Andrew's, St - Arbroath

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

45-59

Citation Show another format:

'Andrew's, St - Arbroath', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 45-59. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43417 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Andrew's, St.

ANDREW'S, ST., a city, the seat of a university, and anciently the metropolitan see of Scotland, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 39 miles (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Boarhills, Grange, Kincaple, and Strathkinness, 6017 inhabitants, of whom 3959 are in the city. This place, which is of very remote antiquity, formed part of the territories of the Pictish kings, of whom Hergustus, whose capital was at Abernethy, had a palace or hunting-seat near the site of the present town, at that time a forest frequented by wild boars, and thence, as well as from its situation on a promontory overlooking the bay, called Mucross, a name still retained in that of the present village of Boarhills. The origin of the town is, by tradition, ascribed to St. Regulus, abbot of the monastery of Patrae, in the Grecian province of Achaia, who, about the year 370, attended by a company of his brethren, sailed from Patrae, bearing with him a portion of the relics of the apostle St. Andrew, which had been deposited there, and was driven by a storm into the bay of this place, where with difficulty, after the loss of their ship, the crew escaped to land, with the sacred relics they had preserved. Hergustus, the Pictish monarch, informed of the arrival of these strangers, came to visit them in person, and, pleased with the simplicity and sanctity of their manners, became a convert to Christianity, granted them his palace, with the adjoining lands, for a settlement, and, after the subsequent erection of a church, changed the name Mucross into Kilrymont, or "the church of the King's Mount." St. Regulus lived for thirty years afterwards at this place, under the patronage of Hergustus, disseminating the doctrines of the Christian faith throughout this part of the country, and was buried in the church over which he had so long presided. After the subjugation of the Pictish dominion, and the establishment of the Scottish monarchy, by Kenneth McAlpine, that king transferred the seat of government from Abernethy to this place, to which, in honour of the Apostle, he gave the name of St. Andrew's, by which it has ever since been designated; and on the division of the country into dioceses, in the reign of Malcolm III., St. Andrew's became the metropolitan see of the kingdom. In 1120, an Augustine priory was founded here, by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, who also, in 1140, obtained from David I. a charter erecting the town into a royal burgh. To this important priory, the nomination of the bishop was subsequently transferred, from the Culdees. In 1159, Bishop Arnold commenced the erection of the cathedral, which was continued under his successors, for more than a century and a half, and ultimately completed by Bishop Lamberton, a zealous adherent of Bruce. In 1200, Bishop Roger built the castle of St. Andrew's, which was, for many years, the residence of the prelates of the see; and in 1274, Bishop Wishart founded a Dominican priory.


Seal and Arms.

After the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, Edward I. of England summoned the Scottish parliament to meet at St. Andrew's, and compelled every member, with the exception only of Sir William Wallace, to swear fealty to his government; and a few years subsequently, the same parliament assembled here to take the oath of allegiance to Robert Bruce. Edward III. of England, in 1336, placed a garrison in the castle, which, in the year following, was reduced by the earls of March and Fife; and in 1401, David, Duke of Rothesay, and brother of James I., on a false charge of treason, was imprisoned in the castle, by his uncle, the Duke of Albany, and afterwards removed to Falkland, where he was starved to death. The university of St. Andrew's was founded in 1410, by Bishop Wardlaw, and, in the following year, was incorporated by charter, conferring all the powers and privileges enjoyed by foreign universities; James I., after regaining his liberty, visited the establishment, bestowing on its members many marks of his favour, and, in 1431, granted them a charter of exemption from all taxes, tolls, or services, in every part of the kingdom. Bishop Kennedy, nephew of James I., in 1455, founded the college of St. Salvator, chiefly for theological studies and the liberal arts; the foundation charter was confirmed by Pope Nicholas V., and the institution was subsequently endowed with numerous royal grants. In 1471, the bishops of St. Andrew's were dignified with the title of archbishops, and the metropolitan see was elevated to the primacy of the kingdom; in 1512, John Hephurn, prior of the Augustinian monastery, founded the college of St. Leonard, and endowed it from the revenues of the hospital which had been built for the reception of pilgrims visiting the shrine of St. Andrew, and out of his own private property, chiefly for the education of the brethren of the convent. During the numerous religious persecutions which preceded the Reformation, George Buchanan, afterwards preceptor of James VI., was imprisoned in the castle of St. Andrew's, for writing against the Francisan friars, but contrived to make his escape through one of the windows, and fled into England. In 1538, Archbishop Beaton, uncle and predecessor of Cardinal Beaton, began to repair and enlarge the pedagogium, or ancient seat of the university, which, on his decease, was continued by the cardinal, who added largely to its endowment, and converted it into the college of St. Mary, or the New College. This establishment, which was subsequently improved by Archbishop Hamilton, was remodelled in 1579, by Archbishop Adamson and Buchanan, and since that time has been confined to the study of theology. In 1559, after a sermon preached by John Knox, the reformer, the populace immediately commenced the destruction of the venerable cathedral of St. Andrew's, which, in a few hours, they reduced to a heap of ruins; and they afterwards plundered and destroyed most of the other religious establishments of the city.

In 1583, James VI., escaping from the thraldom in which he was held by Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, shut himself up in the castle, by connivance of the governor, where he was joined by a number of his loyal subjects; and after his accession to the English throne, he assembled here a meeting of the prelates and principal clergy, to deliberate on the future interests of the church. In 1645, the Scottish parliament met in the city, and passed sentence of death upon Sir Robert Spottiswood, son of the late archbishop, and three other royalists, who had been taken prisoners at the battle of Philiphaugh, and who were publicly executed in the principal street of the city. In 1679, Archbishop Sharpe was murdered at Magnus Muir, within four miles of the city, by a party of the Covenanters, of whom five, that were afterwards taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell Bridge, were executed on the spot where the murder was committed, and their bodies hung in chains. Previously to the Reformation, the city was a place of considerable commercial importance, and the resort of numerous merchants from France, Holland, and other trading ports; and nearly 300 vessels had been known to arrive in the harbour; but, after the Reformation, and the consequent suppression of its ecclesiastical supremacy, its trade and shipping fell into rapid decay. In 1655, it was so reduced that a petition was addressed by the magistrates and council to General Monk, praying to be relieved from an assessment, on the ground of "the total decay of shipping and sea trade, and the removal of the most eminent inhabitants;" and in 1656, there was only one vessel, of 20 tons burthen, belonging to the port. The chief support of the inhabitants has since been derived from its university; and although its trade has, in some degree, revived, yet the city has never regained its original commercial importance.

The town is beautifully situated on the bay of St. Andrew's in the German Sea, and mainly consists of three spacious and nearly parallel streets, of which the principal is South-street, at the western extremity of which is Argyle Port, the only remains of the ancient fortifications of the city; it is still in good preservation, and over the arched gateway are the city arms, nearly obliterated by time. Beyond South-street, is Marketstreet, to the north of which is North-street; and still further to the north, and bordering upon the bay, was Swallow-street, formerly the principal residence of the merchants, but which has long since disappeared, and the site been converted into a public walk called the Scores. These streets are intersected, at right angles, by several smaller streets; and a new street called Bell-street, has recently been formed, connecting North with Market street, and which it is proposed to extend to South-street. The houses are generally well built, and of handsome appearance, and many of them are spacious; the streets are paved, and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with excellent water. A public subscription library was established about 1821, and has now a collection of more than 1200 volumes; a literary and philosophical society was instituted in 1839, and a mechanics' library was formed a few years since, but shortly after became extinct. The sea-beach is well adapted for bathing; and near the castle, on an eminence overlooking the sea, a building has been erected, containing every requisite accommodation of hot and cold baths. On the extensive links to the west of the town, the ancient game of golf is pursued by the inhabitants, as their principal recreation; a club for that purpose, consisting of several noblemen and gentlemen, was established in 1754, and to such an extent is this amusement followed, that not less than 5000 balls are annually used by the players. The environs of the town possess much beauty and variety of scenery, and the numerous remains of its ancient ecclesiastical structures, and its colleges and public buildings, give to it a venerable and interesting appearance.

The University, which consists of St. Mary's, or the New, College, and the united colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard, is under the controul of a chancellor, chosen by the senatus academicus; two principals, appointed by the crown, one for St. Mary's, with a stipend of £238, and one for St. Salvator's, with an income of £307; and a rector, annually elected by the professors and students, from the professors of divinity and ecclesiastical history in St. Mary's, and the principal of St. Salvator's. The professorships of divinity, Hebrew, and ecclesiastical history, in St. Mary's, and the professorship of mathematics in the United College, are in the patronage of the Crown, and are valued respectively at £232, £211, £286, and £440, per annum. The professorships in the United College in its own gift, are, the Greek, valued at £444; logic, £310; moral philosophy, £372; and natural philosophy, £278: that of medicine, £227, is in the patronage of the university. The professorship of humanity, valued at £458, is in the gift of the Duke of Portland; the professorship of civil history, valued at £199, is in the patronage of the Marquess of Ailsa; and that of chemistry, founded from a bequest by Dr. Gray, and to which the first appointment was made in 1840, is valued at £70, and is in the patronage of the Earl of Leven. The senatus academicus consists of the principals and professors of both colleges, and the rector of the university presides at its meetings; by this body alone, degrees are conferred, the several faculties recommending the candidates. The College of St. Mary is confined to the study of theology; the students neither wear gowns, nor pay any fees, but, previously to their admission, must have passed through the ordinary routine of classical and philosophical studies in some of the Scottish colleges; the session commences on the 1st of December, and closes on the 31st of March. In the gift of this college are twenty bursaries, among which are, one of £18, two of £15 each, ten between £15 and £10, three of £10, and one of £7; the college has also the patronage of several incumbencies. The buildings, which have been restored, and partly rebuilt, occupy a quadrangle, on the north side of which is the university library, containing more than 45,000 volumes, open to the use of both colleges; on the west side, are the divinity hall and principal's lodge. The front towards the street has been made to harmonize with the new buildings, and ornamented with a series of shields, containing the armorial bearings of the several chancellors of the university, from its foundation to the present time.


