The parish of Ashton-under-Lyne
Introduction, manor & boroughs

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1911

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338-347

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'The parish of Ashton-under-Lyne: Introduction, manor & boroughs', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 338-347. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41438 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE

Eston, 1212; Ashton, 1277; Aston, 1278; Asshton, Asheton, Assheton, 1292; Ashton-under-Lyme, 1307; Assheton-under-Lyme, 1345. Lyne, for Lyme or Lime, seems to be modern.

This single-township parish (fn. 1) occupies the southeastern corner of the county, and has an area of 9,494 acres. The surface is hilly, particularly in the east; a long ridge, attaining a height of 1,000 ft., stretches from north to south near the eastern border, various spurs shooting out to the west. These spurs are separated from each other by the Medlock and its tributaries, and by other streams flowing into the River Tame, which forms the eastern and southern boundary of the parish. (fn. 2) There are numerous bridges over this river. The Millstone Grit series occurs in the valley of the Tame and northward to Lees. Westward the Lower and Upper Coal Measures follow in sequence until on the western side of the parish the Lower Red Sandstone of the Permian Rocks occurs at Audenshaw and extends towards Droylsden and the Manchester Waterworks.

The population was thus returned in 1901: Ashton Town, 43,890; Audenshaw, 7,216; Little Moss, 595; Woodhouses, 832—8,643; Knott Lanes, including Alt, 1,037; Bardsley, 2,194; Crossbank, 1,077; Lees, 3,621; Waterloo (with Taunton), 3,858— 11,787; Hartshead (with Hazelhurst), 745; Hurst, 7,145; Mossley, 13,452; Stalybridge, 27,673— 49,015; making a total of 113,335; but some places outside Lancashire are herein included.

The town of Ashton stands on an eminence overhanging the Tame, near the centre of the southern boundary, and having Stalybridge (fn. 3) immediately to the east. From Ashton itself the principal roads branch out, to Oldham on the north, Manchester on the west, Stalybridge on the east, and Mossley and Yorkshire on the north-east. The town is for the most part laid out in streets crossing each other at right angles, the Oldham and Manchester roads giving the lines; the older portion, at the eastern end, where there is a bridge over the Tame, shows less regularity.

The first railway in the parish was that from Manchester to Sheffield, authorized in 1831. This is now part of the Great Central system. It crosses Audenshaw from west to east, and there are now two stations, Fairfield and Guide Bridge; at the former is a junction with the company's line from Central Station, Manchester, and from Guide Bridge one branch runs east to Ashton (Park Parade) and Stalybridge, with stations, while another branch goes north to Oldham, with stations called Ashton (Oldham Road) and Park Bridge; and a third connects with the London and North Western Railway Company's lines. This company opened a line from Manchester to Ashton in 1842, with stations at Droylsden (on the border of Ashton and Droylsden), Ashton (Charlestown), and Stalybridge; and a branch goes south to the Stockport line, with a station at Audenshaw. The same company's line from Stockport to Huddersfield runs through Hooley Hill, Stalybridge, and Mossley, where there are stations; while the line from Oldham to Delph crosses the northern corner of the parish, with a station called Lees.

The Manchester and Ashton Canal, begun in 1792, goes east through Audenshaw, and passing along the south side of the town of Ashton crosses into Cheshire at Stalybridge. There are branches northward to Oldham.

The parish was formerly divided by custom into four 'divisions,' (fn. 4) which were often styled townships, viz. (i) Ashton Town, 1,373½ acres, bounded on the east by Cock Brook, and on the west by Ashton Moss, with the hamlets or suburbs of Chamber Hills, Over-steads, Lees Fields, Charlestown, Ryecroft, Moss Side, and Guide Bridge; (ii) Audenshaw, 2,589½ acres, in the west, containing, beside Audenshaw proper with North Street, Hooley Hill, High Ash, Shepley, Little Moss, Waterhouses, Woodhouses, Sunderland, Medlock Vale, and Buckley Hill; (iii) Knott Lanes, on the north, 2,417 acres, with Wood Park, Cross Bank, Alt Edge, Taunton, Waterloo, Bardsley, Lees or Hey, Mill Bottom, Birks, Rhodes Hill, Lanehead, High Knolls, Alt, and Alt Hill; (iv) Hartshead, on the east, 3,114 acres, with Stalybridge, Mossley, Hurst and Higher Hurst, Smallshaw, Greenhurst, Hazelhurst, Heyrod, Luzley, Souracre, and Ridge Hill. In 1894, Stalybridge being added to Cheshire, the remainder of the parish of Ashton was divided into the existing townships of Ashton-under-Lyne, Audenshaw, Little Moss, Waterloo, Hurst, Woodhouses, Bardsley, Alt, Lees, (fn. 5) Hartshead, Cross Bank, and (part of) Mossley.

Of these Ashton and Mossley are boroughs; Audenshaw, Hurst, and Lees obtained local boards in 1874, (fn. 6) 1861, (fn. 7) and 1859, (fn. 8) respectively, and became urban districts in 1894, with councils of twelve members each; the rest of the townships, forming the rural district of Limehurst, are governed by parish councils. Waterhouses, described by Ben Brierley as 'Daisy Nook,' has become a summer afternoon resort.

In Audenshaw is a large reservoir belonging to the Manchester Water Works. At Hartshead is the Twarl Hill tithe-stone, where it is said tithes were formerly paid. (fn. 9) On Hartshead Pike was a conical pillar, built 1751, surmounted by a hart's head; it fell down about 1820, but was partly rebuilt in 1863 to commemorate the marriage of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. (fn. 10) Near Lees was a noted chalybeate spring called Lees Spa; there are other similar ones in the parish. In the bed of the Medlock are the so-called Druidical basins.


INDEX MAP TO THE PARISH OF ASHTON UNDER LYNE

INDEX MAP TO THE PARISH OF ASHTON UNDER LYNE

The public buildings include a mechanics' institute founded in 1825, clubs, and a theatre. The infirmary was built in 1859–60, and a children's hospital in 1893; a nurses' home has been added.

A Volunteer regiment was raised in 1803. (fn. 11) Ashton is the headquarters of the 3rd V. B. Manchester Regiment; the drill hall was built in 1887. There are barracks at Hurst, built in 1843.

There are two weekly newspapers and an evening daily paper.

The market cross was taken down in 1829. (fn. 12)

The ceremony of 'riding the Black Lad,' still to some extent kept up, was performed on Easter Monday; the effigy of a knight in black armour was paraded through the streets on horseback in derision, afterwards hung up on the old market cross and used as a target, being finally plunged in a stagnant pool. There are contradictory accounts of the origin and intention of the ceremony. (fn. 13) The 'gyst ale' was another Ashton custom. (fn. 14) The annual wake, formerly kept on the third Sunday in September, is now held on the Sunday next after 15 August.

In Ashton Moss red fir trees used to be dug up, and split up for light for the poor; large oaks were also found.

