Forgan - Fyvie

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

441-457

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'Forgan - Fyvie', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 441-457. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43441 Date accessed: 23 September 2014.


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Forgan

FORGAN, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 9 miles (N. E. by E.) from Cupar; containing, with the villages of East and West Newport, and Woodhaven, 1219 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Saxon language "a fore-ground," from the elevated and conspicuous situation which it occupies on the bank of the river Tay. For many generations it was the property of the Nairnes, who held distinguished offices in the state, and one of whom was elevated to the peerage of Scotland in the time of Charles I. The estate of St. Fort, with other lands in the parish belonging to that ancient family, was sold at the beginning of the last century; but the title, which had become forfeited during the rebellion of 1745, was restored in the reign of George IV. The St. Fort estate is now in the hands of Henry Stewart, Esq.; and the only portion of the original possessions which is still the property of the Nairne family, is the small estate of Morton. The parish is six miles in length and above two in breadth; it is bounded on the north by the river Tay, and comprises 5000 acres, of which 4000 are arable and in profitable cultivation, 600 pasture and meadow, and 400 woodland and plantations. The surface is in some parts pleasingly undulated, and in others agreeably diversified with level plains: of the rising grounds the most elevated are the eminences of St. Fort and Newton, which are about 300 feet above the level of the sea. The scenery is richly varied, and from the higher lands are fine views over the river, which skirts the parish for nearly four miles; the shore is bold and rocky, and indented with several bays, of which the chief are, Woodhaven and Newport, where convenient harbours have been constructed, and Wormit bay, which bounds the western extremity of the parish.

The soil is generally fertile, consisting of black loam interspersed with clayey mould, and in some parts of a light, gravelly kind, in which are found occasionally large boulders of trapstone. The system of agriculture is in a very advanced condition; the rotation plan of husbandry is practised, and every improvement in the management of the lands is speedily adopted. The crops are, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, which are usually favourable and abundant; and the surplus produce of grain finds a ready sale in the markets of St. Andrew's, Cupar, and Dundee. The cattle are principally of the Fifeshire breed, with a slight mixture of the Angus, Ayrshire, and Teeswater, which last, however, are by no means suited to the soil; the sheep are of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds. The plantations have been lately much extended, especially on the lands of St. Fort and Tayfield; they consist chiefly of fir, though the soil is well adapted for oak, ash, chesnut, and beech: there are few trees of remarkable growth, except some yew-trees at Kirkton, which are unrivalled specimens of the kind. The farm-houses and offices are mostly superior; and several of them, of more recent erection, are handsome and exceedingly convenient. Considerable progress has been made in inclosing the lands, but much yet remains to be done in this respect; the fences are principally of stone, with a few of hedges, and are generally well kept. The substrata are, sandstone, whinstone, and greenstone, which last is extensively quarried for building and for other purposes: there is neither freestone nor limestone in the parish, but lime for agricultural uses is brought by sea from various places, and freestone from the quarries in Angus. The greenstone is fine grained, compact, and of deep colour; and on the banks of the river are rocks of amygdaloidal greenstone, in which are found metals, and quartz resembling agate. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7914.

St. Fort, the residence of Mr. Stewart, is a spacious and handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style of architecture, recently erected, and pleasantly situated in a demesne enriched with flourishing plantations. Tayfield is also a handsome mansion, lately enlarged and embellished, and beautifully seated on the bank of the Tay, of which it commands an extensive view, with the varied and romantic scenery of the adjacent lands, thickly interspersed with pleasing cottages. A salmon-fishery is still carried on; but since the prohibition of stake-nets, it is neither so abundant nor so profitable as formerly, and at present scarcely affords to the proprietor a rental of £150 per annum: the fish, which are of very superior flavour, and in great demand, are sent to Dundee, where they are packed in ice and forwarded by steam-boats to London. A very large shoal of herrings was formerly found in the Tay, near Newport; but none have appeared within the last fifty years. The weaving of linen is carried on upon a limited scale, affording employment to about twenty or thirty persons, who work at their own homes for the manufacturers of Dundee. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns is afforded by excellent roads, of which the principal road from the north-eastern part of the country to Edinburgh extends for nearly three miles through the parish, passing by the ferry at Newport, from which place communication with Dundee is maintained by steam-boats, which ply hourly, and have altogether superseded the sailing-packets formerly in use. A ferry from Woodhaven to Dundee was also once kept up; but, being attended with great inconvenience, an act of parliament was obtained a few years since for its discontinuance, and for the establishment of that of Newport as the only ferry. The parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £230. 19. 8., with a manse, and a glebe of about nine acres. The old church, situated in a pleasing and sequestered spot, at the southern extremity of the parish, formerly belonged to the priory of St. Andrew's, and is said to have been built on that site for the accommodation of a family residing in the neighbouring mansion-house of Kirkton, and who contributed largely towards the expense of its erection. This edifice has been suffered to go to ruin, as, from the inconvenience of its position for the generality of the parishioners, a new church was erected in 1841 in a more central part of the parish. There is a place of worship near Newport for a congregation of Independents. The parochial school affords instruction to about 120 children; the master has a salary of £34, with the fees, and a good dwelling-house and large garden: an excellent school-house was recently erected in a convenient situation, upon the completion of which the number of scholars considerably increased. There are numerous cairns and tumuli, though none of them have been fully explored; and in forming the road to Newport, several urns of rude workmanship were discovered.

Forgandenny

FORGANDENNY, a parish, partly in the county of Kinross, but chiefly in that of Perth, 3½ miles (W.) from Bridge of Earn; containing 796 inhabitants, of whom 66 are in the village. This parish is about ten miles in length, and two in average breadth, and comprises 12,800 acres, of which 2000 have never been cultivated. It is divided into the upper and lower districts; the former comprehends a part of the Ochils, covering fully three-fourths of the surface of the parish; and the latter, stretching from the foot of these hills, on the south, to the river Earn, on the north, consists of a well-cultivated tract, somewhat similar to the Carse of Gowrie. The scenery is good, on account of the beautiful variations of the surface; the land gradually rises from the river southward, and the acclivities of the Ochils by degrees attain the height of 1000 feet above the level of the sea. Considerable beauty is also conferred on the scenery by the course of the picturesque Earn, which is well stocked with salmon, sea-trout, and other varieties, with whiting, pike, and eels; and besides this river, the May, a fine mountain stream rising in Auchterarder, enters the parish at its south-western extremity, and flows northward in the direction of the Earn: it contains a large supply of fine trout. The higher district is cold, its soil light, and though it bears good crops of other grain, wheat is never sown here; but on the lower grounds all kinds of white and green crops are produced of excellent quality, the soil being rich and strong. Much of the hilly waste has been recently laid down in excellent sheep pastures: some of the highest grounds have been made to yield fine crops of turnips, and have been inclosed with wire fences; and furrow-draining has been much practised in the lower parts of the parish, where, also, the farmbuildings are almost entirely constructed after an improved method. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5879, of which £340 are for the Kinrossshire portion. Trap rocks constitute nearly the whole of the substrata; but they are so soft and friable as to be almost useless, even for the building of stone fences, or any other purpose except the repair of roads. The old red sandstone lies under this rock, though at too great a depth to admit of quarrying; in the upper district are to be seen beautiful specimens of conglomerate, and numerous blue and purple pebbles appear in the decomposed trap. A thin vein of limestone exists on the estate of Dumbuils, but on account of its sandy character, and the distance of coal, it is not wrought: copper is said to have been formerly obtained in the wood of Condie, though no traces of it are now visible. The natural wood covers about forty acres, and 400 are in plantations, comprising the trees usually grown in the country.

The mansion of Freeland, belonging to Lord Ruthven, is a modern residence, having been remodelled about 1834; and that of Condie, an ancient structure, has received some recent additions: the other mansions are Rossie and Torrance, the former erected about eighty years since, and the latter about fifty. The population are entirely agricultural: besides the village of Forgandenny, there is a small hamlet in the Ochils, called Path-Struie, or the Path of Condie. The road from Stirling to Bridge of Earn passes through the former village, and affords facility for the conveyance of the produce, which is disposed of at Perth, Newburgh, in Fifeshire, and sometimes at Kinross. The parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £200, with a manse, and a glebe of six acres, valued at £15 per annum. The church, a plain edifice of considerable antiquity, was formerly one of the eleven prebendal churches of Dunkeld cathedral; it has lately undergone repair, and accommodates 410 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and the United Secession. The parochial school, situated in the village of Forgandenny, affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and £10 fees. There is also a school at the Path of Condie, instituted by an act of the presbytery of Perth, dated 1660, and confirmed by the privy council in 1663, empowering the heritors to appropriate the vacant stipend of 1659 to its endowment; the money was placed at interest for the payment of the teacher, and was augmented by the Rev. Mr. Willison, a late incumbent, who made a bequest of a small field, producing £7. 10. annually. A library of religious books, and one of miscellaneous works, are attached to the parochial school. On the north side of the Ochils is a hill on which formerly stood an important fortification, supposed by some to have been of the vitrified class, but considered by most as Danish. Its boundary line, once formed by a circular stone wall, circumscribes an area 170 yards in diameter; and the hill, called Castle-Law, commands most extensive prospects, embracing the mouth of the Tay and the German Ocean, on the east; Strathearn, to the Grampian mountains, on the west; a large part of the counties of Perth and Angus, on the north and north-east; and the Lomond hills, on the south.

Forglen

FORGLEN, a parish, in the county of Banff, 1 mile (W. by N.) from Turriff, on the road to Banff; containing 771 inhabitants. This place is called also Teunan, from St. Eunon, to whom a chapel, of which there are still some vestiges remaining, is said to have been dedicated. It is bounded on the south and east by the river Doveran, which has its source in the mountains of Aberdeenshire, and, after receiving in its course through the parish numerous streams from the high grounds, falls into the Moray Frith at Banff. The parish is five and a half miles in length, from south-east to north-west, and about four miles in breadth, and contains 7234 acres, of which 3617 are in a state of profitable cultivation, 1433 in plantations, 1055 waste land and pasture, and about 1130 capable of being reclaimed and cultivated at a moderate expense. The surface is pleasingly undulated, and the soil, though light, is fertile; the system of agriculture is improved; the principal crops are barley and oats, and wheat has recently been raised, but not in sufficient quantities to remunerate the grower. Considerable attention is paid to the rearing of live stock; the cattle are of the Aberdeenshire and Buchan breeds, with some of the Teeswater, Dunrobin, and Galloway; the sheep are generally of the Highland breed, which has been benefited by the introduction of the Cheviot, Merino, and Leicestershire kinds. Much progress has been made in inclosing the lands, but the chief fences are of stone, and the farm-buildings are indifferent. There are quarries of clay-slate in several parts, worked for various purposes. The salmon-fishery on the Doveran was formerly extensive and profitable; but it has greatly diminished within the last few years, and the annual rental for an extent of three miles of the river is at present not more than £5. The rateable annual value of Forglen is £3210. Over the several rivulets that intersect the parish are bridges in good repair; and across the Doveran is a substantial bridge of red sandstone, erected in 1826, at an expense of £2503, and connecting this parish with the post-town of Turriff. Peat and wood are the principal fuel, but coal is brought from Banff. There is a parochial library, containing a valuable collection of books on religious and general subjects; and a savings' bank has been established, or rather revived, under the auspices of the minister.