Seal of the University.

The Colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard were united by act of parliament, in 1747, and placed under the superintendence of one principal; the students wear gowns of scarlet frieze, and pay a fee of £3. 3. to each of the professors whose lectures they attend; the session commences on the first Tuesday in October, and closes on the last Friday in April. In the gift of the college, are sixty-four bursaries, of the aggregate value of £900; of these, there are several of £20 each, four of £15, two of £14, forty of £10, ten between £10 and £5 each, and one of £5. Eight are in the patronage of the Madras school; seven in that of the university and united college; three, of £100 each, in the patronage of Sir Alexander Ramsay, Bart., for candidates of the names of Ramsay, Durham, Carnegie, and Lindsay; and the remainder are open to general competition. The college has also the patronage of the livings of Dunino, Kemback, Kilmany, Cults, and Forteviot. The buildings form a spacious quadrangle, containing the apartments in which the professors deliver their lectures; a hall; a venerable chapel, in which is the tomb of the founder of St. Salvator's, Bishop Kennedy, with an inscription partly obliterated; and a museum connected with the literary and philosophical society of St. Andrew's. The chapel, which was formerly much larger, and had an exquisitely groined roof, since removed, from an unfounded apprehension of insecurity, is now used as the parish church of St. Leonard. In the tomb of Bishop Kennedy were found, an exquisitely wrought silver mace, now appropriated to the use of the college, and five others, of which two are preserved in the college of St. Mary, and one each were presented to the universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. The college also possesses two silver arrows which were annually awarded as prizes to a company of archers, from the year 1618 to 1751, and, after being held by the winners for one year, were returned with silver medals attached to them; to one, are appended 39 medals, weighing together 166 ounces, and to the other, 30, weighing 55 ounces. Of the college of St. Leonard, now in ruins, all that remains, are, the roofless chapel, the hall, and some other buildings which have been converted into dwellings; in the chapel are the monuments of the founder, Prior Hepburn; of Robert Stewart, Earl of March, Bishop of Caithness, and commendator of the priory of St. Andrew's; and a mural monument to Robert Wilkie, for twenty-one years principal of the college. The hall contained the refectory and dormitories of the students; and on one of the walls, is the inscription "Erexit Gul. Guild. S.S.T.D.," with the date "1650."

The Madras College, situated in South-street, was founded by the Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, one of the prebendaries of Westminster, who, in 1831, conveyed, for that and other purposes, to the provost of St. Andrew's, the two ministers of the parish, and the professor of Greek in the university, £60,000 three per cent reduced annuities, and £60,000 three per cent consols. Of these funds, five-twelfths were to be transferred by them to the provost, magistrates, and town council of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, and Inverness, for the foundation of schools on the Madras system; onetwelfth to the trustees of the Royal Naval School, for a similar purpose; and one-twelfth to the provost and council of St. Andrew's, for the formation of a permanent fund for the moral and religious improvement of the city. The remaining five shares were to be vested in the same trustees, substituting only the sheriff depute of Fife for the professor of Greek, after the death of the present professor, for the erection and endowment of a college, to be called the Madras College of St. Andrew's, and to the establishment of eight bursaries in the United College, tenable by such as have been three years in the Madras College. Buildings were soon after erected, in the Elizabethan style, from a design by Mr. Burn, architect, of Edinburgh, inclosing a spacious quadrangular area, and containing the requisite classrooms for the school, and two handsome residences for the English and classical masters. The college, which is under the visitation of the lord-lieutenant of the county, the lord justice clerk of Scotland, and the bishop of Edinburgh, is conducted on the Madras system, by a classical master and an assistant, and an English master, who has also an assistant, the former having a salary of £50, and the latter of £25, from the funds of the college, in addition to their fees; by masters of arithmetic, writing, and the modern languages, each of whom has a salary of £50, in addition to their fees; and by masters of the mathematics, geography, drawing, and church music. The total number of the pupils is about 800, including those of the English and grammar schools of the city, which have been incorporated with this institution; and about 150 children of the poorest citizens, also, receive a gratuitous education in the establishment.

The only manufactures in the town are, that of golf balls, of which about 10,000 are annually made; and the weaving of linen, for the manufacturers of Dundee. The Trade of the port is very inconsiderable; some vessels occasionally bring cargoes of timber from Norway and the Baltic, but when drawing more than fourteen feet of water, they are obliged to discharge part of their lading before they can enter the harbour. The number of vessels belonging to the port, is fourteen, of the aggregate burthen of 680 tons: the harbour is formed chiefly by the Kinness rivulet, and is difficult of access; it was deepened in 1836, and, at spring tides, can receive vessels of 300 tons. The river Eden, on the northern confines of the parish, is navigable for about two miles from its mouth; and on its banks is a distillery, to which small vessels convey supplies of coal and grain, and take back cargoes of spirits. On this river is a salmon fishery belonging to the city, to which it pays a rental of about £7; there are also several boats employed in the fisheries off the coast. The fish usually taken are, haddock, cod, ling, skate, halibut, and flounders, of which the produce, after supplying the home markets, is sent to Cupar; and during the season, the greater part of the boats are employed in the herring-fishery off the coast of Caithness. The city received its first charter of incorporation from David I., in 1140, erecting it into a royal burgh; and under this charter, confirmed by Malcolm IV., in 1153, the government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twenty-two councillors. There are seven incorporated guilds, viz., the smiths, wrights, bakers, shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and butchers, into one of which an individual must be admitted, previously to his becoming a burgess qualified to carry on trade; the fees vary from £45 to £15 for strangers, from £20 to £12 for apprentices, and from £2. 10. to £1 for sons of freemen. The magistrates exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction within the burgh, the former to any amount, but the latter confined chiefly to petty offences, for which purpose they hold a bailie-court twice in the week, and courts for the recovery of small debts on the first Monday in every month; in the latter, the number of cases has greatly diminished since the establishment of the sheriff's smalldebt court. A dean-of-guild court is also held, occasionally. The city, with the burghs of Anstruther Easter and Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, returns a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is about 280. The townhall, an ancient building, situated in Market-street, has been recently enlarged and repaired; and the gaol, which is chiefly for the temporary confinement of petty delinquents, is under good regulations. The market is held weekly on Monday, and is well supplied with grain; and markets for poultry, butter, eggs, and provisions of all kinds, are held on Wednesday and Saturday. There are fairs on the second Thursday in April, the 1st of August, and the 30th of November (all O. S.); the first, anciently called the Senzie Fair, was formerly of 15 days' continuance, and was resorted to by merchants from various foreign ports. The post-office has a daily delivery; and communication is maintained with Dundee and Edinburgh, by good roads, of which those from Dundee and Cupar meet in the north of the parish.


Second Seal of the Burgh.

The parish is bounded on the east by the German Sea, and is about ten miles in length, and two miles in extreme breadth, comprising 10,300 acres, of which 9840 are arable, 345 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is generally level, except towards the east, where the hills of Balrymont have an elevation of 370 feet, and the hill of Clatto, to the west, which rises to the height of 548 feet above the sea; the coast is about six miles in extent, and is bounded, in some parts, with rocks, of which the Maiden rock, and those of Kinkell and Buddo are the most conspicuous. About a mile from the town is the cave of Kinkell, about 80 feet in length, and 25 feet wide; the roof, apparently of one entire stone, is about 11 feet in height, but inclining so much towards the east as to form an angle with the floor, which, on the west side, about 40 feet from the entrance, is covered with plants whose growth is promoted by water constantly trickling from the roof. The principal river is the Eden, over which is an ancient bridge of six arches, called the Gair or Guard bridge, built by Bishop Wardlaw, and wide enough only for one carriage to pass; there are also two small rivulets, of which the larger, after a course of nearly five miles, having turned several corn-mills, flows into the harbour, on the south-east; and the other falls into the sea at the north-west of the city. The soil is mostly fertile, and the lands are generally better adapted for tillage than for pasture, producing abundant crops of grain of all kinds; the system of agriculture is improved, and many acres of land near the mouth of the Eden have been protected from inundation by embankment. The cattle, which were previously all of the Fifeshire breed, have, within the last few years, been mixed with various others of recent introduction; and the sheep, of which the number has been for some time gradually increasing, are principally of the Highland and Cheviot breeds. The chief substrata are, sandstone, in which are found thin seams of coal, slate clay, and clay ironstone; the sandstone is of a grey colour, very durable, and of good quality for building. The plantations, which are mainly around the houses of the landed proprietors, and in a thriving state, are mostly ash, oak, elm, beech, plane, and larch, with some Scotch firs, which are chiefly on the poorer soils.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife; the living is collegiate, consisting of two charges, of which the first is in the patronage of the Crown, and the second in that of the Magistrates and Council of the city. The minister of the first charge has a stipend of £439. 9. 4., with a glebe valued at £23 per annum; and the minister of the second charge has £171. 18. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16. 15. per annum. The parish church, originally erected by Bishop Turgot, about the commencement of the 12th century, is a spacious structure with a tower and spire, and anciently contained numerous chapels, which were suppressed at the Reformation; after the destruction of the cathedral, it was substituted as the cathedral of the archbishops of St. Andrew's. It was rebuilt in 1798, and contains about 2200 sittings; in the aisle is a splendid monument of white marble, erected to the memory of Archbishop Sharpe, by his son, in 1679. A chapel in connexion with the Established Church has been recently erected at Strathkinness, in the parish, at a cost of £400, raised by subscription; it contains 124 fixed sittings, and moveable benches for about 230 persons; the minister has a stipend of £54. 12., of which one-half is paid by the minister of the first charge of the parish, and the remainder by the heritors. An episcopal chapel was built in 1825, at a cost of £1400; there are also places of worship for members of the Free Church and United Secession, Baptists, and Independents. Among the monuments of antiquity with which the city and its environs abound, are the remains of the church of St. Regulus, which, with every appearance of probability, is supposed to be the original structure erected by Hirgustus, King of the Picts, on his conversion to Christianity. They consist chiefly of the tower, 108 feet high and 20 feet square at the base, formerly surmounted by a spire; and the eastern portion of the church, 31 feet in length, and 25 feet wide, having two windows on the north, and two on the south side. Since the decay of the spire, the tower has been roofed with a platform of lead, to which there is an ascent by a spiral staircase within. On the east and west faces of the tower, are traces of several roofs of different heights, with which the church has been covered at various times; and from the summit is obtained an extensive prospect over the bay and the adjacent country.

