The church of ST. MARY,
SOUTHAMPTON. There is no
mention in Domesday of any church
within the borough of 'Hantune.' But it does not
follow that there was none. The church of St. John
certainly existed, and there is some reference to the
ecclesiastical position of the town under the account
of the manor of South Stoneham. That manor
belonged to the bishop and was appropriated for the
clothing of the monks of St. Swithun, Winchester;
but the manorial church was held by Richer, the
clerk, with two other churches near Southampton
dependent on it as the mother church. Adjoining
the church was a hide of land, and Richer, further,
in right of his benefice owned all the tithes of the
town of Southampton and also of Kingsland. (fn. 1)
Probably this manorial church was no other than
St. Mary's, Southampton. (fn. 2) In favour of this view
is the fact that the precentors or rectors of St.
Mary's have possessed the rectory of South Stoneham
and presented to its vicarage as early as we have
any records on the matter. (fn. 3) St. Mary's, Southampton,
has its valuable glebe about the church; it possessed
all the tithes of the town, together with those of the
whole district probably here described. It should be
observed that the tithings of Eastleigh and Allington,
which are now comprised within the parish of South
Stoneham, are not included in that manor in the
Domesday record, but are described separately,
Allington moreover having a church. The bishop's
manor therefore assigned for the clothing of the
Winchester monks was probably Bitterne, which had
always belonged to the bishops till it passed to the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1869. The king's
land of which Richer had the tithes was no doubt
Portswood, which we know to have been royal
property, and which was afterwards granted to the
monks of St. Denys. (fn. 4) The site of the 'two other
churches near Hantune' which belonged to the
manorial church probably cannot be determined.
The present church of St. Mary, South Stoneham,
was not then in existence, and a church on its site
could hardly have been called near Southampton. (fn. 5)
Passing from the eleventh to the twelfth century
we find Henry II granting his 'chapels' of St.
Michael, St. Cross (Holy Rood), St. Lawrence, and
All Saints within the borough to the monks of St.
Denys (fn. 6) ; but these chapels must have had relation
to a mother church which was, no doubt, this
manorial church without the walls.
In the time of Bishop Godfrey de Lucy (1189–1204) the clergy of 'Hampton' were in controversy
with the canons of St. Denys; the settlement of
which dispute was, by order of the bishop, postponed
till the return from the school at Paris of Stephen of
Reims, the superior of these clergy, who at once
recognized the right of the canons, spoke of 'my
clergy of Hampton,' (fn. 7) and was very probably the
priest of the mother church with whom these clergy
were living in a community.
A few years later an inquiry instituted (1225)
by desire of Pope Honorius at the instance of Philip
de Lucy, 'rector or warden (custos) of the church
of Southampton,' who set forth that the town was
within the limits of his parish, resulted in establishing
the rights of St. Mary's against the prior and convent of St. Denys over the churches or chapels within
the town, the chaplains being required to swear in
the rural chapter at St. Mary's—Philip de Lucy
happening to be rural dean, (fn. 8) as his successors frequently were—to preserve the honour of the church
of St. Mary. (fn. 9) The parishes of the town were at
this time in an inchoate state. There were certain
understood limits and districts belonging to the several
chapels, in common, however, with those of St.
Andrew and Holy Trinity (fn. 10) without the walls,
whose rights or districts never advanced to the further
dignity. The churches are called 'parochial chapels,'
i.e. chapels of ease, such chapels being created 'parochial' by the bishop, though dependent on the mother
church, while enjoying certain privileges of their
own. The chaplains of the town made no question
of their relation to St. Mary's; the controversies past
and to be renewed (fn. 11) were about the adjustment of
rights and dues which had been acquired by or
conceded to the chapels or others which it was
endeavoured to obtain, and about the amount of
canonical obedience due to the chief of the mother
As little is known of the origin of the religious
community at St. Mary's as of its suppression. It
may be, if there is anything in the tradition of Leland, that the community is to be traced from the
time of Henry I before 1118. (fn. 12) It seems to have
consisted of four priests, at all events latterly, besides
clerks and the chanter, who, in the place referred to,
is called the 'curate.' (fn. 13) The rector and clerks were
acting as a community (see above) in 1225. In 1251
the title of chanter is found attached to the custos or
rector. (fn. 14) In 1258 the warden, chaplains, and clerks
are one party in a legal inquiry. (fn. 15) In 1278 the
precentor, chaplains, and clerks of St. Mary's join in
an exchange of land with the convent of St. Denys. (fn. 16)
Similarly we find 'the warden and clerks,' 'the precentor or chanter or warden, chaplains and clerks,'
and in 1460 'the precentor and fellows' (socii). (fn. 17)
In 1526 the precentory or church of St. Mary in
the deanery of Southampton was valued at £37 5s. 5d.,
while the 'chantry of St. Mary' stood at £6 13s. 4d. (fn. 18)
In the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1536, Dr. Capon being
precentor, the precentory was valued in oblations,
tithes, &c., at £44 13s. 4d. less deductions to the
amount of £7 8s. 1d., leaving a net of £37 5s. 3d.,
paying its tenth of £3 14s. 6½d. A little after this,
when reporting in 1547 on the 'chantry houses'
which stood on the site of, or close to, the present
deanery, the commissioners of Edward VI stated that
they could discover neither by whose devotion the
'chantry' had been founded, nor exactly what property belonged to it; they were only able to say that
what were commonly called the 'chantry lands,' as
well as the house which had always been known
as the 'chantry house,' were let at the rate of
£13 6s. 8d. per annum; but they note that neither
Dr. Capon the rector nor his farmer appeared before
them, so that their survey was less accurately made. (fn. 19)
The inquiry must have been otherwise abortive, as
according to a letter of September, 1529, to the
customer of Southampton about the chantry lands
the chantry had been dissolved many years. (fn. 20) This
chantry may have been of different foundation from
the old precentory, though always held by the parish
priest, who was thus variously styled warden, precentor,
chanter or rector.
Besides this chantry of unknown origin a chantry
for the soul of Nicholas Beket, who died before 1287,
and of Agnes his wife was settled here, the warden
of St. Mary's from time to time being bound to find
a fit chaplain. (fn. 21) In 1462 Johanna, widow of
Nicholas Holmage or Holmehegg, mayor in 1454,
devised certain properties to the mayor and corporation for the establishment of a chantry at St. Mary's
for her husband, herself, her parents and ancestors.
Her chanter's stipend was to be £6 13s. 4d.—he
always received and paid for the town seal to his
appointment—and on the day of her obit £1 6s. 8d.
was to be distributed, namely to the mayor 3s. 4d.,
to the seneschal 2s., and the remainder to the priests,
clerks, and poor of St. Mary's. She also provided for
the support of the tenement devised for the purposes
of her foundation. (fn. 22) The mind of Thomas Smale
and Joana his wife was kept here yearly on 9 April;
5s. 6d. to the chanter, 4s. 6d. to the bedesmen. (fn. 23)
Of the fabrics, the earliest church must have been
of Saxon origin; it was possibly represented in Leland's time (1546) by the chapel of St. Nicholas, 'a
poor and small thing' which stood immediately to
the east of the then existing church. (fn. 24) It was succeeded by the 'great church of Our Lady' of Leland's time, which may possibly be dated from the
reign of Henry I. This church, which contained
the memorials of many of Southampton's worthies,
appears to have been destroyed by the town about
1549 or 1550, (fn. 25) to remove from French cruisers the
direction (fn. 26) of a well-known and lofty spire, and in
the latter year the stones and rubbish of the church
were carted away to mend the roads. (fn. 27) The chancel,
however, may have been preserved for its sacred purposes. Speed (1596) speaks (fn. 28) of a 'small unfinished
chapel' as having replaced the great church; this
probably refers to the building carried out in 1579, (fn. 29)
which could hardly have been more than a restoration of the ruined chancel.
For many years the church remained in a miserable
condition. (fn. 30) A 'fair house,' doubtless a predecessor
of the present deanery, (fn. 31) seems to have been also
constructed from the ruins. In 1650 the church
was repaired in a niggardly fashion. (fn. 32) In 1711 a
nave was fitted to the old chancel by Archdeacon
Brideoake, and in 1723 he rebuilt the chancel. This
church, substantially built, for the repairs of which
Dr. Hoadly the next rector left a benefaction, (fn. 33) was
transformed in 1833 under the pressure of a growing
population, the result being the creation of the hideous
fabric which the present generation cannot have forgotten. This gave place to the existing church in
the style of the thirteenth century, consisting of
chancel and nave continuous without arch, north
chapel, aisles throughout, transepts and vestries, the
first stone of which was laid by the Prince of Wales
on 12 August, 1878, in memory of Bishop Wilberforce, whose son, the present archdeacon of Westminster, was then rector. The walls were already
20 ft. high, and the church was consecrated on
21 June, 1879, and finished (fn. 34) according to the
designs of the architect, the late Mr. Street, with the
exception of the tower and spire, in 1884.