The parish is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, and patronage of Sir R. Abercromby; the stipend is £175. 5. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum. The church, erected in 1806, and situated on the south-eastern boundary of the parish, is in good repair, and will accommodate a congregation of from 400 to 500 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the salary of the master is £34, with £30 fees, and a house and garden; also the interest of £100 bequeathed by the Rev. George Bruce, minister of Dunbar, in 1793, and a portion of the Dick bequest, producing about £30 per annum. There is likewise a female school, in which children are taught to sew; the building was erected by subscription. The poor of the parish are eligible to admission into the Aberdeen infirmary, for which collections are made annually at the church, as also for the Assembly's India Mission, and for the schools in the Highlands and islands. From some ancient charters preserved in the family of Forglen, it appears that the lands of this parish and the patronage of the church formerly belonged to the abbey of Aberbrothock; and, as already stated, there are still remains of an old religious house, by tradition assigned to St. Eunon. At a short distance from the church are two barrows, which have not been opened; and in constructing a road in 1827, an urn containing ashes was found. A silver coin of the size of a crown piece, with the date 1670, was lately discovered in the wall of an old house; it seems to have been current in the electorate of Cologne. The former house of Forglen, supposed to have been originally built about the year 1440, had over the entrance the arms of Scotland, sculptured in stone, with various inscriptions; the present mansion, very lately erected, is a spacious edifice, beautifully situated, and surrounded with fine old timber.

Forgue

FORGUE, a parish, in the district of Strathbogie, county of Aberdeen, 6½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Huntly; containing 2489 inhabitants. The name of this place was originally written Forrig, and is supposed to be derived from the Gaelic language. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Doveran, which separates it from Rothiemay, in Banffshire, and on the south by the Urie; it measures between nine and ten miles in length, and about six miles and a half at its greatest breadth, from east to west, comprising 9000 or 10,000 acres mostly under tillage, and a considerable extent of plantations, moor, and waste. The surface is diversified with knolls and acclivities, straths and holms; and the scenery is consequently picturesque and interesting, except in the direction of the Foudland hills, which are in the southern quarter, and, from their barren and dreary aspect, being covered with stunted health, impress upon that part of the parish a bleak and uninviting appearance. The Foreman, a prominent hill of conical form, with its sides well wooded, rises in the northern district, near the Doveran, to the height of 1000 feet, and commands from its summit extensive and varied prospects: a path passed by Queen Mary, when she travelled over this elevation to Rothiemay House, still goes by the name of the Queen's road. Rivulets, many of which abound with trout, flow in every direction, and, after enlivening and beautifying the lands, fall into the larger streams. The soil comprehends sand, gravel, loam, clay, and moss, and the ground therefore differs very much in quality; all kinds of grain and green crops are raised, and the rotation system is practised, with which most other agricultural improvements have been introduced. Particular attention has also been shown in the rearing of cattle, of which crosses between the pure Aberdeenshire and the short-horned have proved very successful. Many of the farms are neatly fenced, and all well cultivated; and the comparatively inland situation of the parish, it being fourteen miles from the sea, with the well laid-out grounds in tillage, and the ornamental and tastefully-arranged plantations, renders the appearance of the district particularly agreeable. The rocks consist of the common stone found in most of the neighbouring parishes, and limestone, the latter of which, some time since, was extensively quarried. The rateable annual value of Forgue is £8540.

The parish contains the mansions of Cobairdy, Haddo, Corse, Drumblair, Templeland, Auchaber, and BoynesMill, most of them well built; but the mansion of Frendraught, the ancient seat of the Crichton family, is, in point of situation and scenery, the most distinguished residence. There are six mills, and at Glendronach is a distillery. The turnpike-road from Huntly to Banff, and another from Huntly to Aberdeen, pass through the parish; the chief communication for trade is with Banff, Portsoy, Macduff, Inverury, and Huntly, and Sunderland coal is occasionally imported for fuel. Fairs are held for the sale of cattle and sheep, and for general traffic, at Hawkhall, on the third Tuesday in April, the last Thursday in May, and the third Tuesday in September, all O. S. Forgue is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Alexander Morison, Esq., of Bognie; the minister's stipend is £191, with an excellent manse, and a glebe of about 12 acres, valued at £18 per annum. The church, situated upon a gentle eminence, is a neat, commodious, and substantial edifice, built in 1819, and containing 900 sittings, which are all free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; there is a small episcopal chapel, and about seven miles from the church is a preaching station, belonging to Seceders, but now deserted. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and mathematics, besides all the elementary branches; the master has a salary of £34, a house, a portion of the Dick bequest, and £20 fees. There is a savings' bank; and the poor enjoy the benefit of a charitable bequest of £20 per annum. The antiquities comprise the remains of several Druidical temples; vestiges of a Roman redoubt, as is supposed; and the ruins of the ancient castle of Frendraught, at the conflagration of the tower of which, in 1630, Viscount Aboyne, eldest son of the Marquess of Huntly, and four others, perished. The Admirable Crichton, who flourished about the middle of the sixteenth century, is said to have been born at Frendraught, the principal seat of the family, and from which they derived the title of Viscount.

Forres

FORRES, a royal burgh and parish, in the county of Elgin, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Elgin; containing 3711 inhabitants, of whom 2844 are in the burgh. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, is descriptive of its situation on the river and bay of Findhorn, has by some historians been identified with the Varis of Ptolemy, and is celebrated for its ancient castle, in which Duffus, King of Scotland, was treacherously murdered by the governor, in 966. A battle is said to have taken place here about the commencement of the eleventh century, between a party of Danish invaders and Malcolm II.: it terminated in a treaty, in commemoration of which an obelisk was raised, called Sweno's Stone, elaborately sculptured with devices, and which is still remaining in a very perfect state. Not long afterwards, the forces of Duncan, King of Scotland, were encamped on a moor in the vicinity of the town; and on his way to meet that monarch, Macbeth, accompanied by Banquo, was met on an adjoining waste by the weird sisters, as described by Shakspeare in his tragedy of Macbeth.


Burgh Seal.

The town, which is situated on a moderately elevated ridge, consists partly of one long street called the Highstreet, from which several smaller streets diverge on both sides; and is intersected throughout its whole length by the road from Elgin to Nairn. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A public library is supported by subscription, and has a good collection of volumes; there is also a newsroom, well furnished with daily journals and periodical publications; and a newspaper called "The Forres Gazette," is published on the first Wednesday in every month. A masonic lodge has been for some time established, for which an elegant building has been erected from a design by Mr. Simpson, of Aberdeen, containing a handsome ball-room, a supper-room, and apartments for the meetings of the brethren. A horticultural society under the patronage of the Earl of Moray holds annual meetings in June and September, when exhibitions of flowers, fruits, and vegetables attract numbers of visiters from all parts. The environs abound with pleasingly-diversified scenery; and on the highest of the richly-wooded Cloven hills, near the eastern extremity of the town, a lofty octagonal tower of three stages, crowned with an embattled parapet, was erected in 1806, by public subscription, to the memory of Lord Nelson. No manufactures are carried on here, nor any trade except such as is necessary for the supply of the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood: there are numerous handsome shops, amply supplied with merchandise of every kind. In the immediate vicinity are a brewery and a distillery; and in a powerful saw-mill for timber, great quantities of hexagonal blocks for wood-pavement have recently been prepared for the London market, and shipped from the port of Findhorn, about five miles distant from the town.

The older records of the corporation are lost; but there is evidence of the inhabitants having obtained the privileges of a royal burgh by charter of William the Lion or Alexander II., which was renewed by James IV. The government, under this charter, is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, who are chosen under the provisions of the Municipal Reform act. There are no incorporated trades; and the necessity for becoming a member of the guildry, in order to qualify as a burgess, and for which the entrance fee had risen successively from £2. 10. to £13. 10., is no longer enforced. The magistrates exercise jurisdiction in civil causes to any amount, and in criminal matters for petty offences and breaches of the peace. The town-hall, erected in 1839, on the site of the ancient tolbooth, in the centre of the High-street, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square tower, above which rises an octagonal turret, surmounted with a dome. The building contains a spacious hall for holding the courts, with apartments for the sheriff and justices, a council-chamber, a record room, offices for the town-clerk, and accommodations for the post-office. The old gaol, attached to the tolbooth, was removed on the erection of the present town-hall; and a small prison, containing two or three cells for the temporary confinement of criminals, has been recently built. The burgh is associated with the burghs of Fortrose, Inverness, and Nairn, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is 156. The market, which is amply supplied with grain, is on Tuesday; and markets for butchers' meat and fish are held daily. Fairs for cattle and horses occur on the first Wednesdays in January and July, on the third Wednesdays in February, April, May, and November, on the fourth Wednesdays in August and September; and for hiring servants, on the Saturday before the 22nd of November. The post-office has a good delivery; and facility of communication is afforded by the high road from Elgin to Nairn; by a turnpike-road to the sea-port village of Findhorn, at the mouth of Findhorn bay, where the London and Leith steamers call regularly; by good district roads in various directions; and by an elegant chain-bridge over the river Findhorn, constructed at an expense of £7000, in 1831, to replace the former bridge of stone, which had been destroyed by a flood in 1829.