The ancient Cathedral, completed in 1318, was a magnificent cruciform structure, 375 feet in length, 180 feet across the transepts, and 72 feet in mean breadth, with a lofty central tower, of which nothing now remains but the bases of the columns whereon it was supported; it had also two turrets at the western, two at the eastern, extremity, and one at the end of the south transept, each 100 feet in height. Of this splendid structure, which was destroyed at the commencement of the Reformation, only the eastern gable, with its turrets, one of the turrets at the west, and a portion of the walls, are now remaining; the style of its architecture is partly Norman, and partly of the early and later English, which latter is more prominent in the western portion of the building, from the greater richness of its details. The interior has been cleared, by order of Her Majesty's exchequer, from the accumulated heaps of rubbish with which it had been, for years, obscured; and such repairs have been made as were requisite for the preservation of the remains. Within the area of the cathedral precincts, which occupy a space of about 18 acres, are some portions of the Priory, or Augustine monastery, founded by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, and other monastic buildings, in a state of irretrievable decay; the whole is inclosed by a wall erected by Prior Hepburn, originally almost a mile in circuit, 20 feet in height, and four feet thick, defended by 16 turrets, at irregular distances, and having three handsome gateways, above one of which, still remaining, is a mutilated statue of the Virgin Mary. To the north-west of the cathedral, on an eminence overlooking the sea, are the remains of the Castle, rebuilt by Bishop Trail, about the close of the 14th century; after the murder of Cardinal Beaton, in 1546, it was besieged and destroyed, but was subsequently rebuilt by Archbishop Hamilton, and continued to be the residence of the prelates till 1591, since which period it has been suffered to fall into decay. The only remains are, part of the south side of the quadrangle, with a handsome square tower, and a few other fragments. The ancient convent of Franciscan friars was demolished at the Reformation, and the site is now occupied by a part of Bell-street; and the Dominican convent founded in 1274, shared the same fate, with the exception of its chapel, a beautiful specimen of the early English style, within the grounds of the Madras College, and for the preservation of which Dr. Bell, the founder, made due provision. On an eminence to the west of the harbour, are the ruins of the Kirkheuch, a Culdee establishment, for a provost and ten prebendaries, said to have been erected by Constantine II., in the ninth century, and of which Constantine III., after resigning his crown, became abbot.

Andrew's, St.

ANDREW'S, ST., a parish, in the county of Orkney; containing, exclusively of the late quoad sacra parish of Deerness, 926 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the eastern coast of the mainland, and is bounded on the north by the Frith of Shapinshay; on the east by Deer Sound, which separates it from Deerness; and on the west by the bay of Inganess. It is about six miles in extreme length, and two in average breadth, and is connected with the peninsula of Deerness by a narrow isthmus less than a quarter of a mile in length; the coast is so singularly indented with bays and inlets from the sea, that its form cannot be well defined, or its extent accurately ascertained, though it is generally estimated at 13 square miles, and the line of coast at about 18 miles. The surface, though generally low, is intersected by three nearly parallel and equidistant ridges of inconsiderable height, and diversified with hills of gentle acclivity, of which the highest has an elevation of 350 feet above the sea, and, towards the north-east, terminates in precipitous rocks, of strikingly romantic appearance; in one of these is a remarkable cavern, 60 feet in length, and about 30 feet wide, communicating with the sea by a passage, through which a boat may pass at certain times of the tide. Deer Sound forms an excellent roadstead for vessels in boisterous weather; it is about four miles long, and two miles broad, and has a depth of six or seven fathoms at the entrance, with a sandy bottom, and affords good anchorage for vessels of any size. Inganess bay, on the north-west coast, about two miles and a half in length, and more than a mile in breadth, varies in depth from three to twelve fathoms, and affords good anchorage and shelter from all winds. Neither of these bays, however, is at present much frequented.

The soil is extremely various in different parts of the parish, consisting of sand, loam, clay, and moss, alternating, and frequently found in combination; the number of acres under tillage is about 2200; the chief crops are oats and bear, with a small proportion of potatoes and turnips. The farming is in a very unimproved state; some attempts have been made to drain the lands, but very little progress has hitherto been effected in the general system of agriculture. Little attention has been paid to the improvement of the breeds of live stock; the horses most in use are those of the Norwegian kind called the Garron, strong and hardy, but seldom exceeding 14 hands in height; the black cattle are small, thin, and ill-conditioned, from the scantiness of the pastures; and the sheep are inferior to those of the Zetland breed, and not so remarkable for fineness of wool. The farm-buildings are generally of stones and clay, roofed with thatch; and the few inclosures that have taken place, are made by mounds of turf. The rocks are argillaceous sandstone and flag, apparently of the old red sandstone formation, alternated with trap, and traces of calc-spar and pyrites of iron are found occasionally; slates of inferior quality, and also freestone, are obtained in some parts.

The manufacture of kelp, formerly carried on here to a great extent, has of late been greatly diminished; and that of straw-plat, which was also extensive, has been almost discontinued. Fairs for cattle are held at Candlemas, Midsummer, and Martinmas. The fish generally found off the coast are, cod, haddocks, flounders, skate, thornbacks, and coal-fish; and crabs, lobsters, cockles, and other shell-fish, are found on the shores; but no regular fishery of these has been established. The herring-fishery was commenced in 1833, and is carried on to a very considerable extent; curing-houses have been erected, and there is every prospect of the formation of an extensive and lucrative herring station at this place. Communication with Kirkwall, and with other parts of the mainland, is maintained by good roads, of which that to Kirkwall is one of the best in the county. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkwall and synod of Orkney; the minister's stipend is £200, exclusive of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church, built in 1801, and enlarged in 1827, is a neat structure, conveniently situated, and containing 400 sittings. A Free Church place of worship has been erected here. The parochial school affords the general course of study; the master has a salary of £27, with a house and garden, and the fees average £9. There are some slight vestiges of ancient chapels; and on the point of Inganess are traces of an old circular fort of stones and earth, commanding the entrance of Deer Sound. Several tumuli also remain, one of which, on the glebe land, is about 140 yards in circumference at the base, and 12 feet high; another, nearly in the centre of the parish, is 90 yards in circumference, and 16 feet high, and a third, of much larger dimensions, is situated on the isthmus at the southern extremity of the parish.

Andrew's Lhanbryde, St.

ANDREW'S LHANBRYDE, ST., a parish, in the county of Elgin, 3 miles (E.) from Elgin; containing 1176 inhabitants, of whom 174 are in the village of Lhanbryde. To this parish, which was anciently called the barony of Kill-ma-Lemnock, Lhanbryde, signifying in Gaelic "The church of St. Bridget," was united in 1782, in addition to two other chapels that had been joined before the Reformation. It is three miles broad, from east to west, and about four long, from south to north, exclusively of the Teindland, which is detached one mile distant on the south, and although generally considered as belonging to this parish, pertains to that of Elgin. It contains about 5000 acres, of which four-fifths are under cultivation, and 650 acres are woodland, and is intersected by the great north road and the river Lossie. The isolated tract just named was originally the moor where the cattle were collected for drawing part of the teinds of both parishes, before they were converted into money; from which circumstance it derives its name. The surface has, in general, the appearance of a plain, in which a series of low hills rise, apparently connected together, and all covered with corn, grass, or wood. The district is subject, in the spring season, to a succession of storms, some of which are of the most violent, piercing, and blighting nature, equally injurious to vegetation and to animal life. There are three lakes on the confines of the parish, of which the largest, called Spynie, consisting of shallow water resting upon a deep rich mould, offered a temptation to drainage, which, a few years since, was prosecuted at an expense of nearly £10,000, but the operation has not yet fully succeeded. These lakes abound with trout, eels, and pike, and are visited by a great variety of wild ducks, and sometimes by wild geese and swans. The river Lossie, which, entering the parish at the northwest corner, divides it there from the town of Elgin, is subject to great floodings, and the grounds on its banks frequently suffer serious injury; salmon, pike, trout, &c. are found in it, though not in any considerable quantity.

