Chichester cathedral
The eastern arm

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Victoria County History

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Author

L.F. Salzman (editor)

Year published

1935

Pages

116-126

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'Chichester cathedral: The eastern arm', A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 3 (1935), pp. 116-126. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41668 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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THE EASTERN ARM

THE EASTERN ARM (94 ft. long by 24 ft. wide) is of five bays. The three west bays forming the sanctuary are part of Bishop Ralph's early 12th-century church, with the repairs executed by Bishop Seffrid II after the great fire of 1187. A portion of the foundation of the springing of its apsidal east end can be seen exposed in a pit in the floor by the third north pier. The two east bays of the five were added at the same time, or very soon afterwards, when the apsidal end was abolished and the eastern arm made square-ended. The work of this extension was probably well advanced before the apsidal walls and piers were completely cleared away and the junction between old and new effected.

The new vaulting over both the main body and aisles was probably the last work carried out in the alterations, but preparation for it, by the provision of the wall shafts, was contemporary with the repairs and additions, and the influence of the apsidal ambulatory is demonstrated by the transverse vault-ribs of the aisles close to the junction of the two periods. These are set askew or canted (instead of being at right angles like the others) because of the eastward positions of the vault-shafts against the outer walls. These shafts were evidently in position before the apsidal walls were taken down and the vaulting erected.

The aisles and ambulatory probably had barrel vaults originally and the task of alteration to the quadripartite vaulting appears to have lagged in the south aisle, and it was not till later in the 13th century that this was completed, judging from the characteristics of the details there.

The main body retains the three original stages of the wall—that is, arcades, triforium and clearstory. The older arches were provided with new Purbeck marble shafts and moulded outer orders towards the sanctuary, but little or nothing was done to the triforium; the clearstory, however, was given an entirely new facing towards the interior, only the older windows being left unaltered. The levels of the stages in the additional two bays vary only in the triforium, which has its basemould a trifle higher than that in the older bays.

The construction of the vaulting in the main body, in place of the former wood ceilings, necessitated the strengthening of the buttresses. There were already shallow buttresses in the original walls dividing the bays of both main body and aisles. The triforium had cross-arches above the barrel-vaults of the aisles; these were removed, the buttresses to the aisles were deepened and flying buttresses were carried over the aisle roofs to those of the clearstory. The second and third from the east on the south side were strengthened later by additional arches. Subsequently, probably early in the 14th century, the main roof was raised to a higher level, evidently, as Professor Willis suggested, to enable the tie beams of the new roof to clear the crown of the vaulting. The east gable and the side walls were heightened to receive it and the latter finished with new parapets.

The gable-head contains a large rose window of the 14th century, but now practically all restored; its tracery consists of six foiled circles around a central circle of like size. The outer moulding is carved with dog-tooth ornament. On either side of it can be seen the traces of the original gable with the lower ends of the weather-courses. The rose window is obviously too large to have belonged to this gable. Below it is a moulded string-course, and under that the three lancet windows which are described with the interior.

The gabled wall is flanked by octagonal stair turrets, which have a top stage with engaged shafts and triple recessing on each face, the middle bay being pierced. The parapets have moulded string-courses and an embrasure in each side, and above are tall pointed pinnacles with edge-rolls and moulded capitals. The masonry of the turrets is mostly, if not entirely, of modern repair. The gable and parapets encroach considerably on the recessed top stages and parts of the shafts, with their original bases complete, can be seen inside the roof space above the earlier sloping weather-courses.

The five bays of the clearstory have each a window, described below, and, some 4 ft. or 5 ft. above the heads of the windows, the external faces of the walls set back a few inches, probably a thinning of the 14th century when the parapets were added. The bays are divided by shallow buttresses continued up from the triforium and receiving the ends of the flying buttresses from the aisle-walls; they are weathered back to the overhanging parapets, which have trefoiled arches and corbels like those of the Lady Chapel. Owing to a deflection inwards in the north wall the second buttress of the four is of deeper projection than the others. The parapets have been much repaired. The roof is covered with lead.

The eastern arch opening into the Lady Chapel has splayed responds, both having about them five shafts of Purbeck marble. The shafts have 'hold-water' bases with leaf-spurs above the square lower members, all on a splayed main plinth; the capitals are carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage and have moulded and splayed square abaci continued north and south as string-courses. The arch, which is slightly pointed, is of three moulded orders, and has small voussoirs.

The two east bays, or retro-quire, have north and south arches of similar detail to that in the east wall, but the heads are semicircular, slightly stilted in horseshoe form above the capitals. The responds have similarly spurred bases and foliated capitals. In the east responds the moulded Purbeck marble abaci to the outermost capitals are square, while the others have splayed angles, but in the west responds only the innermost are splayed.

The Purbeck pier between the two arches on each side is of exceptional treatment. It has a cylindrical column, 25 in. in diameter which is surrounded by four smaller shafts, 9½ in. in diameter, set well away, 7 in., from the central column. The column has a moulded base and sub-base and a deep capital, carved with a double row of 'stiff leaves'; both abacus and base follow the circular form of the column. The free shafts have similar bases conjoined to the main base, but their capitals, of slightly fuller foliage, are much less in depth so that they adjoin only the upper part of the main capital: their abaci are square with splayed angles. Because the main abacus is circular, it is unable to receive the middle orders of the arches, which therefore spring from corbels of foliage above the capital. Above the east arch and arcades is a Purbeck marble moulded string-course at the base of the triforium.

The triforium arcade in the east wall is of two bays: the responds of three square orders of Caen stone have shafts of Purbeck marble: they have moulded bases and foliated capitals of varying forms. The central shaft serves both bays. The moulded abaci are square and are continued along the wall till they meet the vault-shafts in the angles. The middle of each bay has a cluster of three free shafts of Purbeck marble to carry the two inner orders of the head. They have conjoined bases and a carved capital common to the three shafts, the northern of rather freer foliage than the other; the moulded abaci are circular. The heads are of three moulded orders, the outer two similar in section to those of the archway below. The outer order of each is the main round arch, and the middle order forms coupled pointed secondary arches of lesser radii. The innermost order is trefoiled, the central foil of each bay being round instead of pointed. The moulding has a hollow filled with rich carving, the northern bay with monsters of various forms and the southern with running foliage. A sprig of foliage covers the central springing stones of the outermost orders between the bays, also those of the second order in the middle of each bay. The tympana in the main arches have trefoil-shaped niches or sunk panels with projecting moulded frames surrounded by foliage in high relief which fills the remainder of the spaces. Projecting from the niches are demi-figures of angels, the northern (which has lost its right wing) holding an asperges and holy-water pot, the southern a censer. In the spandrel between the two main heads is another quatrefoil niche in front of which is a seated figure of Christ, with a cross-nimbus, probably in the act of blessing; this figure may be modern, but the hands are missing. Below it is a moulded corbel carved with two demi-figures holding up the abacus.

At the back of the passage behind the main arcade is a wall-arcade of seven bays. The middle bay is a segmental-pointed doorway to the roof space of the Lady Chapel; the others have pointed arches of Caen stone carried on Purbeck marble shafts with foliated stone capitals.

The string-courses above the north and south arcades are like that of the east wall: they step down about one foot before they meet the vault-shafts west of the second bay.