The parish, which is bounded on the north by the bay of Findhorn, and on the west by the river of that name, is about four miles in length, and from one to three miles in breadth, comprising an area of 5200 acres, of which 3300 are arable, 1200 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface towards the north-west is a perfect plain, only a trifling height above the level of the sea; in the central portion, it is diversified with gentle acclivities, terminating in conical hills of moderate height; on the south-east, the land becomes more elevated. The river Findhorn has its source in the mountains of Inverness, and, after a course of considerable length, enters this parish, and flowing northward, falls into the bay of Findhorn: the only other stream is the burn of Forres, which rises in the adjoining parish of Rafford, and, running by the town, near which it receives a small tributary, also joins the bay. On the Findhorn is a lucrative salmon-fishery, belonging to the Messrs. Forbes, of Aberdeen, and valued at £500 per annum; it was greatly injured by the flood in 1829, but has lately very much improved. The soil along the margin of the bay and the banks of the river is a rich deep loam, with a slight admixture of clay; in the central parts of the parish, a light sand which, under good management, is richly fertile; and in the higher grounds, a retentive clay, alternated with sand and moss. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips; and considerable portions of the land are cultivated as gardens, in which flowers and fruits of every kind are raised with great success. The system of husbandry is in a highly improved state, and some of the waste has been made to yield luxuriant crops of grain; the farm-houses are substantially built of stone, roofed with slate, and generally well arranged, and on most of the farms are threshing-mills, of which one is driven by steam. The cattle are not confined to any particular breed, nor are the sheep, and many of the farmers change their live stock annually: particular attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, for the produce of which there is a large demand. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8481. The plantations consist of oak, ash, elm, plane, and beech, interspersed with larch and Scotch fir, of which there are some fine specimens on the lands of various proprietors, particularly a stately avenue of ash-trees on the road to Forres from the west. The chief substrata are sandstone and limestone, the latter of which is quarried on the farm of Mundole, where kilns have been erected for burning it into manure. Sanquhar House is a handsome mansion situated on an eminence, about a mile to the south of the town, in a richly-wooded demesne enlivened by the windings of the burn of Forres: Invererne, a mile north of the town, is also a handsome modern residence, surrounded by thriving plantations. Forres House, a spacious mansion, is at present in the occupation of a tenant: Drumduan is an elegant villa to the east of Forres, commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Forres, of which this place is the seat, and of the synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £274, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Earl of Moray. The church, a plain structure, built in 1775, and repaired in 1839, is lighted with gas, and contains 1000 sittings. There are places of worship for the Free Church, United Secession, and Independents, and an episcopal chapel. The parochial and burgh schools, which are consolidated under the patronage of the corporation, and held in the buildings of Anderson's academy, are conducted by three masters, to whom collectively are paid salaries amounting to £120 per annum. The academy, for which a handsome building in the Grecian style of architecture was erected in the High-street, was founded in 1824, and endowed with property producing £130 per annum, by the late Jonathan Anderson, Esq., of Glasgow, for the education of children of the parishes of Forres, Rafford, and Kinloss. Of the ancient castle of Forres, which, after the murder of Duffus, was demolished, and subsequently rebuilt, only some slight vestiges are remaining on a hill to the west of the town. When it ceased to be a royal residence, the castle became the possession of the earls of Moray, from whom it passed, with the property attached, to the Dunbars, hereditary sheriffs of Moray, who resided in a building intended to form part of a new structure, and which is now, with the lands belonging to it, owned by Sir Lewis Grant. James Dick, Esq., who bequeathed £140,000, of which the proceeds are divided among the parochial schoolmasters of the counties of Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen, was a native of the parish.

Fort-Augustus

FORT-AUGUSTUS, a village, post-town, and lately a quoad sacra district, in the parish of Boleskine and Abertarff, county of Inverness, 131 miles (N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 700 inhabitants. This place, situated at the south-western extremity of Loch Ness, in the middle part of the county, derives its origin from the establishment of a garrison here in 1729, for the purpose of checking the proceedings of some clans in the neighbourhood that were favourable to the house of Stuart; and is the central of a chain of forts, all built with the same design, across the Highlands. Its name was given to it in honour of the then Prince of Wales, father of George III. The fort, which stands on a peninsula formed by the rivers Tarff and Oich, is of a square form, with bastions at the corners, on which can be mounted twelve six-pounders; and it is defended by a ditch, with a battery, a covert-way, and glacis. The barracks are constructed for one field-officer, four captains, twelve subalterns, and 280 rank and file. In 1745 the fort was taken by the Highlanders, and dismantled, but was soon repaired, and became the focus of some of those severe military operations by which the Highlanders were completely subdued: it is now under the charge of a barrack-master and a few soldiers from Fort-George, whither the guns were removed a few years since. The village is seated behind the fort, on the slope of an alluvial terrace; and the scenery in the vicinity is altogether of a wild and mountainous character. Over the Tarff is a bridge, kept in repair by government; but it was till lately in a very ruinous state, and dangerous even to foot-passengers. Fairs are held on the Monday before the second Wednesday in June, and the 20th of September, or, if not on that day, on the Monday before the 29th. A mission church, containing 368 sittings, was built about seventy years ago, partly by subscription, and partly by aid from government; the minister's salary is £74 per annum, which is chiefly paid by the committee for managing the royal bounty; and an ecclesiastical district comprising the whole of the ancient parish of Abertarff was until lately attached to the church. An excellent and commodious school-house and dwelling have been built by subscription. Several Roman coins were discovered in 1767.

Fort-George

FORT-GEORGE, Inverness.—See Campbelton.

Fort-William

FORT-WILLIAM, a royal fortress and a village, in the parish of Kilmalie, county of Inverness, 30 miles (S. W.) from Fort-Augustus, and 135 (N. W. by W.) from Edinburgh; containing 1091 inhabitants. This place, called also Maryburgh, in honour of the queen of William III., in whose reign the present fortress was erected, and Gordonsburgh, from the family of Gordon, on whose lands the village is built, is situated at the eastern extremity of Loch Eil, near the base of BenNevis, and in the heart of a district abounding with wildly romantic scenery. The fortress stands on the site of an intrenchment thrown up by General Monk, during the usurpation of Cromwell, and consists of an irregular triangle, defended by a glacis and fosse, with two bastions, mounted with fifteen twelve-pounders; it has a bomb-proof magazine, and barracks for the reception of two field-officers, two captains, four subalterns, and a garrison of ninety-six non-commissioned officers and privates. It was besieged by a party of the rebels, under the command of Captain Scott, in 1746; but, after a resolute defence of five weeks, during which six men were killed and twenty-four wounded, the assailants raised the siege, and dispersed. A considerable portion of the wall was undermined some few years since, by the impetuous current of the river Nevis, descending from Ben-Nevis; and the structure has since that time been gradually going into decay. The village consists of a long narrow street, extending along the margin of the lake, and intersected by various smaller streets; the inhabitants are chiefly supported by the herring-fishery, for which the harbour affords considerable facilities, and a quay has recently been constructed, partly at the expense of the fishery commissioners, and partly by private contributions. A public library, which has a tolerable collection of standard works, is supported by subscription; and there are some good inns: one of the sheriffs-substitute, whose jurisdiction extends over part of Argyllshire, resides in the village, and there are some families of respectability within the fortress. Fairs are held for cattle and horses on the second Wednesdays in June and November, and a fair for sheep and wool on the Tuesday after the second Thursday in July, all of which are well attended. A church was recently erected, to replace a former which had been pronounced unsafe; it is a neat structure containing 350 sittings, and the minister has a stipend of £100, of which £60 are paid by the Committee of the Royal Bounty, £20 by the congregation, and the remainder by the heritors. There are a place of worship for members of the Free Church, an episcopal, and a Roman Catholic chapel; and the parochial school is situated in the village.

Forteviot

FORTEVIOT. a parish, in the county of Perth, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Bridge of Earn; containing 638 inhabitants, of whom 69 are in the village. This was the seat of many of the Pictish kings, who had a palace at Haly Hill, near the site of the present church; and this palace, after the extinction of the Pictish monarchy, and the union of the two kingdoms by Kenneth Mc Alpine, became the favourite summer residence of several of the Scottish sovereigns. Kenneth resided for many years at the place, where he ended his days; it was afterwards the summer residence of Malcolm Canmore, and several of his successors' charters were dated hence. Previously to the battle of Dupplin, which occurred on the 31st of July, 1332, Edward Baliol encamped his forces in a field in this parish, called the Miller's acre; and the ancient mill from which it took its name, and the ford of Coblehaugh, where his army crossed the river, are yet remaining. The eminence of Haly Hill has been considerably undermined by the river May, and many portions of the buildings of the palace have been destroyed; but there are still some vestiges, and in several houses in the parish that were built with the ruins, may be traced numerous stones curiously sculptured with antique figures, which once formed part of the royal residence.

The parish, which is about eight miles in length and two in breadth, is divided into three detached and unequal portions by the intervening parishes of Aberdalgie and Forgandenny. Of these portions the central division, in which is the village, is the largest, and is situated on the south of the river Earn; another extends into the Ochils, comprising some of the most conspicuous hills of the range; and the third, lying to the east of Aberdalgie, and the smallest, is bounded on the south by the Earn. The surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale; and the scenery, enriched with wood, and enlivened by the windings of the rivers, is in many places strikingly picturesque. The Earn crosses the whole breadth of the parish from east to west, and, frequently overflowing its banks, does considerable damage to the lower lands. The May, which rises in the Ochils, after a course of eight miles joins the Earn. In its progress, it forces for itself a passage through a deep fissure in a rock, which, from the rumbling noise of the waters, has obtained the appellation of the "Humble Bumble;" and a little above this is the linn of Muckarsie, where the river is precipitated from a height of thirty feet, and, after heavy rains, forms a picturesque cascade. The lands, of which the soil is various, are under excellent cultivation, producing favourable crops; the farms are generally of large extent, and the occupiers men of capital. The farmbuildings are consequently of superior order; and all the recent improvements in husbandry, and in the construction of agricultural implements, have been adopted to their full extent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6301.

Invermay House, the seat of Alexander H. M. Belshes, Esq., and for many generations the seat of that ancient family, is now a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on an eminence overhanging the river May, and commanding an extensive view of the vale of Strathearn, with the windings of its river, and the romantically-diversified scenery of the adjacent country. All that remains of the old structure is apparently a ruin, though containing several apartments still entire, and in good preservation, and forming a pleasing contrast with the modern mansion. The grounds are tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations, and with the graceful course of the river May, which flows through the demesne. About a mile from the house is the sepulchral chapel of Muckarsie, the church of that parish before it was united to Forteviot, and now the burial-place of the family; the approach is by a beautiful avenue of limetrees. The whole of the grounds are kept in the finest order, and are open to the public for one day in the week, affording a favourite excursion to invalids frequenting the neighbouring wells of Pitcaithly. The village of Forteviot is pleasantly situated on the right bank of the May, a short distance from its influx into the Earn, and is neat and well built; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling; the minister's stipend is £244, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6. 15. per annum. The church, before the Reformation, was attached to the abbey of Cambuskenneth, and subsequently to the college of St. Andrew's, in whom, and in the family of Belshes, of Invermay, the patronage of the living is jointly vested: the present edifice was built about seventy years since, and is a plain structure, in good repair. There is a place of worship for members of the Secession Church in the Ochil district of the parish. The parochial school is attended by about fifty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. 9. in lieu of garden, the fees averaging £16 per annum.