The soil in general is sandy, yet fertile where the land is low and damp, for, in this part of the county, the farmer has mostly to complain of drought, by which he loses much every summer. All kinds of grain are produced in a larger quantity than is necessary for domestic use, as well as the ordinary green crops and grasses; and most of the farms are of considerable size, and occupied by gentlemen of skill, and with adequate capital. The whole extent of the parish is incumbent upon a bed of limestone belonging to the calciferous sandstone of the old red formation. About a mile eastward of the manse, a small section made by the burn of Llanbryde exposes a bed of the inferior oolite kind; and two miles north-west of the manse appear, at Linksfield, Pitgaveny, &c. insulated patches of the Purbeck beds of the wealden, or fresh-water deposit, rarely met with in Scotland. Limestone is burnt for agricultural and building purposes, and the wealden clays and marls are applied to fertilizing the light sandy soil in the neighbourhood. Pitgaveny House is a handsome residence, with grounds tastefully laid out. There is a manufacture of malt in the parish; and a cast-iron foundry, and a manufactory of woollen stuffs, are carried on, the latter of which employs about 45 hands. A fair is held at Lhanbryde on the 4th Tuesday in October, when cattle, farming implements, and similar commodities, are exposed for sale. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Elgin and synod of Moray; the patronage is vested in the Crown and the Earl of Moray, alternately, and the minister's stipend is £206. 19., with a manse. The church is a commodious building, and will hold between 400 and 500 persons. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £34. 14., with a house and garden, and about £12 fees, and teaches the classics, mathematics, French, and Gaelic, together with the ordinary branches of education. About half a mile south of the manse is a small square fort of great antiquity, called the Tower of Coxton, and which appears to have been of considerable strength. The neighbourhood affords numerous specimens of interest, in the form of fossils. Many of the distinguishing fossils of the inferior oolite, have been found in the bed exposed by the Lhanbryde burn; at Linksfield a great variety also occurs, and of the greatest number and interest, in a darkcoloured shale bed containing slabs of highly crystalized limestone.

Angus.

ANGUS.—See Forfarshire.

Annan

ANNAN, a royal burgh, and a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 16 miles (E. S. E.) from Dumfries, and 79 (s.) from Edinburgh; containing, with part of Brydekirk quoad sacra, 5471 inhabitants, of whom 4409 are in the burgh. This place, which is of remote antiquity, and supposed to have been a Roman station of some importance, was, after the departure of the Romans from Britain, occupied by the ancient inhabitants till their expulsion by the Northumbrian Saxons. After the dissolution of the Saxon heptarchy, the surrounding territories were annexed to the kingdom of Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore; and the lands were subsequently granted to Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annandale, who built a castle for the defence of the town, in which he occasionally resided. From its proximity to the English border, the town was frequently plundered during the Border warfare, and sometimes burnt; and it suffered greatly in the wars consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish throne, in the reign of Edward I. of England. In 1298, the town and church were burnt by the English, but were subsequently restored by Robert Bruce, who, in 1306, ascended the throne of Scotland; and in 1332, Edward Baliol, after his coronation at Scone, repaired to the castle of Annan, whither he summoned the nobility of Scotland, to pay him homage. During his continuance here, Archibald Douglas, the firm adherent of the Bruces, having collected a force of 1000 cavalry at Moffat, advanced to Annan during the night, and having surprised and defeated his guards, Baliol was induced to make his escape from the castle, and, hastily mounting a horse with neither saddle nor bridle, with considerable difficulty reached Carlisle, without a single attendant.


Seal and Arms.

In 1547, the town was plundered and burnt by the English under Wharton, accompanied by the Earl of Lennox, on which occasion, as the castle was at that time dismantled, the inhabitants fortified the church, and for some time successfully resisted the invaders. In the two following years, the town and the surrounding district were continually infested by the predatory incursions of the English borderers, against whose attacks the governor, Maxwell, levied a tax of £4000, for repairing the castle, and placing it in a state of defence. During the regency of Mary of Guise, on the arrival of a large body of French soldiers in the river Clyde, the greater number of them were stationed in the town, for the protection of the neighbourhood; and in 1570, the castle was again destroyed by the English forces, under the Earl of Sussex; but it was afterwards restored, and continued to be kept up, as a border fortress, till the union of the two crowns by the accession of James VI. At this time, the town was reduced to such a state of destitution, that the inhabitants, unable to build a church, obtained from that monarch a grant of the castle, for a place of public worship; and during the wars in the reign of Charles I., the town suffered so severely, that, by way of compensation, the parliament, after the restoration of Charles II., granted to the corporation the privilege of collecting customs and other duties for their relief. The Highland army, on their retreat before the Duke of Cumberland, in the rebellion of 1745, encamped here on the night of the 28th of December, after having lost great numbers of their men, who were drowned while attempting to cross the rivers Esk and Eden.

The town, which is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the river Annan, about a couple of miles from its influx into Solway Frith, consists of several spacious and regularly-formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles; and is connected with the country lying upon the opposite bank of the river, by an elegant stone bridge of three arches of 65 feet span, erected in 1824, at an expense of £8000. The houses are well built, and of handsome appearance, and in the immediate vicinity are numerous villas and mansions; the streets are paved and lighted, and the inhabitants amply supplied with good water. A public library is supported by subscription. From the beauty of the scenery in the environs of the town, and the facilities of seabathing afforded by the Frith, it is a favourite place of residence. The spinning of cotton-yarn, which was introduced here in 1785, is still carried on, and affords employment to about 140 persons; the factory, in which the most improved machinery is employed, has been recently enlarged, and the quantity of yarn produced averages 4000 pounds per week. The usual handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood, are pursued; and there are numerous shops, amply stocked with various kinds of merchandise. The trade of the port partly consists in the importation of timber, deals, lath-wood, and tar, from America and the Baltic, in which two vessels are employed; and about thirty vessels are engaged in the coasting trade. The exports are chiefly grain for the Glasgow and Liverpool markets, and timber and freestone, for various English ports. By the steamers which frequent the port, grain, wool, live stock, bacon, and hams, are sent to Liverpool and the adjacent towns of Lancashire, from which they bring manufactured goods; and the other imports are mostly coal, slates, salt, herrings, grain, and iron, from Glasgow and places on the English and Irish coasts. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port, is 34, of the aggregate burthen of 1639 tons. The port, which is under the custom-house of Dumfries, and is formed by an inlet from the river, has been much improved by the embankment of Hall meadow, on the Newby estate, by the proprietor, John Irving, Esq., at a cost of £3000, which has rendered the channel of sufficient depth for the safe anchorage of vessels of considerable burthen. Two piers have been erected by the proprietors of the steamers frequenting the port, to which has been formed a road from the burgh, by subscription, at a cost of £640; and a commodious inn, with good stabling, has been built near the jetties, within the enbankment.

The ancient records of the burgh having been destroyed during the frequent devastations of the town, a charter confirming all previous privileges, and reciting a charter of James V. in 1538, by which it had been erected into a royal burgh, was granted by James VI., in the year 1612; and under this the government of the town is in the controul of a provost, two bailies, and fifteen councillors. There are no incorporated guilds, neither have the burgesses any exclusive privileges in trade; the magistrates issue tickets of admission to the freedom of a burgess, without any fee. Courts are held, both for civil and criminal cases; but in neither do the magistrates exercise jurisdiction to any considerable extent. The burgh is associated with those of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the parliamentary boundaries are not co-extensive with the royalty, which comprehends a much wider district; the number of qualified voters is about 180. A new prison, containing three cells, was erected some years ago, in lieu of the old prison, which is dilapidated. A market is held on Thursday; and fairs, chiefly for hiring servants, are held annually, on the first Thursdays in May and August, and the third Thursday in October. Facilities of inland communication are afforded by good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Carlisle passes through the parish, and by cross-roads connected with those to Edinburgh and Glasgow.

The parish is about eight miles in extreme length, and varies from two and a half to four miles in breadth, comprising an area of 11,100 acres, of which about 1000 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable, meadow, and pasture. The surface is generally level, with a slight inclination towards the south, and is intersected by three nearly parallel ridges of moderate height. Of these, the western ridge terminates in a conical hill called Woodcock-air, which has an elevation of 320 feet, and is completely covered with wood; and on the coast, are the Annan and Barnkirk hills, of which the former has an elevation of 256, and the latter of 120 feet above the sea. The soil, on the banks of the river, is a rich alluvial deposit; to the west, a clayey loam, alternated with gravel; towards the east, a poor deep loam; and in the northern districts, mostly light, with tracts of moor and moss. The chief crops are grain of all kinds, and the most improved system of husbandry is generally in use; a large open common, of nearly 2000 acres, has been divided among the burgesses, and is now inclosed and cultivated; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged. The pastures are rich; the cattle are of the Galloway breed, with a few of the Ayrshire and shorthorned; there are few sheep reared, but on most of the farms a considerable number of pigs are fed. Salmon, grilse, and trout are found in the Annan, and in the Frith; and in the former are three fisheries, one the property of Mr. Irving; the fish taken are, sparling, cod, haddock, sturgeon, turbot, soles, and skate. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,297, including £5163 for the burgh. The principal substrata are, fine sandstone well adapted for building, limestone, and ironstone; several attempts have been made to discover coal, which are supposed to have failed only from the borings not having been made to a sufficient depth. Mount Annan, the seat of the late Lieut.-Gen. Dirom, is a handsome mansion, situated on an eminence on the eastern bank of the Annan, about two miles from the town, commanding a fine view of the Frith and the northern counties of England; the grounds are tastefully embellished, and the scenery is picturesque. Warmanbie, on the east bank of the Annan, about half a mile to the south of Mount Annan, is an elegant mansion, erected within the last few years, and surrounded with pleasure-grounds; and Northfield House, on the same river, is also a handsome mansion, recently enlarged.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries; the minister's stipend is £279. 2. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The church, erected in 1790, is a handsome structure, with a spire, and contains 1190 sittings. A second church, situated on the south of the town, a very handsome building, affording accommodation to 950 persons, was erected at a cost of £1400, and opened in 1842; and there are also places of worship for Episcopalians, Independents, Roman Catholics, members of the Free Church, United Associate Synod, and Relief Church. The parochial school is attended by nearly 100 children; the master has a salary of £31. 16. 6., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £40 per annum. The Annan academy, for which a building has been erected, containing commodious class-rooms, was built and endowed with the funds arising to the burgh from the division of the common land; it is under the direction of a rector and two assistant masters, and is attended by 140 pupils; the income from the endowment is £113, and the fees are considerable. The only remains of the castle of Annan, are, a small portion of one of the walls, incorporated in the town-hall, and a stone built into a wall of a small house, with the inscription, "Robert de Brus, Comte de Carrick, et seiniour de Val de Annand, 1300." About two miles from the town, and to the north of the Carlisle road, was a rude monument to the memory of the Scots who fell in a battle with the English, in which the latter were defeated, with great slaughter; among the English slain in the conflict, were, Sir Marmaduke Longdale, Sir Philip Musgrave, and Lord Howard, whose remains were interred in the churchyard of Dornock. Close to the spot, is a well in which the Scots washed their swords after the battle, and which has since been called the "Sword Well." Near the site of the castle, is an artificial mound, supposed to have been the spot for administering justice, during the times of the Saxons; and further up the river, is an elevated bank called Galabank, the place of execution. On Battle Hill, has been lately discovered a mineral spring, of great strength, which has not yet been analysed. The celebrated Dr. Thomas Blacklock; Hugh Clapperton, the African traveller; and the late Rev. Edward Irving, minister of the Scottish church in Regent-square, London, were natives of the place.