Copper tokens were issued in Ashton in the middle of the 17th century. (fn. 15)

A cotton mill was established at Stalybridge in 1776, (fn. 16) and the manufacture rapidly grew under the favourable conditions of easy water carriage and abundant coal supply. The modern industries of the district, in addition to this staple trade, include hatmaking, brewing, and silk-weaving; there are also iron foundries, engineering works, machine factories, and collieries. At Ashton Moss are market gardens. Audenshaw has cotton factories and engineering works, and some hat factories; Hurst also has great cotton mills and some hat-making, together with collieries; at Lees, again, are cotton mills, as also at Mossley. Stalybridge has much the same industries as Ashton itself; also nail-making, and some woollen manufacture. (fn. 17)

The agricultural land is now apportioned thus: arable land, 173 acres; permanent grass, 5,574; woods and plantations, nil. (fn. 18)

The history of the place, apart from its modern manufacturing progress, has been quite uneventful save for the political and industrial riots which have broken out from time to time. To the 'fifteenth' Ashton paid £2 14s. out of £41 14s. 4d. charged on the hundred of Salford, and to the county lay of 1624 it paid £5 16s. out of £100. (fn. 19)

In addition to some of the lords of the manor and one or two of the rectors, the local worthies include John Chetham, psalmodist, who died in 1746; William Quarmby of Hurst, a poet, who died in 1872; Thomas Earnshaw, watchmaker, 1749–1829; (fn. 20) James Butterworth, the topographer, born in 1771 at a place called Pitses; (fn. 21) the Rev. John Louis Petit, artist, 1801–68; (fn. 22) Evan Leigh, inventor and manufacturer of cotton-spinning machinery, 1811– 76 (fn. 23) ; and John Dean Blythe, miscellaneous writer, 1842–69. (fn. 24)

The above were natives of Ashton. Joseph Rayner Stephens, brother of George Stephens the runic archaeologist, at first a Methodist preacher, caused a schism in the body at Ashton as mentioned later, and as an agitator and journalist exercised great influence in the town and district for many years from 1840 onwards. He died in 1879. (fn. 25)

MANOR

Originally ASHTON appears to have been rated as three plough-lands, of which two became part of the estates of the lords of Penwortham, and the third, together with the advowson of the church, was attached to the barony of Manchester. (fn. 26) The former portion, Ashton proper, is probably the two plough-lands held by one Warin in 1086, by grant of Roger of Poitou. (fn. 27) It also was granted to the lords of Manchester, and in 1212 Robert Grelley held the two plough-lands and should render 20s. or a goshawk; (fn. 28) but Albert Grelley, the father, or perhaps the grandfather of Robert, had given to Roger son of Orm 'the whole land of Ashton, with all its appurtenances,' with other lands, just as the said Roger had held them of Albert's father, at the rent of 20s. or a hawk. (fn. 29) This Roger was the ancestor of the Kirkbys of Kirkby Ireleth, and the lordship of Ashton descended in this family till the 17th century.

In the reign of Henry II William de Kirkby granted Ashton to one Orm, probably a relative, who thus became the immediate lord, and whose descendants assumed the local surname. (fn. 30) A later Orm de Ashton, who is described as the 'son of Roger' in a fine of 1195, (fn. 31) was living in 1201. (fn. 32) He was succeeded by his son Thomas, (fn. 33) and Robert de Ashton occurs in 1254, (fn. 34) but the descent in the absence of evidence cannot be made out quite clearly. In 1274 Thomas de Ashton defended his title to the manor of Ashton against John de Kirkby, (fn. 35) and in 1284 an agreement was made between them by which Thomas's right was acknowledged, a rent of 1d. being due from him. (fn. 36) It is perhaps the same Thomas who occurs a number of times to 1307, (fn. 37) while in 1320 John de Ashton held the manor of the lord of Manchester, rendering 20s. at the four terms and a hawk or 40s. at Michaelmas. (fn. 38) In 1335 he procured from the king a grant of free warren in the demesne lands of Ashton. (fn. 39) John de Ashton, apparently the same person, died about 1360, leaving a son and heir under age, his wardship and marriage being claimed by Sir John de Kirkby. (fn. 40) The claim no doubt succeeded, for Margaret the widow of John de Ashton sought dower against Kirkby in 1366, (fn. 41) and in 1375 John son of John de Ashton called upon him to give account of the issues of his lands in Ashton. (fn. 42)


Kirkby of Kirkby. Argent two bars gules, on a canton of the second a cross patonce or.


Ashton of Ashton. Argent a pierced mullet sable.

John de Ashton is said to have distinguished himself at the siege of Noyon in 1370, (fn. 43) and represented the county in Parliament in 1382, 1388, and 1390. (fn. 44) He was apparently father of Sir John de Ashton his successor, (fn. 45) prominent in the French wars of Henry V, and Seneschal of Bayeux in 1416. (fn. 46) In 1413 Sir John obtained a release of the service due from the manor. After reciting that he held it of Sir Richard de Kirkby by the rent of 1d., and that Sir Richard held it of Thomas La Warre, lord of Manchester, by the rent of 22s. and a hawk or 40s., which services Sir John de Ashton had to render on behalf of Sir Richard, the feoffees of Thomas La Warre granted that Sir John, Sir Richard, and their heirs should be free from the said service after the death of Thomas. (fn. 47) This Sir John died in 1428, holding the manor of Ashton of Robert de Ogle (in right of his wife Isabel, granddaughter and heir of Sir Richard Kirkby), and other manors and lands. Thomas, his son and heir, then twenty-five years of age, (fn. 48) came to be known as 'the Alchemist'; (fn. 49) he left a son John, (fn. 50) made a knight in 1460. (fn. 51) Sir John died in 1484, holding the manor of Ashton, with the advowson of the church, lands in Manchester, Oldham, and Wardle; and the manor of Alt. Sir Thomas, his son and heir, was sixty years of age in 1507, when the inquisition was taken. (fn. 52)

In 1513 Sir Thomas Ashton made a feoffment of his manors of Ashton and Alt, and his lands and rents there and in Oldham, Hundersfield, and Manchester, for the fulfilment of his will; and died a year later, on 21 July 1514, leaving as heirs George Booth, son of his daughter Margaret, who had been the wife of Sir William Booth, and his other daughters Elizabeth Ashton, and Alice wife of Richard Hoghton, all of full age. (fn. 53) In accordance with Sir Thomas's will the estate was held for the use of the three heirs, a division being sought in 1537. (fn. 54) Elizabeth Ashton died on 31 December 1553, without issue, (fn. 55) so that afterwards the manor and lands were held equally by the Booths (fn. 56) and Hoghtons. (fn. 57) Before the close of the 16th century, however, the whole had come into the possession of the former family, (fn. 58) and descended to George Harry Grey, seventh Earl of Stamford and Warrington, who died in 1883. (fn. 59) Under his will, it is stated, the Lancashire estates are to pass to his wife's grandniece, Katherine Sarah, wife of Sir Henry Foley Lambert, baronet. (fn. 60) Trustees are in possession.


Booth. Argent three boars' heads erect and erased sable.


Hoghton. Sable three bars argent.

Ashton Old Hall stood on the south side of the church on elevated ground about 200 yds. north of the River Tame and overlooking its valley. Dr. Aikin described it in 1795 (fn. 61) as a building of great antiquity, and attributed its erection to about the year 1483, but there seems to have been no particular reason for his assigning this date to the structure.