Forth

FORTH, a village, in the parish of Carnwath, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 8½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Lanark; containing 357 inhabitants. This is a modern village, seated on the road from Lanark to Whitburn, and may be almost regarded as an appendage to Wilsontown, being chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the coal and iron mines connected with the extensive iron-works of that place, founded by the Messrs. Wilson, of London, about the year 1780.

Fortingal

FORTINGAL, a parish, in the county of Perth, 8½ miles (W. S. W.) from Aberfeldy; containing, with part of the late quoad sacra districts of Foss, Glenlyon, and Rannoch, 2740 inhabitants. This place, of which the name is of very doubtful origin, is historically distinguished only for the conflicts of hostile clans, and for a battle that occurred at Glen-Sassun, between the forces of Robert Bruce and those of Edward of England. The parish is forty miles in length, from east to west, and varies from thirty to thirty-five miles in breadth. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Laggan, in the county of Inverness, and on the north-east by that of Blair-Atholl; on the east, by the parish of Dull; on the south, by the parishes of Kenmore and Killin; on the west, by the parish of Appin, in Argyllshire, and part of Weem; and on the south-west by the parish of Glenorchy. It occupies a large portion of the north-western district of the county, including a considerable part of the great Caledonian forest, and comprising an area of nearly 130 miles in circumference. The surface is strikingly diversified with mountains and valleys, deep sequestered glens, and lakes of various extent, the whole forming one of the boldest and richest combinations of scenery in the country. Exclusively of the lofty mountains that inclose the parish on the north and south sides, one vast and continuous range intersects the whole area, in a direction from east to west, dividing it into two nearly equal portions, of which the northern comprehends the district of Rannoch, and the southern those of Fortingal and Glenlyon. In addition to the principal chains which circumscribe and divide the parish, there are numerous mountains of considerable magnitude that rise to a great height in detached situations; and from the summits of them most magnificent views are obtained of the amphitheatre spread beneath, abounding with every variety of picturesque and romantic beauty. The chief mountains, of which there are more than ten or twelve connected with the parish, have elevations varying from 3000 to 3800 feet above the level of the sea; the range that intersects the parish is not less than seven miles in breadth at the base, and many of its heights are more than 3000 feet above the sea.

Of the valleys the principal is Glenlyon, extending in a western direction for more than thirty miles, and inclosed by mountains on each side, which in some parts of it obtrude so greatly as scarcely to allow sufficient breadth for the channel of the river that flows between their bases. There were formerly several lakes in this glen, of which Loch Lyon, nearly at the head, is the only one now remaining, and is that in which the river Lyon has its source. The valley is almost a perfect level, affording excellent pasturage for sheep, of which about 20,000 are generally fed; the sides of the mountains, also, are covered with verdure to their very summits. Numerous dells branch off from the glen, of which some are nearly four miles in length, and watered by various streams, forming tributaries to the Lyon. One of these streams, called Allt-da-ghob, from the dell of that name, has, when viewed from the hill on the opposite side, a truly grand appearance: on being swollen by rains, it rushes down the sides of an abrupt precipice, nearly 500 feet in height, with tumultuous impetuosity, then is totally lost in a chasm invisible to the spectator from its great depth, and, after successive reappearances as if issuing from the brow of the mountain, runs violently down a second precipice, of 200 feet, in one continued sheet, to the level of the glen, from which it flows with a tranquil course into the Lyon. The valley of Glenmore, situated between Rannoch and Fortingal, anciently formed part of the forest of SithChaillinn, of which the only vestiges now remaining are the roots of trees once existing, which are dug up in great quantities for fuel, and also for affording light, for which purpose the roots of the fir-trees are well adapted. Many trunks of old oaks are also found in this glen, of a black hue, and which, though soft when first found, harden on exposure to the atmosphere; they are split, and sold in the markets for sharpening scythes, for which they answer well. The valley of Fortingal, whence the parish takes its name, is a fine level tract about half a mile in breadth, and six miles in length, communicating by defiles with the roads to Loch Tay and Glenlyon, and with the turnpike-road to Crieff and Inverness: with the exception of these passes, it is completely surrounded with mountains. The vale is ornamented with residences and demesnes tastefully arranged, and enriched with woods and plantations; and from its great diversity of features it is one of the most picturesque and interesting in this part of the country. The mountains by which it is inclosed are clothed with verdure to their summits, and contrast finely with the level tracts of luxuriant pasturage, and the expanse of fertile lands in the highest state of cultivation.

Of the rivers, the Tummel has its source in Loch Rannoch, and, while flowing through that district, is called the Water of Rannoch; it is smooth and tranquil for some miles, but becomes an impetuous and rapid current on leaving the glen, and, being joined by the Foss, afterwards obtains its general appellation. The river Gamhair rises in the southern part of Glen Etive, and, after a course of several miles, in which it forms some smaller lakes, expands into Loch Laoidean, on issuing from which it obtains its name: pursuing its way for about five miles, it enters an extensive tract of meadow land, which in rainy seasons it completely inundates, and having flowed through the inhabited portion of the glen, it falls into Loch Rannoch. The river Lyon has its source in the loch of that name, and, after watering Glenlyon, and receiving in its course of nearly forty miles almost innumerable streams from the mountains, falls into the Tay below Taymouth Castle. The Erochd issues from the lake of that name, and, after a peaceful progress of about two miles, becomes, from the accession of mountain-streams, a rapid and impetuous torrent, sometimes bursting its banks with resistless violence, till it forces its way into Loch Rannoch. There are many smaller rivers in various parts of the parish; and from the mountainous character of the lands through which they pass, and the consequent accumulation of their waters from mountain torrents, they are all diversified in their appearance, and, from the powerful obstructions to their course, exhibit waterfalls in numerous places. The falls of the Tummel, on the confines of the parish, of the Lyon, in the glen of that name, of the Gamhair and Duibhe, at the head of Glen Rannoch, of the Conait, and of the Keltney, are beautifully picturesque. Of the lakes in this extensive parish. Loch Erochd, to the north-east of Glen Rannoch, is sixteen miles in length, and about one mile in average breadth; it is inclosed on both sides by lofty and precipitous ranges of rugged and barren mountains, occasionally softened and enlivened by fertile spots in rich cultivation, and by the sporting boxes of the gentry who resort to this place for shooting the various kinds of game with which the mountains abound. Loch Laoidean is about eight miles to the west of Glen Rannoch; it is six miles in length, and little more than half a mile in breadth, and is studded with several picturesque islands, richly wooded. Its shores are indented with numerous small creeks, and diversified with boldly-projecting promontories; and near the western extremity of the lake is an island of yew-trees, among which the red deer frequently shelter, and the eagle rears its young. Loch Lyon, which is romantically situated in the glen of that name, is about three miles in length, and half a mile broad; its shores abound with agreeable scenery, and though less bold, it is more pleasing in its features, being beautified with luxuriant verdure and enriched by cultivation. Loch Garry, on the border of the parish, eight miles from Glen Rannoch, is about four miles in length, and half a mile in breadth; its scenery is bold and varied, but differs little from that of some of the other lakes. In the rocks, and the sides of the various mountains, are many caves of natural formation, which, in the earlier periods of the history, afforded shelter to the chiefs of hostile clans in their frequent conflicts, and in some of which Sir William Wallace and King Robert Bruce, during the war with England, concealed themselves while watching for opportunities of attacking their enemies, or waiting after a defeat to recruit their forces, and concert new enterprises for the deliverance of their country. They also provided a secure asylum for numerous depredators.

The soil varies according to the elevation of the lands; in the lower valleys it is generally dry and gravelly; on the acclivities of the mountains it is thinner, but affords excellent pasturage for cattle and sheep; nearer the summits it is a bleak sterile moor, producing but little grass, and abounding with heath; and the summits of the mountains are covered with moss. The number of acres in the parish is 448,000; but comparatively little is under regular cultivation, the arable lands bearing only a small proportion to the pastures, and the principal object of the inhabitants being the feeding of cattle and sheep, the latter chiefly of the black-faced kind, which are more hardy, and thrive well on the mountain pastures. Particular attention is paid to the improvement of the breed, and also to that of the cattle, which are all the West Highland, and at the sales that occasionally take place sell for high prices. Considerable improvements have been effected in the system of agriculture; the farm-buildings and offices are substantial and commodious; the lands are well inclosed, and the fences kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,300. The woods are chiefly the remains of the ancient Caledonian forest, which at one time was more than eighty miles in extent; they consist mainly of birch and native fir. The plantations, scattered over various parts of the parish, are not, in the aggregate, of any very great extent; they comprise native fir, larch, and spruce, with some oak, ash, beech, elm, and birch. The substrata are limestone, forming part of the Grampian range, which crosses the eastern part of the parish; it is of superior quality, and is wrought for agricultural purposes and for building. A bed of fine blue stone has been found, and a quarry opened on the lands of Mr. Menzies, of Chesthill; marble of various colours also occurs in several parts, and rock crystals, spars, and agates of great variety and beauty are obtained in the mountains. A vein of lead-ore of considerable richness was discovered in Glenlyon, and formerly wrought with success; near the village, also, lead-ore appears; and slate is supposed to exist in some places, but has not been yet explored. In the district of Bolfracks, in a detached portion of the parish, is an extensive quarry, the stone of which is of superior quality for building; it is very compact and durable, and susceptible of a high polish, in every respect resembling the stone of which Taymouth Castle is built.

In Glen-Fortingal are several handsome residences, beautifully encompassed by richly-wooded and pleasant demesnes; and in Glen-Rannoch are likewise some good seats, one of which is situated in a demesne comprising about 70,000 Scotch acres. Communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by roads kept in repair by statute labour; the nearest great towns are Crieff and Perth, the former about thirty, and the latter forty, miles distant. A penny-post has been established at Kinloch-Rannoch, which communicates with Pitlochry; and at the western extremity of GlenRannoch is a handsome bridge over the river Gamhair, erected by Sir Neil Menzies. Fairs are held at Kirkton in the beginning of December, continuing for three days, for the sale of cattle, sheep, and goats, and the transaction of general business; in the end of April, for lint and clover seeds; and in August, for lambs, the first being the principal market in this part of the country. Fairs are also held at Kinloch-Rannoch, in April, for cattle; in August, for lambs; and in October, for cattle; and at Inverwick, in the district of Glenlyon, annually for sheep. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth. The stipend of the incumbent is £255; the manse is a handsome and commodious residence, and the glebe is valued at £10 per annum. The church, a very ancient and substantial structure, was repaired in 1821, and is adapted for a congregation of 376 persons. There are two government churches, situated respectively in Glenlyon and Glen-Raunoch. The parochial school affords a good course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance in money in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £21 per annum. There are also two schools under the patronage of the General Assembly, and two under that of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; the masters of each of the former have a salary of £20, with a house, and a portion of land; and those of the latter have a salary varying from £15 to £20, with an allowance in money for fuel. Seven other schools, in distant parts of the parish, are supported by general subscription of the inhabitants. The parochial school-house is a very handsome and commodious building, recently erected by the heritors.