Anstruther Easter

ANSTRUTHER EASTER, a burgh, sea-port, and parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 9 miles (S. S. E.) from St. Andrew's, and 35½ (N. E. by N.) from Edinburgh; containing 997 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, was, in the reign of Malcolm IV., the property of William de Candela, Lord of Anstruther, whose sons assumed the name of their patrimonial inheritance, and whose descendants are the present proprietors. It appears to have derived its early importance from its favourable situation on the Frith of Forth, and the security of its harbour, in which, on the dispersion of the Spanish armada, the captain of one of the vessels found an asylum from the storm. The town, which was first lighted with gas in 1841, is separated from the parish of Anstruther Wester by a small rivulet called the Dreel burn, over which is a bridge, and consists of a long narrow street, on the road from the East Neuck of Fife to Kirkcaldy and Burntisland, extending along the margin of the Frith. The trade appears to have been formerly very considerable; a custom-house was erected here in 1710, and in 1827, the jurisdiction of the port was extended to those of St. Andrew's, Crail, Pittenweem, St. Monan's, and Elie. The amount of duties once averaged £1500 yearly; ship-building was carried on to a considerable extent, but, after gradually declining for several years, it was at length entirely discontinued. The chief manufacture now pursued is that of leather; barrels are made for the package of herrings taken off the coast, and more than 40,000 barrels of them are annually sent from this port, properly cured, for exportation. The trade at present consists principally in the fisheries, in the exportation of grain and other agricultural produce of the surrounding district, and in the importation of various articles of merchandise for the supply of the neighbourhood. There is also a large brewery. The number of vessels belonging to the port is nine, of the aggregate burthen of 964 tons; two packets ply regularly between this place and Leith, and the Edinburgh and Dundee steamers touch at the port. The harbour is safe, and easy of access, and is protected from the south-easterly winds by a natural breakwater, and an extensive and commodious quay; the custom-house, though an independent establishment, has, since the decline of the trade, communicated with that of Kirkcaldy. The market for corn and other produce, is held on Saturday.


Burgh Seal.

The burgh was incorporated by charter of James VI., under which the government was vested in three bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers; the bailies and treasurer are elected by the council, who are chosen by the registered £10 electors, under the provisions of the Burgh Reform act. The bailies are justices of the peace within the royalty of the burgh, which is coextensive with the parish, and exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction; since 1820, however, few cases have been tried in the civil court, and in the criminal court only twelve cases, chiefly petty misdemeanours: the town-clerk, who is appointed by the magistrates and council, during pleasure, is assessor in the bailies' court. By act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., the burgh, together with those of Cupar, St. Andrew's, Anstruther Wester, and others, returns one member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident burgesses and £10 householders, and the bailies are the returning officers. The town-hall is a neat building. The parish is situated at the head of a small bay in the Frith, and comprises about 9 acres of land, formerly included within the parish of Kilrenny, from which they were separated in the year 1636. The rateable annual value is £1115. The incumbency is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £131. 15., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, Sir Wyndham Carmichael Anstruther, Bart. The church, built by subscription, in 1634, and to which a spire was added about ten years after, was repaired in 1834, and is well adapted for 700 persons. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and members of the Free Church and the United Secession. The burgh school is attended by about 90 scholars; the master has a salary of £5. 6. 8., and about £65 from fees, with a house rent-free. There are several friendly societies, of which one, called the "Sea Box Society", established in 1618, and incorporated by royal charter, in 1784, has an income of £300, for the benefit of decayed ship-masters and seamen belonging to the port. The Rev. Dr. Chalmers, and Professor Tennant, of the university of St. Andrew's, are natives of the place.

Anstruther Wester

ANSTRUTHER WESTER, a royal burgh, and parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; adjoining Anstruther Easter, and containing 449 inhabitants, of whom 339 are in the burgh. This place, of which the name is supposed to be, in the Celtic language, descriptive of the low marshy ground on which the church was built, is situated on the Frith of Forth, about six miles to the westward of Fifeness. The people, who, during the wars consequent on the attempt to establish episcopacy, were zealously devoted to the Presbyterian form of worship, joined the Covenanters; and many of them fell in the battle of Kilsyth. The town suffered greatly by an inundation of the sea, in 1670, which greatly injured the harbour, and undermined the foundations of many of the houses: a second inundation, which took place towards the end of that century, swept away the houses in the principal street, and destroyed nearly one-third part of the town. The present town is separated from Anstruther Easter by the Dreel burn, over which a bridge was erected, at the joint expense of the two burghs, in 1801; it has been much benefited by the widening of the principal street, and the houses in that, and also in the other streets, have been considerably improved in their appearance. The streets are paved and macadamised, and the town is well lighted, and supplied with water. The place was erected into a royal burgh by charter of James VI., in 1587, and the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, elected annually, the old council choosing the new council, and the latter electing the provost, bailies, and treasurer. The magistrates hold a bailie court; but few cases of civil actions have been brought before it for some years; and their jurisdiction, in criminal cases, seldom extends beyond that of petty offences, in which they are assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as assessor. The town-hall is a commodious building. The burgh is associated with those of Pittenweem, Anstruther Easter, Kilrenny, and others, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of inhabitant householders, of the yearly rent of £10, is twenty-four, of whom twelve are burgesses.


Burgh Seal.

The parish is bounded on the south by the sea, and is about two miles in length, and of irregular form, comprising not more than 600 acres, of which, with the exception of a few acres of common pasture, the whole is arable. The soil, near the sea, is, in some parts, a rich black loam, and in others a light sand mixed with shells, both of which, though of no great depth, are very fertile; in the higher grounds, the soil is of lighter quality, intermixed with tracts of deep clay. The crops are grain of all kinds, with potatoes, turnips, and other green crops; the lands are chiefly inclosed with stone dykes, though in some places with hedges of thorn. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1998. Grangemuir, the seat of Lord William Douglas, of Dunino, a handsome and spacious mansion, built by the late Mr. Bruce, and greatly enlarged by the present proprietor, is pleasantly situated in grounds laid out with much taste. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £142. 5. 6., of which part is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £22. 10. per annum; patron, Sir Wyndham Carmichael Anstruther. The church is a very ancient structure situated in the burgh, near the sea-shore. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £4 per annum, the interest of a bequest, and a house and garden, and the school-fees average about £75 per annum. There is a bursary in the college of St. Andrew's, for a scholar from this parish, endowed by the late William Thomson, Esq., chief magistrate of the burgh.

