Townships
Denton

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Victoria County History

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Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

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Pages

311-322

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'Townships: Denton', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 311-322. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41432 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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DENTON

Dentun, c. 1220; Denton, 1282, and usually.

This township, lying in the bend of the River Tame, which bounds it on the south, has an area of 1,706 acres, being nearly 2 miles square. It was sometimes called Denton under Donishaw. The highest land, reaching 340 ft., is on the eastern border, dividing Denton from Haughton. The population of the two townships, Denton and Haughton, together numbered 14,934 in 1901.

The principal road is that crossing the township from west to east, leading from Manchester to Hyde and passing through the village of Denton. Crossing it, on and near the eastern border, is the road leading south from Ashton to Stockport, with a bridge over the Tame. The London and North-Western Company's railway from Stockport to Ashton runs through the north-western half of the township, and has a station, called Denton, on the Hyde Road. Part of the Audenshaw reservoir lies in this township.

The place has long been celebrated for its hat manufacture. The trade, after a period of decline has revived. (fn. 1) A coal mine is worked.

The village wake used to be held on 10 August.

A local board was formed in 1857. (fn. 2) This has become an urban district council of fifteen members. The district includes Haughton also. There is a public library.

MANOR

The manor of DENTON, rated as a plough-land, (fn. 3) was from early times divided into several portions. One moiety about 1200 was held of the lord of Withington by Matthew de Reddish; the other moiety was of the same lord held probably by a family or families bearing the local name, of whom there are but few traces. (fn. 4)

To Richard, rector of Stockport, and his heirs Matthew de Reddish granted four oxgangs of land in Denton, that was to say a moiety of the vill, at a rent of 12d. (fn. 5) Robert, rector of Mottram, no doubt an heir of Richard, granted all his land in Denton, namely two oxgangs, to his daughter Cecily, at 1d. rent to the grantor and 5d. to the lamp of St. Mary at Manchester. (fn. 6) Cecily was twice married—to a Norris of Heaton Norris and to Robert de Shoresworth. This Robert and Cecily his wife granted all their Denton lands, as well in demesne as in service, to their son William. (fn. 7) Later, in 1299, Cecily as widow of Robert modified the gift by granting half her father's land to her son Alexander and his heirs, with reversion to William. (fn. 8) A release was also procured from William le Norreys. (fn. 9)

William de Shoresworth had a son Robert, whose daughter Margaret inherited the Denton estate. (fn. 10) By Sir William de Holland she had a son Thurstan, who was liberally endowed by her and his father, the two oxgangs of land in Denton, i.e. the fourth part of the manor, being part of their gifts. (fn. 11) Thurstan seems to have acquired another fourth part from the heirs of the Moston family. (fn. 12) He was living as late as 1376, (fn. 13) and his son and heir Richard, (fn. 14) who added to his patrimony by a marriage with Amery daughter and heir of Adam de Kenyon, (fn. 15) died in 1402 holding 'the manor of Denton' of Sir Nicholas de Longford by knight's service; he also held the manor of Kenyon in right of his wife, a moiety of the manor of Heaton Fallowfield, and land called Mateshead in Claughton in Amounderness. (fn. 16) Thurstan his son and heir was over thirty years of age. (fn. 17)

Thurstan, (fn. 18) whose widow Agnes was living in 1430 and 1438, (fn. 19) left a son of the same name. The younger Thurstan was in 1430 divorced from his first wife, Margaret de Abram, (fn. 20) and lived on till about 1461, (fn. 21) his widow Ellen being named in 1462. (fn. 22) Richard the son and heir held the manors of Denton and Kenyon, and messuages and lands in Heaton, Bolton le Moors, Wardley, Barton, Manchester, Pemberton, and Myerscough. In 1481 he settled part of his lands on himself and Agnes his wife, with life remainders to younger sons. His eldest son Richard succeeded him in 1483, and in 1486 made provision for Joan daughter of John Arderne, who was to marry his son Thurstan. In the following year and in 1497 he made provision for younger sons, and in 1499 granted messuages and lands in Bolton and Myerscough to his son Thurstan and Joan his wife. Richard Holland was living in 1500, but seems to have died soon afterwards. (fn. 23)

Thurstan Holland succeeded, but died in October 1508, leaving a son Robert, who though then but nineteen years of age had in 1500–1 been married to Elizabeth daughter of Sir Richard Assheton of Middleton. The manor of Denton was described as held of Sir Ralph Longford in socage; its clear annual value was £20. (fn. 24) Robert died in 1513, leaving his brother Richard as heir, he being twenty years of age; the manor of Denton was held by services unknown, and its value was returned as £11. (fn. 25) Richard was afterwards made a knight. (fn. 26) He died about 1548, and in that year licence of entry, without proof of age, was granted to Edward Holland, his son and heir. (fn. 27) Edward, who was sheriff in 1567–8, (fn. 28) died in 1570, holding the family estates, probably with some increase, the manor and lands in Denton being held of Nicholas Longford in socage by a rent of 15½d. (fn. 29)


Holland of Denton. Azure semée of fleurs de lis and a lion rampant guardant argent, over all a bendlet gules.

His son and heir, Richard Holland, twenty-four years of age, married Margaret one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir Robert Langley of Agecroft, and appears to have acquired a great addition to his Heaton estates. (fn. 30) He built a house at Heaton, and resided there and at Denton. (fn. 31) The former place soon became the principal seat of the family, and there Richard Holland died on 2 March 1618–19 holding, among other estates, the manor of Denton and lands, &c., in the township of Edward Mosley in socage by a rent of 12½d. He had no son, his heirs being his five daughters or their issue, and the estates went to his brother Edward. (fn. 32) Edward also died at Heaton on 5 May 1631, leaving a son Richard, thirty-six years of age. (fn. 33)


Denton Hall from the North-West

This son was the Colonel Richard Holland who was one of the chief Parliamentary leaders in the county during the Civil War, being a strict Puritan; (fn. 34) he assisted in the defence of Manchester in 1642, (fn. 35) though he advised its surrender; (fn. 36) he also served at the taking of Preston, (fn. 37) at Nantwich, (fn. 38) and at Lathom. (fn. 39) He represented the county in two of Cromwell's Parliaments, 1654 and 1656. (fn. 40) He died in 1661, and his only son Edward having died before him, the inheritance went to a brother Henry, and then to another brother, William. (fn. 41) The latter was living at Heaton in 1664, when a pedigree was recorded; (fn. 42) he was rector of a mediety of Malpas from 1652 to 1680, when he resigned, (fn. 43) dying two years later. His son Edward dying unmarried in 1683 the inheritance went to a daughter Elizabeth, who married Sir John Egerton of Wrinehill, ancestor of the Earl of Wilton, the present lord of Denton. (fn. 44)

Of Denton Old Hall only a fragment remains. The original house appears to have been either quadrangular or built round three sides of a courtyard, but of this, however, only a portion of the south or centre wing containing the great hall and the smaller chamber beyond is now standing, together with a detached building, now a barn, on the east side, the timber framing of which seems to indicate that it was originally part of the eastern wing. The Hall is now used as a farmhouse, and the present farm buildings, though modern and built of brick and extending very far westward, preserve to some extent what may have been the original quadrangular aspect of the house. Denton Old Hall was one of a number of houses standing in the valley of the Tame, which here separates Lancashire from Cheshire, and stands about half a mile from the north bank. It was a timber-andplaster building on a low stone base, built apparently in the 15th century, but has been altered from time to time and faced with brick at the back and ends. The usual arrangement of the great hall, screens, and the rooms at either end could, till recently, be seen, but internal alterations and the destruction of the west wing have rendered them difficult to follow. The front of the central part of the building faced north to the courtyard, and it is a portion of this which still remains. It is a very simple design made up entirely of crosspieces and uprights, with a cove under the eaves, but without any attempt at ornamentation except in the mouldings of the beam under the cove. The timber front now standing is the north wall of the great hall less the passage at the west end. The screens and the whole of the west end of the building were taken down in 1895. This west wing slightly projected in front of the hall and was about 25 ft. in width, and probably contained the kitchen and offices, but they had been much altered on plan by the introduction of a central through-passage from east to west. The elevation carried on the timber construction of the present front, but with more variety of treatment in its parts. The disappearance of this west wing with its long windows on each story, its overhanging gables and line of quatrefoil panelling, is very much to be regretted. At the east end of the great hall is what was probably the smaller hall, now entirely refaced in brick with a gable north and south. The roofs are covered with stone slates.