The two east main bays north and south of the triforium have each coupled pointed arches of two orders under a main round arch of one order; their mouldings are somewhat heavier than those in the east wall. The responds are of three square orders with stone shafts cut out of the solid with carved capitals and moulded square Purbeck marble abaci continued as strings along the wall. The middle pier of each bay has a central stone shaft surrounded by four Purbeck marble shafts with square foliated capitals.

The four bays are alike except with regard to the panels cut in the tympana above the pointed arches, which all differ. The eastern bay on the north side has a wide ovate panel of eight foils in which are the lower halves of seated figures, the heads of which are missing. The western panel is a triangular arrangement of seven foils which have foliage cusp-points: in it is an angel holding a chalice, probably modern. On the south side the eastern bay also has a triangular sept-foil, differing from the other in having three of the foils pointed, but having also leaf cusp-points: in it is a seated figure of a bearded man. The western bay has a large quatrefoil-panel with foliated cusp-points, and on either side and below it are three smaller trefoil-panels; in the quatrefoil is another seated figure of a man with a misfitting modern head. The arches are not set centrally in the bays, the wall space between them being less than that to the east and west respectively.

In the second bay the wall is thinned above the abacus-string, and while the lower masonry is of smooth and fine-jointed Caen stone ashlar, the upper is rough-tooled diagonally, probably earlier 12th-century stones re-used.

Above the triforium-arcades is another string-course at the base of the clearstory, that to the east wall being a little lower than those to the side walls.

The clearstory stage of the east end has a wall-passage which is screened on the inner face of the wall by an arcade of three bays. The middle bay—the tallest of the three—has a slightly pointed and stilted arch which is carried on free shafts of Purbeck marble that have capitals with semi-octagonal faces and moulded abaci, both of which are continued back to the outer wall as lintels across the passage: both capitals and lintels are carved with foliage. At half-height the shafts have moulded bands which are also tailed back as lintels, their sides being enriched with a series of conventional leaves. The lower side-arches are carried in the outer responds by similar shafts against square reveals and are highly stilted. The shafts have foliated capitals and moulded abaci—square with chamfered angles—that are a little higher than the intermediate bands of the middle shafts. The reveals behind have round-headed openings to the wall-passage. The soffits of the arches are plastered. The heads form the rear-arches of three lancet lights which pierce the outer wall and which have rebated and splayed jambs and slightly pointed heads. Externally these windows have been restored: they have Purbeck marble shafted jambs and moulded pointed arches.

The clearstory of the two eastern bays of the north and south walls is treated with similar arcades, but there are several minor differences. On the north side the capitals of the free shafts are round, and only the moulded abaci are tailed back to the outer walls: there are no intermediate bands. On the south side the east bay is similar, but the west bay is unevenly treated, inasmuch as its eastern intermediate free shaft is single like the others, and its western is a group of three shafts, similar to those farther west, but taller. It has the intermediate moulded band tailed back to the wall. This seems to indicate a pause in the erecting of the clearstory over the two new bays and a change of design after the work was resumed.

Only the middle bay of each arcade is pierced by a window: these have slightly pointed heads and external moulded arches like those in the east wall, but rather badly weather-worn on the north side. The external shafts also have badly perished surfaces except in the easternmost jambs where they have been renewed in stone. The south side has modern shafts and probably the arches are later renovations.

The mouldings of the arches in these two bays of the eastern arm are finely contoured and have a general resemblance throughout. They consist of a keeled edge-roll between two hollows not very deeply undercut and sometimes a smaller secondary roll. The string-course and abaci-moulds are a keeled roll above a hollow. The base-moulds are of the roll and hollow section, often called the 'hold-water' mould. The foliage of the capitals, etc., shows a pleasing variety of the graceful conventional forms known as 'stiffleaf,' and they vary in profusion.

The three western bays of the eastern arm—that is, the third, fourth and fifth bays—are a part of Bishop Ralph's church, remodelled, as already described, after the great fire of 1187. The remodelling of these bays must have preceded the extension and the two parts bear many marked differences one from the other in all three stages of the walls.

Each bay is pierced by an early-12th-century round-headed archway of two orders; the inner order and the outer towards the aisle have small chamfers only, but their soffits have been repaired with Caen stone, indicating that originally they had additional half-round members, which were removed during the late-12th-century renovations. They are built of small voussoirs of variegated tints in no regular order. The outer order towards the sanctuary is slightly horseshoe shaped and is moulded similarly to the eastern bays, this and the wall-facing over being of fine-jointed Caen stone. This order is carried on nook-shafts of Purbeck marble with moulded bases and foliated capitals: the moulded square abaci are continued as string-courses: the bases have leaf spurs. The eastern shafts of the third bay are polished; the others are not.

The inner order of the arch and the outer towards the aisle are carried on half-round engaged shafts coursing with the walling. They have cushion-capitals with moulded square abaci, and moulded round bases on square sub-bases or plinths; the inner bases of the third bay are buried in the higher platform of the altar-pace.

Each of the three bays of the triforium has coupled round-headed arches of one square order under an outer main round arch of two roll-moulded orders. The tympanum is filled with a diagonal checker of grey or yellow and red stones: those in the south side of the fourth bay are distorted by later settlement. The coupled arches are carried on a central stone shaft. The responds are of three recessed square orders with half-round shafts on the inner reveals coursing with the walling. The two outer orders have stone shafts of several courses not ranging with those of the responds. The shafts have moulded bases and diversely treated capitals, one of cushion type, others double scalloped, and others with incipient leaves, some voluted and some with more fully developed double rows of leaves or honeysuckle ornament: one capital on the south side has scrolled strap-work and a human head.

The abaci over the central shafts are plain-chamfered, those to the responds partly of grooved and hollow-chamfered section. Two or three of the neck-moulds are carved with cable-ornament. The masonry generally is wide-jointed. The arcade in the third bay is set west of the middle of the bay; those in the fourth and fifth bays are nearly central.

The string-courses above and below the triforium are of the same section as those to the east, of Purbeck marble.

The clearstory has in each bay a range of three arches of one hollow-chamfered order. The side arches are much lower than those of the two east bays. The tall, round-headed middle arches are of the same height as those to the east, but are very highly stilted because the intermediate shafts supporting them are no taller than those in the responds.

The shafts in the responds are single and are of Purbeck marble with foliated capitals and square abaci, but the shafts carrying the middle arch are groups of three, with foliated capitals and moulded round abaci. In the easternmost of the three bays under discussion the three shafts are set one to the front and two to the rear, but in the other two bays this arrangement is reversed. The rear-vault of each of the lower side-arches is scooped out of the walling in a rough kind of semi-dome and partly cemented. The eastern arch in the eastern bay is wider than the western, so that the arcade fills the whole width of the bay. In the other bays they are symmetrical. The middle arch of each is pierced by a round-headed window of the early-12th-century period, with plain splays and heads. Externally they have shafted jambs of stone with cushion-capitals: the arches are of a square and roll-moulded section and have labels carved with billet ornament.

The deflection of both walls to the south is very noticeable in the wall passages of the clearstory.