Anwoth

ANWOTH, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing, with part of the burgh of barony of Gatehouse, 883 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south by Wigton bay, on the south-east by the bay of Fleet, and on the east by the river Fleet, which separates it from the parish of Girthon. It is about 6½ miles in length, and 2½ in breadth, comprising an area of 10,500 acres, of which nearly one-half is arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface, near the sea-shore, is generally flat, and, towards the north, rises into hills of various elevation, of which the highest, Cairnharrah, partly in this parish, but chiefly in that of Kirkmabreek, is 1100 feet above the sea, and commands an extensive view, embracing the Isle of Man, part of Cumberland, and the coast of Ireland. The river Fleet, which has one of its sources in a small loch of that name, in the parish of Girthon, after receiving various tributary streams, falls into the bay of Fleet, from which it is navigable, for about three miles, to Gatehouse; salmon, sea-trout, and flounders are found in this river, but not in any great quantity. The soil on the coast is dry and fertile, and in other parts thin and light, but has been much improved by the use of lime, which is brought from Cumberland, at a moderate cost; marl, also, is found in the parish, and a great abundance of shells on the sea-shore, which are likewise used for manure. The chief crops are oats and barley, with some wheat, and potatoes, of which large quantities are sent to the ports on the Clyde, and to Whitehaven and Liverpool; the system of agriculture has been greatly improved; the lands have been well inclosed, and the farm-houses and offices are generally substantially built. The cattle are mostly of the black native breed, and the sheep, for which the moorlands afford good pasture, are principally of the black-faced kind; considerable numbers of both are reared in the parish, and sent to the English markets. There are some large tracts of ancient wood on the banks of the river, and in the grounds of the principal landed proprietors; and the plantations, which are of oak, ash, birch, and fir, are also extensive, and in a thriving state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3717. The principal mansions are, Cardoness, which has been rebuilt within the last twenty years; and Ardwall and Rusco, which are of older date. The road from Carlisle to Port-Patrick passes along the southern border of the parish; and the river Fleet, of which the navigation has been greatly facilitated by the construction of a canal, by Mr. Murray, of Broughton, affords facility for coasting vessels bringing supplies of coal, lime, and various kinds of merchandise, and for the transport of cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway; the minister's stipend is £230. 15. 2½., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, Sir David Maxwell, Bart. The church, erected in 1826, at a cost of nearly £1200, is a neat structure, with a tower at the west end surmounted by a spire, and contains 400 sittings. There is a small place of worship for Burghers. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £20 per annum. The only remains of antiquity are, the Tower of Rusco, and the Castle of Cardoness, both on the river Fleet, the former two miles above where it ceases to be navigable, and the latter beautifully situated near its mouth; they are quadrilateral structures, apparently of great strength, but nothing is known of their origin or history. On the summit of a hill to the south-east of the church, are the remains of a vitrified fort, 300 feet above the level of the sea, and defended, where most easily accessible, by a double fosse; near the spot, have been found several silver coins of Elizabeth, and one of Edward VI.

Appin

APPIN, county of Argyll.—See Lismore.

Applecross

APPLECROSS, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 18 miles (W.) from Lochcarron; containing, with the island of Crolin, and part of Shieldag, quoad sacra, 2861 inhabitants. This parish was originally called Comaraich, a Gaelic word signifying safety or protection, on account of the refuge afforded to the oppressed and to criminals, by a religious establishment that existed here in ancient times. The present name, which is of comparatively modern date, was given to the place by the proprietor of the estate, upon its erection into a parish, at which time five apple-trees were planted cross-ways in his garden. The parish, which formed part of that of Lochcarron till 1726, stretches along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, and is distributed into the three large portions or districts of Applecross, properly so called; Lochs, consisting of Torridon, Shieldag, &c.; and Kishorn. It is of irregular form, 20 miles long, and as many in breadth, and contains about 1800 acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, about 400 under wood, and 400 or 500 waste, besides an immense tract of pasture in a natural state. The surface, in its general appearance, is hilly and rugged, consisting of rocky elevations covered with heather and wild grass; the climate, though not unhealthy, is foggy, and very rainy. The soil is light and gravelly, and produces good crops of oats, barley, and potatoes; the two former are grown to the amount, in value, of £3000 annually, and potatoes and turnips yield about £1500; the farms are of small extent, averaging in rent not more than £6 or £7 each. The inclosures are very few, and though some advances have been made in the draining and improving of land, the agricultural state is low, the parish being compelled frequently to import grain and potatoes for home consumption. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2488. The rocks consist of red sandstone, gneiss, and quartz; at Applecross and Kishorn are found large quantities of limestone, and at the latter place is also a copper-mine, which, when worked some time since, produced a fine rich ore. The only mansion of note is on the estate of Applecross, and is a large ancient building, with some elegant modern additions, and surrounded by about 30 acres of thriving plantation.

At Poldown, Shieldag, and Torridon are convenient harbours, to which belong about twenty-one vessels of from 20 to 50 tons' burthen each, employed in the fishing and coasting trade: most of the population are in some way engaged in the herring-fishery, which in certain seasons is very profitable, and at Torridon and Balgie are salmon-fisheries that let at £15 or £16. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg; the Crown is patron; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 5., partly paid from the exchequer, and there is a manse, built in 1796, with a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The parochial church, which was erected in 1817, is in good repair, and accommodates 600 persons; and at Shieldag, twelve miles distant, is a government church, built in 1827. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £27, with about £8 fees, and teaches the classics, mathematics, Gaelic, and the ordinary branches of education; and four other schools are supported by societies for promoting education. Many fossils have been found, but their nature has not been satisfactorily ascertained.

Applegarth and Sibbaldbie

APPLEGARTH and SIBBALDBIE, a united parish, in the district of Annandale, county of Dumfries, 2 miles (N. W. by N.) from Lockerbie; containing, with the chapelry of Dinwoodie, 857 inhabitants. The term Applegarth is compounded of the words Apple and Garth, the latter of which signifies, in the Celtic language, an "inclosure," and both conjoined are invariably taken for an "apple inclosure" or "orchard." The word bie, or bye, which terminates the name Sibbaldbie, signifies, in the Saxon, a "dwelling-place," and is thought to have been applied to the district thus denominated, from its having been the residence of Sibbald. The annexation of Sibbaldbie took place in 1609; and the chapelry of Dinwoodie, which some suppose to have been a distinct parish, was also attached to Applegarth, and is said to have belonged formerly to the Knights Templars, who had large possessions in Annandale. Chalmers states, on the authority of the Royal Wardrobe accounts, that, on the 7th July, 1300, Edward I., who was then at Applegarth, on his way to the siege of Caerlaverock, made an oblation of seven shillings at St. Nicholas' altar, in the parish church here, and another oblation of a like sum at the altar of St. Thomas à Becket; and a large chest was found some years ago, not very far from the manse, which is conjectured to have been part of the baggage belonging to Edward, who remained for several days at Applegarth, waiting for his equipage. An ancient thorn, called the "Albie Thorn," is still standing in a field, within 500 yards of the church, said to have been planted on the spot where Bell of Albie fell, while in pursuit of the Maxwells, after the battle of Dryfesands.

The parish contains 11,700 imperial acres, situated in that part of the shire formerly called the stewartry of Annandale. The surface is diversified by two principal ranges of hills, one on each side of the river Dryfe, which runs from the north-east in a southerly direction; the highest part of the western range, Dinwoodie hill, rises 736 feet above the sea, and Adder Law, in the eastern range, attains an elevation of 638 feet. In addition to the Dryfe, the parish is washed, on its eastern boundary, by the Corrie water, and on its western, by the river Annan, the banks of which streams are in many parts precipitous, and clothed with brush-wood and plantations. Among the trees, comprising most of those common to the country, the larch, spruce, and Scotch fir, after flourishing for twelve or fourteen years, exhibit symptoms of decay, and gradually pine away, in consequence of their roots having come into contact with the sandstone rock and gravel. In the rivers and their several tributary streams, eels, pike, trout, and many smaller fish are numerous: and in the Annan, salmon is plentiful, and of good quality. The soil is in general fertile; the land lying between the banks of the Annan and Dryfe is alluvial, and interspersed with strata of river gravel; the land on the declivity of the western range, in some parts, is sharp and good, but in many places has a wet and tilly substratum, and on the higher portions is a black moory earth. Of the entire area, 7392 acres are either cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; 3777 are waste, or in permanent pasture, including 60 or 70 acres of moss; 331 are under wood, and about 180 are incurably barren. Among the white crops, wheat, which was formerly unknown in the parish, is now an important article; all kinds of green crops, also, are raised, of good quality, including considerable quantities of turnips and potatoes. The most approved system of husbandry is followed, though it has not been carried to the same perfection as in some other districts, chiefly from a deficiency in manuring and draining the soil. Considerable improvements have been made, during the present century, in the erection of neat and convenient cottages; and the breed of black-cattle has been particularly attended to, and now, in symmetry and general excellence, rivals the best specimens of the best districts. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6850. The prevailing rock is the old red sandstone, and the western ridge is interspersed with large nodules of white and greenish whinstone, while, on the summit, there is greywacke slate and greenstone, diversified by numerous veins of quartz.

The only seats of note are, Jardine Hall, built in 1814, and the mansion of Hook, built in 1806, the former of which is of red sandstone, cut from a quarry on Corncockle muir, in Lochmaben parish; the latter is chiefly of greenstone, from the bed of the river Dryfe. The inhabitants are altogether of the agricultural class, with the exception of a few tradesmen residing chiefly in the village of Milnhouse. The mail-road from Glasgow to London, by Carlisle, runs through the parish: there are two good bridges over the Annan, one of which is on the Glasgow line, and the other on the road leading from Dumfries, across Annandale, to Eskdale. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patrons, Sir William Jardine, Bart., and John James Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. There is a manse, built in 1805, with a glebe of 6½ acres of good land, and the stipend is £250. The church, a plain substantial structure, built in 1760, is inconveniently situated at a distance of five or six miles from some of the population; it has been at different times repaired and enlarged, and accommodates 380 persons with sittings. There are two parochial schools, in which Greek, Latin, French, and geometry are taught, with all the ordinary branches of education; the master of one school has a house and garden, with a salary of £34. 5., and about £25 fees; the other master has the same accommodation, with a salary of £17. 2. 6., and £15 fees. Roman stations are visible in several places, and a Roman road traverses the parish, in a northerly direction. Part of the ruins still remains of the church of Sibbaldbie; and a very ancient ash stands in Applegarth churchyard, measuring 14 feet in girth, at a yard from the ground, and called the "Gorget Tree," from having been used as a pillory. The iron staples which held the collar or gorget were visible not many years ago.

Appletree-Hall

APPLETREE-HALL, a village, in the parish of Wilton, Hawick district of the county of Roxburgh, 2½ miles (N. N. E.) from Hawick; containing 75 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-eastern part of the parish, and to the east of the road from Hawick to Selkirk.

