 1831.
Christie Hospital (Cancer Pavilion), Oxford Street.
Ear Hospital, Byrom Street.
Homoeopathic Institution.
Consumption Hospital, near Deansgate with houses at Bowdon and Delamere, 1875.
Hospital for Skin Diseases, Quay Street, 1835.
Hulme Dispensary, 1831.
Lock Hospital, Duke Street, 1819.
Children's Dispensary, Gartside Street.
Jewish Hospital, Cheetham.
Medical Mission Dispensary, Red Bank.
Northern Hospital for Women and Children at Cheetham.
Royal Eye Hospital, founded in 1815, in King Street; removed to Faulkner Street, 1822; to St. John's Street, 1874; and to Oxford Road, 1886.
Royal Infirmary, 1752.
St. Mary's Hospital, founded in Salford, 1790.
Salford Royal Hospital and Dispensary, 1827.
Victoria Dental Hospital, Chorltonupon-Medlock.
Deaf and Dumb Institute, Chorltonupon-Medlock; first opened in 1825 in Salford.
Homes for Children, Cheetham Hill.
All-night Shelter for Children, Piccadilly.
Workshops for the Blind, Deansgate.
Home for Aged Jews, Cheetham.
Home for Fallen Women, Broughton.
St. Mary's Home for Fallen Women, Rusholme.
Penitentiary, 1822; new building at Greenheys, 1837.
Mrs. MacAlpine's Homes for Women, Greenheys.
Day Nursery, Salford.
Whalley Range Orphanage.
District Provident Society.
Boys' and Girls' Refuge.
Catholic Protection and Rescue Society.
Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society.
Blind Aid Society.
Night Asylum.
Distressed Foreigners' Society.
Home for Lost Dogs, Harpurhey.
Shelter for Lost Cats, Cheetham.
131 Agricultural Society, 1767.
Literary and Philosophical Society, 1781.
Philological Society, 1803, and Bibliographical Society, flourished but a short time.
Natural History Society, 1821–68; the museum, founded in 1835, was given to Owens College.
Royal Manchester Institution, 1823.
Botanical and Horticultural Society, 1824 and 1827, with gardens at Old Trafford.
Mechanics' Institute, 1825; New Mechanics' Institute, 1829.
Lancashire Antiquarian Society, 1829, a failure.
Banksian Society of Botanists, chiefly artisans, 1829–36.
Architectural Society, 1837, now defunct. It has been replaced by an influential Society of Architects.
School of Design, afterwards School of Art, 1838; now controlled by the Corporation.
Geological Society, 1839; one of its founders was Edward William Binney, a distinguished geologist, who died in 1881.
Chetham Society, 1843; the Old Series of its publications numbered 114 volumes; the New Series (1883 onwards) has reached over 60.
Manchester Numismatic Society, 1864– 73. It issued Transactions.
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 1883; a volume of Transactions is issued yearly.
Statistical Society, 1834; a volume is issued yearly.
Conchological Society.
Academy of Fine Arts.
Astronomical Society.
Entomological Society.
Field Naturalists' Society.
Geographical Society. It publishes a Journal.
Literary Club, 1862. It issues the Manchester Quarterly.
Microscopical Society.
Philatelic Society.
132 See W. Axon, Lancs. Glean. 79; also Manch. Constables' Accts. (1772), iii, 227, 229, 256.
133 The speeches and letters were reprinted in a small volume, which is valuable as giving the history of many of the old Nonconformist chapels in Lancashire, all or most of which were at the time in the hands of Unitarians.
134 The Shude Hill fight was a food riot; a corn mill at Clayton was destroyed. Four of the rioters were killed. See the account in Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 359–61.
Axon, Manch. Annals, records the following later riots:
1762, Riots due to the high price of corn in July; see Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 370–2.
1779–80, Serious riots due to the introduction of spinning machinery.
1780, Riot owing to the indignation aroused by some military floggings.
1793, Effigy of Tom Paine burnt by the populace.
1795, Food riot in July.