To the west of Fortingal are the remains of a Roman camp, in which the site of the general's tent is still marked out by the fosse with which it was surrounded; the prætoriurn is in good preservation, and north-west of it is a tumulus sixty feet in length, and about twenty feet wide at the base, raised over the remains of those who fell in battle. A little to the west of the general's tent are two obelisks, the one, about six feet in height, yet standing, and the other, eight feet, long since fallen to the ground. This encampment occupies an area of nearly ninety acres. There are some remains of Druidical circles near the parish church, and in various parts of the parish are others; also numerous forts of circular form, of which the walls, built of loose stones, are of great thickness; the diameter within the walls averages about sixty feet, and the area is divided into various halls and smaller apartments. These forts are generally referred to the time of Fingal, and are traditionally said to have been castles belonging to the heroes of that chieftain. There are two ancient castles, though of later date, the baronial residences of chiefs in feudal times; one of these is situated on the summit of a rock in the east portion of the parish, and was the seat of the brother of the Earl of Buchan, ancestor of the Stewarts of Atholl. The other, situated in Glenlyon, is on a lofty and precipitous bank, and was defended by a drawbridge; it was, till the middle of the 16th century, the residence of Duncan Campbell, of Glenlyon, who was equally renowned for his valour and his hospitality. On the lands of Inverchadain are the remains of a mound of turf and stones, called "Sheomar-na-Staing," where Wallace, on his route from Argyll, remained for several days, attended by a few of his faithful adherents, and where he was joined by the men of Rannoch, who marched with his forces to the battles of Dunkeld and Perth. In the churchyard of Fortingal is a very ancient yew-tree of remarkable growth, the trunk of which is divided into two stems, between which is an interval of several feet: at a distance it appears like two distinct trees, and though partly injured at an early period of its growth, it has attained to such a size that the branches spread over an area of nearly sixty feet in circumference.—See Rannoch, &c.

Fortrose

FORTROSE, or Chanonry, a royal burgh, and lately a quoad sacra district, in the parish of Rosemarkie, county of Ross and Cromarty, 10½ miles (N. N. E.) from Inverness, and 8(S.S.W.) from Cromarty; containing, with the burgh of Rosemarkie, 1082 inhabitants, of whom 324 are in that burgh. This place, anciently the Chanonry of Ross, and the seat of that diocese, was united by charter of James II., in 1455, with the town of Rosemarkie, which had been erected into a royal burgh by Alexander II., and which is distant from it about half a mile to the east. The united burghs, under the common name of Fortrose, received a confirmation of all ancient privileges from James VI., in 1592; and by charter of the same monarch, in 1612, these privileges were extended, and the burgesses invested with all the liberties and immunities enjoyed by those of Inverness. There was anciently a castle at Fortrose, belonging to the earls of Seaforth, who were also viscounts of Fortrose; but no remains exist. Of the cathedral, a splendid structure, only a roofless aisle is now left, of which one portion, containing the tombs of several of the bishops, is preserved as a burial-place for the families of the Mackenzies and other landed proprietors. To the east of the site of the cathedral, which occupied a spacious square, in which were the houses of the canons, is a detached building with an arched roof, converted into the town-hall, and having, below, a vaulted apartment lately appropriated as the town gaol. The episcopal palace, and a great part of the cathedral, were destroyed by Oliver Cromwell, who sent the materials by sea to Inverness, for the erection of his fortress at that place.


Burgh Seal.

The town, which is situated on the western bank of the Moray Frith, has much declined from its former importance, and the principal trade now carried on is that of making shoes, in which, and in the manufacture of coarse linen, and the shipping of cattle, salmon, and other produce, for London, the greater number of the inhabitants are employed. It is, however, beginning to revive, as a bathing place, for which its delightful and healthy situation renders it well adapted; and Roderick Mackenzie, Esq., the principal proprietor in the neighbourhood, has lately made considerable improvements, tending to enhance the beauty of the town. A neat and ornamental water-cistern, also, has just been erected at the cross of Fortrose, from the funds of the burgh. At Chanonry Point, a headland projecting deeply into the Frith, is a lighthouse, near the ferry to Fort-George, on the opposite shore; and a small commodious harbour, erected by the parliamentary commissioners, is frequented by the Leith, Aberdeen, and Dundee traders. The town of Rosemarkie, though in point of antiquity it has the precedence, is still inferior to Fortrose in importance, and is inhabited partly by persons occupied in fishing. The post-office has a daily delivery; and fairs are held in April, June, and November. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads to Inverness and Dingwall, and by the ferry to Fort-George: steam-vessels plying in the Frith, and well fitted up for the conveyance of passengers and goods, land various kinds of merchandise, and convey the salmon taken here to Aberdeen, Leith, and London, to which last place considerable numbers of cattle are also sent.

The government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine councillors, chosen under the regulations of the late Municipal Reform act. There are no incorporated trades: the fees of admission as burgesses are, for strangers, £3. 3. for ordinary trades, and £5. 5. for those of a higher class; and for sons of burgesses half those sums. The magistrates exercise jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases to the usual extent; but very little business is transacted in either of the courts. A circuit sheriff's court is regularly held here. The burgh is associated with those of Forres, Inverness, and Nairn, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is forty-nine. The quoad sacra parish of Fortrose, which included the town of Fortrose, and a portion of the adjacent lands, was separated from the parish of Rosemarkie by act of the General Assembly. The church, a handsome and substantial structure, recently erected in the town, by subscription, affords ample accommodation; the minister, who is appointed by the male communicants of the congregation, derives his stipend from the produce of a fund bequeathed for that purpose by Mr. Thomas Forbes, and from the seat-rents. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and Baptists; and an episcopal chapel, in the later English style of architecture. The academy, under the superintendence of a rector and an assistant, is supported by subscription, and is well attended.—See Rosemarkie.

Forvie

FORVIE, county of Aberdeen.—See Slains.

Foss

FOSS, late a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Fortingal, but chiefly in that of Dull, county of Perth, 8 miles (N.) from Dull; containing 450 inhabitants, of whom 11 are in Fortingal. This district was separated for ecclesiastical purposes, by act of the General Assembly, in 1830, and annexed as a quoad sacra parish to a church erected here by parliamentary grant. The church is situated on the south bank of the river Tummel, near the western extremity of the lake of that name: the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £2. 10.

Fossoway

FOSSOWAY, a parish, in the counties of Kinross and Perth, 6 miles (W.) from Kinross, and 8 (N. E. by E.) from Alloa; containing, with the villages of Blairingone, Crook of Devon, and Easter and Wester Gartwhinean, 1724 inhabitants. This parish includes the ancient parish of Tulliebole, united with it in 1614, and which, forming part of the county of Kinross, divides Fossoway into two separate portions. Of these, the one lying to the north of the lands of Tulliebole, comprises the barony of Fossoway, with a considerable part of the Ochil hills; and that on the south, the barony of Aldie on the east, and the lands of Blairingone on the west, with the valley between the Ochils, on the north, and the Cleish and Saline hills on the south. The whole of the united parish is eleven miles in extreme length, and about ten miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 18,682 acres, of which nearly 11,000 are arable and pasture, 1125 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface is diversified with hills of various elevation, of which the principal are from 1000 to 1500 feet in height above the level of the sea. One of these, called Easter Downhill, is of conical form, skirted round its base with natural wood, and covered with verdure to the summit; and the hill of Inmerdownie, which is the highest in the parish, commands an extensive prospect, embracing at one view the rivers Forth and Tay. Most of the hills afford excellent pasturage for sheep and cattle, and the intervening valleys are richly cultivated; the lower grounds are also intersected with ridges, rising more or less precipitously to considerable degrees of eminence. The river Devon, which bounds the parish for nearly nine miles, has its source in the Ochils, and, after a long and winding course, falls into the river Forth at Cambus. The lands are also watered by the rivulets of North and South Queich and the East Gairney, which flow into Loch Leven, and the West Gairney, which joins the Devon near the Linn Caldron. In the Devon and in the other streams trout of good quality are taken.

The scenery is boldly varied, and in some parts strikingly romantic: the river Devon forms several cascades, of which one of the principal is the Rumbling Bridge, so called from a bridge twenty-two feet in span, below which the river, impeded in its progress by projecting rocks, falls successively from various heights with tumultuous noise. Lower down is the Linn Caldron, where, within a distance of twenty-eight yards, the stream has two falls, one of thirty-four and the other of forty-four feet, of nearly perpendicular descent; and in the interval the rocks are worn into three spacious cavities, in two of which the water, from its violent agitation, has the appearance of boiling. Near the old Rumbling Bridge, which is still entire, a bridge has been recently erected on the line of the turnpike-road. The soil in some parts of the parish is mossy, in others a gravel, and in some places clay alternated with loam; the system of agriculture is in an advanced state; much waste land has been brought into profitable cultivation, and the inclosures, partly of stone dykes and partly fences of thorn, are well kept. On the lands of Fossoway, a fence of wire-work attached to posts of wood has recently been introduced. The farm-houses and offices, with very few exceptions, are substantial and commodious; and most of the later improvements in husbandry have been adopted. The rateable annual value of the Perthshire portion of the parish now amounts to £3900, and that of the Kinross-shire portion to £4618. The plantations are extensive, and properly managed; they consist principally of spruce and Scotch fir, ash, elm, plane, and beech, all of which grow well in the soil. Larch, which formerly produced considerable profit, has within the last few years appeared to degenerate: oak, which has only recently been planted, seems to thrive. There are quarries of whinstone and freestone in several parts, and in the western districts are found limestone, coal, and ironstone: at Blairingone are three collieries in operation, two of which were but lately opened. The ironstone for many years was extensively wrought, but the working of it has recently been almost discontinued. In a rock near the Rumbling Bridge is found copper-ore; but the quantity bears so small a proportion to the material in which it is contained, that it cannot be wrought to advantage.