Arbeadie

ARBEADIE, a village, in the parish of Banchory-Ternan, county of Kincardine; containing 301 inhabitants. This village, which is of very recent origin, takes its name from that of the estate on which it has been built, and appears to have been erected to supply the want of the ancient village of Banchory. A post-office has been established; there are three good inns, and, in the immediate vicinity, a branch of the Bank of Scotland, and a small lock-up house for the temporary confinement of petty offenders. The Independents have a place of worship.

Arbirlot

ARBIRLOT, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 2½ miles (W.) from Arbroath; containing, with the village of Bonnington, 1045 inhabitants, of whom 77 are in the village of Arbirlot. This place appears to have derived its name, a contraction of Aber-Elliot, from the river Elliot, which runs into the sea a little below its eastern boundary. The earliest account connected with its history, states, that a member of the ancient family of Ochterlony originally owned the castle of Kelly, in the parish; and this family was succeeded by the Irvines, who also held the castle, which afterwards came into the possession of the Maule family, now sole proprietors of Arbirlot. The parish is about 4 miles long, and 3 broad, and contains 5050 acres, of which 4200 are cultivated, or occasionally under tillage, 800 waste, and 50 wood; it is intersected by the Arbroath and Dundee railway, and is bounded on the south by the sea. It has an extent of coast nearly three miles long, where the land is level and sandy, and much frequented in the summer for the purpose of bathing; in the interior, also, much of the surface is low and flat, and the rest gradually rises to a gentle acclivity. There is no part deserving of particular notice, except the immediate vicinity of the ancient castle of Kelly, which is situated on the bank of the Elliot, and is in good preservation, and surrounded by scenery that is highly picturesque. The Elliot, a stream of inconsiderable magnitude, but of great beauty, rises in Ditty Moss, in the parish of Carmylie, and, pursuing a south-easterly course for a few miles, through a deep and romantic glen, falls into the sea in the east part of the parish; it has numerous mills erected upon it, and formerly abounded in salmon, but since the construction of some dam-dykes near it, these fish have forsaken it, although it is still frequented by good trout.

The soil in the lower parts, consists chiefly of a light productive loam, but, on the higher portions, is damp and mossy, and in some places mixed with clay; the subsoil is a gravelly clay: on the northern boundary is an extensive muir. The average annual produce yields £15,000, chiefly derived from crops of oats, barley, hay, and potatoes; the rateable annual value of the parish is £6395. The only mansion-house is the seat of Kelly, situated in the vicinity of the old castle. A small fair is held once a year. Near the mouth of the river, at Wormy-hills, is an establishment for bleaching yarns, and on the same stream are three meal-mills, and a flax-mill. There is also a meal-mill on a small river which forms the boundary line between this parish and Panbride. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns; the patronage is vested in the Crown, and the minister's stipend is £184.4. 5., in addition to which he has a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £6. The church, rebuilt in 1832, is an elegant structure, situated on the bank of the Elliot, and containing about 640 sittings. A place of worship has been erected by members of the Free Church. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £34. 4., and £20 fees, &c., with a house and garden; and a savings' bank, managed by the minister, and a parochial library, consisting of above 500 volumes, kept in the manse, are also supported.

Arbroath

ARBROATH, or Aberbrothock, a thriving seaport, burgh, and parish, in the county of Forfar, 15 miles (S. E. by E.) from Forfar, and 58 (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the late quoad sacra parish of Abbey, and part of that of Lady-Loan, 8707 inhabitants, of whom 7218 are in the burgh. This place derives its name, originally Aberbrothock, of which its present appellation is a contraction, from its situation at the mouth of the river Brothock, which falls into the North Sea. An abbey was founded here in the year 1178, by William the Lion, King of Scotland, for monks of the Tyronensian order, brought from the abbey of Kelso, and was dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury, in honour of the Archbishop Thomas à Becket. This establishment was amply endowed by the founder and his successors, and its abbots had a seat in parliament; in 1320, a general assembly of the Estates of Scotland was held in the abbey, when a declaration was drawn up, in strong and emphatic terms, asserting the independence of the Scottish Church of the Roman see, and renouncing all subjection to the interference of the pope. In 1445, a battle took place here, between the retainers of the families of Lindsay and Ogilvie, which originated in a contest concerning the election of a bailie of the burgh, and in which the chieftains on both sides were killed, and nearly 500 of their dependents. In the 16th century, the abbey was nearly destroyed by Ochterlony, a chieftain in the neighbourhood, who, having quarrelled with the monks, set fire to the buildings; and at the Dissolution, which followed a few years afterwards, this once extensive pile was little more than a wide heap of scattered ruins. The revenues were returned at £2483. 5. in money, with about 340 chalders of grain, and the patronage of thirty-four parish churches; and the site and lands belonging to the abbey, were, after its dissolution, erected into a temporal lordship, in favour of Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, who was created Lord Arbroath, which still forms one of the inferior titles of the Duke of Hamilton. In 1781, the town was menaced by the commander of a French privateer, who approached the port, and commenced a brisk firing for a short time, which was succeeded by his sending a flag of truce, demanding from the provost and inhabitants the payment of £30,000, as a ransom for the town, which, on their refusal, he threatened to set on fire. The authorities of the place obtained, by parley, a short interval, in which having armed several of the inhabitants, they set him at defiance, and he left the coast, making prizes of some small craft which he met with in his retreat. A battery was soon afterwards erected, in front of the harbour, to protect the town from similar insult, and was kept up till the termination of the last war, when it was dismantled.


Seal and Arms.

The town is situated at the mouth of the river Brothock, and consists principally of one spacious and handsome street, intersected by several of inferior appearance, extending into the parish of St. Vigean's, and forming suburbs. Many of the private houses are elegant and substantial, and all of the houses are built of the stone obtained from the valuable quarries in the neighbourhood; the villas in the suburbs are embellished with gardens and shrubberies, which produce a pleasing effect, and the general aspect of the town is prepossessing. The streets are lighted with gas made by a jointstock company; but the supply of water is rather indifferent, and is partly derived from private wells. There is a public subscription library, supported by a proprietary of £5 shareholders, in which is a collection of about 4000 volumes on subjects of general literature; and smaller libraries, of miscellaneous and theological works, are attached to the quoad sacra churches. A mechanics' library, now containing about 400 volumes, was established in 1824, and connected with it is a mechanics' institution, or school of arts, for which an appropriate building has been completed, containing a reading-room well supplied with periodicals and newspapers; there are also three masonic lodges and a gardener's society. The principal manufactures are, the spinning of yarn from flax and tow, the weaving of canvass and sail-cloth, brown and bleached linens, the tanning of leather, the making of candles, the smelting of iron, and the grinding of bones for manure. The number of mills for spinning yarn is nineteen, of which by far the greater part are in the suburbs, affording employment, at present, to nearly 3770, and, when trade is prosperous, to more than 5000, persons, of whom about one-fourth are females. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of the manufactured goods, especially sail-cloth, of which nearly 7000 ells were exported in a late year, and in the importation of bark, flax, hemp, hides, oak, and fir timber, and guano for manure, with groceries from London, and numerous articles of Baltic produce. There are at present belonging to the port 89 vessels, of the aggregate burthen of 9100 tons; and the number of vessels that entered inwards, in a recent year, was 599, of which 56 were from foreign ports, and 543 employed in the coasting trade.

The harbour appears to have been first constructed in 1394, by the inhabitants, in conjunction with the abbot, who contributed the greater portion of the expense, in consideration of a certain duty to be paid annually from the lands of the burgh. A pier of wood was erected at the extremity of the High-street, which, being found ill-adapted to the purpose, was abandoned in 1725, and the harbour removed to the western side of the river, where a basin faced with stone was constructed, 124 yards in length, and 80 yards in breadth, and a substantial pier of stone built. These improvements, however, at length became insufficient, and in 1839 an act of parliament was obtained, under which a spacious new tidal harbour has been completed to the south and east of the old one, at a cost of £50,000. A sea-wall of great length and solidity defends the harbour from the violence of the waves during heavy gales, and at the western extremity of this bulwark is a lighthouse. Between the wall and a massive breakwater opposite to it, is the entrance to the harbour. The port was formerly a creek to the harbour of Montrose; but it has been made completely independent, and has now a collector of customs, a comptroller, and other officers of its own, established on the spot. Connected with the harbour is a patent-slip for repairing vessels, which is maintained by the harbour commissioners. At a distance of twelve miles from the shore, but opposite to the harbour, is the Bell Rock Lighthouse, erected under an act of parliament obtained in 1806, and completed in 1811; it is built upon a rock about 427 feet in length, and 230 feet in breadth, at low water, and rising to an average height of about four feet from the sea. The lighthouse is of circular form; the two lower courses of masonry, all of which are dove-tailed, are sunk into the rock: the diameter, at the base, is 42 feet, gradually diminishing to the floor of the light room, which is 13 feet in diameter. From the foundation, the elevation is solid, to the entrance, which is at a height of 30 feet, and is attained by a ladder of ropes with steps of wood; the walls here are 7 feet in thickness, and gradually decrease to one foot at the lantern, which has an elevation of 100 feet from the base, and is 15 feet in height, and of octagonal form. The lantern contains a light of Argand burners, with powerful reflectors, revolving round its axis in six minutes, and in each revolution displaying, alternately, a bright and a deep red light, which, in clear weather, may be plainly seen at a distance of eighteen miles. Two large bells connected with the lighthouse, are tolled by the machinery which moves the lights, when the weather is foggy; and on the harbour of Arbroath, a building has been erected for the accommodation of the keepers, three of whom are constantly at the lighthouse for six weeks, when they are relieved, and spend two weeks on shore. Attached to these buildings, is a signal tower, 50 feet high, by means of which the keepers on the shore communicate with those on the rock; the whole expense of the lighthouse, which is of such important benefit to the navigation of this part of the coast, did not exceed £60,000. The Arbroath and Forfar railway, constructed by a company empowered to raise a capital of £150,000 by shares, and a loan of £35,000, was completed, and opened to the public, in January, 1839; the line is 15 miles in length, worked by locomotive-engines, and the principal station is a handsome building with every requisite accommodation. The Dundee and Arbroath railway, along the coast, has also its terminal station here, and is connected with the Arbroath and Forfar railroad. The market is on Saturday, and is supplied with grain of all kinds; and fairs are held on the last Saturday in January, the first Saturday after Whit-Monday, the 18th of July, and the first Saturday after Martinmas.