The vaulting of the eastern arm may be assigned to practically one period for the whole five bays, the easternmost being perhaps the last to be erected. It is carried on triple wall-shafts, each member keeled. The shafts have moulded bases and round sub-bases, except those that come over the eastern clustered piers of the arcades, which are stopped by foliage-corbels above the capitals. That on the north side between the second and third bays (where the reredos-screen meets the wall) is also stopped by a foliage-corbel 3 ft. or 4 ft. below the triforium. All have intermediate bands, the lower being the continuation of the abaci of the main arcades carried round the shafts; the upper is level with the triforium string-course but of a different section. The clearstory string-course abuts on the shafts. The shafts have foliated capitals in the clearstory stage of Purbeck marble with moulded half-round abaci. The masonry backing the shafts has been made good with Caen stone, and where the main face sets back above the third piers (from the east) the upper half of the second, and the south fourth pier, shallow flat pilasters have been built out in order to preserve the verticality of the shafts.

The vaulting has moulded transverse ribs with keeled edge-rolls, and narrower diagonal ribs with a wide hollow in the soffit which in the easternmost bay only is filled with dog-tooth ornament; all but the east bay have keeled edge-rolls. The intersections are covered with round bosses of foliage, except in the fourth bay, where it is carved with a demi-angel holding a shield charged with the arms of St. Richard, a cross between four chalices. The webs are plastered.

The wood roof above the vaulting is modern except the easternmost tie-beam, which appears to be an old timber re-used.

The chapel of St. John the Baptist (fn. 1) (about 16½ ft. long by 13½ ft. wide internally) projects eastward from the north aisle and flanks the westernmost bay of the Lady Chapel. Here were founded the two Arundel chantries for the soul of William, Earl of Arundel, (fn. 2) possibly the first Earl, who died in 1176. There was also a chantry for William the Dean, whom Walcott identified with the founder of St. Mary's Hospital. (fn. 3) The chapel is lower than the aisle—having no upper story—and is gabled at the east end. At the north-east angle is a deep, clasping buttress surmounted by an octagonal turret of modern stonework; each side of the turret is pierced by a slender lancet and a small bull's-eye window, and it is capped by a tall pinnacle which has edge-rolls and a foliated finial. A string-course, crossing the east wall at the same level as that of the Lady Chapel, is dropped to a lower level below the east window to rise again north of the window and pass around the buttress and along the north wall, where it again drops below the window. An upper string-course is cut through by the head of the window. In the gable-head is a small octofoiled bull's-eye window with dogtooth ornament, and above it is a small lancet, to light the roof space. The former has been restored, but was probably an early-14th-century insertion; the latter was perhaps part of the original design.

The east window of the chapel is of the 15th century and of three cinquefoiled lights and vertical tracery in a two-centred head; it has moulded mullions and continuously moulded jambs and arch, rather weather-worn outside; the tracery is probably a comparatively old restoration. In the north wall is a window of two cinquefoiled lights and tracery of the 15th century inserted in a late-12th or early-13th-century opening, which retains its original inner splays with Purbeck marble nook-shafts and moulded pointed rear-arch and hood-mould. The shafts have moulded bases and inter-mediate bands and stone foliated capitals with moulded square abaci which continue along the wall as string-courses. Within the original rear-arch is the chamfered rear-arch of the 15th century. The jambs and head outside, which have a wide hollow or 'casement' mould, are much decayed. An external string-course was probably the continued abaci of the original window, and is lower than the finish of the 15th-century label. The wall has an eaves gutter and no cornice.

The south wall breaks forward in the west half for the mass of masonry which carries the north-east turret of the main body. This projection does not course with the wall, and for no apparent reason is canted to the south; against its west half, and coursing with it, is a wide shallow pilaster or buttress which was cut away below and supported on three Purbeck marble shafts standing against the wall face; this was done probably to lighten the entrance to the chapel. The shafts have the usual foliated capitals, and moulded bases above a moulded plinth; they carry a moulded lintel, on a level with the abaci of the north arcade, but of heavier section, and the buttress or pilaster stands on this lintel. The east shaft is more slender (6 in.) than the other two (8¼ in.), and the 'hold-water' bases bulge over the sub-bases in a manner quite different from any of the other bases in the cathedral; the east base has spurs. The west part of the buttress was afterwards splayed back above the lintel to accommodate the vaulting ribs.

An internal moulded string-course below the sill level runs round the north, east and the recessed part of the south wall. Below the east window inside is cut an original consecration cross. In the south wall is a modern piscina set in an ancient round-headed recess.

The chapel was refitted for use in 1924 by Sir Hugh Miller in memory of his son who was killed in the Great War. It has a modern altar and other fittings and is screened by an iron grille.

The North Aisle of the Quire has three bays exposed externally, which are divided by square buttresses having chamfered plinths and plain offsets that divide them into two stages. The buttresses rise to about 2 ft. above the parapet, where they have string-courses; from these spring the flying buttresses, with half-arches well above the lean-to roof, up to the shallow buttresses and angle-turret of the clearstory stage. The upper slopes are leaded.

The wall of the third bay from the east and the greater part of the second is thicker than the wall of the eastern extension, and this thickening shows outside in the wide-jointed masonry of the first period. The face is set back to the later plane under the east jamb of the 15th-century window in the second bay, but the eastern 5 ft. of it is of fine-jointed ashlar. It is also cut back for the west jamb of the same window, but above the window the face is canted back gradually, part of the masonry on the canting being wide-jointed. It is possible that this canting is evidence of the original apsidal curve to the ambulatory, although the straight wall-face below the window may tend to neutralise this suggestion. The top of the thicker walling, below the sill of the window, has a 12th-century string-course with triple-hatched ornament, which is copied in the later work where it is carried round the buttress between the second and third bays. The string-course continues eastwards as a moulding of the later period. There is a higher string-course above the window in the first bay, but interrupted by the later windows in the second and third bays; this extends along the whole wall and around the buttresses, and marks the base of the triforium. Midway between the two are the remains of another early string-course marking the level of the abaci of the original windows in the second and third bays; it appears only in the thicker early walling, and is not carried round the buttresses.

The parapet of the aisle overhangs considerably with a hollow-chamfered edge and is carried on a series of corbels: those to the first bay and eastern half of the second bay are like those of the Lady Chapel. The western half of the second bay, above the canted wall face, has plain corbels. The third bay has carved corbels of the earlier period, of various devices, including a pig's head, a human head, a double-headed monster, etc. Some are perished, others missing, and one is restored. The coping is modern.

The aisle internally is about 11 ft. wide. The first or easternmost bay retains the original late-12th or early-13th-century single light similar to that in the corresponding chapel; externally it has also the original moulded outer order of the head carried on shafted jambs: the shafts are modern, but the bases are perhaps old.

Above the window, set centrally in the bay, is a late-12th-century window to light the triforium gallery: it has chamfered jambs and round head.

The second bay has a window of four cinquefoiled lights and vertical tracery which has been restored. The old head outside and the rear-arch are moulded in much the same contour as those of the window in the first bay, but of smaller members, and there is an external hood-mould. The jambs inside and out have recessed square orders with Purbeck marble shafts having 'hold-water' bases and foliated capitals. The mullions are very similar to those in the east window of St. John the Baptist's Chapel. The window is of 15th-century date (restored), but the jambs and framework are probably those of a late-13th-century insertion.