Plan of Denton Hall

The great hall, which was 35 ft. long including the passage and 23 ft. in width, had a massive open timber roof, a canopy at the east over the dais, and a gallery at the west end over the passage. It is now divided into two stories by the introduction of a floor, but some idea of the original appearance may still be gathered by an examination of the roof principals and framing in the bedrooms. There was a square bay at the north-east corner of the hall to the left of the high table, but there seems to have originally been no provision for a fireplace. The room was presumably warmed by a brazier, the coupling of the principals in the centre pointing to there having formerly been a louvre in the roof. The height from the floor to the underside of the tie-beam was about 17 ft. 6 in., and to the ridge 26 ft. The principals are very plain and are disposed in short bays at either end, with a middle one formed by the coupling for the louvre already mentioned, making three small and two large bays in the length of the apartment. The smaller bay at the west end is over the passage, but at the east the space was taken up by the projecting canopy over the high table. The plainness of the roof was only relieved by curved wind braces. At the west end the gallery occupied the space over the passage, but the screen itself was very plain, being constructed of simple chamfered posts and crosspieces on a stone base. The high table was lighted from the bay, and there were two windows at the west end of the north side high up in the wall, one lighting the gallery, the other the hall proper. These windows formed a feature of the north elevation, standing out from the wall on a plaster cove, but only one now remains, the other having been destroyed along with the west wing. The present door in the middle of the apartment is quite modern, having been inserted since the disappearance of the entrance at the west end. There appears also to have been a door at the north-east corner of the hall, now made up, but plainly visible on the outside. From the disposition of the timber framing there does not seem to have been any range of windows on the side of the hall facing the courtyard, the window now on that side, as well as the one on the south, being a modern insertion. At a later time a large fireplace 13 ft. wide inside, with deep ingle nook, has been inserted at the west end, taking up more than half the width of the apartment and entirely destroying the screen and encroaching on the passage way at the back. This seems to have been done before the introduction of the floor, as the upper part of the fireplace is carried up to the roof in an elaborate brickwork composition, with embattled cornices, herringbone panels, and other ornamentation. The upper part of this chimney can still be seen from the bedrooms, but is now covered with whitewash. In the upper part of the bay window, now a bedroom, on the east wall, some of the oak panelling of the hall still remains, together with a plaster frieze on which is a shield of arms bearing Holland impaling Langley. (fn. 45) The introduction of the great fireplace and ingle nook into the hall necessitated the partial destruction of the gallery over the passage, and the whole of the original arrangement of the hall at this end suffered a good deal of change. The fireplaces in the destroyed west wing are said to have been of ornamental brickwork corresponding in style with that in the great hall. They were later than the original arrangement of the kitchen passage, and may have been inserted as late as the beginning of the 17th century, at the time the plaster ornament in the upper part of the bay was put up.

The east end and south side of the house have been entirely rebuilt in brick, and when the west wing was pulled down that end was similarly refaced. The upper part at the east end is approached by a brick and stone staircase on the outside, but this end of the house has no points of interest in it.

In the detached east wing, which is 55 ft. long, are three principals, the tie-beams of which are moulded and ornamented with traceried panels and shields. They are unequally spaced, one being at the south end next the house, and the other two near together at the north. The principals are built from the ground, and have originally had floor beams, the building apparently having always been of two stories, but the lower beam is only retained in the principal at the south end, which on the first floor forms a fullyconstructed partition with door on the east side. The other two floor beams have been cut away. The wall posts and the underside of the lower beam are elaborately moulded, and the beam has a bracket on each side carved with a lion's head and foliage. The two tie-beams at the north end are panelled on both sides but those at the south on the north side only, being quite plain towards the house. Originally the work has been very rich, but the present disposition of the framing and its incomplete character makes it impossible to state what purpose the wing, which on the outside is entirely refaced with brick, served. Its north gable is of timber patched with brick, with quatrefoil panels but without wing boards.

The other moiety of Matthew de Reddish's estate in Denton was probably Haughton, but may have been the two oxgangs of land which in 1320 were held by the lord of Manchester, (fn. 46) Robert de Ashton holding of him at a rent of 13s. 4½d. (fn. 47) John de Hulton of Farnworth held the same in 1473. (fn. 48) In 1282 Robert Grelley was found to have held twothirds of an oxgang in Denton; this land, which is not mentioned again, may have been part of these two oxgangs. (fn. 49)

Two other oxgangs of land were in 1320 held of the lord of Manchester by John de Hyde and Adam de Hulton, who rendered 2d. at Christmastide as well as puture. (fn. 50) It is not clear whether the former tenant was of Norbury or of Denton.

The Hydes of Hyde and Norbury, who were lords of Haughton by Denton, held lands in the latter township, for Robert de Hyde gave to Alexander his son and his heirs all his lands of Denton, and in confirmation and augmentation of this John de Hyde about 1270 granted all the lands in Denton which he held, also land in Romiley in Cheshire, to his brother Alexander, son of Sir Robert de Hyde. (fn. 51) The oxgang of land held in 1320, however, if it were the tenement of the Hydes of Denton immediately, seems to have been acquired in another way from Ellis de Botham. (fn. 52) By a settlement of 1331 the lands of John de Hyde in Denton and Romiley were to remain to Richard, the son of John, and Maud his wife, daughter of Roger de Vernon. (fn. 53) Richard and Maud in 1366 agreed to make no alienation of the estate, (fn. 54) and two years later John, the father, made a grant to Richard, the son of Richard. (fn. 55) In 1320 the rent was paid to the lord of Manchester; but William Hyde, who died in 1560, was stated to hold his messuages and lands in Denton of Robert Hyde of Norbury in socage by the rent of 1d. (fn. 56) Richard Hyde, the son and heir of William, having died a month after his father, without issue, was succeeded by his brother Robert, thirty-two years of age. (fn. 57) William son of Robert died in 1639 holding the same estate, and leaving as heir his son Robert, thirty-five years of age. (fn. 58)


Hyde of Hyde and Norbury. Azure a cheveron between three lozenges or.

Robert Hyde was a zealous Puritan and took part in the defence of Manchester in 1642. (fn. 59) He died in 1684, (fn. 60) and his son and heir Robert in 1699, leaving as sole heiress a daughter Mary, who married Sir Ralph Assheton of Middleton, but had no issue. The Denton estate, however, was retained by her husband, and fell to the lot of Katherine, his daughter by a previous marriage; by her husband, Thomas Lister of Arnoldsbiggin, she had a son Thomas, after whose death in 1761 the Denton estate was sold to William Hulton of Hulton. It was again sold in 1813 to Francis Woodiwiss of Manchester, (fn. 61) whose daughter, Mary Woodiwiss, owned it in 1856. (fn. 62) The estate was afterwards acquired by Charles Lowe, whose executors in 1901 sold it to Mr. James Watts of Abney Hall, Cheadle, a descendant (through his mother) of the Hydes.

The situation of Hyde Hall is one of natural defence on rising ground, about a quarter of a mile from the north bank of the River Tame. The front of the house is towards the river, and faces southeast. It is a two-story building of timber and plaster on a stone base originally of the 16th century, but added to and altered in the 17th, when it was partly faced with brick. It appears to have had the usual H type of plan, with central great hall and east and west wings. The east wing, however, has disappeared, and that at the west has been remodelled to suit modern requirements and a new building added on its west side.