The castle of Tulliebole, the seat of Sir James W. Moncrieff, Bart., one of the judges of the Court of Session, is an ancient mansion, having been erected in 1608; Devonshaw House and Arndean are both handsome modern mansions, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Devon. The castle of Aldie, once the baronial seat of the Mercers, and now the property of their representative, the Baroness Keith, though uninhabited remains entire. The principal villages are Blairingone and Crook of Devon, both burghs of barony: the latter is situated on the river Devon, which here makes a sudden turn in its course, whence the village takes its name; and there is a good inn for the accommodation of the numerous visiters who frequent the place in order to view the interesting scenery in its vicinity. The parish also contains several hamlets, of which the most considerable are Gartwhinean and Carnbo. Fairs are held in May and in October, when cattle and wares are exposed for sale. The turnpike-road from Dunfermline to Crieff passes through the parish, from north to south, and that from Kinross to Alloa intersects it from east to west: parallel with the latter, and about two miles to the north of it, is the turnpike-road from Stirling to the east of Fife; and the Dunning road also crosses a portion of the parish. There are six bridges over the Devon, which tend to facilitate the communication between this place and the neighbouring towns. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £164, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8. 13. 4.; patron, Sir Graham Montgomerie, of Kinross. The church, built in 1806, is a plain edifice in good repair, containing 525 sittings. A church, to which a quoad sacra parish was for a short time assigned, has been erected on a site a little to the east of the village of Blairingone, given for that purpose by Mark Watt, Esq., who also subscribed liberally towards its erection; it was opened for divine service in 1838, and is a neat structure containing 250 sittings. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, some land worth £12 per annum, and the fees averaging £27. Another school is partly supported by private subscription. There is a petrifying spring on the lands of Devonshaw; and on the estate of Blairingone, a mineral spring was discovered about fifteen years since, the water of which, according to an analysis made by Dr. Thomson, professor of chemistry in the university of Glasgow, contains in an imperial gallon, 5.87 grs. common salt, 170.99 grs. sulphate of soda, 953.18 grs. sulphate of alumine, 1753.10 grs. dipersulphate of iron, 141.55 grs. persulphate of iron, and 58.70 grs. of silica. The water is too strong for internal use, without dilution; but, externally applied, is powerful in healing wounds.—See Blairingone, &c.

Foula

FOULA, an island, in the county of Shetland; forming part of the parish of Walls and Sandness, and containing 215 inhabitants. This island lies almost twenty miles distant from any land, and is the most westerly of the Shetlands; it is about three miles in length, and one and a half in breadth, with bold and steep shores, and formed chiefly of three hills of a nearly conical shape, the highest of which attains an elevation of between 800 and 900 feet. There is very little level ground; and the isle has only one landing-place, Ham, on the east side, and even this cannot be approached in bad weather: the island is resorted to as a fishing station, and it affords excellent pasturage for sheep. Dense columns of birds of various kinds hover round it, literally darkening the air at particular seasons; the surface of the hills swarms with plover, crows, and curlews, and the cormorants occupy the lower portions of the cliffs. The minister of Walls makes a periodical visit to the isle, remaining usually for two Sundays; the schoolmaster officiates as a kind of pastor at other times.

Fountain Hall

FOUNTAIN HALL, a hamlet, in the parish of Stow, county of Edinburgh, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Stow; containing 60 inhabitants. It is situated in the centre of the parish, on the western side of the Gala water, and on the road from Stow to Borthwick. There is a good library in the hamlet.

Foulden

FOULDEN, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Berwick; containing 393 inhabitants, of whom 73 are in the village, and the remainder in the rural districts of the parish. This place, of which the signification and derivation of the name are alike uncertain, is chiefly distinguished for a conference held in the church in 1587, between commissioners appointed by James VI. of Scotland, and others sent by Elizabeth of England, to discuss and investigate those circumstances in the conduct of the unfortunate Mary by which Elizabeth endeavoured to vindicate the incarceration and subsequent decapitation of her royal sister. The parish is about two miles and a quarter in length, and very nearly of equal breadth, and comprises 3000 acres, of which 2400 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface is diversified with gentle slopes, and with wood-crowned heights, which shelter it from the colder winds; the scenery is generally interesting, and in some parts pleasingly picturesque and romantic. The river Whiteadder, which is here of considerable depth, skirts the southern side of the parish for the whole distance, in its progress to the Tweed, into which it falls near Berwick; its banks are of precipitous height, and on the north side intersected with numerous glens, through which many streams from the higher lands find their way into its channel.

The soil in some parts is a strong clay, in some a sandy loam, and in others a cultivated moor; the crops are, wheat, oats, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in an advanced state; the lands are well drained and inclosed, the farm-houses and offices substantially built and conveniently arranged; and all the more recent improvements in husbandry are practised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5002. The woods are partly of great age; the plantations consist of oak, ash, elm, birch, chesnut, and sycamore, with spruce and Scotch firs. Foulden House, the seat of the proprietor of four-fifths of the parish, is a handsome mansion, pleasantly situated in an extensive and richly-wooded demesne, ornamented with much stately timber of ancient growth, and with young and thriving plantations. The village is neatly built, and inhabited by persons employed in agricultural pursuits and in the various handicraft trades requisite for the parish. A fair, chiefly for pleasure, is held annually in the village; and the want of easier means of communication with the market-town and other places, which was previously severely felt, was recently supplied by the erection of a good bridge over the river Whiteadder, for which purpose a grant from the county of £500, and a subscription of £1500 from the gentry of the district, were obtained. The parish is in the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of John Wilkie, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £152. 18., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £24 per annum. The church, situated within the grounds of Foulden House, was erected in 1786, after the ancient church had become ruinous; it is a neat edifice, well adapted for the parish, and the interior is capable of being seated for the accommodation of the whole population. The parochial school affords a good course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £10 fees, and a house and garden. From the name of an estate in the parish, called Nunlands, it is supposed that a religious establishment once existed here, though no account of it has transpired; and there were formerly remains of an ancient fort called Foulden Castle, probably a place of retreat during the wars of the border. In the churchyard is an epitaph to the memory of some hero who appears to have distinguished himself in those predatory incursions so frequent in feudal times; it is inscribed to George Ramsay, and dated 4th January, 1592.

Foveran

FOVERAN, a parish, in the district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen, 12 miles (N. by W.) from Aberdeen; containing, with the village of Newburgh and the barony of Kuockhall, 1620 inhabitants. This place was formerly remarkable for its castle, called Foveran, as is supposed, from a sweet and powerful spring, which still flows with its ancient vigour; but every vestige of the fortress is gone. The parish is situated in the district of Formartine, stretching along the coast of the German Ocean, and is separated on the north by the burn of Tarty from the parish of Logie-Buchan, and from the sands of Forvie on the east by the river Ythan. It is about seven miles in length, from east to west, and three in breadth, from north to south, and is watered by the beautiful burn of Foveran, which turns three meal-mills, and, after forming in its pleasing course the chief ornament in the scenery, which is nearly destitute of wood, falls into the Ythau at Newburgh. Agriculture is steadily pursued; but the principal interest of the locality lies in the fishing village and maritime port of Newburgh, which see. The land is generally fertile, and distributed into many good farms, producing fine crops; the farm-houses are mostly built of stone and lime, and are commodious and well finished: within the last twenty years large tracts of barren soil have been improved, and drains and fences constructed on an extensive scale. The mailroad from Aberdeen to Peterhead intersects the parish, and has several branches, one of which, called the Fiddes road, joins the Udny turnpike-road, opening important facilities of intercourse with that part of the country: there is also a turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Methlick, at the western extremity of the parish; and another has been just completed, which is found highly beneficial, from Old Meldrum to the village of Newburgh. About twenty head of fat-cattle are shipped every week at the port, for the London market; and lime, coal, timber, bones, &c. are imported. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5713. Foveran is in the presbytery of Ellon and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £193, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £11 per annum. The church is a plain substantial edifice, built in 1794, and accommodating 700 persons; the interior contains two handsome marble monuments to the Foveran family, and another, of very superior character, designed by Bacon, to the Udny family. Excellent walls have recently been built round the churchyard, with money left for that purpose by Miss Robertson, of Foveran. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £28, with about £31 fees. There is also a school at Cultercullen, in the western quarter, with an endowment of £8 per annum, and a free house, and piece of land. Mr. Mather, a native of the parish, left a sum for the establishment of four bursaries at Marischal College, under the patronage of the minister, for boys educated in the parochial school; also money for clothing and educating twenty poor fishermen's children belonging to Newburgh, and £20 per annum to the minister or schoolmaster for lecturing once in each week to the people in the village, About half a mile north of Newburgh, are the ruins of the castle of Knockhall, built in the year 1565, and accidentally burnt in 1734; it was the seat of the family of Udny, whose ancient burial-ground, also in the neighbourhood of the village, contains the remains of an old chapel generally called Rood Church.

Fowlis.

FOWLIS.—See Lundie and Fowlis.

Fowlis Wester

FOWLIS WESTER, a parish, in the county of Perth; including the villages of Buchanty and Gilmerton, and containing 1609 inhabitants, of whom 187 are in the village of Fowlis Wester, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Crieff. The origin of the name of this place, Fowlis, or Foulis, is differently accounted for. A local tradition states that one of the earls of Strathearn, wishing for a church in the vicinity of his castle here, stood on an eminence where he had a summer seat, and resolved to erect one where the sun first shone, which was on the spot it now occupies, by him denominated Fowgnolish, "under the light." Others derive the name, but erroneously, from the ancient family of Fowlis, who are said to have held property here; they came into Scotland, from France, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore, and branches of the family separated into different parts of the country, which still retain the appellation of Fowlis. The village was once a place of considerable importance, where the steward of Strathearn held his court; and about a mile east of the church, on a part of the estate of Fowlis, was formerly a castle, the seat of the ancient earls of Strathearn, but the site of which now forms a grassy mount. Here resided Mallus, or Malise, the first earl, in the reign of Alexander I.; and his grandson, Gilbert, in the year 1200, founded the monastery of Inchaffray, near the south border of the parish. The seventh earl, named also Malise, opposing Baliol, forfeited the title; and his countess, Joanna, daughter of Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, in 1320 was engaged in a plot against Robert I., for which, according to some accounts, she was condemned to perpetual imprisonment. Mary, sister of the last-mentioned earl, was married to Sir John Moray, of Drumsargard, to whom she conveyed the lands of Abercairney, in the parish; and her son. Sir Maurice Moray, is said to have been restored to the earldom, which, however, at length became extinct on his being taken prisoner, with David II. and many other noblemen, at the battle of Durham in 1346.