The church tower has not yet been built to its
full height, and there are at present no bells. The
plate now in use is modern, the older plate being
deposited elsewhere for safety.
The early registers of the church have unluckily
been destroyed in the disastrous fires which have
twice wrecked the chantry or rectory-house. The
entries in the register book from 1650, the earliest
date, to 1706 are incomplete, being made only from
notes taken by the clerks and churchwardens.
The revenues of St. Mary's, which are considerable,
and are derived from the rectory of South Stoneham,
commuted in 1845 at £1,430, and from the valuable
rectorial property of St. Mary's in the town and
neighbourhood, have been on the whole very much
employed to the advantage of the neighbourhood.
Even as far back as the Long Parliament we find the
tithes, which had been sequestrated from the lessee of
the rectory (Lord Lambert) as a delinquent, committed by order of the Committee for Plundered
Ministers to the mayor and aldermen, on their
petition, for distribution among the ministers of the
town, whose maintenance was very inadequate. (fn. 35)
Accordingly we find £40 per annum appropriated
to Jesus Chapel, belonging to St. Mary's, across the
Itchen, and the remaining profits of the chantry, at
that time about £250 per annum, distributed in equal
portions among the ministers of Holy Rood, St.
Michael's, St John's, St. Lawrence's, All Saints',
and St. Mary's. And subsequently to this we find
the 'chantry money' directed to the payment of the
various ministrations of the town until the Restoration. But especially within the last half-century the
emoluments have been employed for the endowment
of the many new districts in St. Mary's and within
the rectory of South Stoneham, under the arrangement of the successive bishops of the diocese and
with the concurrence of the rectors. Among ancient
bequests Agnes le Horder, January, 1348–9; (fn. 36)
William of Wykeham by will 24 July, 1403, left
£20 to the precentors and a pair of vestments and
chalice to the church; (fn. 37) John Renawd (1422) to the
fabric 20s. Dr. Hoadly's bequest (1763) has been
mentioned. Mary Baker, widow, by will proved
21 March, 1872, made a bequest to the poor of
St. Mary's and of Milbrook.
THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY, North Front, Kingsland.
This church was erected in
the pseudo eleventh-century style in 1829: and in
view of assignment of district enlarged and consecrated
in 1847. It has been improved of late years. The
register commences in April, 1842. The benefice is
a new vicarage in the patronage of the bishop. There
is a good vicarage house. This parish has an interest
in the Toomer bequest (see under Holy Rood).
ST. LUKE'S NEWTOWN (new vicarage).
assigned in 1851. Ecclesiastical parish by Order of
Council, 1853. Church erected 1852–3; enlarged
1860; chancel added and consecrated 1873; other
improvements are being carried out. Register commences December, 1854. Patron, the bishop. There
is a vicarage house.
ST. AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY, Northam
Road (new vicarage).
The church of this parish, a
miserable erection of 1854 under the designation of
Christ Church, has now given way to a handsome
church under the above invocation in the style of the
thirteenth century from the designs of Mr. Woodyer;
consecrated in 1884. It consists of nave and aisles,
apsidal chancel, south chapel, and vestries. District
arranged in 1851, formed by Order of Council 1853.
Patron, the bishop. There is a good vicarage house.
ST. JAMES, Bernard Street (new vicarage).
District arranged in 1851, formed by Order of
Council 1853. Church in the style of the thirteenth
century, built and consecrated in 1858, with accommodation for 830. It has been since much improved.
Population 7,314. Register commences in 1858.
Patron, the bishop.
ST. MATTHEWS, St. Mary's Road (new vicarage).
Parish formed in 1866. Church in style of
thirteenth century, built in 1870, enlarged 1874.
Accommodation 730. Population 800. Patron, the
bishop. This parish has an interest in the Toomer
Parishes formed from South Stoneham within the
town and county of the town are:—
CHRIST CHURCH, PORTSWOOD, in Highfield
Road (new vicarage).
District formed in 1848.
Church built in 1847. After many alterations,
especially in 1878, the building presents the unusual
appearance of a double nave flanked by an aisle on
either side, the wide chancel with its aisles being fitted
on to the two naves so that the easternmost pillar of
the mid-nave arcade stands exactly in the middle at the
entrance of the chancel. This bold plan was accepted
and approved by the late Mr. Street. There is a large
vicarage house. The bishop of Winchester is patron.
ST. DENYS, St. Denys Road, District Parish.
Parish formed in 1867. Church of handsome character, 1868. Patron, the bishop.
To these must be added:—ST. BARNABAS,
Lodge Road, Avenue. District formed in 1893 from
the parishes of St. Luke, Newtown, and Christ Church,
Portswood. Church consecrated 14 November, 1903.
There is a parsonage house. Patron, the bishop.
HOLY ROOD or ST. CROSS.
The church of
this parish stood originally in the middle of the High
Street in front of its present position. Having fallen
into decay in the early part of the fourteenth century,
Thomas de Bynedon, a prominent burgess, fined with
the crown (1318) for permission (fn. 38) to grant to the
prior and convent of St. Denys a new site; and in
1320 the church was rebuilt where it now stands, the
old site becoming in after times occupied by the Audit
House. Soon after the church was opened a cause
was moved between the precentor or rector of
St. Mary's and the 'rector' or chaplain of St. Cross
on the right of interment within and without the
church. The claim of the precentor was entirely upheld (4 December, 1333), but the rector of St. Cross
obtained permission for his own burial within the
church and that of his successors, and certain other
persons named. But the dues were to go to
St. Mary's; all other sepulture being forbidden. (fn. 39)
The taxation of Pope Nicholas (1291) gives the
revenue of the church as £4 6s. 8d. per annum, its
tenth being 8s. 8d. (fn. 40) Soon after the rebuilding of
the church the convent made an arrangement for the
increase of the benefice, and in 1408 the church
having become, with the church of St. Michael,
appropriated (1405) to the convent, certain further
arrangements were made between the priory and the
perpetual new vicar (fn. 41) for the improvement of the
vicarage; (fn. 42) and in 1474 the poverty of the cure was
further considered (fn. 43) and payment from the convent
advanced from £8 to £10. (fn. 44) By the valuation of
1535–6 the church was worth £15 10s. 0½d. or less
procurations £12 1s. 9d. net, paying its tenth,
£1 4s. 2¼d., to the king. In 1683 Bishop Morley
made a benefaction of £20 per annum in augmentation of the benefice under certain conditions. In
1751 Mr. Richard Taunton left £21 per annum for
a double daily service. The benefice received an
augmentation of £20 per annum through Queen
Anne's Bounty. In 1706 Queen's College, Oxford,
the patrons of the living, provided, in conjunction with the
corporation, a vicarage house
in lieu of the ancient vicarage
house (fn. 45) which had been alienated, and in later times annexed the stewardship of God's
House to the benefice, which
brought in £21 per annum,
besides a good house (fn. 46) for the
steward, but of late the vicars
have been appointed as chaplains only. The living is now
valued at about £220 per
annum. There is no available vicarage house. The
patronage was originally granted to the priory of
St. Denys, who presented till the Dissolution. From
1548 to 1574 it was in the gift of John Capelyn,
burgess, and afterwards of Anthony Lisle, esq. From
1611 to 1871 the patronage was with Queen's
College, Oxford, who in the latter year gave it over
to the bishop of Winchester in exchange for other
livings. The bishop is now the patron.
Queen's College, Oxford. Argent three eagles gules.
Holy Rood has been considered the 'town' church,
and episcopal and archidiaconal visitations have been
usually held in it. It was here that Philip of Spain
heard mass (20 July, 1554) on the day of his arrival
in the port. A Thursday evening lecture was formerly
held here, and in 1607 was filled by the town lecturer (Mr. Hitchcock) subject to the bishop's approval.