The house is entered on the north side through an open porch with stone seats at each side, built in brick with stone dressings, and with the date 1625 and the arms of Hyde on the door head. The porch, which has a segmental opening and moulded jambs, goes up two stories, and has a chamber over lit by a five-light mullioned and transomed window with two lights on each return, (fn. 63) and terminates in a square parapet with moulded coping above a plain string-course. There is a sundial over the window. The whole of the north side of the house has been rebuilt in brick, probably in the 17th century, and in recent years has been covered with plaster. The south side has been treated in a similar manner, and the plaster lined to represent stone, so that the north and south walls present little or nothing of their ancient appearance, except in the upper windows, which preserve their mullions and transoms, and in the wood and plaster cove under the eaves. The roofs are covered with grey stone slates, and the chimneys are of brick, that from the great hall rising diagonally on plan directly from the roof. The bay window and east wall of the hall, however, retain their timber construction, the bay window forming a picturesque feature at the east end of the south front.

The great hall is similar in plan to that at Denton Hall, and though smaller may have been copied from it. The door is at the north-west corner, opening into a passage which once formed the screens, but is now separated from the hall, as at Denton, by the later insertion of a large fireplace. The passage is still open at both ends, and has the two usual doorways leading from it opposite the hall. Both the north and south walls, which are 1 ft. 9 in. thick, have an external buttress, and there is a third at the north-east angle where the timber and brickwork join. The east wall of the great hall is of timber and plaster, and was no doubt originally the interior wall between the hall and the east wing of the house. The timber construction shows on the outside, but there is no attempt at ornament, the spaces between the timbers being wide and filled with plaster. The hall, including the passage, is about 32 ft. 6 in. long, and its width about 20 ft. It is lit on the north side by two modern windows, and on the south by a bay window in the south-east corner 8 ft. 6 in. square inside. The floor is paved with stone flags, and the ceiling is crossed by chamfered oak beams, two each way, forming square panels filled in with plaster. The walls are panelled in oak except in the bay window and on the fireplace side, and the room contains a collection of old furniture, the only piece, however, which belongs to the house being the high table. (fn. 64) The hall was divided till recently into three rooms, the bay window being one, and a wall down the centre forming the others. When it was restored to its original condition the great fireplace at the west end, which is 11 ft. wide and 4 ft. deep, was opened out. The bay window of the hall is in two stories, as originally designed, built of timber and plaster, but on the ground story the window opening is a modern one of three lights with plaster at both sides and on the returns. In the room above there are ten lights extending the whole length of the front of the bay, but those in the returns are made up. The upper part projects on a plaster cove, and the cove which runs along both sides of the house under the eaves is carried round the top of the bay under the gable, the halftimber work of which is now covered up with plaster, and the barge boards of which have disappeared. The doors at each end of the passage at the end of the hall are the original ones of thick oak, nail studded, and with good hinges, the doorways themselves being of stone with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads. The original character of the passage has been altered by the building of the hall chimney and the insertion of a modern staircase.


Hyde Hall: Entrance Front

At the north-east corner of the hall is a small room measuring about 9 ft. by 7 ft. which seems to have been added later, constructed of timber and plaster, and with a window on the south side. It goes up two stories, and has a similar apartment above it opening from the room over the hall.

The plan of the first floor only differs from that of the ground story by the bay window being made into a separate apartment connected with the landing over the passage by a corridor on the south side. The room over the hall is panelled in oak all round, the panelling on the south side, which is made up of odd pieces, forming a partition between the room and the corridor; it has a six-light wood-mullioned window on the north side, the bottom lights of which are blocked. The room over the bay window extends the width of the corridor over the great hall, and in two upper lights of its window preserves fragments of well-designed lead glazing. In the south wall upstairs, facing the corridor, is an eight-light stonemullioned window now built up and invisible from the outside, and the landing is lit by a smaller stone window of four lights, the mullions of which (through the settlement of the building) have fallen out of the perpendicular.


Hyde Hall: South Front

The floor of the room over the porch is now nearly level with the side of the window, the lower lights of which are made up, but was formerly much lower, presumably at the level of the present porch ceiling. (fn. 65) It seems to have been raised to the level of the upper floor at the time the present stairs were erected. (fn. 66)

There are no features of interest in the west wing. It has been wholly modernized internally, but it preserves its 17th-century mullioned windows on the upper floor. The building is now used as a farmhouse, but the great hall and rooms over are unoccupied, and after careful restoration are now preserved in something like their original aspect.

To the north of the house are the farm buildings, forming three sides of a large quadrangle, of which the house occupies the fourth side. These were mostly erected about 1839, but a portion of the west side is older, the initials R H M with the date 1687 being carved on a wood beam over the stable door. (fn. 67)

The oxgang of land held by Adam de Hulton had been acquired in 1319 by Adam and Avice his wife from Alexander son of Roger de Denton and Cecily his wife. (fn. 68) This land, described as the eighth part of the manor, (fn. 69) descended in the Hulton family for many centuries (fn. 70) and being augmented by the Hulton of Farnworth land, (fn. 71) Mr. Hulton's tenants were in 1597 called upon for the second largest contribution to the minister's stipend. (fn. 72) This land seems to have been sold with the Hyde estate, as above.

The Denton family's holding it is difficult to trace in the absence of deeds. Roger de Denton in 1309 granted Alexander de Heaton land belonging to two oxgangs in Gotisbucth, and land belonging to one oxgang in Bedecroft, in exchange for land between Thorisbrook and the Merebrook between Denton and Haughton. (fn. 73) In 1341 Richard son of Alexander de Denton claimed by right of inheritance a fourth part of the manor of Denton against Adam son of Richard de Hulton and Robert the Tailor of Tatton. (fn. 74) The latter defendant was omitted in subsequent suits, (fn. 75) and in 1348 Richard continued his claim against Avice widow of Adam de Hulton; (fn. 76) four years later he renewed it against Thomas de Booth. (fn. 77)

A family surnamed Moston (fn. 78) had an estate, once described as a fourth part of the manor, which appears to have been merged in those of the other owners in Denton. (fn. 79)

Among the other landowners of Denton in the 16th and 17th centuries were the Barlow, (fn. 80) Hulme, (fn. 81) Reddish, (fn. 82) and Tyldesley (fn. 83) families. In 1597 an agreement as to twenty-four messuages on forty parcels of land reclaimed from the waste of Denton and Haughton was made between Richard Holland, Robert Hyde of Norbury, Alexander Reddish, Alexander Barlow, Adam Hulton, Robert Hyde of Denton, Thomas Ashton of Shepley, and Ralph Haughton on the one part, and Sir Robert Cecil, Hugh Beeston, and Michael Hicks on the other. (fn. 84)

From the land tax returns of 1789 it appears that Lord Grey de Wilton and William Hulton paid twothirds of the tax; the remainder was contributed by a number of owners in small sums. (fn. 85)

In 1846 the land was held by twenty-seven proprietors, the principal being the Earl of Wilton, Miss Mary Woodiwiss, and the trustees of Ellis Fletcher, these together holding two-thirds of the total area. (fn. 86)

CHURCH

The church of ST. LAURENCE (formerly St. James, the dedication having been changed about 1800 by the rector) (fn. 87) stands on the south side of the town, and is a low timber building on a stone base, consisting of chancel, north and south double transepts, and nave with a bell-turret at its west end. The nave alone is ancient, and is a simple parallelogram 76ft. long by 23 ft. wide. The chancel and transepts were added in 1872, and are built in a style similar to that of the original structure. The chancel is 26 ft. in length and 18 ft. in width, and the transepts project 18 ft to the north and south, and are 35 ft. wide. These measurements are all internal. The framework of the original structure is composed of oak posts and transverse beams in the usual manner of timberframed buildings. At the end of the 18th century the church was in so dilapidated a condition that the roof was taken off and reslated with the old stone slates, and the ancient walls encased in cement on the outside and lath and plaster within. There were further repairs in 1816, 1837, and 1862.