The parish is six miles in extreme length and four in breadth, and contains 15,600 acres. It is situated on the north side of Strathearn, and is bounded on the north by Glen-Almond; on the south lies the parish of Madderty, on the east that of Methven, and on the west Menzie. The surface is marked by two mountain ranges, of which the northern is the highest, and forms a part of the Grampian mountains; the southern is three miles in breadth, and consists of large tracts of moss and heath, ornamented with some plantations, and interspersed with a few cottages and cultivated farms. In the south, where the surface is extremely irregular, are a number of braes, which diversify the valley lying in that direction, as well as the southern slopes of the last-named range of hills. The beautiful and meandering stream of the Almond bounds the parish for two miles; and the lands contiguous to it exhibit an assemblage of woods, hills, rocks, and cascades, with cottages, so strikingly grouped as to constitute some of the finest scenery in the county. The river Pow, rising in the mosses below Methven, runs on the south, and joins the Earn near Innerpeffray. In the west is the loch of Luag, situated in a narrow glen, from which may be seen the stupendous amphitheatre of hills around Comrie, with the famed Benvoirlich towering to the clouds.

The soil has many varieties of gravel, sand, loam, and clay, resting chiefly on rock: though tolerably fertile, it is in many places thin and dry, and where the subsoil is clay the earth is wet and cold. On the banks of the Pow the soil is alluvial, from the inundations of the river. There are 9400 acres in tillage, 6200 in pasture, and 1000 under wood: all kinds of grain are raised, of average quality; the green crops consist of potatoes and turnips, and are produced to a large extent, with considerable quantities of hay. The cattle are the Fife, the Ayrshire, and the Teeswater; and very superior horses of the Clydesdale breed, the Garron, and the Cleveland bay, are reared in the parish. A highly-improved system of husbandry is followed, and great advances have been made in every branch of agriculture; but, though most of the arable land is inclosed with stone dykes and with hedges, much still remains to be done in this respect, and the more effectual embankment of the river Pow is required for protection in the rainy season. The rocks chiefly belong to the transition formation: the hills consist of mica-slate, with occasional beds of quartz and hornblende, and a coarse red conglomerate composed principally of hornblende porphyry, which sometimes has the appearance of common greywacke; the slate dips at the angle of 45° towards the north. In the lower part of the parish are several extensive beds of grey sandstone in thick strata, which, instead of being vertical, like the slate, are nearly horizontal: trap dykes also occur. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,700.

The chief mansion is the House of Abercairney, an elegant modern edifice in the form of an ancient cathedral: the House of Cultoquhey is also a substantial and commodious residence, built from a design by Smirke, in the style of the Elizabethan age. The village of Fowlis is very ancient, and still admits of great improvements, though some have recently taken place in the construction and slating of the houses. The lands of Lacock, adjoining Fowlis, form a burgh of barony, with the privilege of a weekly market and two annual fairs, none of which, however, have been lately held. St. Methvanmas' fair is held at Fowlis on the 6th of November, for the sale of black-cattle and for hiring servants; it was anciently the parish festival, instituted in honour of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. The weaving of cotton is carried on to some extent in the parish, the raw material being obtained from Glasgow: the manufacture of sieves, also, has employed several families for some generations, to supply the Perth and Fife markets, where the articles meet with a ready sale at good prices. There is a fishery on the Almond for salmon and whitetrout, which are taken at a cascade, below which a basket is suspended to receive the fish, that fall into it in attempting to overleap the cascade in their passage up the river. The turnpike-road from Perth to Crieff passes through the parish; and there are several other roads, all of which are kept in good order. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, William Moray Stirling, Esq., of Abercairney. The stipend of the minister is £225, with a good manse and offices, and a glebe of seven acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church, a very ancient edifice, accommodates 800 persons with sittings. There is a parochial school, in which the usual branches of education are taught; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and about £25 in fees. In the village of Fowlis is an old Calvary cross, on one side of which is a representation of a wolf-chase; and in the parish are several Druidical temples, one of them supposed to have been the temple of an Arch-Druid, and consisting of a double concentric circle of forty stones in its outer precinct.

Fraserburgh

FRASERBURGH, a burgh of regality and a parish, in the district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 42 miles (N. by E.) from Aberdeen, and 149 (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing 3615 inhabitants, of whom 326 are in the village of Broadsea. This place, anciently called Faithly, was once the property of Sir Alexander Fraser, on whose lands a town was built, for which he obtained a charter from James VI., erecting it into a burgh of regality named, in compliment to its superior, Fraserburgh, by which appellation, also, the parish has since been designated. Sir Alexander, by marriage with the daughter of George, the seventh baron Saltoun, succeeded to the title as tenth baron; and his descendant, the present Lord Saltoun, who is also hereditary provost of the burgh, is principal proprietor of the parish. The town, which is situated on the south side of Kinnaird Head, a bold promontory projecting into the German Ocean, near the entrance of the Moray Frith, consists of several spacious and well-formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles. The houses are substantially built, and generally of handsome appearance, and many of the more modern class are spacious; the streets are well paved, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water. The cross, erected by Sir Alexander Fraser, in the centre of the town, is an elegant hexagonal structure of nine receding stages, diminishing from an area of 500 feet at the base to twenty-three feet on the platform, from which rises a pillar, twelve feet high, ornamented with the bearings of the Frasers, surmounted by the British arms.


Burgh Seal.

The principal trade carried on arises from the exportation of grain, other agricultural produce, and fish; and the importation of timber, coal, lime, bricks, tiles, salt, and various kinds of goods for the supply of the shops in the town. The quantity of grain exported averages 20,000 quarters, and of potatoes 15,000 bolls annually; of fish, about 50,000 barrels of herrings, and dried and pickled cod to the amount of £6000; the whole affording employment to many persons: and the harbour dues, originally not exceeding £70, have since the improvement of the harbour increased to £1900 per annum. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port, which is a creek to that of Banff, is twenty-two, varying from forty-five to 260 tons' burthen; and about 280 boats are engaged in the herring-fishery, which is carried on with spirit, and, during its continuance, makes an increase of 2000 persons in the population of the parish. The harbour, situated at the north-eastern extremity of the bay of Fraserburgh, is easy of access, and has a depth of six feet at low water, and of twenty feet at spring tides; it is about eight acres in extent, and affords ample security to vessels at all times. It has been greatly improved by the construction of additional piers, and the erection of a lighthouse on Kinnaird Head, the whole at an expense of £50,000, of which part was paid by government, and the remainder by Lord Saltoun, and by subscription of the inhabitants. Other improvements are at present contemplated. The bay, which is about three miles in length, forms an excellent roadstead, where numerous ships of any burthen may lie at anchor, and is consequently much resorted to by vessels of every description, in adverse weather. The manufacture of rope and sails, the spinning of linenyarn, and some other works connected with the shipping, are also carried on, to a moderate extent. The town was erected into a burgh of regality in 1613, and the government is vested in an hereditary provost, by whom are appointed two bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and thirteen councillors. The lessees of lands within the burgh are burgesses, and are bound to maintain the public works of the town, for which purpose they possess the market customs and tolls, and, in lieu of certain privileges over commons, have lands producing a rent of £160 per annum. The bailies hold courts within the burgh for actions of debt, and for the trial of petty offences. The town-hall was built by Sir Alexander Fraser, as well as a small gaol, now in a ruinous state, and unfit for the detention of prisoners. As many as three branch banks, and a savings' bank, have been established; the post-office has a daily delivery, and facility of communication with Aberdeen, Peterhead, Banff, Strichen, and other places is maintained by good roads.

The parish, which is bounded on the north by the Moray Frith, and on the east by the bay of Fraserburgh, is about eight miles in length, and three and a half in average breadth, but is divided into two nearly equal parts by an intervening portion of the parish of Rathen, more than a mile in breadth: it contains 11,000 acres, of which, with the exception of about eighty acres, the whole is arable. The surface near the eastern coast is low and sandy, and towards the north flat and rocky, with the exception of the lofty promontory of Kinnaird Head: from the shore the land rises gradually to the interior, and to the south are several hills, of which that of Mormond, covered with moss and heath, has an elevation of 810 feet above the level of the sea. The river Philorth, which has its source in the higher districts, and receives in its way some tributary streams, forms a boundary between this parish and Rathen, and falls into the bay of Fraserburgh. The soil in some parts is sandy and light, and in others clay, and loam alternated with gravel, and interspersed with moorland and moss; the crops are, grain of all kinds, with beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry has greatly improved; the farms vary from fifty to 300 acres in extent; the lands are partly inclosed and under good cultivation, and shell-sand, sea-weed, and bone-dust are the chief manures. The cattle are of the native breed, intermixed with various others, and recently some of the Teeswater have been introduced: large numbers are shipped from the port to the London market, where they obtain a high price. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,145.

There are some remains of aged natural wood in the grounds of Philorth House; and from numerous trunks of trees buried in the moss, it would appear that the district was anciently well wooded: plantations have been recently formed around the house of Philorth, and on several lands previously unproductive. The principal substrata are, limestone, which is quarried for building purposes and for manure, and granite, which is found in great quantity in the upper districts of the parish; ironstone, also, occurs among the rocks, and apparently of good quality, but from the scarcity of fuel it is not wrought. Philorth House, the seat of Lord Saltoun, the only mansion of any importance, is pleasantly situated at a short distance from the bay, and on the west bank of the river Philorth, in grounds tastefully laid out. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £219, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, Lord Saltoun. The church, in the centre of the town, is a substantial structure built in 1802, and contains 1000 seats; a tower and spire were afterwards added, at an expense of £300, raised by subscription. There are places of worship for Independents, the Free Church, and Episcopalians. The parochial school is attended by 100 children, of whom thirty are girls; the master has a salary of £29. 18. 10., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £50 per annum; he receives also a share of Dick's bequest. There are some vestiges of ancient religious houses, one of which, called the College, is said to have been connected with the abbey of Deer; and at the west end of the town, are the remains of a spacious quadrangular building erected in 1592, by Sir Alexander Fraser, who obtained a charter for the foundation of a college, but which was not carried into effect. On Kinnaird Head are the ruins of a tower called the Wine Tower, under which is a cavern, penetrating for more than 100 feet into the rock: there are also some ruins of Danish camps and Pictish houses in the parish.

Freswick

FRESWICK, a township, in the parish of Canisbay, county of Caithness; containing 414 inhabitants. This place is situated in the eastern part of the parish, where the coast is washed by the North Sea, and indented by Freswick bay; the beach here is composed of sand and a mixture of sandstone and shells, and at a short distance southward is the promontory of Freswick point. The lands are the property of the Sinclair family, who are proprietors of the greater portion of the parish, and to whom belongs Freswick House, an ancient mansion, not inhabited for many years, and now in an almost ruinous state. The burn of Freswick, which is the chief stream, pursues an easterly course of a few miles, and discharges itself into the bay. Here are the ruins of an edifice called Bucholie Castle, which appears to be of great antiquity; and there was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Maddan, but scarcely a vestige now remains.