1797, Food riots in November.
1798, Food riots in December.
1807, Riot between the Orangemen and the Irish, 13 July.
1808, Riot owing to a wages dispute in May; one weaver killed.
1812, Food riots in April.
1818, Attack on a factory; one man killed.
1819, Riot in the theatre over politics.
1824, Labour riots in April.
1826, Riots in May, due to commercial distress.
1829, Similar riots in May; several factories destroyed
1842, Strikers' riot.
135 Manch. Guard. N. and Q. no. 303, 720.
136 Prentice, Manch. 7–9, 419, &c.
137 Ibid. 10–14.
138 For the volunteers of 1783, 1798, and 1804, see Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 73; ii, 44; i, 25, 14, &c.
139 The story of the political agitation of the time is told in Archibald Prentice's Recollections of Manch. (1851), referred to above. The author was the son of a Scotch farmer and settled in the town in 1815, starting the Manch. Times, afterwards the Examiner and Times, in the interest of reform. He died at Plymouth Grove, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, in 1857.
140 Prentice, op. cit. 76–82, and 'Trial at full length of the 38 men,' 1812.
141 See Prentice, op. cit. 159–71. The attendants at these meetings came from all the factory districts around Manchester, as Oldham, Rochdale, and Middleton.
142 Prentice, op. cit. 160.
143 The magistrates considered to be chiefly responsible were William Hulton of Hulton Park and the Rev. W. R. Hay. In their defence they could urge the turbulence of the population, which had often manifested itself, and the seditious and even revolutionary character of many of the speeches made at such gatherings. 'Protestant ascendancy' was one of the watchwords on the anti-reform side.
144 Prentice, op. cit. 394–418.
145 Reilly, Manch. 361, &c.
146 Ibid. 446.
147 Two Fenian head centres, Kelly and Deasey, were rescued from the prison van in Hyde Road by a band of armed Fenians on 18 Sept.; the policeman in charge, Sergeant Brett, was shot. For this crime three men, Allen, Gould, and Larkin, were executed at the New Bailey, Salford, on 23 Nov.
148 On 5 Aug.
149 An account of the visit will be found in Procter, Manch. Streets, 85–98.
150 This account has been compiled from Joseph Thompson's elaborate account of the first thirty-five years' history, The Owens College, 1886; P. J. Hartog's The Owens College, Manch. 1900, which gives a detailed account of the buildings and work at that date; Manch. of To-day (ed. C. W. Sutton), 1907.
Mr. Thompson gives the petition of the people of Manchester addressed to Parliament in 1641, praying that a university might be founded in the town; op. cit. 512–16.
151 By Acts of Parliament in 1870 and 1871, rendered necessary by a movement begun some years earlier for the extension of the college.
A grant of arms was obtained in 1871.
The Royal School of Medicine at Manchester, founded in 1836, was incorporated with the college in 1872. The Museum of the Natural History Society was taken over at the same time.
152 Thompson, op. cit. 530–42.
153 A supplemental charter for medical degrees was obtained in 1883.
154 The charter of 1903 and the Act of 1904 incorporating Owens College with Manchester University will be found in full in the annual Calendar. This volume of over 800 pages gives full information as to courses of study, &c. and an appendix of 500 pages contains the examination papers.
155 Large sums have been raised by subscription. The principal individual benefactors have been Charles Frederick Beyer, Richard Copley Christie, Charles Clifton of Jersey, U.S.A., and the legatees of Sir Joseph Whitworth. The capital amounts to about £1,000,000.
156 The Hulme Trustees give £1,000 a year.
157 There is also a Moravian college at Fairfield to the east.
158 This was a union of the lodges in the Manchester district, effected in 1810; it has extended over a great part of the kingdom, and become one of the greatest of the friendly societies.
159 James Fraser, second Bishop of Manchester, 1870–85; see Dict. Nat. Biog. and memoir by Thomas Hughes (1887). James Prince Lee, first bishop, 1847–69, is also noticed in Dict. Nat. Biog.; he left his library to Owens College.