The exterior of the building, though retaining in general its original appearance of black and white work, preserves in reality no ancient detail. The north wall has a plaster face painted to represent halftimber work, while the south and west walls have been boarded over and treated in a similar manner. The lines of the ancient timbers are apparently followed, the walls being divided at about half their height by a horizontal piece, and the lower division filled with upright studs, while the upper part has four windows on each side, and the spaces between filled with diagonal battens. A cove runs round the entire building under the eaves. The west gable is now without a barge board, but is said to have had an ornamental one at the end of the 18th century. The bell-turret, which is painted to represent halftimber work, has a pointed roof with a weather-cock.

The original church is divided into six bays, the four western of which are 14 ft. from centre to centre and formed the nave, and the two at the east end, which are only about 10 ft. wide, the chancel. At the end of the 18th century, and probably earlier, there was no division between the nave and chancel, a space at the east end being simply railed off for the holy table, but about the year 1800 a small projecting chancel was added. This remained till 1872, when the whole of the present east end of the church, which is faced all round with genuine timber and plaster, was added.

The interior is almost entirely modernized, the division of the bays alone marking the original arrangement. A gallery, which still remains in a modernized form, was set up at the west end in 1728 with a baptistery and churchwardens' pew under. A large family pew was built out at the north-east, but was done away with when the transepts were dded. The east end of the chancel projects 10 ft. beyond the walls of the transepts, the western part being open on each side to the transepts and fitted with wooden screens, against which the quire seats are set. It is lit by a five-light window at the east and two-light square-headed windows on the north and south.

The nave has three modern square-headed windows of three lights at each side, placed high in the walls, with a five-light window at the west on each side to light the gallery. Under the gallery are two small windows on the north side, and one on the south. The roof is the original one of plain timber restored, with a ceiling at about half its height. The gallery is gained by a staircase on the south of an inner wooden porch, but seems to have been originally approached from the outside by a door which still remains. (fn. 88)

The church was re-seated in 1859, (fn. 89) but the two square pews at the west end under the gallery still remain. That on the north side has a good 18th-century stone font on a new shaft, and the churchwardens' pew on the south side has a portion of a well-shaped 18th-century pew back, which formerly bore the date 1726 on a plate. The seats north of the central passage were originally allotted for the exclusive use of the inhabitants of Denton, and those on the south to Haughton and Hyde.


St. Laurence's Church, Denton

The fittings are modern, but in the chancel are ten oak panels, of late Gothic style, now much obscured by paint, measuring 2 ft. by 1 ft., let into the front and ends of the modern quire stalls. They are said to have been, in the 18th century, in the front of the gallery, but there is nothing to show whether they were originally made for the church.

In the north and south windows of the chancel and in the window under the gallery on the south side, are collected fragments of 16th-century glass, and other smaller pieces occur in the middle lights of the transept windows. In 1855 (fn. 90) these were all in a five-light window at the east of the chancel, but not in their original position. They are evidently parts of a very interesting set, but are too fragmentary to make it possible to discover their original arrangement. The window on the north of the chancel has a shield in each of its lights, one made up of fragments being quarterly, and over all a bend with three escallops (perhaps for Spencer), with helm, mantling, and imperfect crest, while the other has Argent on a cheveron between three lozenges sable, a crescent of the field (probably intended for the arms of Hyde though the tinctures are wrong), and underneath it a female (?) figure in purple with hands uplifted, kneeling before an altar on which is an open book, and with a label bearing the words 'Miserere mei.'

The window on the south side has in its eastern light an angel with a label on which is inscribed 'Ave Maria gratia,' and in the second light the figure of a saint in a green robe holding in his hands what has been taken to be a gridiron (St. Laurence). Underneath is a portion of a dedicatory inscription, 'Armigi' et Katherine … fenestrã fieri feceru …' The glass in the window under the gallery is still more fragmentary and confused, showing portions of inscriptions, figures, and shields.

The fragments of inscriptions have been probably brought from other windows and mixed up in an entirely unintelligible manner. In the three lights of the window they appear to be as follows, but are difficult to decipher in places owing to the presence of the leading:—

(1) 'Edward cui Knolis et … uxis … [fi]eri … feceru[nt].

(2) … et Christian W … d[omin]i m'ccccc'x

(3) Jahane uxors sue … [Ri]cardi supprt et Rod Catherine uxors sue … . an hac dau Johane uxors sue … .

Booker gives three inscriptions on glass in different parts of the building, portions of which bear some resemblance to the fragmentary inscriptions given above, but most of those noted by him appear to have been lost or destroyed. Two of these bore respectively the dates 1531 and 1532, and the names of Hyde and Nicholas and Robert Smith occurred. Judging from the fragments remaining and the records of those that have now disappeared, the 16th-century chapel at Denton seems to have been rich in coloured glass.

The fragments of old glass in the transept windows are very small and include 'I.H.C.' in a circle, the arms of Hyde, part of a figure in red, a head, a shield of arms (Argent a lion rampant gules crowned or), the head of a martyr saint, and a shield with the letter R.

On the west wall of the north transept are two 17th-century monuments, one with a long Latin inscription, (fn. 91) to the memory of Edward Holland (died 1655) and his wife Ann (Warren). The inscription is on a brass plate beneath an entablature supported by columns, and above is a shield with the arms of Holland with a label for difference impaling Warren, Checky or and azure on a canton gules a lion rampant argent: and two crests for Holland (Out of a coronet or a demi-lion rampant holding in the dexter paw a fleur de lis argent), and Warren (On a cap of estate gules turned up ermine a wyvern with knotted tail argent, wings expanded checky or and azure.)

The second monument is a small marble tablet 18 in. square to Eleanor Arden wife of Ralph Arden (or Arderne) and daughter of Sir John Done, from which the inscription is almost effaced, the letters having only been painted. Above on a separate shaped piece are the arms of Arderne, Gules three crosslets fitchy and a chief or impaling Done, 1 and 6 Azure two bars argent over all on a bend gules three broad arrows of the second. 2, Vert a cross engrailed ermine, over all on an escutcheon argent a bugle sable. 3, Gules a lion rampant argent. 4, illegible. 5, Azure two bars argent; with the crests of Arderne, Out of a coronet or a plume of five feathers argent, and Done, A hart's head couped at the shoulders proper.

On the corresponding side of the south transept is a good 18th-century monument to Dame Mary Assheton (died 1721), daughter of Robert Hyde of Denton, with the arms and crest of Assheton, and over all a shield of pretence with the arms of Hyde.

During the restorations in the first half of the last century, on the whitewash falling from the walls, several words in an old English lettering were revealed, and eventually the whole history of Dives and Lazarus was laid bare. This was covered up when the walls were newly plastered, but is still in existence.

There is a single bell in the turret, originally cast by Abraham Rudhall in 1715, but recast in 1896.

The plate is modern with the exception of two 17th-century chalices, one inscribed 'The coppe for the Lord's table,' and the other 'A communion cup given to Denton chappel by Mris Mary Done.'

The registers of burial begin in 1696 (fragments in 1695) and baptisms in 1700. There are marriage registers from 1711 to 1723, after which there is a gap of fifty-five years.

The churchyard surrounds the building, with roads on the east, south, and west, and entrances at the east and south-west. The latter entrance has an ancient timber lych-gate with stone slated roof, probably of the same date as the church. There was formerly a yew tree on the south side, but it was in a very decayed state in 1796, (fn. 92) and was cut down four years later. Another tree now marks its position.