Subsequently it was agreed (1615) that the incumbents
of the town should hold the lecture here, and the
parishes were put under contribution accordingly. (fn. 47)
Documents of some interest exist concerning this lecture under the Commonwealth. (fn. 48) It was the practice of the town clergy to keep up a daily service at
Holy Rood, and in September, 1661, (fn. 49) they were
begged to revive that ancient and laudable custom; a
practice broken through probably before 1752, since
Taunton's bequest that year for the same purpose was
confined to the vicar of Holy Rood, or on his failing
in the duty the bequest was to go to St. Lawrence,
and on failure there to return to Holy Rood, and so
from one to the other for ever. In 1781 Holy Rood
is described as the fashionable church of the town,
with service twice a day. (fn. 50) The old custom of houseling cloth over the rails at the Holy Communion has
been retained at this church.
From an early period the western porch or cloister
which existed here till the last rebuilding was used
for town proclamations, and was called the 'proclamation-house,' (fn. 51) and accordingly was repaired by the
corporation. At this church, too, the assembly bell
for the town was rung in the early morning and the
curfew at night. (fn. 52) In 1742 the churchwardens were
ordered to remove the lock from a certain pew, and
deliver it to the owner with the message that if he
sent his cook-maid or other servant to sit there again,
the parish would dispose of the pew to some other
In 1848 a faculty was obtained for pulling down
and rebuilding the church. Fortunately the old
tower was preserved, but the nave, aisles, and chancel
were rebuilt (1849–50) strictly on the old plan, and
partly on the original walls. The tower, which had
been in danger of reconstruction in 1791, is of
good proportions and crowned with a spire. It
stands at the south-west angle. The interior of
the church was much improved (1883) by the
removal of the lateral galleries constructed at the
rebuilding, and in 1901 the western gallery was removed. The fifteenth-century font has an octagonal
panelled bowl and stem, with angels below the bowl,
and the lectern, of the same date, represents an eagle
on a globe supported by a tower; beneath the claws
of the eagle a dragon raises its head to dart at her
breast. The pedestal stands on a triangular base
carried by three lions. The chancel contains some
ancient stalls with the motto of Bishop Fox, 'Est
Deo gratia,' in bold relief. The pulpit was given
in 1900, and a memorial window to a late vicar
(Whitlock) in 1903.
There are eight bells; the treble, second, fourth,
and sixth by Lester of London, 1742; and the third,
fifth, seventh, and eighth by Mears of London,
The plate comprises two chalices and patens of
1626, the gift of Ann wife of John Major, alderman,
to 'Holirudes,' 1627, a plate of 1685, inscribed
'Christ is the living Bread which came downe from
heaven,' two flagons of 1765, and an almsdish of the
same date given by Robert Bradsell, vicar. There are
also a pewter dish given 1662 by Henry Embris and
two pewter plates without inscription.
The registers commence in 1653. Churchwardens'
accounts are complete from 1699.
The following chantries were settled in this
church:—For William Nycoll and Annys and Alice
his wives, and for Richard Thomas and Thomas
Payne, founded after 1452. As originally founded by
William Nycoll it was worth £8 13s. 4d., the stipend
of the priest being £6 13s. 4d., an obit £1 6s. 8d.
and the remaining 13s. 4d. for repairs. (fn. 53) The
anniversary was kept on 25 April. Subsequently the
foundation was enlarged by his wife or wives for two
stipendiaries receiving £6 and £6 13s. 4d. respectively;
and the worth of the whole foundation was
£15 13s. 4d. (fn. 54) Under 1553 we find pensions of £6
and £5 paid respectively to the stipendiaries at Holy
William Gunter, apparently after 1493, founded a
chantry here worth £7 for the souls of his parents and
himself. His priest was to receive £6, and £1 was
reserved for repairs to tenements belonging to the
chantry. (fn. 55)
John Renawd, burgess, in 1422 left 10 marks for a
chaplain to celebrate here, and a penny in bread or
silver to every poor man coming to his anniversary. (fn. 56)
The mind of John Mascal and Margery his
wife was kept here on 10 November at the annual
cost of £1 0s. 9d. (fn. 57)
John James, burgess, by his will (2 September,
1471) gave legacies to all the churches and to Alice
his wife a life interest in certain properties on condition of her holding his anniversary here. On her
death the property was to pass to the corporation with
the same condition. (fn. 58) The mind of Margery Marsh
was also kept here. The mayor and burgesses held
land for the purpose of this and the preceding obit,
worth £1 3s. 4d. (fn. 59)
THE FRENCH CHURCH.
Within the parish
of Holy Rood in Winkle Street is the hospital of
St. Julian or God's House, an ancient foundation
which has been dealt with above. (fn. 60) The only remains of the ancient buildings are the chapel and
the entrance gateway adjoining it on the west. These
form the frontage to Winkle Street, and being of
late twelfth-century date are part of the original
buildings of the hospital. They have, however, lost
nearly every ancient feature by 'restoration.' Till
1861 great part of the remaining buildings of the
same date was standing. The tradition of the French
congregation having been settled here in the time of
Edward VI, though alleged in a law case of 1749,
appears to be incapable of proof. (fn. 61) The earliest
notice is probably to be derived from a petition to
the corporation (fn. 62) in (May?) 1567 by a body of
Walloons who had obtained permission from Queen
Elizabeth to settle in the town; they beg that they
may have a church assigned for their worship, that they
may have leave to exercise their trade of whatever
kind in the town, or at least 'such misteries and
occupacions' as had not been practised in the country,
with permission to employ in the same their own
people, as unskilled labour would be prejudicial to
their work, and so to the town. The petition, which
contained other points, concluded with a request for
the good offices of the corporation with the Queen's
Council and the bishop of Winchester, out of the
'humanity' they bore 'towards the afflicted for the
Gospel's sake,' and with an assurance that their settlement in the town would soon be found a public
The answer of the corporation was but half encouraging: they might exercise trades hitherto unknown, but workmen from their own countries could
not be permitted; as for other trades, shoemakers
and tailors, there were too many in the town already;
for other points raised they must apply elsewhere.
Accordingly they appealed to Bishop Horne, who
recommended the case to Cecil on 30 June and again
19 September, 1567; after which the Council replied
that 'twenty families of strangers might be permitted
to settle in the town, with ten servants to each household, on condition that each took and instructed two
English apprentices in their science for seven years
and that after seven years for every two strangers they
kept one Englishman. During seven years they should
pay but half strangers' subsidies for wares made in
Southampton, to be carried out only from the port;
and were to have the same privileges as the strangers
at Sandwich. (fn. 63)
We find this congregation of Walloon strangers
settled in God's House chapel before December,
1567, at which period the register of the church
commences; and as we learn from the register the
same year was that of their admission into 'Hampton.' (fn. 64) The occupation of the chapel was, under
authority, by permission of Queen's College, Oxford,
to which body the entire hospital and so the chapel
of the house belonged. The settlers appear mostly
to have come from Lisle, Valenciennes, and other
places in the Low Countries, from Normandy and
the Channel Islands. Their early history is to be
gathered from the register, but cannot be detailed
here; (fn. 65) but various names of subsequent interest in
town history begin to appear. The family of Saravia
were settled among the early refugees. In the communicants' list of July, 1569, we find Christopher
de Saravia and his wife, the father and mother of the
celebrated Adrian de Saravia, who was master of the
grammar school before February, 1576. (fn. 66) In an
entry of June, 1571, Saravia is described as 'minister,'
and it is possible he may have officiated as pastor of
the congregation at this time. The discipline of the
church was strict, and the records are full of interest.
On 4 September, 1591, Queen Elizabeth visited Southampton with her whole court, remaining till the
7th about mid-day, when the strangers, having been
afforded no opportunity before, placed themselves in
her way outside the town, determined on an interview to thank her for the protection she had afforded
them in that town for more than twenty-four years. (fn. 67)
This again points to the period of their arrival. After
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (22 October,
1685) a considerable addition was made to the foreign
community here; and not long after this it appears
that the town council had applied for aid to the
administrators of the foreign refugee fund to enable
the settlement of a silk manufacture after the fashion
of Tours and Lyons: help was promised (1694) on
the corporation receiving (fn. 68) a sufficient number of
families to carry on the silk trade, commencing with
thirty looms as a beginning. The trade was settled
in the town for some time and carried on in Winkle
Street. (fn. 69)
Turning to ecclesiastical relations the congregation
was put formally into communion with the Anglican
church in March, 1712. We cannot follow the
details and reasons of a political nature which had this
result. No doubt the leanings of M. Cougot the
minister, who must have been in Anglican orders,
having been instituted by Bishop Mew so far back as
20 June, 1702, to the rectory of Millbrook, (fn. 70) must
have had their influence; but the step was by no
means approved by the French church in London,
and together with other troubles (fn. 71) caused a division
in the Southampton congregation, a secession which
came to an end apparently in 1725.