Ashton-under-Lyne Old Hall

Adjoining to it (he wrote) is an edifice which has the appearance of a prison, and till of late years has been used as such. It is a strong rather small building with two round towers overgrown with ivy, called the dungeons. The prison is now occupied by different poor families. It has two courtyards, an inner and an outer, with strong walls. Over the outer gate was a square room ascended to from the inside by a flight of stone steps and very ancient. It has always gone by the name of the Gaoler's Chapel . . . [but] was taken down in 1793. The house to the inner court is still standing, and in tolerable repair. . . . The front of the old hall adjoining the prison overlooking the gardens and the River Tame [has] a beautiful prospect. On this side of the building are strong parts of immense thickness with numbers of loopholes. (fn. 62)

The main building was repaired and modernized in 1838 for the occasional residence of the Earl of Stamford, thereby no doubt losing a good deal of its ancient appearance. By the middle of the last century it was L-shaped on plan, but an earlier plan of the town published in 1824 shows it possessing a short east wing running northward from the south-east corner. This, however, must have disappeared before 1862, when an account of the building was written by John Higson, a local antiquary. (fn. 63) The long west wing overlooking the valley had then two small bays and projecting chimney-shafts in its west front, but was covered with rough-cast coloured black. On its east side the greater part was also rough-cast, but a portion at the south end near the 'dungeons' was of timber and plaster. The roofs were covered with stone slates. The east inner elevation had doors and windows with semicircular heads, and over the door was an escutcheon with the arms, crest, and supporters of the Earl of Stamford, all this work being probably part of the 1838 reconstruction. Before that date the hall had long been divided into several tenements with separate entrances, having passed into non-resident possession as far back as the 16th century, at which time probably a floor was introduced into the great hall. A portion of the roof in 1862 is said to have had shaped braces forming quatrefoils in the spaces between the principals and purlins, showing that it was originally intended to be seen. The rooms, however, had been so much modernized that every trace of antiquity had been removed or concealed, though in the second story there were mullioned and transomed windows with diamond glazing. (fn. 64)


Grey, Earl of Stamford. Barry of six argent and azure.

The south wing was thought by Higson to be not o'der than about 1500, or probably later. It had three square-headed windows on each floor of two trefoiled lights, and was flanked at each end by a round tower standing a little in advance of the main wall, and rising considerably higher than the roof. The walls of the towers were about 2 ft. 6 in. thick at the bottom, and the interior was square to the height of two stories, above which it finished off as a circular tower. The roofs were of stone with a central finial, and the towers had evidently served the purpose of garderobes.

At this time there was no trace of the two courtyards mentioned by Aikin. 'The gaoler's chapel was probably an offshoot or irregular continuation to the dungeon wing and some old buildings since removed, (fn. 65) but then seeming to form a third side, and probably there had been a fourth, rendering the building quadrangular.' (fn. 66)

Still later the front of the south wing appears to have had new and longer windows of three lights inserted, those on the first floor having pointed heads. The building, whose original appearance had long been marred not only by alterations to the structure, but by the change in its surroundings, was pulled down in 1890 by the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway Company, who had purchased it prior to extensions and improvements of the Park Parade Station. With so little trustworthy evidence to go upon, it is difficult to assign any date to the erection of the hall or to convey any but a vague idea of its plan and disposition. Mr. Higson inclined to about the year 1480 for the west wing, with portions, perhaps, a little older, but there was some work belonging apparently to alterations in the 17th century.

A Gallows Meadow adjoined the hall.

The manor mills were closed in 1884, and have since been removed.

The manor of ALT has been mentioned above as part of the holding of the lords of Ashton. The tenure is uncertain, it being sometimes stated to be held of the barony of Manchester, (fn. 67) but more usually of the king as Duke of Lancaster as of his manor of Salford. (fn. 68) It seems at one time to have been held by a local family, (fn. 69) and there is no record of its acquisition by the Ashtons. (fn. 70) It disappears from notice as a manor in the 16th century.

The custom roll of the manor of Ashton for 1422 has been printed. (fn. 71) The lord gave a dinner to his tenants and their wives on Yule day, the tenants at will making regulated 'presents' to him at the same time. A tenant was to plough one or two days, according as he had half a plough or a plough; to harrow one day, to cart ten loads of turf from Doneam Moss, 'shear' four days in harvest, and cart corn for one day; at death each paid a 'principal,' i.e., the best beast he had after the due of holy kirk. The tenants were to grind at the lord's mill to the sixteenth measure; if they bought corn they should 'muller' to the Love sucken, i.e. to the twenty-fourth measure. (fn. 72) The names of the tenants at will, with their services and rents, follow: John of the Edge farmed both corn mills at 16s. 4d., 'the lord to hold up the mills at his costs, as it has been customed.' The 'gyst ale' of the town of Ashton amounted to 20s. in all; the tolls of fairs and markets 2 marks; (fn. 73) the courts and fines, 40s. There were a few tenants for life, but the list of free tenants is a long one. The tenants at will took their farms, &c., from Martinmas to Martinmas, and were bound to leave everything in as good condition as they found it. The free tenants took part in the business of the hallmote and assisted in preserving order. By an agreement made in 1379–80 the tenants' swine, if ringed, were allowed to range over the demesne from the end of harvest until sowing-time.

A manor court is still held every six months, its jurisdiction extending over the whole parish.

In the absence of records no account can be given of the descent of the various free tenancies in Audenshaw, (fn. 74) Alt, Asps, Alston (fn. 75) lands, Bardsley, (fn. 76) Beckington Field, (fn. 77) Heyrod, (fn. 78) Hurst, (fn. 79) Knolls, (fn. 80) Light Birches, (fn. 81) Lees, (fn. 82) Mossley, (fn. 83) Palden, (fn. 84) Rasbotham, (fn. 85) Rougheyes, (fn. 86) Rhodesfield, (fn. 87) Shepley, (fn. 88) Sherwind, (fn. 89) Sunderland, (fn. 90) Taunton or Tongton, (fn. 91) Three Houses, (fn. 92) Waterhouses, (fn. 93) Woodhouses, (fn. 94) and Williamfield. (fn. 95)

The Hospitallers (fn. 96) and the priory of Lenton (fn. 97) had lands in the township.

The freeholders in 1600 (fn. 98) were Miles Ashton of Heyrod, (fn. 99) Robert Ashton of Shepley, (fn. 100) Randle Hulton of Sunderland, (fn. 101) and Richard Shalcross of Limehurst. (fn. 102) A few other names can be gathered from the fines and inquisitions. (fn. 103) At Alt Hill in the 18th century were seated the Pickfords, ancestors of the Radcliffes of Royton. (fn. 104)

BOROUGHS

With the growth of the town on the introduction of the cotton manufacture, the manorial government soon became inadequate, and in 1827 and 1828 Police Acts were obtained for the regulation of ASHTON. (fn. 105) The market, which had fallen into decay, was revived in 1828, Saturday being the day chosen. A market place was in 1829 presented to the town by the lord of the manor; a covered market was built on the site in 1867, and was enlarged in 1881. (fn. 106) This is now open daily. The old fairs were replaced by others on 23 March, 29 April, 25 July, and 21 November. There was a local tradition that Ashton had been a borough, (fn. 107) and though the election of a mayor had become obsolete a revival was made in 1831. In the following year, under the Reform Act, Ashton—the parliamentary borough consisting merely of the division called Ashton town (fn. 108) —was privileged to return a member of Parliament; but a municipal charter was not granted until 1847, when the council was constituted of a mayor, eight aldermen, and twentyfour councillors. The borough was divided into four wards—Market, St. Michael's, St. Peter's, and Portland Place. (fn. 109) The town hall, (fn. 110) built in 1840, was enlarged in 1878. Gas is supplied by a company established in 1825, (fn. 111) water is under public control, (fn. 112) and the corporation has established electricity works. Baths were opened in 1870. The cemetery, formed in 1866, is in Dukinfield in Cheshire. The town has a commission of the peace and a police force; it has also its own fire brigade. Stamford Park at Highfield, opened in 1873, is managed by the corporations of Ashton and Stalybridge jointly. The West-end Pleasure Grounds near St. Peter's Church were opened in 1893. The Libraries Act was adopted in 1880, and a library was opened in the town hall a year later; in 1893–4 this was removed to the new technical school, presented to the town by the trustees of the late George Heginbottom. The arms used by the corporation are those of the Ashton family differenced by a crescent gules. (fn. 113) The plate includes the mace, mayor's chain and badge, and silver lovingcup. (fn. 114)