Freuchie

FREUCHIE, a village, in the parish of Falkland, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Falkland; containing 713 inhabitants. It lies near the eastern boundary of the parish, on the road from Falkland to Pitlessie, and has the small hamlet of Little Freuchie on the west. The village is of some antiquity, and is said to have been in former times a place of exile for courtiers who had incurred the royal displeasure; it suffered much from the depredations of Rob Roy's garrison at. Falkland, in 1716. It is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in hand-loom weaving. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession; and a small school is supported by subscription.

Friarton

FRIARTON, a village, in the East parish of the city and county of Perth; containing 62 inhabitants.

Friockheim

FRIOCKHEIM, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parishes of Kirkden and Inverkeillor, county of Forfar; containing 1443 inhabitants, of whom 905 are in the village of Friockheim, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Letham, and 7 (N. W. by N.) from Arbroath. This district is nearly five miles in extent, comprising about 1694 acres in tillage or pasture, 308 under plantation, and 395 in uncultivated waste; and is skirted on the whole of its northern boundary by the Lunan water, one of the finest trouting-streams in Forfarshire. The village, which is on the north-eastern limits of the district, has grown up within the last sixteen or eighteen years under the auspices of John Andson, Esq., owing chiefly to the feuing of small lots of ground, and the rapid increase of the linen manufacture in the neighbourhood. Upwards of 400 persons are now employed in flax-spinning, and the manufacture of sheetings, Osnaburghs, dowlas, and sail-cloth, which are exported principally to the American market. The houses are neatly built, and there is a spinning-mill in operation here. The turnpike-road from Arbroath to Forfar runs nearly through the centre of the district: the Arbroath and Forfar railway passes, within three minutes' walk south of the village, having an intermediate station here; and by these means there is a frequent and expeditious communication. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns: the stipend of the minister is £70, derived from seatrents and collections, with a manse; and the patronage is vested in the male communicants. The church, erected in 1835, by the presbytery, aided by the Church Extension Society, is a neat edifice, and, from its recent enlargement, contains 600 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which the usual branches of education are taught, and which is capable of accommodating about 140 scholars; and a parochial library has been instituted by the Kirk Session.

Fuday

FUDAY, an island, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness; containing 5 inhabitants. This is a small and fertile island lying about two miles and a half northward of Barra, and affords excellent pasture: it was until lately uninhabited.

Fullarton

FULLARTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Dundonald, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 6½ miles (W.) from Kilmarnock; containing 3103 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the southwestern bank of the river Irvine, derives its name from its ancient proprietors, the Fullartons, by one of whom a convent was founded in 1240, on the site of the present town, and amply endowed for friars of the Carmelite order. The establishment continued to flourish till the Reformation, when it was suppressed; and while laying out the lands in allotments for the erection of the town, vestiges of the ancient building, consisting of the foundations of its walls, were discovered near the mansion-house of the founder. The town, which forms a populous suburb to the burgh of Irvine, on the opposite bank of the river, is well built, and consists chiefly of two streets, one being in a line with the main street of Irvine, with which it is connected by a handsome bridge: several smaller streets diverge in various directions. Its situation on the shore of the harbour of Irvine gives to the place a very interesting appearance, which is much heightened by the beauty of the surrounding scenery, and the numerous pleasing villas in the immediate vicinity.

A public library is supported by subscription; and the inhabitants are partly employed in hand-loom weaving for the manufacturers of Ayr and Glasgow, and in the various handicraft trades connected with the wants of the neighbourhood. In 1707, William Fullarton, Esq., the superior, obtained for the inhabitants a charter erecting the town into a burgh of barony, with the privilege of two annual fairs; but, from the proximity of Irvine, the charter does not appear to have been carried into effect. The district of Fullarton was separated for ecclesiastical purposes from the parish, by act of the General Assembly, in 1838, and, with a part of the estate of Shewalton, erected into a quoad sacra parish, since abolished. The church, erected in that year, is a handsome substantial structure, built by subscription, and containing 900 sittings: the minister, who is chosen by a committee of subscribers and the male communicants, has a stipend of £88, derived from the seat-rents and collections, and guaranteed by bond. A school in connexion with the Established Church is supported by the General Assembly, who allow the master a salary of £15, in addition to the fees; and a schoolhouse for 300 children has been erected at an expense of £500, obtained from the trustees of Dr. Bell's bequest for educational purposes.

Fungarth

FUNGARTH, a hamlet, in the parish of Caputh, county of Perth; containing 76 inhabitants.

Fyvie

FYVIE, a parish, in the district of Turriff, county of Aberdeen, 7½ miles (S. S. W.) from Cuminestown; containing 3597 inhabitants. This place, of which the ancient name, Fycyn, is of doubtful etymology, is chiefly distinguished for its castle, of which the original founder is unknown, but which, in 1296, was visited by Edward I. of England, in his progress through the kingdom of Scotland. This castle, which appears to have been of considerable strength, was in 1395 in the possession of Sir James Lindesay, during whose absence it was valiantly defended by his lady against Robert, son of the Earl-Marischal Keith, till the return of Sir James, who compelled the assailants to raise the siege. In 1644, it was held for some time by the Marquess of Montrose against the army of the Earl of Argyll; but the marquess, not thinking it secure from the superior forces of his adversary, retired to an eminence in the vicinity, in which he intrenched himself till his retreat to Strathbogie. From certain records still preserved in the castle, there seems to have been a town at this place, which had the liberties of a royal burgh, under Reginald le Cheyne, in 1250, and subsequently became a burgh of barony under the Fyvie family, as superiors, but of which not. even the site can now be traced. A charter is extant, granting to Alexander, third earl of Dunfermline, in 1673, the privilege of a weekly market and three annual fairs in the manor of Fyvie, and confirming to him and to his successors all the rights of a free burgh of barony. Two of these fairs are still held in the parish, one on Eastern's Even (Shrove Tuesday); but the market-cross, and every other vestige of the burgh, long since disappeared.

The parish, which is about thirteen miles in extreme length, and nearly eight miles in extreme breadth, comprises an area of 27,034 acres, of which 15,950 are arable, 2500 meadow and pasture, 1735 woodland and plantations, and the remainder heathy moorland and moss. The surface is pleasingly diversified with hills of moderate height, of which the most conspicuous is that of Eastertown, towards the south, forming a part of the Bethelnie range, in the adjoining parish of Meldrum. The river Ythan, which has its source in the parish of Forgue, about eleven miles to the west, takes its course through this parish, which it divides into two nearly equal parts, and, after enlivening the grounds of Fyvie Castle, runs eastward, and falls into the sea at Newburgh, in the parish of Foveran. The soil along the banks of the river, and in the plain near the castle, is a rich fertile loam, producing early crops; in the level lands it is generally a loam, resting on a substratum of gravel; and in the northern part are large tracts of moor and moss. The crops are, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with a few tares and peas, and a little flax. The system of husbandry is improved; the farm-buildings are substantial, and on the various farms are not less than eighty threshing-mills, of which forty-five are driven by water, and the remainder by horses. The cattle are of the old Aberdeenshire breed, with not a few of a cross with the Teeswater; about 5000 head of cattle are annually reared in the pastures, and 1600 sheep. A considerable number of pigs are reared, and sent to the London market; while the produce of the dairy-farms is also very great. The plantations, which are extensive and well managed, consist of fir, interspersed with the most usual forest-trees, all of which are in a thriving condition; the principal ancient woods are on the lands of Fyvie Castle, in which are many trees of stately growth. The chief substrata are whinstone and sandstone; but, from the great dip of the beds, the quarries are difficult to work, and few blocks have been raised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,224.

Fyvie Castle is an ancient and venerable structure, built at various periods with a due regard to the preservation of the original style. It is beautifully situated on the east bank of the Ythan, in a park surrounded with richly-wooded heights; and consists of two sides of a quadrangle, of which that on the south-east, called the Preston tower, is supposed to have been erected about the year 1400. In the south wing is the Seton tower, of which the old iron gate is yet remaining; and over the gateway are the armorial bearings of the Seton family, sculptured on a tablet of freestone. To the south-west is the Meldrum tower; and at the northern extremity of the western wing, is the tower erected by the late Hon. General Gordon, on the site of the ancient chapel, which had fallen into ruin. The whole of the castle and the grounds have been recently much improved. Rothie House is a handsome modern mansion, built by the late owner, and is situated on an eminence overlooking a pleasing valley, and surrounded by a demesne which has been laid out with great taste, and embellished with thriving plantations by the present proprietor. Kinbroom House, about a mile to the west of Rothie, is also a pleasant residence, commanding a fine view. Gight Castle, a beautifully picturesque ruin, on the north bank of the Ythan, and now the property of the Earl of Aberdeen, was anciently the seat of the Gordons, maternal ancestors of the late Lord Byron. There is no village properly so called in the parish; but near the church are a few neat cottages, to which gardens are attached, and about a quarter of a mile distant is a post-office, on the turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Banff. Fairs are held on the manor of Fyvie, on Fastern's E'en, in February, for the sale of horses; and in July, on the day before Strichen fair, for cattle and for hiring servants.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £224, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10. per annum; patron, William Gordon, Esq., of Fyvie. The church, erected in 1808, is a spacious plain edifice, containing 1114 sittings: in the churchyard is the burying-place of the Gordons, of Gight, which was originally within the ancient church. A chapel, in which a missionary officiates, has been erected at Millbrex, in the northern district of the parish, at a cost of £600, towards which the Earl of Aberdeen gave £100 and the site for the building, the Church Extension Committee of the General Assembly £70, and the remainder was raised by subscription of the parishioners of Fyvie and Monquhitter, for whose accommodation it was built. It is a neat structure containing 500 sittings; and the minister has a stipend of £60, of which £20 are paid from the Royal Bounty, and the remainder derived from the seat-rents, with a manse, and a small glebe. There are two episcopal chapels, one at Woodhead, and the other at Meiklefolla; and the members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees, &c., average £30 per annum. A priory was founded here by Fergus, Earl of Buchan, in 1179, and endowed with the lands of Ardlogy and Leuchendy by Reginald Le Cheyne, in 1285; it afterwards became subordinate to the abbey of Aberbrothock. The buildings, which were situated on the Ythan, about a mile below the castle, long since disappeared, with the exception of some faint vestiges of the chapel, which may still be traced in a field near the church. There are also remains of the intrenchments thrown up by the Marquess of Montrose and the Earl of Argyll during the civil war.