By the terms of their conformity in 1712 they had
been permitted to retain their consistory, the choice
of their minister, and the distribution of their
charities. And finally, after a short period of abeyance in appointment to the ministry the elders or
trustees sought the advice of the Charity Commissioners
in April, 1856, when new trustees were appointed
and a scheme adopted by order of Chancery dated
7 July the same year. Under this the old provisions
were as far as possible affirmed; the minister must be
a priest in orders of the Church of England and be
appointed by the trustees; and the proper direction
of the funds was provided.
In 1864 the college, under their corporate seal,
renewed permission for the use of the chapel by the
French congregation, 'at such times as the said chapel
may not be required for the use of the brothers and
sisters of the Hospital of God's House.' The vicar of
Holy Rood as chaplain of the hospital is always one
of the trustees.
ST. LAWRENCE and ST. JOHN, UNITED
The church of St. John was granted
by William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, to the
abbey of St. Mary of Lire, which he had founded in
the diocese of Evreux; he also gave a rent-charge of
£9 5s. together with a burgage in 'Hampton' to the
same monastery. (fn. 72) This must have been soon after
the Conquest, when he had probably himself received
the grant from the king. He died in 1071.
The abbot and convent of Lire presented to the
rectory till 1373, when we find the temporalities of
the abbey in the king's hands on account of the war.
The convent, however, presented again through the
prior of Carisbrook, their proctor, in 1400; soon after
which the patronage passed into the royal hands. (fn. 73)
Neither St. John's nor St. Lawrence's occurs in the
Taxation of 1291. In the Valor of 1536 the church
of St. John appears worth altogether £5 6s. 8d., its
tenth to the king being 10s. 8d. (fn. 74) In 1723 it stood
in the king's book at £6 13s. 4d., but only gave the
clear value of £2.
The benefices of St. Lawrence and St. John were
held together in 1614, and have so continued from
that date. A more complete union was attempted
owing to the poverty of the town benefices in 1663,
when the town council approached the bishop with
a view to the union of the churches of St. Lawrence
and St. John with Holy Rood, and that of All Saints
with St. Michael's. (fn. 75) No action was, however, taken
in the matter, though practically the benefices were
frequently held together. But the church of St.
John having fallen into ruinous condition and its
poverty considered, it was proposed at the beginning
of the following century to take advantage of the Act
of 1665 (fn. 76) 'for uniting churches in cities and towns
corporate' and obtain an ecclesiastical union of the
parishes of St. Lawrence and St. John, their joint
value not exceeding £12 per annum. Accordingly
after action by the town council and the vestry the
parishes were united under a faculty from Bishop
Trelawney dated 3 September, 1708. (fn. 77) After this
the church of St. John, which stood in French Street,
was pulled down under the faculty, the parishioners
being bound henceforth to support the church of St.
Lawrence. The area of St. John's Church, in shape
an irregular cross, measuring 90 ft. 10 in. from east to
west, and 70 ft. at the transepts, then became appropriated as a burial ground for the united parishes, the
walls being made up to the height of 8 ft. all round
in September, 1721. (fn. 78) On 23 March, 1539, Abbot
John Bradley was consecrated bishop suffragan of
Shrewsbury in this church. In the angle formed
by the transept and aisle wall on the south are
buildings in St. John's Court belonging to the
church and said to have been the ancient parsonage.
Within the site of the church is a Tudor monument, quite defaced; there are also memorials of
Richard Taunton, the benefactor of the town, who
was buried here 7 April, 1752, and many others.
The church of St. Lawrence being granted by
Henry II to the priory of St. Denys, the patronage of
this church was exercised by the convent till its dissolution; after which the first presentation by the crown
was exercised 26 April, 1543. The benefice continued in the royal patronage except for the intrusion
of Nathaniel Robinson, a Presbyterian, about 1648, (fn. 79)
and is now in the gift of the Lord Chancellor.
This church possesses churchwardens' accounts
dating from 1567, a minute book, and some ancient
deeds, fourteen in number, from which notices of the
parish and of the fabric of the church may be obtained. (fn. 80) The registers are not extant before 1751;
for a lengthened period before this the registrations were
made in the books of Holy Rood, with which church
the united parishes were held from 1660 to 1750.
There are two bells, the treble by Pack and
Chapman of London, 1780, and the tenor by
Thomas Mears, 1801.
The plate consists of an undated chalice and paten,
with engraved ornament, two patens, also without a
date from the hall-marks, but having the names of
the churchwardens for 1844, a second chalice given
in 1847 by certain parishioners, a paten given in 1629
by Anne Baker, and a modern flagon of Sheffield make.
All the plate is inscribed as belonging to St. Lawrence's
church, only the paten of 1629 being of an earlier
date than the union of the two parishes.
The parish owns a house on the west side of the
High Street, number 145; it formerly possessed one
on the opposite side of the street, number 25, but
this was alienated under the approval of the Charity
Commissioners in 1862.
The old church was, as so commonly, disfigured by
various tenements built against it. A couple of shops
were attached to the west wall, one each side of the
porch, which in 1572 were rented at 1s. each. In
1727 they were pulled down by order of vestry, the
churchwardens being desired to fit up the front of the
church in a decent manner. The vestry room was
also leased out at least from 1586 to 1626. The
ancient parsonage adjoined the church on the south
side. This old rectory or priests' house became
latterly inhabited by the parish clerk, and was, with
the consent of the bishop, the patron, and rector,
pulled down in 1837, when the church itself, which
had become an incongruous and inconvenient mass of
patching, was removed; the present church of white
brick being erected on its site, and consecrated
31 March, 1842. A good broach spire was added
to the tower in 1861.
The present rectory house is situated in St. Peter's
parish. The rector possesses in right of his rectory
a farm at Little Somborne. He also received the
dividend of £100 three per cent. consols standing in
the name of the corporation of Romsey, believed to
have been given by Brigadier Windsor (fn. 81) for the administration of a monthly sacrament in St. Lawrence's
The following obits were settled here: of Adam
March (fn. 82) (bailiff in 1435) and Joane his wife yearly
on the Sunday after St. Lawrence (10 August), probably worth 8s. per annum; of Robert Mylles, (fn. 83)
who (probably early in the sixteenth century) bequeathed property for an annual obit which seems to
have been worth 13s. 4d.
The church of this parish is
architecturally the most interesting in the town. Its
patronage was with the convent of St. Denys; (fn. 84) it
is now in the gift of the crown. It was valued in
the Taxation of Pope Nicholas (1291) at £4 6s. 8d.,
its tenth being 8s. 8d.; a pension settled here was
worth £3 and paid its tenth of 6s. In 1405 the
church was appropriated to the priory, when, as
compelled by law, a provision was made for the
vicar. (fn. 85) In the Valor Ecclesiasticus the vicarage
appears worth £13 6s. or with deductions
£12 11s. 8½d., paying a tenth of £1 5s. 2½d. In
1723 it stood in the king's books at £12 11s. 10½d.,
and was said to be worth £20 per annum. It is
now worth about £133 per annum. The population is about 1,820.
This church suffered in the French invasion of
October, 1338, when part of the south-western
quarter of the town was burnt. The flames seized
upon certain wooden buildings attached to the church,
and the sacred edifice itself became a scene of terror,
violence, and bloodshed. The church having thus
become polluted was reconciled by the bishop of
Sarum under a faculty from Bishop Orlton, dated
11 June, 1339. (fn. 86) In 1351, the church becoming
similarly defiled, though under what circumstances
does not appear, Bishop Edendon issued a faculty to
the rector dated 27 November, empowering him to
get any bishop of the province or the archbishop of
Nazareth, suffragan of Canterbury, to perform the
needful office. (fn. 87)
Among the earliest notices of this church in the
town books, we find in 1456 (fn. 88) and subsequent years
the parish clerk paid as a town official for keeping the
clock and chimes in order. Later on (1575) the
court leet presented the irregularity of the chimes, and
in 1594 one of the town gunners, who attended to
the callivers in the Audit House and had 'promised to
alter the chymes into so good a note and tone as shalbe
liked by all the towne, and into good harmonie,' was
employed to do so. (fn. 89) Afterwards the office fell to
the sexton, whose duties in the seventeenth century
were to provide and dress the church with boughs, to
wash the linen, scour the eagle, cleanse the plate, and,
somewhat disastrously, to write the church books and
registers. (fn. 90)
The controversies of the sixteenth century were not
unrepresented at St. Michael's. In 1548 Thomas
Hancock, (fn. 91) who for an inflammatory sermon at Salisbury had, with certain of his friends, been bound over
for his good behaviour, came to Southampton with a
letter from the duke of Somerset to the Lord Chief
Justice, Sir Richard Lyster, begging the discharge of
the bonds. While he was with Sir Richard the bells
rang out for the sermon which it seems Hancock had
been asked to preach. This, however, Sir Richard
entirely forbade, and, after some altercation with
Hancock, sent for the mayor and his brethren, before
whom Hancock professed that he was as glad to hear
the word of God as to preach it himself. Whereupon
Mr. Griffith (fn. 92) preached, and to Hancock's delight
'challenged' Sir Richard, who was present, that he
being chief justice of the law did suffer the images in
the church, the idol hanging on a string over the
altar, candlesticks and tapers on them upon the altar,
and the people honouring the idol, contrary to the
law, with much other good doctrine. (fn. 93)
The court leet book of 1576 shows that the vicars
of St. Michael's and St. Lawrence' and the rector of All
Saints' at least were slow to adopt recent changes.