STALYBRIDGE

STALYBRIDGE, chiefly in Cheshire, though taking its name from a former hamlet in Ashton, obtained a Police Act in 1830, (fn. 115) and was incorporated in 1857. The boundaries were extended in 1881 to include Millbrook in Stayley and Heyrod in Ashton. It has a council composed of mayor, eight aldermen, and twenty-four councillors. The whole was included in Cheshire in 1898. (fn. 116)

MOSSLEY

MOSSLEY, (fn. 117) formed from the three counties of Lancaster, York, and Chester, has since 1888 been included in Lancashire for administrative purposes. A local board was formed in 1864, (fn. 118) and a charter of incorporation was granted in 1885; the council consists of mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors.

Footnotes

1 Accounts of the parish were printed in 1822 by James Butterworth, and in 1842 by his son Edwin. A history of the parish by William Glover was issued in parts in 1884 and later years. An account of the geology was given in 1839 by Charles Clay, M.R.C.S.
2 A full description of the bounds, from an old document (wrongly dated 1643) and from the 'walking' of 1857, which occupied eleven days, will be found in Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 428–9.
3 This place takes its name from Stayley (otherwise Staveley or Staley) on the Cheshire side of the river and the bridge there, which is mentioned in 1621; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), iii, 868.
4 In 1617 the Fifteenth book shows the following divisions: Ashton Town: Audenshaw, with Shepley, Little Moss, Waterhouses, and Woodhouses; Knott Lanes, with Park, Alt Hill, Alt Edge, Lees, Cross Bank, Thornley, and High Knolls; Hartshead, with Smallshaw, Hurst, Hazelhurst, Mossley, Luzley, Lanes, Lyme, and More in New Ground; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 430. The document is printed in full in Jas. Butterworth's Ashton, 155–65.
Much the same are the hamlets recorded in the hearth-tax return of 1666. There were 538 hearths liable, of which in Ashton proper the houses of Richard Hurst and Nicholas Walker had six each, of Rector Ellison, five; at Audenshaw — Robert Ashton, ten, and John Sandford, six; at Little Moss—William Bell, eight; and at Woodhouses—Samuel Jenkinson, seven. No other dwelling had as many as six hearths; Subs. R. bdle. 250, no. 9.
5 For an account of Lees see Oldham Notes and Gleanings, 11, 5, 14, 24; also ibid. i, 78.
6 Lond. Gaz. 3 July 1874.
7 Ibid. 19 Apr. 1861; district extended by 37 & 38 Vict. cap. 1.
8 Lond. Gaz. 30 Sept. 1859; the district was called Lees with Crossbank.
9 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xv, 195.
10 Ibid. xv, 35. There is a view of the old tower in Aikin's Country Round Manchester, 211; the writer (p. 231) describes the Pike as 'a favourite and well-known object for the surrounding country, which is seen at a considerable distance, and in general has been supposed to be a sea mark. It is situated on very high ground betwixt Oldham and Mossley, from whence the traveller has a most delightful view of the surrounding country. We have ascertained from good authority that it was formerly used as a beacon, and there are others in the neighbourhood to answer it.'
11 Local Gleanings Lancs. and Ches. ii, 206.
12 For this and the crosses at Hurst and Mossley see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 118–23.
13 W. E. A. Axon, Black Knight of Ashton.
14 Harland and Wilkinson, Lancs. Traditions, 85.
15 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 73.
16 An account of the cotton manufactures of the district will be found in E. Butterworth's Ashton, 80–9.
17 Dr. Aikin, writing in 1795, says:— 'This place [Stalybridge] has been famous, for a great length of time, for woollen cloth, dyers, and pressers, as well as weavers. These branches still continue to flourish. Here and in this neighbourhood commences the woollen manufactory, which extends in various directions as we proceed to Saddleworth'; Country Round Manchester, 230.
18 Details are given as follows:—
                                Arable Acres     Grass Acres
Ashton                              89                    190
Knott Lanes                       5                    1,407
" "                                     2                     224
Hartshead                         —                   1,155
Audenshaw                       75                   1,077
Woodhouses                      1                    519
Mossley                             1                    1,002
19 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 18, 22.
20 Dict. Nat. Biog.
21 See the account of Oldham.
22 Dict. Nat. Biog.
23 Ibid.
24 Ibid.
25 a Ibid.
26 This third plough-land was probably Moston in Manchester.
27 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 287.
28 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 34. It is stated that he did not render any service; he had passed it over to his sub-tenant.
29 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 403, and note.
30 From a plea of 1276; De Banc. R. 15, m. 4.
31 Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), iii, 172. Roger (de Burton) and Orm his brother are called sons of Roger son of Orm. Their mother was a daughter and co-heir of Richard de Lancaster. William de Kirkby was son of Roger son of Orm son of Ailward; his father was the grantee of Ashton from Albert Grelley.
32 Lancs. Pipe R. 116, 153. Orm de Ashton granted part of his land in Ashton to Robert son of Simon de Statlee (Staley); the boundaries mention Hurst and Greenlache; Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 121b. Orm son of Roger gave land called Mugehale to Cockersand Abbey; Chartul. i, 214. As Medlock and Sunderland are named in the bounds, the charter must refer to this township, though entered in the section relating to Ashton in Preston.
33 Thomas son of Orm de Ashton made to Richard de Byron a grant of a moiety of the land between the Reed Brook and Stony Brook, the Medlock and the bounds of Werneth, at a rent of 12d. a year; Byron Chart. (Towneley MS.), 7/19.
Some early charters are preserved by Dodsworth, loc. cit. Thomas de Ashton gave to Ralph son of William Ruffus of Staley all his land of Souracre, in the Olerene hey, the Helm rode, and the Otford bottom, which lands had formerly been held by Richard Ruffus (Roo); he also granted land within the bounds of Loseley (Luzley), the meres beginning at the Bicestal (Bestal).
34 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 193. Robert de Ashton released to Robert de Byron the services due from Greenhurst and Sunderland, viz. 18d. a year from each; Byron Chart. 9/22. William son of Thomas de Ashton released to Sir Richard de Byron all claim in the land called Greenhurst, as contained in the charter of his brother Robert; ibid. n. 8/20. It is possible that William and Robert were the sons of the later Thomas de Ashton, but they may have been grandsons of Orm.
Robert de Ashton granted to Ralph Ruffus de Staley part of his land within the fee of Ashton lying between the Bicestal and the Water Walsyke; to which charter William son of Olibern de Ashton was a witness; Dods. ut supra. Richard le Roo and Sir Henry de Trafford were defendants in 1351; John de Heghgren, the plaintiff, did not prosecute; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 5.
35 De Banc. R. 11, m. 3; 15, m. 4 (printed in Lancs. Pipe R. 405); 21, m. 8 d.; 27, m. 29; 28, m. 24 d. Six oxgangs of land and the advowson of the church were excepted from the claim for the manor. The oxgangs were perhaps in the hands of free tenants, while the advowson belonged to the lord of Manchester.
36 Final Conc. i, 162; the dispute had therefore occupied ten years.