ADVOWSON

The chapel of St. James was built on the waste in 1531–2, (fn. 93) and in 1534 an agreement was made by the tenants as to the levy for the payment of the chaplain. (fn. 94) Beyond this there was no endowment, (fn. 95) but Richard Holland in 1618 left £100 towards the purchase of an annuity of £20 for 'a godly minister to preach the word of God and read divine service,' to be nominated by the Hollands and Hydes or their successors. (fn. 96) In 1719 the certified income was £12, to which voluntary contributions of about £10 were added. (fn. 97) The right of patronage was disputed in 1677, the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church claiming to present to this as to the other curacies; the Hollands, however, succeeded in acquiring or retaining the patronage, which has descended to the Earl of Wilton. A formal renunciation was made by the warden and fellows in 1750. (fn. 98) A district chapelry was assigned in 1839. (fn. 99) The following is a list of curates and rectors:— (fn. 100)

c.1611Humphrey Tylecote (fn. 101)
c.1630Charles Broxholme (fn. 102)
1631John Angier, B.A. (fn. 103) (Emmanuel College, Camb.)
1677John Ogden (fn. 104)
1679Roger Dale (fn. 105)
1691Joshua Hyde (fn. 106)
1695Noah Kinsey, M.A. (fn. 107) (Pembroke College, Camb.)
1696Daniel Pighells (fn. 108)
1707John Berry, M.A. (fn. 109) (Sidney-Sussex College, Camb.)
1709John Jackson (fn. 110)
1720— Grey (fn. 111)
1723Joseph Dale (fn. 112)
1750William Williams, M.A. (fn. 113) (Brasenose College, Oxf.)
1759William Jackson, B.A. (fn. 114) (Brasenose College, Oxf.)
1791William Parr Greswell (fn. 115)
1853Walter Nicol, M.A. (Glasgow) (fn. 116)
1869Charles James Bowen, B.A. (fn. 117) (Trinity College, Camb.)
1881David Rowe

Christ Church, for which a district was formed (fn. 118) in 1846, was consecrated in 1853, the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester having the patronage alternately. (fn. 119)

The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have churches in Denton. (fn. 120) The Congregationalists also have one. (fn. 121)

The Roman Catholic school-chapel of St. Mary, with the title of the Seven Dolours, was built about 1870; the mission was separated from Ashton in 1889.