They were presented for habitually administering the
sacrament 'with wafer or singing bread,' contrary to
the statute and Book of Common Prayer, which 'for
the avoiding and taking away of superstition,' the
court urges, prescribed the finest 'white bread' that
may be gotten, and 'such as is usually accustomed
to be eaten at men's table.'
During the Puritan time St. Michael's continued to be held by the vicar, John Toms, M.A.,
who was instituted 4 October, 1628, and was buried
as minister of the parish on 2 July, 1652. (fn. 94) On
his death Giles Say, a Presbyterian, seems to have
been intruded, who not being a member of the
Church of England, much less in episcopal orders,
and unwilling to receive ordination, was ejected in
1662. (fn. 95)
The registers commence with 8 April, 1552. In
the first year the burial of Sir Richard Lyster (see
above), who had a 'very fair' (fn. 96) house in the parish,
is recorded on 17 March, 1552–3.
Against 1560 a royal visit is recorded. The queen
came from Netley Castle to Southampton on
13 August and left for Winchester on the sixteenth of
In September, 1603, King James and his queen had
sought the town as the healthiest refuge from the
plague; the books of St. Michael's, however, under
1604 record an abnormal number of burials, very
many being notified as from plague.
Under 1791 (16 November), the vicar notes the
total destruction by fire of Bugle or Bull Hall, formerly
the residence of the earls of Southampton, a building
of great interest and quadrangular in form, with an
extensive front along Bugle Street, and bounded on
the north by West Gate. The hall was adorned with
wainscoting and stained glass.
The churchwardens' accounts, commencing in 1686,
contain an account of houses which formerly belonged
to the parish, some of which still do so. The earliest
document relating to these is a lease of 1575.
The church consists of a shallow chancel, a central
tower with stone spire and a nave, with north and
south aisles, running the whole length of the church
from east to west, the general plan being a rectangle
measuring 113 ft. by 66 ft. The earliest part of the
building is the tower, which is probably not later than
the year 1100. The church to which it belonged
was cruciform, but from the evidence of the masonry
it would seem that the rest of the building must at
first have been of a temporary character, as there
are no traces of bonding at the angles of the tower,
as far as they are exposed. But, as the south-east
angle of the chancel proves, the construction of a
permanent building must have been undertaken after
no great interval, probably before 1120, and the presumption of the existence of an earlier chancel is
strengthened by the fact that the internal width of the
present chancel is within a few inches equal to the
external width of the tower; that is to say, it would
seem to have been built round an earlier chancel of
the same width as the tower, the normal plan in a
cruciform church. The building of the transepts and
nave must have followed, perhaps without a break, on
that of the chancel, and the dimensions of the twelfthcentury church, which was probably complete about
1140, can be laid down from the existing remains in
the north and south walls of the transepts and the
west wall of the nave. The nave had aisles in the
twelfth century, (fn. 97) and the building as a whole was of
considerable size, its greatest length and breadth being
those of the present building, though its area was less,
and from what is left of its old masonry it seems to
have been faced throughout with wrought stone. The
first alteration to its plan seems to have been made in
the second half of the thirteenth century, when chapels
were added on both sides of the chancel, probably of
the same dimensions as those now existing, and opening to the chancel by the arches which still remain.
The east walls of the transepts must have been either
pierced with arches or completely taken down at this
period. At the same time a large east window was
inserted in the chancel, the rear arch and inner jambs
of which are still in place.
Towards the end of the fourteenth century the
eastern two-thirds of the north aisle were built, of the
same projection as the north transept, the west wall
of the transept being pulled down. At the same
time the three-light windows in both transept-ends
The south aisle, though now much altered, seems
to belong to the fifteenth century, and the eastern
chapels were probably remodelled at the same time,
the tracery of the three east windows of the church
being originally of this date. The upper story of the
tower seems to have been rebuilt and a stone spire
added in the fifteenth century; the spire again was
rebuilt in 1745 and heightened in 1877; at the
latter date the present belfry windows were also added.
In the early part of the sixteenth century a chantry
chapel was added on the south side of the south chapel.
It is now destroyed, but the arch by which it opened
to the south chapel remains.
Disastrous structural alterations to the church took
place in 1828, when the nave arcades were destroyed
and replaced by the present flimsy pillars and arches;
the aisle walls were also raised and the north aisle
lengthened westward. The three-light windows in
the south aisle belong to this time.
These extensive alterations were not destined to
last. With the coming of a new vicar in 1870 it was
found that serious repairs were needed, and it was
determined again to restore the church. In 1872
roof and fabric were made firm, the pewing and the
galleries were turned out, and the walls cleaned down.
The church was re-seated with open oak benches, the
font removed from the tower to the west end, the
chancel renovated, and quire seats placed under the
arches of the tower. The mayor's or north chancel
was fitted up as a morning chapel; the canopied tomb
of Sir Richard Lyster (fn. 98) was removed from an inconvenient position between this and the central chancel
to the west end of the north aisle, where at least the
recumbent effigy lies in the usual direction, which it
did not before. The walls throughout the church
are still in their rugged state, so that every change in
the history of the fabric may be detected. Mediaeval
architects never intended their surfaces to be left in
this condition, but in the present instance it can
hardly be regretted.
The chancel is 22 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft. long, and has
a five-light east window with late thirteenth-century
rear arch and fifteenth-century tracery. Its walls are
in substance of early twelfth-century date, and the
external south-east angle retains its wide jointed ashlar
masonry, with an engaged shaft, and a billet moulded
string. The north and south walls were heightened,
probably when the arches to the chapels were added,
towards the end of the thirteenth century. At the
east end of the south wall is a piscina, and in the
north wall a locker.
The north chapel has a four-light east window with
renewed fifteenth-century tracery, and a three-light
window of the same date in the north wall towards
the west, its west jamb being on the line of the destroyed north-east angle of the twelfth-century north
transept. This chapel is known as the mayor's or
corporation chapel, the mayors of Southampton having
formerly been sworn here. At the east end of its
south wall is a piscina. Of the north transept only
part of the masonry of the north wall remains, refaced
externally, but within the church the straight joint
where the north aisle abuts against it is visible. The
three-light window in this wall is of good detail
of the end of the fourteenth century, being set to the
west of the centre line of the transept, perhaps on
account of the small doorway to the east of it, which
falls just within the lines of the transept, and though
now of the fifteenth century with a four-centred arch
under a square head, probably takes the place of an
older doorway. It is now blocked up, and cannot be
seen on the inside. A thirteenth-century piscina in
the south-east angle of the transept is evidence of an
The south chapel has a four-light east window with
modern tracery like that in the north, and in its south
wall is the blocked arch 15 ft. wide, which opened to
the sixteenth-century chapel formerly standing at the
south-east angle of the church, but destroyed in the
last century. The south chapel is now used as a
vestry, and inclosed by screens made of fifteenth-century woodwork brought from other parts of the church.