160 Ibid.; and Baines. Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 413–15. He was from 1817 till his death president of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and many of his dissertations are printed in its Transactions.
161 Dict. Nat. Biog.; he preceded Dalton as president of the Literary and Philosophical Society.
162 Ibid.; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 415–18. He was an authority on the strength of materials.
163 a Dict. Nat. Biog.
164 He discovered a method of producing a true plane surface, elaborated a system of standard measures and gauges, experimented on rifles and cannon. His great works were amalgamated with those of the Armstrongs at Elswick in 1897; see notice in Dict. Nat. Biog.
165 Ibid.; there is a biography by William Pole.
166 Ibid. He was born in Westphalia, but settled in Manchester in 1848; he was knighted in 1888 and died in 1895.
167 Life, by John Morley, and Dict. Nat. Biog. He settled in Manchester in 1832; soon afterwards began to advocate free trade, and in 1838 became a leader of the Anti-Corn Law League; sat in Parliament for various constituencies from 1841; died in 1865.
168 Dict. Nat. Biog. He wrote the biographies in the first edition of Baines' Lancs.
169 There are notices of him in his and Wilkinson's Legends and Traditions of Lancs.; in the Reliq. 1868 (by James Croston), and Dict. Nat. Biog. He edited Mamecestre and other works for the Chetham Society, republished Gregson's Fragments and Baines' Hist. &c. He was editor of the Manch. Guard., retiring in 1860. He died at Cheetham Hill, 23 Apr. 1868.
170 Dict. Nat. Biog.; N. and Q. (5th Ser.), iv, 479.
171 See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pal. Note Bk. i, 178; ii, 45, &c.; and for his sons; ibid. ii, 192.
172 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pal. Note Bk. iii, 77. A later head master, also fellow of the Collegiate Church, Henry Brooke, who died in 1757, is noticed in Dict. Nat. Biog.
173 Dict. Nat. Biog. There is a portrait in the Chetham Library.
174 a Ibid.
175 Ibid.
176 He was a native of Pendleton. A statue of him has been erected in Albert Square.
177 He was born at Heybridge, in Staffordshire.
178 These were nearly all natives of the township as well as of the parish.
179 a Dict. Nat. Biog.
180 He was son of a John Booker or Bowker; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), ii, 367.
181 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 67. He was master of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1651–54.
182 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pal. Note Bk. i, 128; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 199, 208; ii, 5. His Diary, &c. have been printed by the Chetham Society. Though deposed from the mastership in 1660, he conformed to the restored ecclesiastical establishment, and was beneficed in Lincolnshire.
183 Dict. Nat. Biog.
184 Ibid.
185 Ibid.; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. Engl. Cath. ii, 224. He was a convert, and laboured in the famous Jesuit settlements in Paraguay, being expelled in 1768 by the Spanish government. He joined the English province and died at Plowden in Shropshire.
186 Dict. Nat. Biog.
187 Ibid.
188 See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Baines, Lancs. i, 408.
189 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Baines, op. cit. i, 409. He was one of the founders of the Manchester Lying-in Hospital, and effected a revolution in the practice of midwifery. The Town Hall (now the Reference Library) was built on the site of his house.
190 See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Baines, Lancs. i, 410; bibliography in Pal. Note Bk. i, 77.
191 Dict. Nat. Biog. His collections may be seen in the Chetham Library.
192 Ibid.
193 Ibid.
194 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiv, 101.
195 Dict. Nat. Biog.
196 Ibid.
197 Ibid.
198 Ibid.
199 Manch. Sch. Reg. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 43–7.
200 Ibid.; Dict. Nat. Biog.
201 Ibid.
202 Ibid.
203 Ibid.
204 Ibid.
205 Ibid. Pal. Note Bk. i, 37; Procter, Manch. Streets, 189. His Correspondence was published in 1882, and contains much information about old Manchester. John Palmer, architect, who died at Chorlton in 1846, also took part in the composition of Manch. Foundations; Gillow, op. cit. v, 238.