The third bay has a window, also of four cinquefoiled lights and vertical tracery, but narrower than the other. The mullions and part of the tracery have been renewed, but the window appears to be of the 15th or early 16th century, and was inserted, probably in 1660, in an earlier and wider opening of the 14th century, the jambs and arch of which are visible outside and to which the inner splays and shafted jambs belong. The shafts of Purbeck marble have moulded bases (of three rounds instead of the 'hold-water' section), and carved capitals; the 14th-century label has defaced headstops. The older window was about 2 ft. wider than the other, the filling between the two being of rough masonry.

The north wall of the fourth bay is solid, but a patch of repair in the middle suggests a former recess; the moulded string-course which runs along the wall below the sill level is lifted over it as a label. The tomb now attributed to Bishop Story formerly stood here.

The fifth bay is also solid, except for a pointed doorway to the library, mostly of modern stonework. Along the wall, excepting in the fifth bay, is a stone bench.

The vaulting of the aisle and of St. John's Chapel has transverse ribs of the same section as those of the main body, but the diagonal ribs differ, having a filleted roll-section; the flat fillets in the soffit are wide in the chapel and three east bays, but narrow in the two west bays. At the inter-sections are round bosses of foliage.

Against the north wall the vault-ribs, except that noted below, are carried on triple shafts like those of the main body, but on the south side—that is, against the main piers—there are single shafts of Purbeck marble which have moulded round bases 3 ft. 3 in. high behind the second and third piers, and 1 ft. 9 in. high behind the fourth. The bases stand on chamfered plinths or sub-bases about 9 in. high belonging to the responds of the cross-arches which were abolished when the vaulting was erected. There are also single shafts in the east angles of the chapel. All the shafts have foliated capitals and the string-course passes round the triple shafts as bands.

The ribs at the entrance to the chapel spring directly from the moulded lintel above the three shafts, and those above the clustered pier of the arcade spring from its northern shaft. The transverse rib here, instead of being at right angles to the walls, is canted to the east from south to north because the triple shaft in the north wall is out of place in relation to the south shafts. Perhaps also because of this, the next diagonal rib westward falls short of the triple shaft on the north wall between the second and third bays of the aisle, and is carried on a supplementary corbel which is carved with three long-necked monsters biting each other.

The Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene (fn. 4) corresponds in position to St. John the Baptist's Chapel, on the south side. It is of about the same length, but about 1½ ft. wider. Externally it resembles the northern. The string-course continued from the Lady Chapel is cut through by the window and the portion removed is reset below the sill of the window. A higher string-course marking the original abacus level is lower than the label-stops of the later window. A yet higher one is interrupted by the arch of the window. In the gable-head are a bull's-eye and a lancet window. A weather-course on the east wall of the aisle shows that this gable was originally about a foot higher. On the south face of the angle buttress is an 18th-century sundial. The east window is of three cinquefoiled lights under a pointed head with tracery of 14th-century character, but all modern. The internal splays are probably of early-16th-century date, and have moulded edges and semi-octagonal engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases, the latter of a curious late form. The rear-arch is hollow-chamfered, and there are hood-moulds inside and out. Below the window inside is a consecration cross cut in the walling. Externally there is a filled-in rectangular recess for relics, as in the east wall of the Lady Chapel, and south of it another well-cut cross. The south window is the original pointed light similar to that in the first bay of the north aisle; the external shafts and the west capital (uncarved) are modern restorations.

The north wall has the projection in the western half as in St. John's, and the whole wall is canted to the south. It has three similar wall-shafts, 8¼ in. diameter, with bulging 'hold-water' bases as in the north chapel. In the recessed north wall is an ancient locker with a pointed head which has been partly filled in with masonry to from a smaller recess with a cinquefoiled ogee-pointed head of the 14th century. The back of it has remains of colour decoration of a dark red or brown and apparently the nimbed heads of figures, perhaps of the Blessed Virgin and Child. It was in this locker that a reliquary containing the head of St. Richard was kept until it was removed at the time of the Reformation. (fn. 5) In the south wall is a restored piscina in a square recess.

The chapel was restored by Dean Pigou (1877–92) in memory of Canon Crosse. (fn. 6) It has a stone altarslab with five consecration crosses cut in the top. Behind it is a painted stone reredos with figures of Our Lord and St. Mary Magdalene. The chapel is lined with modern panelling decorated with paintings, on the south side, of St. Mary anointing the feet of Christ, the Crucifixion, and the risen Christ appearing to St. Mary, and on the north side incidents in the life of St. Richard. A modern iron grille with gates screens the chapel.

The external elevation of the South Aisle of the Quire, excepting the windows described below, may be taken as following that of the north aisle, but as the changes in the fenestration have been less drastic more evidence exists of the former windows which lighted the triforium gallery. In the first bay above the late-12th-century window, which is crossed by the roof of the cloister, is a 15th or early-16th-century triforium window, badly weatherworn, of two cinquefoiled lights and tracery, in a square head with a moulded label. In the second bay—that is, the first west of the cloister—there is an original round-headed window, to the west of the head of the lower window. It is now blocked and its westward position is taken as evidence by Prof. Willis (fn. 7) and others that there was originally in Bishop Ralph's church a chapel projecting from the apsidal ambulatory, east of the window. In the third bay, but set centrally, is the upper half of a similar blocked window. In the fourth bay is another similar window, but this has had a 15th-century window inserted in the blocking. It has a trefoiled square head with a moulded label. Also in the fourth bay, on either side of the late-12th-century window to the aisle, can be seen traces of the earlier 12th-century window which it superseded. The string-course which coincided with the abaci of its capitals is still in place and has a groove and hollow chamfer like that seen in the priest-vicars' vestry described later.

Under the aisle windows in the second and third bays are three semicircular markings, one in the former and two in the latter, as though a scheme for inserting a doorway or wall arcade had been considered and abandoned. Above the first is carved a small cross.

The thicker walling in the western half of the second bay—stopped by a low buttress below the aisle window—and the walling in the third and fourth bays, is wide-jointed and has a triple-hatched string-course on the top of it. Above the east haunch of the window in the second bay the wall-face has been hacked back for the window-head.

The corbelling to the parapet of the first and eastern half of the second bays is like that of the Lady Chapel without the intermediate arches; it has been lifted up in the former above the 15th-century triforium window. The western half of the second, and the third and fourth bays have the original corbelling with beasts, heads, grotesque masks, etc., between semicircular arches; some are decayed.

The aisle is about 12½ ft. wide internally. The first or easternmost bay has a late-12th or early-13th-century window similar to that in the chapel, but the later doorway below it has encroached on its lower half. Its east shaft inside is complete, but part of the west shaft, etc., was destroyed for the doorway, which is not central with the bay and window.

Outside, the east capital has been restored in block but the shaft is missing. It is filled with coloured glass, presented by Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) Manning.