The south transept is filled by the organ, and inclosed
by a wooden screen on the west. The wooden stair
to the upper stages of the tower occupies its north-east angle. The south wall is in part original,
and contains a three-light window like that in the
north transept. The tower is 15 ft. 6 in. square
within the walls, which are 4 ft. thick, and opens
to the chancel, transepts, and nave, with semi-circular arches of a single square order, irregularly
planned; none of the arches being in the centre of
their respective sides, or exactly opposite to each
other. It is built of wide-jointed ashlar, and is
of the plainest description on the ground stage, the
only projecting feature, a soffit string at the springing
of the arches, having been cut away. The second
stage is plain externally, except that on the west;
facing the nave is a blank arcade of three round-headed arches, whose sills are carved with early looking
diaper patterns. It is possible that this arcade may
have been designed to contain the rood between
our Lady and St. John—if so it is an interesting
early instance. The interior of the stage, now hidden
from below by the floor of the ringing chamber, has
triple blank arcades on each face, and was probably
meant to be seen from below, though as it never had
any windows, and was masked on all sides by the
roofs of chancel, nave, and transepts, traces of which are
still clearly to be seen, it would have been very dark,
unless top-lighted from the third stage.
The third stage contains the bells, and is of later
date than the other two, having perhaps been rebuilt
in the fifteenth century, but it is now much altered
by later patchings, the single-light windows in each
face being inserted in 1877, and the tall stone spire
which covers it rebuilt and altered as before noted.
The nave arcades are of four bays, wretched thin
pseudo-Gothic of 1828, with a flat-pitched roof of
the same date, and no clearstory, but the west wall
is in part that of the twelfth-century church, and
contains a fifteenth-century west doorway, and over
it a modern five-light tracery window of fifteenth-century style.
The north aisle has a blocked fifteenth-century
north doorway, with a recess for a holy water stone
inside the church to the east, and two late fourteenth-century two-light north windows with sharply pointed
arched heads. The west end of the aisle, with the
three-light window in the west wall, dates from 1828,
but the three-light window at the west end of the north
wall may be the old west window of the aisle re-set.
The south aisle contains towards the east a blocked
doorway with a four-centred arch under a square
head, of the fifteenth or sixteenth century, but its
two south and one west window are modern, probably
of 1828. Both aisle walls were at that time heightened
and the present roofs put on.
Beyond the woodwork in the south chapel the
church has no ancient fittings except the lectern and the
font. The former is of brass of the fifteenth century,
with an eagle on a globe carried on a circular shaft
with moulded capital, annulet, and base; the feet are
three lions. The font belongs to the type of which
the finest example is in Winchester Cathedral. It is
of black marble, with a bowl 3 ft. 4 in. square at the
top, carried on a thick central shaft, and four of less
diameter, set close against the central shaft, but having
separate bases. It is described and illustrated at
pp. 245–6 of volume two of this history.
In the south chapel, now the vestry, is a press with
an inscription, dated 1646, formerly in the north
chapel, also a chest of the same period, and another
of 1741. At the west end of the north aisle is a
desk with four chained books; two volumes of Foxe's
Book of Martyrs and two of Annotations on the
books of the Old and New Testaments printed by
John Leggatt, 1651.
There is no ancient glass.
On the east jamb of the north window in the north
chapel is a merchant's mark, and near this window an
early gravestone of a bishop or abbot (fn. 99) in mass vestments holding a crozier, probably of the twelfth
century, the lower part being broken away; there is
also a thirteenth-century coffin-lid with a floriated
cross. The only noteworthy monument is that of
Sir Richard Lyster, already mentioned, being the
mutilated remnant of a canopied altar tomb with
effigy, erected in 1567. He died in 1553.
There are eight bells: the first and second by
Warner, 1878; the third of 1693, and the fourth,
fifth, seventh, and eighth of 1664, are by unknown
makers, while the sixth, by William Tosier of Salisbury, is of 1733.
The plate comprises a rare and interesting Edwardian
covered chalice of 1551, a modern jewelled chalice
and paten, two rather ugly chalices, given c. 1830 by
Rear-Admiral John Stiles, a large paten of 1733, given
by Sir William Heathcote, and an oval almsdish of
1791. There is also a very beautiful silver-gilt tazza of
1567, chased and embossed, with the story of Isaac
and Rebecca in the bottom of the bowl. The outside of the bowl has an engraved border of strapwork,
in which are introduced two foxes, a rabbit, a grasshopper, a lizard, and a snake. Below are six embossed
scutcheons with bunches of fruit and flowers. The
stem has a knot of vase-like form enriched with embossed ornament of the same character as that on the
bowl, with a gadrooned base standing on a circular
drum. The foot has a frieze of sea monsters. The
cup is fully described and illustrated in the Arch.
Journ. lix, 326.
The vicar seems at first to have been indifferently
lodged. Under 1469 and subsequent years we find
him paying rent for the house constructed over
St. Michael's prison which was close by. (fn. 100) In 1497,
with the bishop's consent to the arrangement, he
leased a house in Fish Street, in the immediate neighbourhood, from the patrons, the prior and convent of
St. Denys. (fn. 101) In and before 1686 there was a parsonage
house in St. Michael's Square, which was rebuilt for
the second or third time in 1853, but in 1879 a
more suitable vicarage was obtained, 9, Portland
Terrace, on which is a charge of £5 per annum to
All Saints' parish.
Opposite the west end of the church is the timberframed Tudor house already noticed, (fn. 102) and nearly
adjacent are the extensive lodging-houses built by the
corporation for the accommodation of the workingclasses in lieu of dingy courts and houses removed.
The following 'mynds' were settled here: of
William Maylmeslle (fn. 103) (the name afterwards appears
as Maunsell), mayor in 1378, and Margaret his wife,
kept each 2 September, worth about £1 11s. 8d.:
and of Robert Florans, (fn. 104) or Floryse, bailiff in 1436,
and Ellen his wife, kept yearly 22 February.
There was also a small foundation (fn. 105) worth 4s. 2d.
for two obits, by Thomas Crikelwood and Robert
Floryse (or Florans): also to maintain two obits, a
foundation by William Mawnsell (fn. 106) and Robert Flores
worth £1. Also there had been a foundation worth
£1 a year in 1273 for one mass each day at the altar
of St. Theobald for Alice, daughter of Walter Fleming,
and wife of Robert Bonhayt. (fn. 107)
The church of this parish was
originally in the patronage of the convent of St. Denys;
it is now in the gift of the bishop.
It is not mentioned in the Taxation of 1291 but a
settled pension there of £1 6s. 8d. yielded its tenth of
2s. 3d. In 1428 its annual value was stated at 6
marks. In the Valor of 1536 the benefice was worth
£9 10s., which, after deduction for the pension and
other matters, gave a yearly value of £8 1s. 0½d., paying its tenth of 16s. 2¼d. In 1723 it stood in the
king's books at £8 1s. 10½d. and was of the clear
annual value of £18. It is now worth about £350
per annum with a residence. Notices of the church
are scanty. In April, 1461, we find payment (fn. 108) for
guarding a man who had taken sanctuary there; but
no details are given. On 17 March, 1463–4, an
ordination was held here, the rector at that time
being William Westcarre, bishop of Sidon, suffragan
The ejectment of Mr. Nathaniel Robinson from
the benefice in 1662 claims some notice. He was in
the town in 1643; and in January, 1646–7, was
objected to by the corporation as not being 'an
ordained minister.' (fn. 109) In October, 1648, we find he
had been intruded into St. Lawrence's, and was moved,
apparently a year after, to All Saints'. After the
ejection of Mr. Robinson in 1662 his history became
bound up with that of the Congregation Above Bar. (fn. 110)
The old church consisted of chancel and nave with
north aisle, at the west end of which was an included
tower of good form in three stages. There were
originally five bells, but from a curious notice (fn. 111) of
September, 1682, we learn that three of these had been
stolen by night. The fabric having become ruinous
and the accommodation being insufficient, the church
was rebuilt on an enlarged scale under certain authorities (fn. 112) in 1792, and consecrated on 12 November, 1795.
The new building, a vast parallelogram with
catacombs underneath, was from designs of John
Reveley, and occupied the whole available space. It is
in two stages throughout, having galleries on three
sides within. It has a pedimented front of over 66 ft.
in the High Street with three entrances into a
vestibule, and adorned in the upper stage with five empty
niches. The north side is built against houses, the
south pierced with sixteen windows, in two ranks, the
lower to give light under the gallery. The sanctuary
is recessed, and a rather handsome cupola of stone is
constructed over the arch which covers the altar.
The building is otherwise of stuccoed brick. The
chief feature is the roof, which is framed together
without any support of columns over a width of 61 ft.,
and is adorned with sunken panels. This church was
more admired formerly than now. Much money has,
however, been spent on it in recent years and it has
been greatly improved.