Thomas de Ashton was a juror in 1282, when he was said to owe the rent of a sor goshawk annually as one of the free foreign tenants of Manchester; he also did suit for Parbold, Dalton, and Wrightington; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 244, 246, 248.
37 Thomas de Ashton in 1292 was defendant to claims made by Richard de les Lees of Ashton for a right of way and for common of pasture; Assize R. 408, m. 21. At the same time inquiry was made whether or not Adam son of Simon the Serjeant of Ashton had held a messuage and lands, which should descend to his son John, a minor; Thomas de Ashton held them, alleging a grant by Adam, made long before his death; ibid. m. 34 d.
Henry de Ashton recovered a messuage and land against Gervase de Ashton, who claimed as brother and heir of William de Ashton. It was shown that William had made the grant to Henry while under age, but had given a release when twenty-three; ibid. m. 11 d.
Thomas de Ashton and Cecily his wife in 1305 made a feoffment of a messuage and land in Ashton; Final Conc. i, 206; De Banc. R. 162, m. 200 d.
A settlement of the manor was made in 1307, Thomas de Ashton granting it to John son of Thomas de Ashton, a minor, with remainders to Robert the brother of John; to William son of Adam Banastre; to Alexander brother of Thomas for life; and to Robert brother of Richard de Ashton for life; Final Conc. i, 212.
38 Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), ii, 290. The mesne lordship of the Kirkbys is omitted.
John son of Thomas de Ashton was defendant to a number of claims made in 1337 by Richard de Staley, John del Heyrod, Richard de Clayden, Robert del Hurst, William de Bardsley, and John de Audenshaw; Assize R. 1424, m. 11, 11 d.; 1425, m. 2 d. The claimants were perhaps the holders of the 6 oxgangs. John son of Thomas de Ashton was a defendant again in 1346; De Banc. R. 346, m. 1.
39 Chart. R. 9 Edw. III, m. 5, no. 23. He had licence to impark Lyme Park in Ashton in 1337; Cal. Pat. 1334–8, p. 406. In 1346 John de Ashton, in virtue of these grants, proceeded against John de Ainsworth and William son of Robert de Newton for breaking his park and taking deer; De Banc. R. 348, m. 98 d.; see also Coram Rege R. 317, m. 133.
In the same year he appeared to show cause why he had not received knighthood, his defence being that his landed estate at the time of the royal briefs of 1341 and 1344 had not been worth £40 a year; he held six messuages at Ashton yearly worth 4s. each clear, 40 acres of land worth 12d. an acre, 12 acres of meadow worth 2s. each, 20 acres of wood worth 12d. each, and 100s. rent; Q. R. Mem. R. 122, m. 137 d.
John de Ashton appears as plaintiff or defendant in various suits in subsequent years. In 1357 he charged John le Hunt, 'smithy man,' and Adam de Tetlow, with others, with cutting down his trees, and with breaking a close; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 8.
40 Assize R. 441, m. 3, 5; De Banc. R. 408, m. 136 d. The defendants were William son of Robert de Radcliffe; William son of William de Radcliffe, and Margaret his wife; John Massy, rector of Sefton, and Robert son of Robert de Legh.
41 De Banc. R. 422, m. 332 d.; Margaret had married William de Radcliffe, as above.
42 Ibid. 457, m. 312 d.; see also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 361.
43 See notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog.
44 Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lancs. 39, 43, 44.
45 Sir John de Ashton and John his son occur in 1391–2; Dods. MSS. xxxix, fol. 121b.
The king in 1401 granted to his dear bachelor John de Ashton the wardship of all the lands of Richard de Byron, deceased, with annuities to Robert, Piers, and Nicholas de Ashton; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 65.
Sir John de Ashton was knight of the shire in 1411 and 1413; Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 47, 49.
46 See the notice in the Dict. Nat. Biog.; Sir H. Nicolas, Agincourt, 359; Norman R. in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xli, xliv. A letter of his is printed by Ellis, Original Letters (Ser. 2), i, 72.
47 a Manch. Corp. D. See also Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 19; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 28.
48 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.) ii, 22; the value of the manor is given as £40 a year. The service is not stated. Sir John de Ashton had purchased the advowson of the church from Thomas La Warre; ibid. ii, 18. See also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 30.
Sir John's younger son, Roger, was the ancestor of the Ashtons of Middleton, Great Lever, and Downham.
49 He was a partner with Sir Edmund Trafford in the licence to transmute metals, granted in 1446; see the account of Stretford; also Dict. Nat. Biog. He was in 1442 exempted from serving on assizes, &c.; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 537.
50 The descent is given thus in a document which may be dated about 1510, relating to the manor of Manchester, of which Sir John Ashton appears to have been a trustee in 1413: Sir John—s. Thomas—s. John—s. Thomas; Pal. of Lanc. Sessional P. Hen. VIII, bdle. 4.
51 At the battle of Northampton; Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 2.
Sir John Ashton in 1471 complained that Ambrose Baguley of Manchester had trespassed on his turbary at Ashton; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 38, m. 2 d. He was knight of the shire in 1472; Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 57. In the following year he was returned as holding the manors of Ashton, Alt, and Moston (or, the other Moston) of the lord of Manchester, by the rent of 1d.; Mamecestre, iii, 483. 'Alt' may stand for altera.
52 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 137, 138.
Sir Thomas was made a knight at Ripon in August 1487; Metcalfe, op. cit. 18.
Deeds (dated 1494) relating to his marriage with Agnes, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir James Harrington, are enrolled in Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 79, m. 8; see also Sir James's will, &c. in Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 169, 171.
53 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, 80. He provided that 7 marks a year should be paid for an honest priest to sing and do divine service in Ashton Church for twenty years for the souls of the testator, his wife, parents, son John, brother Nicholas, &c.; also £40 for a new steeple and 20 marks for a table for the high altar. He made provision for his wife Jane, his bastard brethren Orm, Alexander, and Seth, and other relatives, and mentions lands in Elston, &c., lately purchased of Sir James Harrington, his fatherin-law. He had purchased the wardship of Richard son of William Hoghton, who had married his daughter Alice. His lands in Cheshire he left to the heirs male of Edmund Ashton of Chadderton, brother of his father Sir John Ashton. After the trusts for his wife and others had expired, the trustees were to hold all his manors, lands, &c., for the use of Sir Thomas and his right heirs. The estate was described as the manors of Ashton and Alt, with 160 messuages, 1,000 acres of land, 200 acres of meadow, 1,000 acres of pasture, 100 acres of wood, 500 acres of moss, 500 acres of moor, and £10 rent in Ashton, &c. The manor of Ashton was held of Thomas West, Lord La Warre, by the rent of 1d. The ages of the heirs were: George Booth, 25; Elizabeth Ashton, 42; Alice Hoghton, 22.
There are pedigrees in the Visitation of 1567 (Chet Soc.), 8, 20.
54 Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 162, m. 7d; 164, m. 10 d.
55 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, 18. Her portion thereupon descended to William Booth (son of George son of George son of Margaret) and Thomas Hoghton (son of Alice), aged seventeen and thirty-nine respectively. See Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), iii, 154.