The doorway which forms the entrance from the east walk of the cloister is a late-14th or early-15th-century insertion; there was probably no doorway there previously. It has moulded jambs and two-centred arch and rear-arch both in square heads with moulded labels; the traceried spandrels have shields of arms of William of Wykeham (or New College, Oxford), two cheverons between three roses. In it is a pair of ancient oak doors, constructed of vertical and horizontal battens with moulded fillets, partly restored, planted on the outside. Some way above the doorway, on the exterior face, the wall is thickened about 1½ ft. above a moulded four-centred arch to carry the north end of the cloister roof which stops about 1½ ft. short of the aisle-wall above. The second bay has a large window of four cinquefoiled lights and geometrical tracery in a two-centred head. The tracery is entirely modern, but the inner jambs with Purbeck marble shafts, the moulded rear-arch and the external arch are old and resemble those in the opposite bay of the north aisle. The head of the window rises well above the vaulting. The window in the third bay has similar jambs and arches, but is of five pointed lights with 17th-century intersecting tracery. The fourth bay has a wide single light of late-12th-century date, like those in the chapel and first bay. The fifth bay has a 13th-century doorway opening into the priest-vicars' vestry. It has roll-moulded jambs and two-centred head, partly restored. Above it is a partly walled-up early 12th-century window; its exterior can be seen in the vestry. It has jambs of two square orders with nook-shafts of two or three courses, not ranging with those of the jambs; they have cushion capitals with grooved and hollowed abaci and carry a round head of roll-and-hollow moulding; the hood-mould is carved with double billetornament.

East of the doorway in the aisle is a small rounded recess with a rough back; the remains of smoke blackening said to have been found in it suggest that it was used for the heating of charcoal for censers.

West of the doorway is a similar round-headed doorway giving entrance to a stair-turret which leads to the triforium, etc. In it is an old door of feathered battens, hung on plain strap hinges.

The south wall has a stone bench from the first bay up to the doorway to the vestry in the fifth bay.

The vaulting of the chapel and aisle resembles in most respects that to the north side, but there are a few differences. The single Purbeck marble shafts against the piers are evidently of later 13th-century date than those in the north aisle; they have moulded bases of three rounds instead of the 'hold-water' section, and the moulded capitals are not carved, while their abaci are of a different section. The bases are at a high level, like the northern, but the original 12th-century plinth below that at the second pier is nearly all cut away, and there is only a small and probably later one at the fourth pier.

Of the five transverse ribs to the vaulting only the eastern two are like the northern ribs. The three western resemble those to the nave-aisles and have a V-shaped soffit between two rolls; the diagonal ribs have filleted soffits like the north ribs, those to the three east bays being broad and those to the three west bays narrow. In the westernmost bay they are carried on modern corbels.

The carved bosses at the intersections in the chapel and the first and second bays are round masses of foliage, but those to the later 13th-century vaults display a little more variety; the third bay has a ring of foliage inclosing six conjoined human faces with six eyes, each eye serving two faces; the fourth has a rosette and foliage, and the fifth has a sexfoil or star surrounded by a ring of six human faces with chins outwards. The cross-rib between the first and second bays of the aisle is set askew like that in the north aisle but less violently.

The Triforium Gallery has, on the inner wall above each aisle, shallow buttresses above the second, third, fourth and fifth piers, which rise to the clearstory and are carried on the responds of former transverse arches. The opposite responds remain in the outer walls and both sides retain a few of the lower voussoirs of the arches. The shallow buttresses between the first and second bays of the clearstory are carried on corbels just below the triforium roofs. The backs of the older triforium arches on the north side have chipped and reddened stones as visible evidence of the fire of 1187.

An interesting feature on the north side is the remains of a triforium arch which extended eastwards from the second pier, i.e. into the second bay. This is of the wide-jointed masonry of the early period and is not seen from the floor of the church. It consists of a short length of a respond with a chamfered impost or string-course like the others but higher, and the walling above the haunch of a former round arch of which no voussoirs remain. This arch must have been considerably higher than those of the triforium west of it. The wall has a slight cant inwards (to the south) which may perhaps on careful measurement be found to agree with the curvature of an apse, but as the whole of the two later east bays is canted to the south, the extra deflection, if any, of this ancient piece is not very noticeable to the eye. As a matter of fact both the north and south sides of these two bays are canted inwards, perhaps unconsciously influenced by the pre-existing apsidal curve; no traces of the original extension remain over the south aisle.

In the two west bays of the outer wall over the north aisle are the two original windows seen in the room over the library (q.v.); in the third bay is a similar window blocked and central with the bay, and in the second bay another, also blocked, in the west half of the bay corresponding with that seen in the south elevation. East of this window the wall is thickened inside, and in the first bay is the later window described with the exterior. Over the south aisle the blocked original windows in the second and fourth bays, as well as one in the fifth bay, now form recesses inside. In both north and south walls the masonry west of the middle of the second bay is wide-jointed.

In the east walls are round-headed doorways into the roof spaces of the two chapels, their rear-arches being towards the chapels. Below their thresholds can be seen the crowns of rough arches which cross the mouths of the chapels above the vault-ribs.

The stair turrets forming the east angles of the main body lead up from the triforium to the clearstory and roof space. The southern has a spiral handrail of twin-roll section worked in solid with the central newel.

Much of the ancient paving of Purbeck marble or stone remains in the floor of the aisles and retroquire, although considerably altered by the introduction of gravestones, etc. The pattern was in longitudinal bands of square stones set diagonally between narrow strips of similar stones. Later repairs have been done in grey and white marble, etc.

The sanctuary has been repaved in modern marbles. At the third pier are three marble steps up to the altar platform in the third bay; most of the floor of the second bay, behind the reredos, is at the same height, having been restored to this level in recent years, after it had been lowered subsequently to 1860. On the predecessor of this platform stood the shrine of St. Richard which was destroyed in 1538. Its site is now occupied by a wooden altar-table of 1930. On the floor before the altar is an inscription that reads: IN HOC LOCO OLIM STABAT FERETRVM SANCTI RICARDI CICESTRENSIS A.D. MCCLXXVI EXSTRVCTVM IVSSV AVTEM REGIS HENRICI VIII A.D. MDXXXVIII DIRVTVM ET SVBLATVM. BEATI MITES. BEATI MVNDO CORDE.

The high altar is modern; it has a carved and gilded oak reredos designed by the late Somers Clarke and given in 1910 by the late Dean Hannah in memory of his wife. It has canopied niches with the Crucifixion, and images of SS. Richard, Peter, Stephen and Nicholas; the last three saints represent the dedications of the churches with which the late Dean was associated at Brighton. The reredos followed one which was erected in 1870 from the design of R. H. Carpenter and W. Slater; it was intended to fill the whole width of the sanctuary, but, being thought unsuitable, only the middle part was completed and it was removed to St. Saviour's Church, Brighton, about 1905. (fn. 8) It is of alabaster and various marbles, and has a carved tableau representing the Ascension, under an arched and gabled head.

When it was removed, the present oak screen, modelled upon and incorporating remains of one that had been erected by Bishop Sherburne, was placed in position behind the altar. The central portion of the original screen had been removed about 1759 and the remainder in 1866. (fn. 9) It had suffered many alterations and mutilations, and parts of it were stored in various places and many of them lost, but enough was left for the original design to be recovered. It is divided into seven bays by main posts, the lower halves treated as panelled buttresses, the upper halves, of cylindrical form, decorated with scale ornament. In the outermost bays are doorways; the remainder is filled with narrow trefoiled close-panels in five tiers. Along the top of the front is a range of ten canopy-heads with foiled arches and enriched gables and pinnacles. Most of the screen is modern, but some of the posts and heads of the panels and canopy-soffits and a few other pieces are old.