Footnotes

1 Booker, Denton (Chet. Soc.), 9–13; the trade was almost ruined about 1850 owing to the prevalence of the silk hat, which the Denton hatters had not adopted, and to strikes. A few years later the introduction of new forms of the felt hat led to a revival.
2 Lond. Gaz. 24 Mar. 1857.
3 Some uncertainty must exist until it can be determined whether or not the two oxgangs of land in Haughton were part of the eight in Denton.
4 After Withington had been acquired by the lords of Manchester, Denton was reckoned a hamlet of Manchester; e.g. Towneley MS. DD, no. 1511.
5 Lord Wilton's D. The land was to be held of Matthew de Reddish and his heirs; the first witness was Matthew son of William de Withington.
6 Ibid. The two oxgangs of land were held of Robert de Reddish; they were occupied separately, one by Jordan, brother of the grantor, who had Richard son of Robert de Hyde as an under-tenant.
7 Ibid. The date is about 1280. There was a remainder to Geoffrey, brother of William.
8 Ibid.
9 Ibid. In 1306 William le Norreys of Heaton granted to Alexander, his brother according to the flesh, all the right of succession he might have to land in Denton; and in 1308–9 gave all the lands, &c., in his possession in Denton, 'which is in the fee of Withington,' while another deed of the same year calls the grantee Alexander de Shoresworth. Robert son and heir of William le Norreys in 1310–11 released to Alexander de Shoresworth all his right in two oxgangs of land in Denton.
A large number of Holland of Denton deeds and abstracts are contained in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 145/181, &c. Among these is one by William le Norreys, lord of Heaton, to Robert de Shoresworth and Cecily mother of William; ibid. fol. 164/ 200. Many deeds are printed from the originals in Mr. W. F. Irvine's Holland of Knutsford (1902).
10 Robert son of William de Shoresworth in 1281 released to his uncle Alexander de Shoresworth all his lands, &c., in Denton; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 149/185. Alexander, who was probably acting as trustee, would thus have the whole of Cecily's land in his possession. In 1325–6 he made a feoffment of his capital messuage and lands in Denton in the vill of Withington, Adam de Ryecroft, vicar of Huyton, being the feoffee; and Adam immediately regranted them, with remainder to Thurstan son of Margaret de Shoresworth; ibid. fol. 148b/184b. To these deeds Sir William de Holland was a witness.
11 Margaret de Shoresworth was twice married—to Henry de Worsley and to Robert de Radcliffe, as will be seen in the accounts of Worsley and Radcliffe. Her connexion with Sir William de Holland is not clearly known; she may have been married to him invalidly. In 1330 Alexander de Shoresworth granted all his lands, &c., in Denton to Margaret daughter of Robert de Shoresworth, and she at once granted to Thurstan her son all her messuages and lands in Denton under Doneshagh in the vill of Withington, with remainders to William son of Robert de Radcliffe, to John brother of Robert, and to Robert son of Henry de Worsley; Lord Wilton's D. Five years later Thurstan regranted the same to his mother; ibid. Margaret de Shoresworth was still living in 1348, when she recovered seisin of her lands in Bolton, Manchester, Pendleton, Wardley, Barton, Myerscough, Heaton, and Denton against Thurstan son of Sir William de Holland and Richard son of Thurstan; Assize R. 1444, m. 7 d.
In 1314–15 land in Pleasington had been settled upon Sir William de Holland and Joan his wife, with remainder in default of issue to Thurstan son of Sir William; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 158b/ 194b. Thurstan is described as son of Sir William in other deeds; e.g. ibid. fol. 156/192. In 1355 he was called 'our cousin' by Roger La Warre, in a demise of the park of Blackley; ibid. fol. 160b/ 196b.
12 See below in the account of the Moston family.
13 In that year the feoffee regranted him the manors of Heaton and Denton; ibid. fol. 164b/200b.
Thurstan had a pardon from the king in 1348; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 145.
In 1359 the feoffees regranted to Thurstan de Holland all his messuages, lands, &c., in Denton, Heaton, Manchester, Bolton in Eccles, Barton, Bolton on the Moors, Harwood, Worsley, Myerscough, and Sharpies, with homages and services of the free tenants, with remainders to Richard his son and his issue by Amery daughter of Adam de Kenyon; to Robert and John sons of Alice de Cobbeleres; and to William son of Alice de Pussch; to William son of Robert de Radcliffe; to William son of Robert de Worsley; and to Sir Robert de Holland; ibid.
14 Richard is named in various grants from 1344 onwards. In that year he had a general grant of Denton and his other manors and lands from his father; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 164b/200b.
He commissioned his dear and good uncle Robert de Worsley to receive seisin of the same; ibid. fol. 154b/190b.
Richard seems to have been in possession of the manor in 1377, when an agreement was made by him with Richard son of Richard de Hyde respecting the marling of lands in Denton; Lord Wilton's D. He granted a lease of the manor to William de Hulme in 1383 at a yearly rent of 10 marks; ibid.
15 See a preceding note, and the account of Kenyon. The writ of Diem clausit extr. after the death of Amery was issued on 19 Feb. 1421–2; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 20.
16 a Mateshead is probably the Myerscough estate of preceding deeds.
17 Towneley MS. DD, no. 1461.
18 The writ of Diem clausit extr. was issued 12 Mar. 1422–3; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 24.
19 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 157/193, 159b/195b.
20 Thurstan son of Richard de Holland, acting with his brothers William and Nicholas, had in 1407 made a settlement of lands in Barton and Harwood on Margaret daughter of Gilbert de Abram, on her marriage with Thurstan the son of Thurstan; ibid. fol. 157/193. The elder Thurstan in 1421 made a further grant to Margaret wife of Thurstan de Holland his son; ibid. fol. 158/194.
A divorce on account of consanguinity was pronounced by the official of the archdeacon of Chester in 1430; ibid. fol. 149b/185b. Margaret thereupon released her jointure lands to Thurstan; ibid. fol. 153b/189b. Thurstan immediately afterwards married Margaret daughter of Sir Lawrence Warren of Poynton, making a feoffment of his manor of Denton and all his lands in Denton and Withington; ibid. fol. 149b/185b; Earwaker, East Ches. ii, 286. Margaret was his wife in 1439; Lord Wilton's D. Three years later Maud daughter of Sir John Honford was his wife; he settled lands in Denton called Brookwallhursts, Tochetcroft, &c., on her, his son Richard to make a further assurance on coming of age; ibid.
21 In 1456–7 Thurstan and his son Richard granted two burgages in Manchester, next to the Booths and the Market stead; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 162/ 198. They granted another burgage in the Millgate in 1460; ibid. fol. 161, 197.
22 In that year she became bound to Richard Holland son and heir of Thurstan; ibid. fol. 156b/192b.
23 These particulars are from the lengthy inquisition after the death of Thurstan Holland, 1510; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, 36. Closes called Bokulhurst, Newfield, Wheatfield, and the Five Acre in Denton were in 1497 settled on Robert, a younger son. The sons named in the feoffment of 1486 were Thurstan, William, and Thomas; that in 1487 was in favour of William and Thomas.
Lands in Kenyon and Lowton were in 1461 settled on Isabel wife of Richard son of Richard Holland; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 147b/183b. In 1468 Richard the father acknowledged that he had received 24 marks from Sir William Harrington in part payment of the marriage portion; ibid. fol. 159b/195b.
In 1486 an agreement was made as to the dower of Agnes widow of Richard Holland the elder; ibid. fol. 153b/189b. An agreement as to the bounds of their turbary on the moss called Ashton Moss and Denton Moss was in 1479 made between Sir John Ashton and Richard Holland; Lord Wilton's D.
24 Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 36, as above.
25 Ibid. iv, no. 58; many of the feoffments of the previous inquisition are again recited in this. Dower in Denton, &c. was in 1514 assigned to Elizabeth widow of Robert Holland; ibid. iv, no. 54. The wardship of Richard Holland was granted to John Byron; Duchy of Lane. Misc. Bks. xxii, 37 d.
26 One Richard Holland was knighted during the Scottish expedition of 1544, but his arms are given as 'per fesse azure and gules, three fleurs de lys'; Metcalfe, Knights, 77.
27 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 554.
28 P.R.O. List, 73.
29 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, 20. He married as his second wife Cecily, widow of Sir Robert Langley of Agecroft, and in 1562 settled on her the Hall of Heaton, with demesne lands, for her life. In 1570 he made provision for his younger sons Edward and John, and granted the capital messuage of Denton Hall with other lands to trustees for his six daughters, until the sum of 1,200 marks had been received. A pedigree was recorded in 1567; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 18.
30 See the account of Heaton in Prestwich. The additions to the estate may have been made by his father. Richard Holland was sheriff of the county in 1580–1 and 1595–6; P.R.O. List, 73. He was knight of the shire in 1586; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lancs. 67.
31 Booker, Denton (Chet. Soc.), 16.
32 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 141–7. The inquisition recites a grant made by Richard in 1613, whereby his brother Edward became possessed of the manors of Denton, Heaton, Kenyon, and Sharples, with messuages and lands there and elsewhere; partly to the use of his wife Margaret—her lands including closes in Denton called Holland Moors, Debdale, Titchetcroft, Turf Pits, and Blackbent; to his sons by her, and then to Edward Holland. The heirs were Robert son of Jane Dukinfield; Maria Eccleston, widow; Frances wife of John Preston; Elizabeth wife of Arthur Aldebrugh; William son and heir of Margaret Brereton; all of full age, except the last, who was only fourteen.
33 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, 42; the rent for the manor and lands of Denton, held of Edward Mosley, is given as 15½d. See also Funeral Certs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 204.
34 Booker, op. cit. 16.
35 Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 45, 52.