The rectory house was in East Street in the early
part of the fifteenth century. (fn. 113) This property was
sold in 1858, and the present rectory house in
Anglesea Place provided.
There is one bell of 1828, by Warner of London.
The earliest register book commences 29 September,
1653. It records several marriages by the mayor and
others, marriage at this time being regarded simply as
a civil contract. Births, however, are entered from
District parishes separated from All Saints':—
The church of this parish was the
first projected of the new churches in the town, and
the corporation was prepared (March, 1824), to subscribe 100 guineas; it was, however, carried out as a
proprietary chapel in 1828. A conventional district
was arranged in April, 1860, and the parish formed
3 February, 1863; subsequently to which, on 18
October, 1863, the church was consecrated. Originally
a brick and stucco building in the Gothic of the
period, in 1862 it was completely transformed by the
addition of a chancel and by many great alterations;
and since that date has been further improved.
There is a vicarage house situated in Carlton
The baptismal register dates from 1860; that for
marriages from 1863. The benefice is in the gift of
This parish was formed 4 February, 1861, from which time the registers date.
The church of St. Peter, Commercial Road, in the
adapted early twelfth-century style, was finished in
1845. The church is well placed and has been improved of recent years. The living is in the gift of the
rector of All Saints'.
Churches which have been brought into the
borough-county by the addition of 1895.
ST. NICHOLAS'S, MILLBROOK.
This, the old
parish church of Millbrook, will be found noticed with
the present parish church under 'Millbrook.' (fn. 114)
ST. MARK'S, Archer Road.
Taken from Shirley
and formed into a parish in 1892; its church erected
and consecrated 1891.
St. Joseph (Roman Catholic), Bugle Street, originally
built in 1830, chancel by
Pugin in 1847; the church
was completed in 1850–1. In 1888 the nave was
rebuilt. There are residence and schools attached.
St. Edmund, with convent, a fine building in the
Avenue, erected in the style of the fourteenth century,
and opened 20 November, 1889. The church consists of nave, aisles, chancel, Lady chapel, and vestries.
Above Bar Congregational Church, formerly called
Above Bar Chapel, represents the oldest Nonconformist
body in the town. It had its origin soon after the
passing of the Act of Uniformity of 1662, and was
due to the labours of the Reverend Nathaniel
Robinson, (fn. 115) a Presbyterian, formerly intruded into
the rectory of All Saints. The society met first
in private houses as occasion offered; but after
the statutory relief to Protestant Dissenters a congregation was organized, Mr. Robinson being pastor,
on 3 August, 1688; Mr. Robert Thorner, the founder
of the Thorner Almshouses, being one of the elders,
and Isaac Watts, the father of Dr. Watts, one of the
deacons. (fn. 116) The first meeting-house was in front of
the site of the present chapel, and was built or adapted
for worship by Mr. Thorner, who eventually (31 May,
1690) bequeathed the remainder of his lease to the
use of the congregation. The freehold, together with
adjacent ground, was purchased in 1719, but the
chapel becoming inadequate, a more commodious
building was erected in 1727. This, after various
changes, was removed in 1819 to make way for a
much larger fabric in the rear of the old site, the first
stone of which was laid on 1 April, 1819, and on
20 April, 1820, as a finished structure was devoted to
God. This chapel has now been entirely reconstructed at a cost of nearly £6,000; a memorial stone
having been laid on 23 April, and the re-opening service held on 6 November, 1889. The building
stands well back from the street, and presents a handsome front of modern design.
Albion Congregational Chapel.
was originally formed from Above Bar Chapel in 1844.
The present spacious chapel, adorned with a classical
pediment, was erected in 1848, and has lately been
The Avenue Congregational Church, erected in 1898.
Kingsfield Chapel, West Marlands, formed from
Albion Chapel in 1853. The present building was
erected in 1861.
Belvedere Independent Congregation, formed in
1847, moved into this chapel in 1854.
Baptist Chapel, East Street.
Notice occurs of a
Baptist congregation in Southampton in 1689 and
1703, but the history of the present church dates
from about 1750. After changes, both of building
and site, the existing chapel was opened in 1818.
The congregation (Baptist) was
formed in 1840, chapel erected 1840–4.
An offshoot from Portland Chapel;
building erected in 1865.
The Particular and Calvinistic Baptists have also
meeting places, as have also the Bible Christians.
St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church of England.
Congregation organized in 1849, church erected in 1853.
The Society of Friends have their meeting-house
in Ordnance Road, erected in 1882. They have
possessed their burial-place in the Avenue since 1680.
The Jews' Synagogue is in Albion Place.
Wesleyan Chapel, East Street.
A congregation is
believed to have been formed in the town by John
Wesley in August, 1787. The present handsome
chapel was built in 1850.
There is a chapel in Bevois town; an Independent Wesleyan, Kingsland; Primitive Methodist in
Irvingite Catholic and Apostolic Church in Southampton Street; congregation formed in 1834.
The Church of Christ, undenominational, Above
Bar, built in 1880.
Church of the Saviour (Unitarian). A congregation first met in St. Michael's Square in 1846. Subsequently after various changes the present church
was built at the corner of Belle Vue Road, and
opened in March, 1860.
The Audit House, High Street.
Of the public buildings the following may be noticed:—
After Holy Rood Church had been
removed farther back in the early part of the fourteenth century, an audit house was erected in its
place. It was in two stages, as usual, the lower being
available for market or shop accommodation. Notices
of this building occur in 1457, (fn. 117) and it is mentioned
by Leland. This building, after much patching from
time to time, was finally removed, and the present
Audit House built (1771–3) farther down the street
(on the site of a house and garden), with a wide Doric
façade of Portland stone in two stages. Improvements
and additions have been made according to requirements, but a new pile of municipal buildings has been
long talked of. Here are the council chamber and
other rooms and offices of the borough; the valuable
municipal archives and official regalia, &c. are kept here.
The Hartley University College. (fn. 118)
structure of Grecian character in three stories, built
and founded from the remains of the bequest of
Henry Robinson Hartley, who died in 1850. Established by order of Chancery in 1859, the first stone
was laid in 1860, and the opening ceremony performed in 1862, both by Lord Palmerston. The
building shows a façade to the High Street of about
74 ft. with triple entrance, flanked by caryatides,
opening into a spacious hall. Here are a museum,
library, lecture theatre, class rooms, and every appliance for its manifold purposes as a university college.
Ordnance Survey Office, near the entrance to the
Avenue. This is the head quarters of the Ordnance
Survey. Established here in 1841, on the site, and
partly in buildings occupied by a branch of the Royal
Military Asylum, finally removed to Chelsea in 1840.
In 1855 an extensive new wing was added, and in
1873 the old main buildings were removed, and the
whole remodelled. The office now presents an extensive pile of fine modern buildings occupying a site
of some two acres.
The Grammar School. (fn. 119)
Removed from its
position in Bugle Street, on the site of the ancient
West Hall. (fn. 120) The first stone of the present building
in the West Marlands was laid 2 September, 1895,
and it was opened 9 September, 1896. It is a handsome and commodious edifice of modern architecture,
erected at a cost of between £12,000 and £13,000
from designs of Mr. Gutteridge.
The Free Public Library.
Established in 1889 is
a fine building erected on the site of an old residential
property, well situated for its purpose in the main
street from Above Bar, at the corner of Bedford Place.
It is managed by a committee of the town council.
Originally these were in part
provided for under the ancient
Gild Ordinances (fn. 121) after the manner
of the times; regulations belonging in some part
possibly to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Later on the alms of the town were settled on a
plan and lists kept of the weekly recipients of charity. (fn. 122)
Following upon this the charities bore the impress
of the various statutes made in reference to the
poor. (fn. 123)
The first almshouse was founded by the mayor,
Richard Butler, in 1564; the first workhouse in
1630 under the will of John Major, a former
Of the modern medical charities, a Dispensary was
started in 1809, the corporation subscribing £5 5s.
annually. The Royal South Hants Infirmary was
established in 1838, and has been considerably improved and enlarged, being the chief hospital for this
part of the county of Hants. There are also various
dispensaries, smaller hospitals, and nursing institutions
which endeavour to keep pace with the population.
Among special benefactions are the following:—
Lawrence Sendy, burgess, gave (about 1564) £20
in trust to the corporation to pay the interest to the
almshouse occupants. William Sendy (1533) gave
£100 to the corporation for certain objects now
obsolete, in lieu of which £10 per annum is given to
the Grammar School.