South of the altar are three oak sedilia and a canopied screen erected in 1910 in memory of the Rev. James Vaughan, Prebendary of Hova Villa. The brass communion rails are also modern. The other side bays of the sanctuary are enclosed by modern iron grilles of the same design as those to the Lady Chapel.

West of the quire stalls, in the fifth bay, is the modern bishop's throne (fn. 10) with foiled pointed arches under a gabled and pinnacled canopy. They are carried on coupled round shafts to the stall and desk, and above them are figures of bishops, on the north face.

In the sanctuary and quire are two candelabra, each with two tiers of twelve branches; the moulded central bosses are inscribed: 'The gift of Lady Williams, Lady Fetherstonhaugh and Mrs. Page, 1752.'

In the south aisle, now framed and under glass, are two most interesting early stone panels of carving. They are said to have been discovered in 1829 in the sanctuary behind the quire stalls and were refixed here. One, set in the south wall of the second bay, represents Christ visiting Martha and Mary, the sisters of Bethany. Our Lord, the central and largest figure, is bearded and has long hair in banded lines. He has a nimbus with a high-relief cross which is further emphasised by parallel lines in the arms. He clasps a book with His left hand; the right hand is missing. Behind Him are four disciples, all with nimbi, the foremost also holding a book. The sisters are represented on the dexter side kneeling to Christ in adoration and behind them is a castellated structure with a round arch or doorway on two columns. The eastern column is treated spirally and has next to it what is probably intended for the door with foliated ironwork. Above are jettied round turrets with conical roofs. The panel has a chamfered top member or cornice, probably not belonging to it originally; the face of the cornice is carved with a series of 'honeysuckle' flowers of varying widths. The carving, which is 3 ft. 10 in. high by 3 ft. 8½ in. wide, was cut on a wall surface, in six courses of masonry.

The other panel, in the fourth bay, represents the Raising of Lazarus. Christ, again the largest figure, has a plainer and less deeply cut cross-nimbus than the other. He is a more slender figure, the folds of His costume are on rather more severe lines, His face is long and narrow and more strongly marked than the other, and His hair is dressed with rows of small curls in front instead of bands. His right hand is held in blessing and He clasps a book with His left. Behind Him are three disciples with nimbi, the front one with a book. All these figures occupy the sinister half of the panel. The dexter half represents the grave scene. Lazarus is seen standing with his hands in prayer or adoration while his grave-clothes are being removed by two other disciples. Behind in the top dexter corner are the weeping figures of his sisters Martha and Mary, and in the foreground are two workmen with conical roll-edged caps holding the staves or bars with which they have opened the tomb. The carving is in courses of masonry almost, but not exactly, tallying with those of the other scene. The whole carving is more archaic in appearance than the other, but has more individuality and character and is probably the earlier. It is certainly by a different hand. The eastern edge of the panel is of modern repair.

It has been suggested that the panels may have belonged to the former cathedral at Selsey and were brought to Chichester after the transfer of the see in 1075. (fn. 11) As no other parallel examples are known in England, it is difficult to assign a close date for them or to ascertain for what purpose they were made, whether as wall decorations or as ritualistic fittings. It is possible that the Lazarus scene is of Saxon origin and that it served as an inspiration for the other, which may have been a 12th-century carving based partly on the same grouping of Christ and the disciples with a somewhat more free treatment.

The coloured glass in the windows dates from 1842 onwards with the exception of one piece, which is among a number of modern shields of arms of the Bishops of Chichester in the third bay of the south aisle, in a window erected in memory of the wife of Dean Hannah; the ancient shield shows the arms of Edmond More, Archdeacon of Lewes 1528–31: Gules three leopards' heads or. There is similar glass in the opposite bay of the north aisle to the Rev. John Hannah and to Dean Gregory of St. Paul's, 1911. In the east windows of the triforium and of St. Mary Magdalene's Chapel is glass by the late C. E. Kempe.

Many Monuments have been erected in the eastern arm of the church. In the middle of the fourth bay of the quire before the high altar and below the altar-pace five floor-slabs which probably had brasses are shown on the plan of 1658. Two on the north side are allotted to Bishop William Rede (d. 1385) and Bishop Robert Rede (d. 1415); one in the middle is unidentified, but may have been that of Bishop John de Climping (d. 1261). On the south side is shown the tomb of Bishop Simon Sydenham (d. 1438) and an unidentified tomb. These slabs were moved apparently to the nave and nave-aisles when the quire was paved with black and white marble in 1731. (fn. 12)

North of the high altar, under the arch of the third bay of the arcade, is the altar-tomb of Edward Story, (fn. 13) bishop 1498–1503. It has a recumbent effigy in alabaster of the bishop in a (damaged) mitre and full vestments, his feet resting on a (broken) lion; his hands, raised in prayer, are missing. At the head are small angels, also nearly all broken away. The effigy rests on a Petworth marble slab with a moulded edge in which are rivet-holes for the former attached inscription. The sides of the base of alabaster have multifoiled lozenge panels enclosing blank shields also with rivet holes. The moulded plinth is also panelled. The tomb is inclosed on the north side by a wrought-iron screen and has above it a carved and painted wood canopy, both modern.

In the retro-quire, north of the altar of St. Richard is a plain altar-tomb with a moulded marble slab. In the sides are indents for former brass shields; the plinth is moulded. This is ascribed to William Barlow, bishop 1559–1568. (fn. 14)

South of St. Richard's Altar is the altar-tomb of George Day, bishop 1554–1556; the top is a moulded slab of Petworth marble with a brass inscription in black letter: 'Georgius Dayus ejus nominis primus Sacre theologie Professor se semper famulum Regis Christi verbo et conversatione prebuit. Obijt Secundo Aug. Año Dñi M° quingentesimo quinquagesimo Sexto.' It has a 19th-century brass of a crozier and mitre and a shield charged with the See of Chichester impaling Quarterly argent and gules a cross between four half-roses with rays above. In the north side of the tomb is an indent and in the south side a brass shield charged with the same arms with a daisy in the centre point, of 16th-century execution. This altartomb is marked as Neville's tomb in the plan of 1658. (fn. 15)

Against the south wall of the third bay of the south aisle is the altar-tomb, canopied recess and recumbent effigy of Robert Sherburne, bishop 1508–1536. It is of painted alabaster. The effigy represents the bishop in his gilded mitre and crozier and full vestments, his hands in prayer, his feet resting on a lion, beyond which are the figures of two bedesmen. At his head are small censing angels. It rests on a marble slab on the moulded edge of which is carved the inscription: 'NON INTRES IN IVDICIVM CVM SERVO TVO DOMINE: ROBERT' SHURBURNE.' The base has a panelled front with a narrow central and four wider side panels with sub-cusped quatrefoils and shields. The central shield is charged quarterly: 1, Argent a pelican in her piety vert, in an indented border; 2 and 3, Argent a lion vert; 4, Vert an eagle argent. The other shields bear these charges separately, the first and fifth the lion, the second the eagle and the fourth the pelican. The plinth is moulded and has a band of quatrefoils.