56 George Booth (great-grandson of Sir Thomas Ashton) died 3 August 1543, leaving a son and heir William, three years of age. The estate is described as twenty-five messuages, &c., in Ashton and Oldham, a third part of two mills in Ashton, a third part of the moor, and a third part of the advowson; it being arranged that George (or his assigns) should present at the next vacancy; Elizabeth Ashton, widow, at the second vacancy; and Sir Richard Hoghton at the third vacancy; and so on in perpetuity. The will of George Booth is given; it names his wife Elizabeth, his daughters Elizabeth and Mary. His uncle Robert Booth had an annuity of £4 from Ashton.
57 Thomas Hoghton died in 1580, holding among other estates a moiety of the manor of Ashton; he was at Hoghton succeeded in turn by his brother Alexander and his half-brother Thomas the younger; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 26. With the death of Alexander in 1581 the male issue of Alice Ashton ceased, and the Hoghton share of Ashton should have gone to the Booth family; yet a moiety of the manor of Ashton-under-Lyne and the advowson of the church appear in the inquisition after the death of the younger Thomas in 1589; ibid. xv, 29. This statement may have been mistaken.
58 In 1595 the moiety of the manor is named among the Hoghton estates, and the manor in 1596 among those of George Booth; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 57, m. 178; 59, m. 41. George Booth of Dunham, son and heir of Sir William, stated in 1597 that his father had been seised of a moiety of the manor of Ashton, and had made certain estates in it, with reversion to plaintiff; but John Hunt and George Latham had recently inclosed divers parcels of waste on the moor called 'Odenshawe,' and had alleged that John Hunt was joint lord of the wastes and commons of the manor. The other 'wastes' were Luzley Moor, Mossley, and Little Moss. Robert Lees, a defendant, said that he was tenant to Richard Shawcross (in right of Katherine Shawcross, his wife, widow of Richard Hunt, grandfather of John), and had inclosed no waste grounds; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. clxxix, B 7.
In 1606 a settlement of the manor and advowson was made by Sir George Booth and Katherine his wife; Pal. of. Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 70, no. 23. A similar settlement was made in 1648 by Sir George Booth and George Booth; ibid. bdle. 143, m. 5. George Lord Delamere and Elizabeth his wife were in possession in 1671; ibid. bdle. 186, m. 12. For later recoveries, &c., see Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 464 (1696), m. 6; August Assizes, 37 Geo. III (1797), R. 9.
59 The pedigree of the Booths and their successors is thus given in Ormerod's Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 523–35: Sir William Booth of Dunham (d. 1519) married Margaret daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Ashton of Ashton-under-Lyne —s. George, d. 1531—s. George, d. 1543 —s. Sir William, d. 1579—s. Sir George, baronet (1611), d. 1652—s. William, d. 1636—s. Sir George, cr. Lord Delamere (1661), d. 1684—s. Henry, cr. Earl of Warrington (1690), d. 1693 —s. George, d. 1758 —da. Mary (d. 1772), married Harry Grey, fourth Earl of Stamford —s. George Harry, cr. Earl of Warrington (1796), d. 1819 —s. George Harry, d. 1845 —s. George Harry Booth, Lord Grey of Groby (1832), d. 1835 —s. George Harry, d. 1883, s.p. The heir male, who succeeded as eighth Earl of Stamford, was Harry Grey, descended from a younger son of Mary Booth and the fourth Earl thus: John Grey, d. 1802 —s. Harry, d. 1860 —s. Harry, eighth earl, d. 1890, who has been followed by his nephew William (s. of William), ninth Earl of Stamford. See also G. E. C. Complete Baronetage, i, 14; Complete Peerage, under Delamer, Warrington and Stamford. The following have places in Dict. Nat. Biog.:—Sir George Booth, Lord Delamere, who espoused the Parliamentary side in the Civil War, but in 1659 unsuccessfully attempted an insurrection in favour of Charles II; his son, Henry, Earl of Warrington, also a Presbyterian and Whig, suspected of various plots in the time of Charles II and James II; and his son George, second earl. The seventh earl was a benefactor of the town.
60 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vii, 232.
61 A Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles round Manchester. Views of the old hall, with the adjoining building, known as the Dungeon, and the Gaoler's Chapel, are given, p. 226.
62 Aikin, op. cit.
63 Quoted in W. Glover, Hist. of Ashtonunder-Lyne (1884).
64 Glover, op. cit. quoting Higson.
65 The wing shown on the plan of 1824.
66 Glover, op. cit. quoting Higson.
67 Hawise widow of Robert Grelley in 1295 claimed dower in one virgate in Alt against Thomas de Ashton; De Banco R. 110, m. 119 d. In the Manchester Survey of 1320 it is stated that John de Ashton held Alt by a rent of 2s.; Mamecestre, ii, 290.
68 This is the more usual account. In the survey of the Earl of Lancaster's lands in 1346 John de Ashton was said to hold half an oxgang in Alt in socage; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146. In 1429 the rent to the king as duke was given as 10d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 22. Later still the holding was called one oxgang; ibid. ii, 137. In 1514 the rent was again stated as 10d. and the clear value of the manor was 20 marks; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, 80.
69 Alban de Alt occurs about 1200; Lancs. Pipe R. 330. Eva de 'Halt' was of the king's gift in 1222–6, and was to be married; her land was worth 12d.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 130. Thomas son of William de Alt in 1276 claimed a free tenement in Paldenley against Robert son of Robert de Tounton and Margery de Hache, but failed, because Paldenley was not a town or borough, but only a place in the field of Ashton; Assize R. 405, m. 1. In 1292 Richard son of Robert de Turton unsuccessfully claimed one tenement in Alt against Margery daughter of Robert de Alt and Richard son of Robert de Tong, and another (by writ de consanguinitate) against Thomas de Ashton; Assize R. 408, m. 32, 30 d. Adam son of Ellis de Alt acted for Thomas de Ashton in 1307; Final Conc. i, 212.
70 Sir John Ashton who died in 1428 had assigned Alt as dower to his wife Margaret at the door of the church on the day he married her; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 22. In 1507 a later Sir John had held Alt 'as Hugh de More of Alston and Richard the son of Robert Spymne had held it'; ibid. ii, 138.
71 Chetham Soc. lxxiv, 93–116.
72 Ibid. 95, 109, 112.
73 The charter for the markets and fairs does not seem to have been preserved, but it is stated that an exemplification was granted to Sir George Booth in 1608, showing that the charter was dated '13 February, 14 Henry Sixth (1413),' to Sir John de Ashton, for two fairs yearly on the eve, feast, and morrow of St. Swithin (2 July) and of St. Martin, and a weekly market on Monday; Jas. Butterworth, Ashton, 31. The dating is obviously wrong; perhaps it should read '14 Henry Fourth (1413),' which is a possible date. In 1498 Sir Thomas Ashton was summoned to show by what warrant he claimed to have view of frankpledge twice a year in his manor of Ashton, a market every Monday, fairs on 1 and 2 July, and on the vigil and feast of St. Martin in winter, &c.; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 13 Hen. VII.
74 Richard de Birches and Margery his wife in 1246 claimed the latter's dower in respect of her former husband's (Martin son of Adam) land in 'Aldewainescath,' against Adam de Audenshaw. Jordan son of Adam de 'Tongton' was a surety; Assize R. 404, m. 9 d.