36 Ibid. 222, 333; his reasons were that the defenders had neither powder nor shot, that the auxiliaries would want to return to their houses in the open districts around, and that the enemy's forces were increasing.
37 Ibid. 74.
38 Ibid. 154.
39 Ibid. 181; this was the first unsuccessful siege.
40 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 73, 75.
41 Booker, op. cit. 16.
42 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 146. William Holland entered Brasenose Coll. Oxford in 1627, and became M.A. in 1633; Foster, Alumni. He was fifty-two years old in 1664. His succession to the estates was quite unexpected.
43 He appears to have left Malpas finally about 1676, his reasons for nonresidence being printed by Booker, op. cit. 18, 19; his will is printed ibid. 21.
44 Ibid. 20; see also the account of Heaton. 'In 1711 the Denton estate of the Hollands, as appertaining to Sir John Egerton in right of his wife, was under lease to twelve tenants, the annual rental amounting to £162 9s. 8d. Denton Hall and the demesne was in the occupation of one William Bromiley, who paid for it a rent of £105 6s. 1d. In 1744 the tenantry numbered eighteen, and the rental had increased to £216 2s. 2d. In 1780 the same lands were held by seventeen tenants, and were subject to a rent of £294 6s. 8d. The entire property was held by lease of lives, and the above returns of rentals are exclusive of fines paid on the renewal of leases. By the terms of their respective leases the tenants were also pledged to the payment of certain rent-boons consisting of a dog and a cock, or at the landlord's option their equivalent in money—for the dog 10s., for the cock 1s.—the landlord thus providing for his amusement in hunting and cock-fighting in a manner least onerous to himself'; ibid. 23.
45 Holland: 1 and 4. Azure semée of fleur de lys a lion rampant argent. 2. A cross engrailed. 3. Argent on a bend sable three lozenges of the field. Over all a bend. Langley of Agecroft: 1 and 4. Argent a cockatrice sable. 2 and 3. A mermaid with comb and mirror. The shield is identified with Richard Holland who died in 1618, having married Margaret daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Langley of Agecroft. The initials R. H. were formerly on one of the lights of an upper window. See Booker, op. cit. 23–6.
46 Mamecestre, ii, 291; the waste of Denton contained 200 acres (by the greater hundred), the lord of Manchester participating in virtue of two oxgangs purchased by Robert Grelley from John the Lord, who had held them of the lord of Withington. The other participators were Alexander de Shoresworth, Alexander de Denton, John de Hyde, Hugh son of Richard de Moston, and Ellis de Botham. Twenty-five acres—one-eighth—might be approved in respect of the two oxgangs.
47 Ibid. ii, 364; the tenant held for life.
48 Ibid. iii, 483; the rent was 13s. 4d. and the tenure described as socage. John Hulton died in 1487 holding ten messuages, 200 acres of land, 40 acres of meadow, and 200 acres of pasture in Denton of Sir Ralph Longford by services unknown; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. iii, 26.
49 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 245. The two parts of an oxgang rendered 4s. 2d. yearly, or nearly the same as 13s. 4d. for two oxgangs. Robert Grelley was the purchaser of the latter, according to the extent of 1320; the other one and a third may have been in the lord's hands in 1282.
50 Mamecestre, ii, 290.
51 Hyde of Denton Charters in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 159, 153. Robert son of John de Hyde was in 1292 non-suited in a claim against Thomas Grelley for common of pasture in Withington; Assize R. 408, m. 29.
52 Stephen de Bredbury about 1270 granted to John the Clerk of Stockport an oxgang of land in Denton, which Stephen's brother Robert occupied, at a rent of 1d.; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 153. The charter is among Lord Ribblesdale's deeds. Geoffrey de Manchester, perhaps heir of John, granted to Robert de Brinnington the oxgang which Robert de Bredbury held; and Simon called the Serjeant granted his land in Denton to the same Robert de Brinnington; ibid. fol. 154. Robert de Brinnington in 1282 acquired half an oxgang of land in Denton from Benedict de Dewysnape and Hawise his wife; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 139.
Robert had a son Adam, who as 'Adam son of Robert de Brinnington in Denton under Donishaw,' granted to Alexander son of Robert de Shoresworth, with remainder to William de Shoresworth, land in Denton—'all my part of the old burnt land' between bounds thus described: From the head of Crossfield lache along the old ditch by 'Stobslade' to the boundary of 'Oldewyneschawe' (Audenshaw); up Dede lache to the new ditch next the moss, and so back to the start; and lands in Wildemare lode, Gotesbuyth, Milesaundes riddings, Lydiate hursts, Salefield (except in Struyndeley), Brockwalhurst, Dene Evese, Newfield, and 'Stoblade' (except the Dedych dale); also half his waste within and without the bounds of Denton (except in the Denecroft); Lord Wilton's D.
The grantee was no doubt the Adam surnamed 'de Denton,' who gave his lands to Ellis de Botham and Maud his wife (probably daughter of Adam) in 1304; and in 1317 (11 Edw. I appears in the transcript for 11 Edw. II) Ellis granted the same to John son of Alexander de Hyde; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 153–4. Maud, as widow of Ellis, released her claim in 1333; from her deed it appears that there had been an exchange of lands between Botham and Hyde; ibid.fol. 154. The land exchanged may have been the oxgang which Hugh son of Richard de Moston had demised to John son of Alexander de Hyde in 1308–9, and which Richard, the brother and heir of Hugh, appears to have released to John; ibid. fol. 153.
53 Ibid. fol. 154.
54 Ibid.; the declaration was made in Stockport Church, perhaps on the betrothal of Richard son of Richard.
55 Ibid.; the grant was of all his messuages and lands in Denton in the vill of Withington. From the same charters it appears that Richard de Hyde, probably the younger Richard, granted lands in Romiley to his son John and heirs in 1395–6; ibid. fol. 154.
There is little notice of the Hydes in the public records. The writ of Diem clausit extr. after the death of Nicholas Hyde of Denton was issued on 20 Nov. 1420; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 19. In 1429 Robert de Hyde (of Norbury) complained that Geoffrey de Shakerley and Isabel his wife, widow of Nicholas de Hyde, had taken away Ralph, the son and heir of Nicholas, whose marriage belonged to the plaintiff in virtue of a messuage and lands in Denton held by the deceased. The defence was a grant made by Nicholas; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 2, m. 19.
Ralph son and heir apparent of Nicholas de Hyde in 1428 agreed to marry Margaret daughter of Robert de Dukinfield; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 155. This Ralph Hyde of Denton was still living in 1471, when he granted all his goods, &c., to trustees; but he seems to have died shortly afterwards, and Margaret his widow is named in 1479; ibid. fol. 156.
Nicholas son and heir apparent of Ralph was in 1457 contracted to marry Margery daughter of Thurstan Holland, lands in Denton and a rent of 13s. 4d. from Reddish Mill being settled on the bride; ibid. fol. 156. In 1468 Ralph, the son and heir of Nicholas, was contracted to marry Agnes daughter of John Arderne; ibid. fol. 154. Ralph probably died, for in 1479 William, the son and heir apparent of Nicholas, was to marry Ellen daughter of Richard Moston; fol. 154. In 1525 William Hyde of Denton, being over seventy years of age, was excused from attendance on assizes, &c.; ibid. fol. 155. The age must have been overstated. Two years before this it had been agreed between William Hyde and Alexander Elcock of Heaton Norris, merchant, that the former's 'cousin and heir' (probably grandson) William should marry the latter's daughter Katherine; lands in Denton of the yearly value of £4 were assigned to Katherine for her life, a similar estate being held by Ellen, wife of the elder William, and by Margaret, then wife of Thomas Browne; fol. 155. It appears that Margaret was the mother of the younger William; she was living in 1546, but died before 1552; fol. 157.
56 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, 51.
57 Ibid. Pedigrees were recorded in 1567 and 1613; Robert was still alive in the latter year; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 17 (1567), and 52 (1613). In 1598 a marriage was made between William son and heir apparent of Robert Hyde and Eleanor daughter of John Molyneux of West Derby, reserving the dowry of Anne wife of Robert Hyde and sister of Ralph Arderne of Harden; in 1608 a remainder to Edward, second son of Robert, was agreed upon; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 155.
58 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, 89; Hamnet Hyde of Norbury was the superior lord. The will of William Hyde is printed in Booker's Denton, 27–8; the inventory amounted to £898, and he left his Bible in two volumes, Mr. Hildersam's works, the clock in his parlour, and other things to Alice his daughter-in-law. A settlement of their estates was made in 1630 by William Hyde of Denton, Robert his son and heir apparent, and Alice wife of Robert and one of the daughters and coheirs of Thomas Crompton of Crompton, on the one part, and Robert Dukinfield of Dukinfield and Robert Ashton of Shepley on the other part; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 155.
59 He was a D.L. of the county in 1642; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 2. For his presence at the attack on Manchester see ibid. 45, 52; he opposed the surrender; ibid. 333. He was a member of the Presbyterian Classis; Shaw, Manch. Classis (Chet. Soc.).
60 His will is printed in Booker, op. cit. 30–3. A pedigree was recorded in 1665; Dugdale, Visit. 161.
61 He was a currier in Fennel Street, of penurious habits, and died in 1830. having amassed a great fortune; Axon, Manch. Annals, 179.
62 This part of the descent is taken from Booker's work, 33–5. The field names in 1782 included the Pingot, Rosliffe, Holt, and Warth. Two closes called the Chapel Fields were sold to William Bromiley.
There is a monument to Dame Assheton in Denton Church; she died in London on 16 June 1721, and was brought to Denton for burial.
63 a The bottom lights, however, are built up all round.
64 Information from Mr. James Watts, the owner.
65 There is now a space between the porch ceiling and the floor of the room above.
66 What the former staircase arrangement was is not very clear, but a portion of what looks like a landing with flat balusters, and the bottom of a newel post, may be seen under the ceiling at the north end of the ground floor passage near the entrance.