The canopied recess has moulded jambs canted inwards and a three-centred arch: in each reveal is a canopied niche with crocketed gablets, all gilded, and the soffit is panelled. The back is carved with a shield, incorrectly repainted, with the quarterly coat, and with two angel supporters bearing a mitre above the shield. Above are two demi-angels from conventional clouds and a scroll with the motto OPERIBVS CREDITE. The background is painted and carved with the initials R S, also the name ROBERTVS SHVRBVRNE on a band. The spandrels of the arch are carved and gilded and have shields with the pelican and lion. The whole is flanked by semi-octagonal shafts and finished at the top with cresting. The chantry at the tomb was to be served by the Bursal Prebendary who was to pray for the souls of the bishop, of William of Wykeham and many others, and to see that the tomb, and particularly the alabaster image of the bishop, was kept cleaned from cobwebs, dust and filth, and that the curtains hanging over the image should be drawn or folded back according to the state of the weather. (fn. 16)

In St. John the Baptist's Chapel, standing on the floor against the south wall, is a monument to Margaret, daughter of John Peachy of Chichester and first wife of Sir John Miller, bart., died September 1701, aged 38. The monument is of veined marble having a panelled base and tablet with the inscription, flanked by Corinthian columns and two weeping cherubs. Above is an entablature with a scrolled broken pediment and achievement of arms. The inscription also records her infant son Thomas and her daughter Emblem d. Jan. 1718–19, aged 17; her husband Sir John died Nov. 1721, aged 56; his second wife Ann, daughter of William Elson of Groves, died May 1709, aged 29, and their two infant children. On the base is recorded the burial in a vault 'on the north side of this wall' of Sir Thomas Miller, baronet, d. Dec. 1705, aged 70, and Dame Hannah his wife died Jan. 1706–7, aged 70, the parents of Sir John. (fn. 17)

Against the north wall of the north aisle is a marble coffin-lid, in the face of which is a sunk trefoil-panel inclosing two hands holding a heart; a fragment of the inscription which surrounded the trefoil reads 'MAUD D. . .' in Lombardic lettering. It is probably of 13th-century date. (fn. 18)

On the north wall in the third bay is a brass inscription in Latin to Henry Ball, Archdeacon of Chichester, d. 1603, aged 50.

The inscription reads:—

(BALLE IACES) IVSTE CVNCTIS DEFLENDVS: AMICVS OMNIBUS: (HEV) TRISTI FVNERE (BALLE IACES) (BALLE IACES) VITA CVNCTIS EXEMPLAR HONESTAE: DVLCI SONANS VERBI BVCCINA: (BALLE IACES) PAVPERIBVS PATER: AEGROTIS SOLAMEN: ET ISTIS AEDIBVS (AH) MERITO GLORIA: (BALLE IACES) DILECTI QVONDAM BICLAEI PRAESVLIS OSSA IVXTA, HIC CONTIGVO MARMORE (BALLE IACES) HENRICUS BALLVS, LITCHFELDIAE NATVS COMITA: STAFFORD IN VTROQ COLLEGIO WICHAMICO, IL LO WINTONIAE, ALTERO OXONIÆ EDVCATVS,
SACRAE THEOLOGIAE DOCTOR, HVIVS ECCLIAE
PRAECENTOR ET ARCHIDIACON: CICES
TREN: HOC TVMVLO TEGITUR OBIIT
30 MAR: A° 1603 AETAT SVAE 50.

In the third bay of the north aisle, by Bishop Story's tomb, is a tapering coffin-lid probably of the 13th century: it is 6 ft. 6 in. long and has chamfered edges on one side and both ends, the other side being square as though it had been originally placed against a wall. It is incised with a crozier.

In the north wall of the sixth bay, east of the doorway to the library, is an early-16th-century tomb and recess in grey marble rather badly decayed. The shelf has a moulded edge and stands on panelled base with three blank shields. The recess has panelled jambs with shafted front edges which have capitals and bases and carry a moulded flat Tudor arch. The canted soffit has quatrefoil panelling. Above is an entablature with a panelled frieze and moulded cornice surmounted by cresting. In the back of the recess are indents of two figures kneeling before prayer desks, a central figure of the Trinity (?) and several scrolls for prayers and texts.

West of the same doorway is another tomb of similar type, but probably of a slightly later date. (fn. 19) The recess is fronted by octagonal shafts with concave faces, moulded bases and capitals: the flat arch has a middle key block with a foliated soffit. Of the entablature only the panelled frieze remains. In the back are the indents of a kneeling man, inscription plate, scrolls for prayers and texts and a small central seated figure (the Trinity ?).

In the same bay under the arch of the arcade is a tapering coffin-lid without any inscription.

In the south aisle by the third pier is another tapering coffin-lid with hollow chamfered edges, and by the fourth another with remains of an incised crozier: both of the 13th or 14th century.

These four coffins in the north and south aisles of the quire were found under the arches where they now stand, in 1829, but it is said they had been moved there from other parts of the church. In that under the first arch from the west on the north side were found the remains of a bishop, the gold fringe of whose robe was little injured. The crook of his staff of jet was bound to the staff by a gold band with arabesque ornaments of dragons, and he was wearing a gold thumb-ring with an agate bearing a Gnostic emblem. On his breast was a chalice 5½ in. high and 4½ in. in diameter; below the bowl is a round gilt knop and the foot is formed by an inverted calyx, with a double layer of leaves. The date of the chalice is between 1275 and 1300. (fn. 20) The paten, 5½ in. in diameter, has an octofoil decoration, and in the centre a gilt roundel on which is engraved a hand in blessing, with a crescent on one side and a star on the other. (fn. 21) The date of the paten is 1290–1300. Presuming, as is to be expected, that the chalice and paten were those in use by the bishop here buried, in his lifetime, their date would assign the coffin to Gilbert de Sancto Leofardo (d. 1304). If so, it was probably moved from the Lady Chapel when that chapel was converted into a mausoleum for the Dukes of Richmond in 1750 and became the cathedral library.

In another of these coffins (we are unfortunately not told which) was a pewter chalice and paten of probably the 12th century, (fn. 22) perhaps of Bishop Hilary (d. 1169). A third of these coffins held a chalice 5 in. high and 4½ in. in diameter, which is much broken. It has a knop of gold in the middle of the short stem, and its date is between 1200 and 1250, so that the coffin may have been that of Bishop Ralph Neville (d. 1244). The paten, 5 in. in diameter, has a roundel within a quatrefoil in which is engraved an Agnus Dei, and around it is the legend 'Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi miserere nobis.' (fn. 23) Its date is of about the end of the 12th century, and it may have belonged to the coffin of Bishop John Greenford (d. 1180).

A coffin was dug up in Paradise on the south side of the church, also in 1829, and placed in the south transept near Bishop Langton's tomb. Near or in the coffin was found a lead cross, now in the library, with an inscription giving papal absolution to Bishop Godfrey (d. 1088). The coffin has been moved. (fn. 24)

On the raised platform by St. Richard's Altar are floor slabs to Canon William Barcroft, D.D., 1712, and Mary (Blaker), his wife, 1713, also Mary, their daughter, 1741, and Richard, their son, 1742–3; to Canon John Backshell, LL.D., 1750, and Mary (Mill), his wife, 1767; to Daniel Walter, A.M., 1761; to Elizabeth, wife of Dr. Thomas Manningham, Bishop of Chichester, 1714; to Mrs. Martha Ballowe Grane, daughter of Dr. Thomas Ballowe, 1707, late residentiary, and M . . . Moody, 1736, and another to Dean James Hargraves, D.D., 1741, and Mary (Williamson), his widow, 1785, aged 91.