The Rental of 1422 shows that Richard Moston and William Audenshaw had tenements there, paying 3s. 6d. and 3s. respectively. The former's holding may be the 'manor of Moston' alluded to in a note in the account of Moston township, as held by the Hydes of Denton. Edmund Ashton (of Chadderton) was farmer of the Mostons' Audenshaw lands in 1480, George Moston giving him an acquittance for £4 9s. 10d., one year's rent; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 3, no. 45. In 1514 Margery widow of Thomas Lidyard and sister and heir of George Moston, granted to her son Edward Lidyard lands in Audenshaw and Warwickshire; D. Enr. Com. Pleas, Mich. 35 Hen. VIII.
75 The Rental shows that in 1422 Alston lands (or Ashton lands) were divided among Peter Trafford (1s. 8d.), the heirs of Adam Mossley (10d.), and the heirs of Richard Dene (1s.), at varying rents.
76 Richard son of John Bardsley rendered a rose yearly for Bardsley, and paid 9d. for Old Alt, 2s. for Asps, and 5d. for part of Hurst; Rental of 1422. For a case concerning the Bardsley family see Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 82 (1496), m. 1.
77 Richard Hunt in 1422 paid 4s. for his portion; Rental. An account of this family will be found under the township of Manchester; they appear to have belonged to Audenshaw originally. See also Final Conc. ii, 148, 158, for acquisitions in Ashton made in 1355 and 1358. Richard Hunt in 1559 purchased messuages, &c., in Ashton (probably in Audenshaw) from Sir Robert Worsley; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 21, m. 49; 22, m. 5; see also Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 136. It will be seen below that the Hunts held land of the Hospitallers.
78 It was held in 1422 by John de Heyrod at a total rent of 7s. 2d.; Rental. Agnes daughter of William son of Richard de Heyrod (Heighroide) was in 1359 claimant of lands in Heyrod; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 7, m. 3 d. A John de Heyrod was plaintiff in 1372 against John son of Cecily de Hulton; De Banco R. 445, m. 28.
79 The principal tenants in 1422 were Nicholas de Hurst, paying 3s., and Thomas de Staley, paying 1s. 6d.; Rental. Nicholas Hurst and Lucy his wife had a messuage in Ashton and Hurst in 1578; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 40, m. 42. See further in Local Glean. Lancs, and Ches. ii, 280.
80 In 1302 Margery wife of Roger de Barlow and Alice her sister, daughters of Richard de Knolls, were heirs to messuages and lands in Ashton. Agnes (apparently the widow of Richard), then wife of Richard de Limepithurst, and Joan widow of Adam de Knolls, had dower. Gilbert son of Adam son of Thomas de Alt was called to warrant; De Banco R. 141, m. 75 d. 53 d.
Adam Wilson paid 12¾d. in 1422, and the heirs of Robert Lees 2s. 6d.; Rental.
81 Adam Tetlow paid 12d. rent in 1422; Rental. This family is further noticed under Oldham. Lawrence Tetlow made a settlement of six messuages, &c., in Ashton in 1551; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 178. He died in 1582 holding three messuages, &c., in Ashton of the queen in socage by a rent of 5d. yearly; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 56. John Tetlow, who died in 1598, held messuages, &c., in Ashton of Richard Hoghton and George Booth in socage at 4d. rent; ibid. xvii, n. 15.
82 Thomas Lees and Adam Lees were free tenants in 1422, the former paying 6d. rent and the latter 10d.; Rental. About 1555 a messuage and lands in Lees were in dispute between Robert Lees the elder and Robert Lees the younger; Ducatus Lanc. i, 300; also ibid. iii, 363.
83 Henry son of William de Mossley (Moslegh) in 1309 claimed land in Ashton; De Banco R. 174, m. 197 d. Richard de Mossley (Moselegh) in 1319 gave to William son of William de Mossley, Emma his wife, and their issue male, two messuages, 100 acres of land, &c., in Ashton; Final Conc. ii, 30.
84 Paldenwood seems to have been improved and divided among several tenants before 1422; Rental.
85 Robert Rasbotham paid 5d. a year in 1422; Rental.
86 Peter Worsley paid 2s. a year in 1422; Rental.
87 John Knolls paid 3s. 5d. in 1422; he also paid a like rent for Reedy Lee; Rental.
88 Thomas de Shepley contributed to the subsidy of 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), 32. John del Heyrod and Maud his wife in 1335 claimed land in Shepley against Thomas de Shepley and others; De Banco R. 303, m. 83. Peter Shepley paid 3s. 7d. in all for his tenement in 1422; Rental.
89 Peter Trafford in 1422 paid 6d. for this; Rental.
90 At present the name is often spelt Cinderland. In 1422 it was held by Richard Byron, paying 6d., and the heirs of Thomas de Hatfield, paying 2s.; Rental. Stephen de Bredbury gave to Robert de Byron all his land in Sunderland, a pair of white gloves to be rendered at St. Martin, and 2s. to the chief lords; Byron Chartul. no. 19/7.
In 1473 a William Heaton paid 12s. to the lord of Manchester for the manor of Sunderland; Mamecestre, iii, 479. This may be a different place.
91 This estate was long held by the Claydens of Clayden in Manchester. Richard son of William del Ridges in 1315 claimed four messuages, two oxgangs of land, &c., in Ashton against Richard son of Richard de Clayden; De Banco R. 231, m. 92 d. In 1422 Thomas Clayden was tenant, paying 3s. 6d. rent in all; Rental.
In some pleadings in 1511 it was stated that Sir Thomas Ashton had only recently caused a leet to be kept in the manor, and on Richard son of Richard Clayden of Taunton refusing to appear, had fined him and distrained on default. Richard stated that he did not live within the manor of Ashton, he and his ancestors having done suit to the king's leet wapentake and sheriff's tourn at Salford. It appeared, however, that his lands in Taunton were held of Sir Thomas Ashton by a rent of 3s. 4d.; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Hen. VIII, iii, C 1. Robert Clayden died in 1579 holding six messuages, &c., in Tongton and Middlewood in Ashton of Thomas Hoghton in socage by 3s. 6d. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 84, 12. Bridget, one of his daughters, held them at her death in 1588, leaving three sisters as heirs; ibid. xv, 28.
Taunton was afterwards held by a family named Chadwick, who recorded a pedigree in 1664; Dugdale, Visit. 74.
92 Thomas Staveley (or Staley) held this in 1422, at a rent of 1s.; he also held Bestal at 1d.; Rental. Some charters relating to this have been given in a previous note.
93 Henry de Waterhouses contributed to the subsidy of 1332; Exch. Lay Subs. 32. John Moss of Waterhouses occurs in 1616; Manch. Free Lib. D. no. 77.
94 Richard Byron held in 1422 at a rent of 1s.; Rental. Some of the grants to the Byrons have been recited above.
Richard de Byron died in 1397, holding ten messuages, 60 acres of land, and 20 acres of meadow in the Woodhouses of the Duke of Lancaster; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 65. Sir John Byron died in 1489, holding what appears to be the same estate, but the tenure was said to be of Sir Thomas Ashton in socage by a rent of 12d. (agreeing with the Rental) or of 4d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, 48, 70.
Woodhouses was by the Byrons sold in 1614 to Edward Clough, and about ten years later was sold to Samuel Jenkinson alias Wilson; Manch. Free Lib. D. nos. 75–84. For the Jenkinsons see the account of Moston.
95 This was in 1422 held by William Luzley (Lusley) at 1s. rent; Rental. Richard Hunt seems to have had another part at 3d. rent; ibid.
96 Their land in Ashton is named in 1292; Plac. de quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 375.
According to the 1540 Rental of their lands the widow of Richard Hunt paid 12d. for Limehurst, and the heirs of Sir Thomas Ashton 2d. for Foulash; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84.