67 Booker gives a view and description of the hall in Denton, 35–8.
68 Final Conc. ii, 39. In 1280 Alexander de Denton had granted four marcates of rent in Denton to Cecily sister of Richard de Hulton; Lord Wilton's D. These are probably the Alexander and Cecily of the fine. Adam de Hulton and Avice his wife in 1325 failed to prosecute a claim they had made against John de Hyde of Denton, Alina his wife, and Richard de Moston, touching tenements in Withington (probably in Denton); Assize R. 426, m. 1 d.
69 Robert the Tailor of Tatton, in right of his wife Alice, claimed the eighth part of the manor of Denton held by Adam de Hulton in 1332; De Banco R. 292, m. 109d. The plaintiffs afterwards surrendered their rights to Adam de Hulton; it appears that Alice claimed as heir of her brother William de Gringley; Sir W. Hulton's D.
In 1344 Richard son of Alexander de Denton claimed the fourth part of the manor of Denton against Adam son of Richard de Hulton and Avice his wife; De Banco R. 338, m. 126 d.
Adam de Hulton in 1413 settled a messuage and lands in Denton on his son Roger and Joan his wife; Final Conc. iii, 71.
70 William Hulton of Over Hulton, who died in 1555, held messuages and lands in Denton of Ralph Longford in socage by a rent of 8d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, 40. Adam Hulton, his son and successor, died in 1572 holding lands there by a rent of 8½d.; ibid, xiii, 4. See also Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 267, where the tenure is described as knight's service—apparently referring to the lands formerly Hulton's of Farnworth.
71 Hulton Ped. 42. Part of this was sold to Thurstan Tyldesley, as appears by a later note.
72 Booker, Denton, 6–8. The contributions were: from Mr. Holland's tenants 21s. 6d., Mr. Hulton's 12s. 4¾d., Mr. Hyde's 9s. 8d., and Mr. Haughton's 6s. 1½d.
73 Lord Wilton's D. From this it would seem that Roger held three oxgangs.
74 De Banco R. 326, m. 271.
75 Ibid. 328, m. 369; 333, m. 92 d.
76 Ibid. 353, m. 118 d. Richard claimed by a grant made to his father Alexander in the time of Edward II by one William de Tintwisle. Avice replied that what was called a fourth part of the manor was two oxgangs of land in Denton only, and that they had been granted to Adam de Hulton by Alexander son of Roger de Denton, she holding for life with reversion to Roger the son of Adam. The fine above cited (which, however, concerns one oxgang only) was referred to.
77 Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 2 d. (July). The defence was that Thomas was not in possession.
78 The Moston family have been mentioned in preceding notes.
In 1256 Richard de Moston made complaint of a ditch overthrown in Denton; Orig. 40 Hen. III, m. 9. In 1278 he appeared as plaintiff in a similar case against Robert Grelley; Assize R. 1238, m. 31; 1239, m. 39. Richard lord of Moston in 1319–20 granted to Richard his son an oxgang in Denton, with the reversion of another then occupied by the grantor's son Hugh; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 163/199. John son of Hugh de Moston in 1346 granted rents from his lands in Denton to Richard and Hugh, sons of Henry de Tyldesley; Lord Wilton's D.
79 a William de Moston in 1349 claimed a fourth part of the manor of Denton and 30 acres of land against Thurstan son of William de Holland; De Banco R. 359, m. 13; 362, m. 14. Again in 1352 Thomas son of William de Abney of High Peak claimed the fourth part of the manor against Thurstan de Holland, alleging that he was brother and heir of one Adam de Abney, whose land had been wrongfully taken by Richard de Moston, the vendor to Thurstan; his claim was rejected; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 9 (Pentecost); see also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 334. An agreement was afterwards made between the parties; Lord Wilton's D.
80 Sir Alexander Barlow in 1620 held land in Denton and Haughton of Hamnet Hyde of Norbury in socage, by a rent of 18d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 206. From the account of Barlow in Chorlton it will be seen that the connexion of the family with Haughton can be traced back to about 1400.
81 Booker, Denton, 39. William Hulme of Reddish in 1637 held a barn, &c., in Denton, also a messuage and lands lately improved from the waste; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxviii, 3. This forms part of the estate of the Hulme Trustees.
82 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 253.
83 Thurstan Tyldesley in 1560 purchased from Adam Hulton and Clemency his wife ten messuages and various lands in Denton, Openshaw, and Gorton; those in Denton he appears to have sold in 1564 to John Haughton; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdles. 22, m. 39; 26, m. 116.
84 Ibid. bdle. 58, m. 203; see also Booker, op. cit. 5, where it is stated that 292 acres of the waste were inclosed at that time, whereof Richard Holland received 79, Robert Hyde of Norbury 88, Adam Hulton 46, Robert Hyde of Denton 38, Robert Hulme 6, Robert Ashton 5, Alexander Reddish 1, Ralph Haughton 22, and Alexander Barlow 7.
85 Returns at Preston.
86 Booker, op. cit. 9.
87 'Deceived by false information (Britton and Brayley, Beauties of England and Wales, ix, 288) Mr. Greswell has been led to assign to the structure an earlier date of foundation than the facts of the case warrant and has perpetuated the error by an inscription … "Struxit Ricardus Holland de Denton, armiger, anno Edwardi IV septimo"'; Booker op. cit. 46. The inscription unfortunately remains on the south side of the church.
88 a The outer door, which is now blocked up, at one time gave access to the churchwardens' pew.
89 There had been a partial renewal of the seats in 1768. A citation was issued on 6 October of that year for repewing the south side, 'the seats, stalls, and forms therein having by length of time become old, ruinous, and decayed.'
90 Booker, op. cit. 43.
91 a Given in Glynne, notes of 1892.
92 Gent. Mag. 22 Nov. 1796.
93 Booker, op. cit. 41. A description of the building, which was chiefly of timber, is given; there was neither chancel nor communion table till about 1800. A small pew was built outside the north wall in 1676 by Robert Hyde, who was deaf; it had an opening into the church near the pulpit. A double re-christening took place in 1772; ibid. 120. There is a view of the building in 1793 in Nightingale's Lancs. Nonconf. v, 286.
94 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 164/200; it was intended to raise £20 by an assessment of 2½d. an acre; Booker, op. cit. 51.
95 The chapel was confiscated by Edward VI, the inhabitants acquiring it for 20s. It had a chalice, also confiscated; Raines, Chant. (Chet. Soc.), 278, 270. At the end of Elizabeth's reign it was served by a 'reader'; there was neither Bible nor surplice; Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 60. There was still 'no surplice' in 1604; Visit. Presentments at Chester. About 1610 there was a curate paid by the inhabitants; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 11.
96 Booker, Denton, 52. A house on the chapel yard was afterwards built; after it ceased to be used by the minister, it was for a time a public house, but was taken down in 1853; ibid. 59. In 1650 this house and garden were valued at 16s. a year; there was also a chapel stock of £5; Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 12. An allowance of £50 out of the sequestered tithes of Kirkham was made in 1648; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 64; afterwards £40 was allowed out of the tithes of Manchester; ibid. ii, 55.
97 Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 84.
98 Booker, op. cit. 62–9.
99 Lond. Gaz. 29 Mar. 1839; 16 June 1854.
100 This list is taken almost entirely from Booker, op. cit. 70–111, where biographies will be found, together with a number of illustrative documents. John Brereton was in 1576 licensed as 'reader' for Denton Chapel; Pennant's Acct. Bk. Chester.
101 H. T. Crofton, Stretford (Chet. Soc.), i, 61.
102 He was silenced for nonconformity; Booker, op. cit. 70. Also named Broxopp.
103 One of the most famous Puritans of Lancashire. He signed the 'Harmonious Consent' of 1648, and was not disturbed in 1662. His Life was written by Oliver Heywood; Booker, op. cit. 71–8 (with pedigree); W. A. Shaw in Manch. Classis, iii, 406–8; Dict. Nat. Biog. See also Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 86.
104 Samuel Angier, nephew of the late minister, was rejected for nonconformity and John Ogden was nominated by the warden and fellows. The people were hostile and he stayed there only a year; Booker, op. cit. 79–87.
105 This appointment was made by the landowners—W. Holland and R. Hyde— and agreed to by the warden and fellows. Mr. Dale, 'a great preacher of loyalty and obedience,' exasperated many of the people by 'bringing the surplice, Book of Homilies, &c.' See Booker (op. cit. 88– 102) for the attempt to get rid of him in 1685. He took the curacy of Northenden in 1690, and became rector of Radcliffe.
106 Nominated by the warden and fellows with the consent of Sir John Egerton; ibid. 103–5.
107 Ibid. 105; nominated by the warden and fellows.
108 Ibid. 106; nominated by the warden and fellows.
109 Ibid.
110 Ibid.
111 Ibid. At this time the Denton people's 'indifference to the Church was so great that a small disobligation would be sufficient to make them join the Dissenters'; ibid. 107.
112 Ibid. 107–8; nominated by Holland Egerton. He was schoolmaster of Stockport and son of Roger Dale, a former curate; Earwaker, East Ches. i, 418.
113 Booker, op. cit. 108; he was senior fellow of his college. The dispute as to the patronage was settled at this time.
114 Ibid. 109. He also was master of Stockport School and was curate of Newton in Manchester; Earwaker, op. cit. i, 418.
115 Booker, op. cit. 109–11, where a list of his works is given; five of his sons became fellows of colleges at Oxford, and another was master of the Chetham Hospital.
116 Afterwards rector of Newton St. Petrock, Devon.
117 Exchanged with his successor, the latter being rector of Wroot, Lincolnshire.
118 Lond. Gaz. 17 Mar. 1846.
119 This church owes its existence to the efforts of the Rev. Richard Greswell, of Worcester College, Oxford, a son of the incumbent of the old chapel; Booker, Denton, 124–7.
120 The Wesleyans erected a chapel in 1816; ibid. 128.
121 Ibid. 128. Hope Chapel was built in 1837, and quickly enlarged. It was replaced by the present church in 1877; Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. v, 314–16.


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