The town was made a royal burgh by a charter of James VI., in 1599, reciting that the original charters, with the title-deeds of the town, and other documents, were taken from the abbey, where they had been deposited for security, and destroyed by George, Bishop of Moray; the inhabitants appear to have been before incorporated by the abbots, who reserved to themselves the nomination of one of the bailies by whom the town was governed. By King James's confirmatory charter of all previous rights and privileges, the burgh and harbour were made free, and the lands called the common muir were conveyed to the burgesses, with power to levy anchorage customs and shore dues, and to apply the produce to the maintenance of the harbour; the amount of harbour dues is £3000 a year, but the corporation do not now receive them. Under this charter, the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, and treasurer, with twelve councillors, all chosen subject to the provisions of the late Municipal Reform act. There are seven incorporated trades, the whole of which have the exclusive right of carrying on their trades within the burgh, with the exception of the weavers; the dean of guild also grants temporary license to trade. The magistrates possess all the jurisdiction appendant to royal burghs, and hold courts of pleas in civil actions weekly, to an unlimited extent, and also criminal courts, in which, though, by the charter, they have full jurisdiction in capital cases, they confine themselves to the trial of petty offences, the town-clerk acting as assessor. The magistrates have also, by the charter, power to replevy any action whatever against an inhabitant of the burgh, from all judges in the kingdom, upon giving security for administering justice within the term of law. The dean of guild likewise holds a court for enforcing compliance with the acts of parliament respecting weights and measures, in which he is assisted by a clerk and procurator-fiscal. Previously to the union of the two kingdoms, the burgh sent a member to the Scottish parliament, but after that event was associated with Montrose, Brechin, Bervie, and Aberdeen, in returning a representative to the imperial parliament; and the only change in this respect, under the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., is the substitution of Forfar in lieu of Aberdeen, and the extension of the elective franchise to £10 householders. The provost is the returning officer. The guildhall is a neat plain edifice, adapted for the business of the guild corporation; and the trades'-hall, erected in 1814, is a handsome building. The town-house, erected in 1806, is a spacious and elegant structure, comprising a great hall, and offices for the town-clerk and others, with apartments for the meeting of the council, and for holding courts. At a short distance behind the town-house, stands the new gaol for the burgh, with the gaoler's house, and a police-office, the whole forming a neat building; the cells are constructed on the best modern principles, and are well arranged for the health and classification of the prisoners. In the court-room for the police department, which is commodious though small, the magistrates of the town sit regularly every week, on Monday, for the summary disposal of petty delinquencies.

The parish is about three miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying from little more than 200 yards to a mile and a quarter in breadth, and comprises 820 acres of arable, and twenty-six of common land in pasture; the surface is comparatively level, rising by a gradual ascent from the shore, till, at the opposite extremity, it attains an elevation of 150 feet above the sea. The only river is the Brothock, which rises in the adjoining parish of St. Vigean's, and, after a course of five or six miles, flows through this parish, for about a quarter of a mile, and falls into the sea at the harbour. A small stream which, in its course, gives motion to several spinning-mills, forms a tributary to the Brothock; but, unless when swollen with incessant rains, it is comparatively a shallow stream. The scenery is pleasingly varied; and the town, as seen from the sea, is an interesting feature, seated in the curve of a range of small hills, which rise behind it, and command an extensive prospect of the Lothians, the eastern portion of the coast of Fife, and the estuaries of the Forth and Tay, towards the south; the view terminating, towards the north, in the range of the Grampian hills. The soil, near the town, is a rich black loam; in the higher lands, thin, resting upon a retentive clay, which renders it scarcely susceptible of improvement; and along the coast, light and sandy. The chief crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips; guano is used for manure, and the farms are, in general, well arranged and skilfully managed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £17,314. A fishery is carried on with considerable success; cod, haddock, and flounders are taken in abundance off the coast, with herrings and mackerel, in their season; lobsters, crabs, and various kinds of shell-fish, are found in great plenty, and attempts have been made to procure a supply of salmon, by the putting down of stake-nets, but hitherto without much success.

The parish is the seat of the presbytery of Arbroath, within the synod of Angus and Mearns; patron, the Crown. The minister's stipend is £219. 12. 6., with glebe valued at £4. 8. 11.; there is also an assistant minister, with a stipend of £75, appointed by the Kirk Session. The church, which was enlarged in 1764, and to which an elegant spire was added in 1831, at an expense of £1300, raised mostly by subscription, is a plain cruciform structure, situated nearly in the centre of the town, and adapted for 1390 persons. A chapel of ease was erected in 1797, on the grounds of the ancient abbey, and is thence called the Abbey chapel; it is a neat edifice for a congregation of about 1280, and a quoad sacra parish has been annexed to it, comprising a population of 2289; income of the minister, about £100. Another chapel of ease was erected in 1829, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of that portion of the suburbs within the parish of St. Vigean's; it is a neat structure, and contains 1080 sittings, from the rents of which the minister derives an income of £150; a district named Inverbrothock has been attached to it, containing 5195 persons. The church of Lady-Loan is also of recent date, and in the town. There are places of worship for Episcopalians, Free Church congregations, members of the United Secession, members of the Relief Synod, Original Seceders, and Independents; and for smaller congregations of Baptists, Bereans, Glassites, and Wesleyans. The burgh school, and also the parochial school, have merged into an institution of more recent establishment, called the Academy, for which a handsome and appropriate building was erected in 1821, at an expense of £1600, raised chiefly by subscription. This institution is under the controul of a rector, appointed by the corporation, and three masters, chosen by the directors; to each of these, a distinct department is assigned, and there are consequently four separate schools. The classical and mathematical school is under the superintendence of the rector, whose salary is £34 per annum, with an allowance of £6. 10. for house-rent, which, augmented by the proceeds of a bequest by Mr. Colvill, for the gratuitous instruction of five children, amounts to £60 per annum; and the commercial, English, and general schools are under the three masters, who have a salary of £25 each, exclusive of the school fees. All these salaries are paid from the various funds constituting the endowment of the schools. The Sabbath-evening School Society, which has been established for more than twenty-five years, comprehends the whole of the town and suburbs; and connected with the schools under its superintendence, is a library of more than 1100 volumes, containing many standard and valuable works, in addition to such as are requisite for the children attending them. Mr. Carmichael, in 1733, bequeathed £600, and some rent-charges, for the benefit of seven widows of ship-masters, producing, at present, about £130 per annum; and Mr. John Colvill, late town-clerk, in 1811, left £10 per annum to the minister of the Episcopal chapel, £10 per annum to the poor of the parish, and a sum for the assistance of twenty householders, which now produces to each £3. 10. annually.

The chief relics of antiquity are the remains of the abbey, which occupied an area of 1150 feet in length, and about 700 in width, inclosed by a stone wall nearly 24 feet in height; at the north-west angle, is a tower 24 feet square, and 70 feet high, which is still entire, and at the south-west angle was another of smaller dimensions, which, becoming ruinous, was taken down. The principal entrance was through a stately gateway tower on the north side, defended by a portcullis and draw-bridge; and at the south-east angle, was a postern of inferior character, called the Darngate. On the north side of the inclosure, was the abbey church, of which only the south wall, with the east and west gables, and a portion of the two western towers, are remaining. The church is said to have been 270 feet in length, and 130 in breadth across the transepts; the nave, of which the length was 148 feet, was nearly 70 feet in height, but none of the columns that supported the roof are standing, though their bases have been laid open during the recent operations for restoring the ruins under the direction of the crown. The choir appears to have been more than 75 feet long; but little of the original character of this once proud pile can be discovered. The western entrance is tolerably entire, and there seems to have been a circular window above the doorway; but the portions of the towers by which it was flanked, are so dilapidated that scarcely any indications of their original style of architecture remain. Adjoining the south transept, are the remains of a building supposed to have been the chapter-house, containing a vaulted apartment; the cloisters have disappeared, and the remains of the abbot's palace have been converted into a private dwelling-house. In 1815, the ruins of the abbey were so far repaired as to secure them from absolute demolition; on the removal of the accumulated rubbish for this purpose, the pavement of the church was partially restored to view, and a diligent search was made, to discover the tomb of its royal founder, who was buried under the first step of the flight leading to the high altar, but only the lid of an ancient stone coffin, sculptured with the figure of a man, in alto-relievo, much mutilated, was found. Some scattered bones, indeed, have been collected, and placed in a box, which have been sometimes displayed as those of the king: but there is no foundation for the opinion, and though the fact of that monarch having been interred in the abbey, is generally accredited, yet every search for his tomb has been in vain. Cardinal Beaton, at that time also archbishop of St. Andrew's, was the last abbot of Aberbrothock. The place gives the inferior title of Baron to the ducal family of Hamilton.