Richard Hunt died in 1587 holding a capital messuage and lands in Middlebrook of the queen as of the late priory of St. John in socage by a rent of 12d.; also a messuage in Audenshaw of George Kenyon in socage by a rent of 6s. 8d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 41. The latter part of the estate would no doubt be part of the Kersal lands. See also Ducatus Lanc. i, 266.
The other part of the Hospitallers' lands was acquired by the Hulmes of Manchester and Reddish. William Hulme, father of the benefactor, died in 1637 holding a messuage and land in Ashton of William, Earl of Derby, as of the late priory of St. John, in socage by a rent of 2d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, 70.
97 Alban de Alt about 1200 gave to the cell of St. Leonard in Kersal a moiety of Paldenlegh in pure alms; Lancs. Pipe R. 330. After the Suppression this rendered a free rent of 14s. 4d., which was shared by the grantees of Kersal; see Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 3, 234.
98 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 247–8.
99 Miles died in 1612, holding the capital messuage called the Heyrod, with lands, &c., of Sir George Booth, in socage by 6s. 8d. rent. His heir was his grandson John Ashton (son of John); Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 239. Maurice Ashton had in 1571 made a settlement of messuages in Heyrod, Harley, &c.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 33, m. 130. Miles Ashton (son of Maurice, according to the pedigree) made a similar settlement in 1583; ibid. bdle. 45, m. 115.
A pedigree was recorded in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 14. A later one of 1664 shows that the family had been scattered; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 13. Heyrod was 'afterwards in the possession of John Duckenfield of Duckenfield, esq. and was held by Sir Charles Duckenfield, bart. in 1750. It is now [1849] the property of Ralph Ousey, esq.'; Raines, in Notitia Cestr. ii, 5.
100 The Ashtons of Shepley recorded a pedigree in 1664, tracing their descent from a Geoffrey son of Thomas Ashton, who married the heiress of Shepley; Dugdale, Visit. 16. Geoffrey Ashton and Margery his wife in 1450 made a feoffment of three messuages, 60 acres of land, &c., in Ashton; Final Conc. iii, 117. Geoffrey Ashton in 1467 complained that a bull of his had been seized by John, Richard, William, and Thomas Shepley of Withington; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. (6 Edw. IV, C); see also Writs of Assize (bdle. 8), 6 Edw. IV.
The estate descended in the Ashton family till 1713, when Samuel Assheton sold it to John Shepley of Stockport, grocer. In 1675 Robert Assheton of Shepley, John his son, and Thomas his grandson, mortgaged the Great Ridings, part of the demesne lands near Shepley bridge; Manch. Free Lib. D. no. 104. 'It is now (1854) vested in Edward Lowe Sidebotham, esq., as heir of the late Mr. John Lowe, a successful calico printer, its intermediate possessor'; Booker, Denton (Chet. Soc.), 137. It has since descended to Mr. Edward John Sidebotham, of Erlesdene, Bowdon, the present owner.
101 John Hulton (or Hilton), of Sunderland, occurs frequently in the time of James I; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 234; iii, 334.
102 The nature of the Shallcross or Shawcross tenure has been stated above.
103 George Chadderton of Nuthurst had lands in Ashton in 1552; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 121. Robert Chadderton of Bradshaw in Alkrington had a messuage and lands in Audenshaw in 1639; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 248.
John Carrington had messuages, &c., in Audenshaw in 1573; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 35, m. 30.
The Reddishes of Reddish had lands in Audenshaw, held of the heirs of Sir Thomas Ashton in socage by a rent of 18d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, 48; xi, 60. In 1613 the rent was stated to be 2s. 10d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 253.
Joseph Taylor died in 1610 holding Hartshead of the lord of Manchester by the rent of a rose; his heir was his daughter Mary, a few months old; ibid. ii, 120.
Richard Hartley, who died in 1620, held a messuage and lands in Ashton of the lord of Manchester; ibid. ii, 189. See also Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 242.
Ralph Sandiford died at Hull in 1620 holding several messuages with lands, &c., in Ashton, of the lord of Manchester in socage by the rent of a rose and the fraction of a penny; John, his son and heir, was twenty-two years of age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. ii, 194. For this family see further in the account of Nuthurst in Moston. Their estate was called the High Ashes; Dugdale, Visit. 253.
The landowners contributing to the subsidy of 1622 were:—Robert Ashton, John Ashton, Randle Hulton, Thomas Newton, William Walker, John Sandford, and Thomas Chetham; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 155.
A large amount of information as to the different estates in Ashton will be found in the histories of Ashton by James Butterworth (1823) and Edwin Butterworth (1841). It has been summarized and to some extent continued in the later editions of Baines's Lancs. (1868 and 1889).
104 See the account of Royton.
105 These Acts have been repealed; a new Improvement Act was obtained in 1849 (12 & 13 Vict. cap. 25) and others more recently.
106 The old market was opened on 2 July 1830; the new fish, game, and meat market on 24 Feb. 1882.
107 a No evidence of this has come under notice.
108 The area of the parliamentary borough was in 1867 extended to include Hurst.
109 Charter dated 29 Sept. 1847. In 1898 the southern boundary of the borough was defined to be the thread of the Tame, which has at different times been diverted. The boundaries of the wards were fixed by the charter; a detached part of Audenshaw was included in Portland Place ward.
In 1898 part of Dukinfield in Cheshire was added to Ashton and became part of the administrative county of Lancaster; Loc. Govt. Bd. Order, P. 1416.
110 The old town hall, or manor courthouse, was a brick building, two stories high, situated on the south-west side of the market cross. The Court of Requests, founded 1808, was held on the ground floor; Jas. Butterworth, Ashton, 86.
111 a The first Lighting Acts, since repealed, were 6 Geo. IV, cap. 67; 7–8 Geo. IV, cap. 77.
112 The supply was begun by a private company formed in 1835, their works were purchased by the corporation in 1855 (18 Vict. cap. 70) and have been greatly enlarged. In 1870 the control was vested in a joint board called the Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, and Dukinfield Joint Committee; 33 & 34 Vict. cap. 131. There are eight reservoirs
113 The crest is a griffin's head erased gules, with ducal collars and beaks or, issuing from a mural coronet argent; the motto—Labor omnia vincit.
114 These particulars have been taken principally from the corporation's Manual and the Lancs. Directory.
115 Stat. 9 Geo. IV, cap. 26.
116 Loc. Govt. Bd. Order, P. 1416. The town hall is in Lancashire.
117 Mossley was thus described by Dr. Aikin in 1795: 'A considerable village, with upwards of 100 houses, many of them large and well built, chiefly of stone. It is about three miles from Ashton, in the high road to Huddersfield, with a large chapel in the gift of or under the rector of Ashton'; Country round Manchester, 231.
Two fairs were established in 1824, on 21 June and the last Monday in October; Baines, Lancs. Directory, ii, 667.
The Mechanics' Institute was built in 1858, and the town hall in 1862.
118 Lond. Gaz. 26 Feb. 1864.