In the north aisle are floor slabs to Sarah Peckham, 1784, Rev. G. P. Farhill and the Rev. H. P[eckham], 1795; to Daniel Singer, 1787; to William Bately, Surveyor and Commissioner of His Majesty's Navy, 1773, and Catherine, wife of Charles Heath, his eldest daughter, 1785; to Frances, daughter of Dean Joseph Gulston, D.D., 1688; to Robert Smyth, alderman, 1721, and Henry, his son, 1725; and small brass inscriptions to Thomas William Cook, Bishop of Lewes, 1926–1928, and to William Champion Streatfeild, Bishop of Lewes, 1929; to T. Y. 1804; and others that are indecipherable, including one with a lozenge-shaped shield.

In the south aisle are floor slabs to Mary, wife of John Backshell and daughter of Sir John Miller, bart., 1738; to Thomas Bowers, Bishop of Chichester, (fn. 25) 1724; to Thomas Luxford, 1778, and Hannah (Jordan), his wife, 1793; to Mary, wife of Prebendary George Parker Farhill, 1782; and a small brass to Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, Bishop, 1919–29. A slab inscribed 'Rediturae Animae deposit[um]' covers the grave of Bishop Henry King, and was so inscribed in accordance with his will.

There are other slabs here, hidden or illegible.

West of the Lady Chapel are brasses to Mary Louisa Lennox, 1843; to Canon William Clarke, 1771; to William Otter, Bishop, 1833–40; and to Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, Bishop, 1840–42.

On the north wall are mural monuments to the Rev. H. Peckham, 1795, and Sarah, his wife, 1782, of white marble with an allegorical figure, erected by their daughter, Sarah Farhill; also to Harry Peckham, Recorder of Chichester, 1787; to John Peckham, 1782, and Elizabeth, his widow, 1820; to Dean Samuel Slade, D.D., 1829; to Lambrook Thomas, S.T.P., Dean of Chichester, 1672; to Joseph Gulston, S.T.P., Dean of Chichester, 1669; to William Otter, D.D., Bishop of Chichester, 1840; to William George James Thomas, 1842; to Francis Goater, Alderman, 1734, and Mary (Palmer) his wife, 1728, and Mary their daughter, 1736; to Ernest Roland Wilberforce, D.D., Bishop, 1907, with kneeling figure of the Bishop, in alabaster. A mural tablet on the south side of the Lady Chapel arch commemorates Charles Henry Gordon Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 1903.

In St. Mary Magdalene's Chapel there is a wall tablet, with figure and urn, to the Rev. George Farhill, 1790, and Sarah, his wife, 1819.

In the south quire aisle are monuments to Edward Waddington, S.T.P., Bishop, 1731, and Frances (Newey), his wife, 1728; to Dean Walter Farquhar Hook, 1875; to Thomas Wheeler, 1769, and Susanna Gilham, his daughter, 1782; to Sarah Charlotte, wife of James Robert Matthews, 1838; to Major Hugh Fitzharding Drummond, killed at Sebastopol, 1855; to Bishop John Buckner, LL.D., 1824; to Lieut.-Col. Richard Buckner, C.B., 1837, and Mary Marsh, his widow, 1852.

Footnotes

1 A visitor to the cathedral in 1635 mentions the chapels on either side of the Lady Chapel: 'The one called Arundells Chappell, in which in the windowes is the White Horse, Matravers Knot, and the Lion' (Lansd. MS. 213, fol. 160).
2 Suss. Chant. Rec. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxvi), p. 1.
3 Arch. xlv.
4 Walcott (Arch. xlv, 169) states that William Neville (1170–85), treasurer, gave to this altar a breviary, missal, etc., and there was a chantry here to Bishop Langton (d. 1337). The chapel was associated with St. Richard. It is described as his chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, and here was an image of him (Arch. xlv, 169, note a) and his head in a reliquary.
5 William de Lenne, Bishop of Worcester and late Bishop of Chichester, by his will dated 1363 and proved 1373, directed that his body should be buried before the altar of St. Mary Magdalene at Chichester, and a marble stone be put in the chapel. He further directed that paintings be made of the Resurrected Lord and St. Mary Magdalene to be copied from his small seal and on the right, or south side, a painting of the history of St. Mary Magdalene and the history of the Blessed Richard on the left, where his head is laid (reponiture). (Lambeth Wills, Whittleseye 129; Arch. xlv, 169; Duncan-Jones, Story of Chich. Cath. 49). The bishop was, however, buried at Worcester.
6 Ibid. p. 73.
7 Archit. Hist. of Chich. Cath. p. 9.
8 A description and illustration of this reredos is in T. G. Willis, Rec. of Chich. pp. 185–7.
9 Ibid. pp. 200–1.
10 The bishop's throne is shown in the same position on the plan of 1658.
11 On the other hand, they may have belonged to the Saxon minster of St. Peter which stood apparently on the site of the cathedral.
12 Valentine, Guide to Chich. (1810), p. 34.
13 The plan of 1658 shows that it had been reset in the north wall (see above, p. 120) and was then attributed to Bishop Rickingale. The present attribution is purely hypothetical.
14 Arch. xlv, 172, note c.
15 Bishop Ralph Neville was buried below his altar, one of the 'four altars of the quire' (ibid. 172), probably in the second bay west of the high altar. These altars seem to have been destroyed in 1551: Cathl. Accts.
16 Stat. and Constit. of Chich. Cath. (ed. 1904), 54–63.
17 Both Sir John Miller and his father had been Members of Parliament for the City on various occasions between 1688 and 1715.
18 In Dally, Chich. Guide (1831), p. 45, the inscription, said to be almost illegible, is given 'Icy git le cœur de Maudde.' It is possibly the memorial of Maud, Countess of Warenne and Surrey (d. 1236), brought at the Dissolution from Lewes Priory, where her heart was buried before the high altar: Lewes Chartulary, pt. ii (Suss. Rec. Soc. xl), p. 18.
19 It is said that this tomb was re-erected here in recent years.
20 Horsfield, Hist. of Suss. ii, 24; S.A.C. liii, 225–6, where two of the chalices and patens are illustrated. The dates are taken from Hope and Fallow, Engl. Med. Chalices and Patens. The chalices and patens are now in the cathedral library.
21 It is interesting to note that the field of the seal of St. Richard (bishop 1245–53) is powdered with crescents and stars, and in the seal of Bishop William Rede (1368–85) there is a crescent and star over the head of the figure of St. Richard (Cat. of Seals at B.M. i, 207–8; V.C.H. Suss. ii, 16).
22 S.A.C. loc. cit.
23 Ibid. p. 226.
24 Dally, Chich. Guide, pp. 55, 65; S.A.C. xxviii, 15.
25 a Removed from St. Mary Magdalene's chapel to make room for Bishop Waddington and his wife.