Sir Thomas White (1566) made Southampton one
of twenty-four towns to receive a benefaction in
rotation. This, amounting to £97 10s., was last paid
in 1902, and transferred from the Grammar School
to the Taunton School fund. (fn. 124)
William Wallop (1616), £100: interest in loans to
William Lynch's gift (now £210 stock), accounts of
which begin 1641, for similar loans.
John Steptoe, alderman (1667): certain property
in trust for loans for 'young beginners' and for other
purposes. This and the two preceding charities are
dealt with under scheme of 1862.
John Cornish, alderman (1611), £100: gowns
annually to poor persons.
George Gollop or Gallop (1650), £200: cloth
gowns annually 'of some sad colour.'
Catherine Reynolds (1615), £50. In lieu of
annual shilling doles £4 per annum is now paid to the
Bridget Parkinson (1635), £20. In lieu of doles
the interest is now paid to the Grammar School.
Alexander Rosse (fn. 125) (1653), £100: partly to the
Grammar School, partly otherwise: the whole interest
is now paid to the Grammar School.
Mrs. Delamotte, 30s. annually to fifteen widows:
now paid to the Grammar School; also 30s. annually
to the vicar of Holy Rood.
Mr. Bradsell, 24s. annually to the vicar of Holy
Mr. Jacomin, £50: the interest to 100 poor
people: now given to the Grammar School.
Nathaniel Mill, (1638), £42 per annum, from the
residue of which, land tax deducted (£38 2s. 6d), payments are made to the Grammar and Taunton's Schools,
and for other purposes.
Peter Seale, alderman (1654), £100: for apprenticing poor children: now paid to Taunton's School.
Peter Seale, jun. £5 annually for apprenticing: now
paid to Taunton's School.
Mrs. Avis Knowles (1634), £50: for apprenticing
two town-born children: now paid to Taunton's
Richard Taunton (1752), the founder of Taunton's School: benefaction of £21 per annum to the
vicar of Holy Rood under conditions: benefaction for
decayed aldermen, &c.
Richard Searle (1738), interest of £30 for charitable purposes.
Mr. Alderman Knight (1762), benefaction (fn. 126) now
carried to charity fund.
William Freeman (1780), £100: for doles in casual
sickness: now carried to charity fund.
Silena Fifield (1769): the income of this charity
(£44 4s.) is spent on the poor of the six ancient
parishes of the borough.
Richard Vernon Sadleir (1810), £350: for certain
George Pemerton (1632), £150 for distributing £9
annually as his gift.
Paul Mercer (1661), interest of £100 to the French
and English poor.
Sarah Spinks, the dividends on £270 3s. 2d.
annually in clothing to the poor of St. Michael's.
Sloane Gibbons (1826), the dividends of
£692 13s. 4d. to the pensioners of God's House, £3
being carried to the charity fund.
Elizabeth Bird (1820), £6 6s. per annum to each
of six aged women.
Charles D'Aussey (1781), annuities of £10 each to
persons who have lived with credit and are fallen into
Charles Hilgrove Hammond (recorder 1800–30),
annuities as last. D'Aussey's and Hammond's gifts
now provide thirteen persons with annuities of £10
Robert Thorner (fn. 127) (1690).
Anglesea Place, were built in 1787 under his will
from accumulations, and have since been largely increased. Additional almshouses have also been added
in Polygon Road, the total number of widows accommodated being about fifty-nine, who each receive 5s.
per week. The trustees also spend £25 per annum
in apprentice fees and gifts to boys of the town.
Charities belonging to the church of Holy Rood:—
Katherine Wulfris by her will (30 December, 1665)
gave the yearly rent of an orchard worth 40s. per
annum, with all improvements which should be made
on it, to the churchwardens of Holy Rood for the
clothing and placing out of one poor maid. The
property has much increased in value and charity
extended. It is now worth some £700 per annum
and is administered under a scheme of Charity Commissioners of 14 April, 1899. (fn. 128) The Wulfris Charity
property is in Brunswick Place.
John Bishop, a baker, by will (18 November 1796)
proved in 1800, left a benefaction for decayed tradesmen, especially bakers, which is worked according to
Sarah Purbeck, by will dated 17 May, 1821, and
proved 9 August same year, gave the interest of
£1,000 3 per cent. to pay £5 per annum to the poor
of Broughton, Wiltshire, and on the death of certain
annuitants £5 per annum to four annuitants from
either of the parishes of All Saints, St. Lawrence,
Holy Rood, St. John, and St. Michael, Southampton;
the remaining £5 per annum for expenses and casual
charity. This charity, now represented by £883 6s. 8d.,
is held by 'The official Trustee of Charitable Funds,'
and is applied in accordance with the will. (fn. 129)
Mary Trim, 10s. annually to the churchwardens of
Holy Rood for the repair of her father's tomb
(Cornelius Trim, died 14 March, 1823) in St. Mary's
Ann Lance Hill, widow of the Rev. Hugh Hill, D.D.,
vicar of Holy Rood, by will proved 21 October, 1848,
left£500 consols, from the interest of which to keep in
repair a tomb in St. Mary's churchyard, as also a tablet
in Holy Rood Church, and after these purposes the
remainder to the poor.
Edward Cushen by will proved 10 April, 1837, left
a benefaction for the distribution of bread in eight-gallon loaves each 8 December in the parishes of
Holy Rood and St. Michael.
Miss R. Toomer by will dated 1885, and proved
the same year, bequeathed the residue of her estate
to the following four churches in Southampton, viz.
Holy Rood, All Saints, Trinity, St. Matthew (and to
the rectory of Southam, Warwickshire), in equal proportions. After litigation in Chancery a scheme was
finally settled, before December, 1888, by which the
capital in each case, about £1,000, was invested in
the name of the rector, or vicar, and churchwardens,
the income to be applied to the maintenance of the
fabric and providing for the services.
The parish has also an interest in Mills', Gibbon's,
Bradsall's, and Delamotte's gift, also in the charities
of Henry Smith, of Silver Street, London. For
Taunton's bequest see above, and under town
Charities belonging to the French church in the
parish of Holy Rood:—
Paul Mercier (6 June, 1661), a share in the interest
of £100 placed with the corporation for the French
and English poor.
Philibert d'Hervart, baron d'Huningen (1721),
£12 per annum to the minister and £2 10s. to
M. de Belleau (1738), £150 sterling to the church;
a legacy never realized owing to the insolvency of the
person with whom it had been placed.
David Roque (1742), the interest of £150 for the
François Fradin (1746), the interest of £50 for the
Madame Anne Castanier (1746), the interest of £100
for the minister.
Isaac Gignoux (1754), the interest of £150 for the
Jacques Dulamon (1761), the interest of £150
stock to the French church here and French hospital
Charities belonging to the parish of All Saints:—
Mrs. Alice Palmer bequeathed (5 September, 1709)
an annuity of £5 on her orchard in the parish called
Moxins for the use of the poor. The site of this
orchard is now occupied by St. Michael's vicarage,
which is charged with the above annuity.
The Hon. Andrews Windsor conveyed to the
corporation (fn. 130) (1 May, 1749) certain property at
Breamore for the benefit of the rector of All Saints, on
the performance of certain conditions; but nothing is
now known of the gift.
In 1893 Miss Dumaresq of Cumberland Place
bequeathed £1,000 to the vicar and churchwardens to
pay the annual interest to ten spinsters of the Church
of England of at least the age of fifty years. Distribution is made in December.
This parish has part in certain town charities.
Of the newspapers of the town The Hampshire
Chronicle, or Southampton, Winchester and Portsmouth
Mercury, which appeared in August, 1772, was the
first newspaper wholly produced in Hampshire, printed
and published by J. Linden, High Street. It
migrated to Winchester in June, 1778, where it is
now known as The Hampshire Chronicle.
In September of the same year (1778) a second
Hampshire Chronicle was started at Southampton by
D. Linden and Co., but was removed to Portsmouth
in January, 1780.
In April, 1822, the Southampton Luminary and
County Chronicle, Isle of Wight, Portsmouth, Winchester
and Lymington Gazette appeared only to disappear
in the following year, and be succeeded (28 July,
1823) by the Southampton Herald and Isle of Wight
Gazette, being known after two changes of name
as The Hampshire Advertiser. It is still issued
under the old name by the proprietors of The
Hampshire Independent, who purchased it a few
years ago. The first number of The Hampshire Independent appeared on 28 March, 1835. It has a
daily issue called The Southern Echo, both papers
being published at 45, Above Bar, Southampton.
There are also The Southampton Times and The