206 Dict. Nat. Biog.
207 Ibid.; Manch. Guard. N. and Q. no. 1024; and the biography prefixed to T. Helsby's edition of his Cheshire. He edited Civil War Tracts for the Chetham Society, and printed a volume of pedigrees called Parentalia.
208 Dict. Nat. Biog.
209 Ibid.
210 Ibid.; Gillow, op. cit. i, 295. An earlier vicar apostolic (1775–80), William Walton, is said to have been a native of Manchester.
211 Dict. Nat. Biog.
212 Ibid. He was interested in reformatories and the reclamation of discharged prisoners.
213 Ibid.
214 Dict. Nat. Biog.; notice in Owens Coll. Mag. 1878. The original seat of the college was in Quay Street. The idea of it is said to be due to another native of the town, George Faulkner, 1790–1862; Dict. Nat. Biog.
215 Dict. Nat. Biog.
216 Ibid.
217 Ibid.
218 Ibid. He was created a baronet in 1821. He established a printing press at his residence, Middle Hill, Worcestershire, issuing pedigrees, &c.; afterwards he removed to Cheltenham.
219 Dict. Nat. Biog.
220 Ibid.
221 Ibid. He was a cotton manufacturer. He bequeathed his library to Owens College.
222 Ibid.
223 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Manch. Sch. Reg. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 74. In Dict. Nat. Biog. is also a notice of his elder brother the banker, Sir Benjamin Heywood, first baronet, 1793–1865.
224 Dict. Nat. Biog. He was Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, 1843– 9. At Llandaff he restored the cathedral. He was one of the Old Testament revisers.
225 Dict. Nat. Biog.; he was at one time a Wesleyan missionary in India.
226 Ibid.
227 Author of Gimcrackiana; Manch. Guard. N. and Q. no. 41, 689.
228 Dict. Nat. Biog.
229 Ibid. He was father of Marcus Stone, R.A.
230 See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Procter, Manch. Streets, 150–62.
231 Dict. Nat. Biog.; her maiden name was Huddart.
232 See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pal. Note Bk. ii, 38; Procter, Manch. Streets, 269. There is a presentation portrait of him in the Manchester Free Library.
233 Dict. Nat. Biog.
234 Ibid.
235 Ibid.
236 Ibid.
237 Dict. Nat. Biog. His elder brothers, Robert Hyde Greg, 1795–1875, economist and antiquary, M.P. for Manchester, 1839; and Samuel Greg, 1804–76, philanthropist, are also noticed in Dict. Nat. Biog.
238 Dict. Nat. Biog.
239 Ibid.
240 Ibid.
241 Ibid.
242 Ibid.
243 Ibid.
244 Ibid.; Pal. Note Bk. iii, 213.
245 Gillow, op. cit. ii, 397; Dict. Nat. Biog.
246 Dict. Nat. Biog. He was editor of the Athenaeum from 1853 to 1869, and published many historical and geographical works.
247 Dict. Nat. Biog.; her maiden name was Varley.
248 Ibid.
249 Ibid.
250 Ibid.
251 Ibid.
252 The notice in the Evening News stated that he was educated at Manchester Grammar School, and traded as a gingham manufacturer. He took part in the public life of the district in various ways— as a worker in Cotton Famine relief of 1862–3, the City Council (conservative member), and Anglican Church defence; he also wrote a number of popular works on the history of the district, and in 1873 was elected F.S.A. He added accounts of the parochial clergy in his edition of Baines. He died 1 Sept. 1893, while travelling from Manchester to his home at Prestbury.
253 Dict. Nat. Biog.
254 Ibid.
255 Ibid.
256 Ibid.
257 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 143. He edited the Ct. Leet Rec. and Constables' Accts. for the Manchester Corporation.
258 Dict. Nat. Biog.
259 Alfred Burton, Rushbearing, and the illustration in Procter's Manch. Streets.
260 A full list is given in the Official Red Book.
261 The publishing office was transferred to London in 1884.