G'Aasker Isle - Glasford

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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458-478

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'G'Aasker Isle - Glasford', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 458-478. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43442 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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G'aasker Isle

G'AASKER ISLE, in the parish of Harris, county of Inverness. This is a large, green, but uninhabited island of the Hebrides, lying about four leagues north-west from Taransay. The name is derived from the Gaelic, signifying "the rock of geese," from the circumstance of its being frequented by countless numbers of wild-geese.

Gadgirth-Holm

GADGIRTH-HOLM, with Bankfoot, a hamlet, in the parish of Coylton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 77 inhabitants. It is seated on the south side of the river Ayr, and consists simply of a group of cottages. Gadgirth House is a plain modern mansion, of an oblong form, standing on the bank of the Ayr, and forming the centre of a beautiful and interesting landscape.

Gairloch

GAIRLOCH, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 60 miles (W. by N.) from Dingwall; including the islands of Horisdale and Longo, the late quoad sacra district of Poolewe, and part of that of Shieldag; and containing 4880 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a salt-water lake called Gairloch, from the Gaelic word gearr, signifying "short." It is not remarkable for any important historical events; but some antiquities in the parish indicate the settlement and military operations of the Danes, and the celebrated Loch Maree has an island in its centre, the tombstones and hieroglyphical figures on which support the current tradition that it was the sepulchre of Danish kings. The parish is forty miles long, and thirty broad, at its extreme points. It is bounded on the north by the river Gruinard, by which it is separated from Lochbroom parish; on the south by an arm of the sea; by a chain of hills on the east; and on the west by the Minch, which divides Lewis from the main land. The general aspect of the surface is hilly; and in some parts the elevations are of unusual height, supplying grand and romantic scenery. The beautiful inland water of Loch Maree, eighteen miles long, with its thickly-wooded islands, twenty-four in number, is one of the most striking features in the parish, and has long been the admiration of the traveller, not only from its own attractions, but also on account of the imposing mountain scenery by which it is encompassed. A lofty range, commencing on each side of it, runs to a distance of four miles beyond its extremity, presenting in the group the majestic Slioch, or Sliabhach, towering 3000 feet above the level of the sea. The loch is of the average breadth of one mile and a half; it is about sixty fathoms deep, and was never known to freeze. Among its islands is that of Maree, where St. Maree, one of St. Columba's followers, resided, and where is a consecrated well, with a burying-ground supposed by some to be dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and by others, as already stated, to have been the sepulchre of Danish kings. The only river of note is the Ewe, which issues from Loch Maree, and, after running a mile north-westward, joins the estuary called Loch Ewe; it abounds with salmon of the finest quality, and its fame draws the lovers of angling, during the season, from all quarters. There are two salt-water lakes, Gairloch and Loch Ewe, the latter nine or ten miles long. The climate of the parish, though mild, is very rainy, occasioned partly by the prevalence of south-west winds, and partly by the mountainous character of the country.

Arable land lets only at from 10s. to £1 per acre, and there is much room for agricultural improvement: the more respectable families have large sheep-farms, but the lots of ground of the poorer inhabitants do not generally exceed one or two acres. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4810. Towards the sea-coast is a belt of red sandstone of the old formation, forming low barren headlands; to this succeeds, at the head of Loch Gairloch, micaceous schist, and five miles farther eastward the sandstone again appears, in mountain ridges and eminences, some of them 3000 feet high, characterised by a rude grandeur seldom equalled. At the head of Loch Maree, quartz succeeds the sandstone; and on the estate of Letterewe, near the loch, a century and a half ago, some veins of iron-ore were wrought for several years; but the wood in the neighbourhood, used for fuel, failing, the labourers were compelled to give up the work. The ruins of two of the furnaces employed in the operations are still to be seen. A cattle-market is held in July, and cattle are also sent to Beauly; herrings and cod are forwarded to Glasgow, wool to Liverpool and Inverness, and salmon to London. The houses, generally speaking, are of the humblest description, and the people are employed about equally between agriculture and fishing: they mostly reside in irregular hamlets, or clusters of cottages; and some of them manufacture a stout woollen-cloth and coarse stockings, but chiefly for private wear, a small quantity only of either being sent to market. The mail from Dingwall to Stornoway runs through the parish twice a week, but the roads are in bad condition: indeed, with the exception of ten miles of road in the centre of the parish, and ten miles leading to the eastern extremity of Loch Maree, they are little more than footpaths. There are four vessels belonging to the several ports, of about thirty-five tons' burthen each. Flowerdale, an old chateau, in a vale of great beauty, is a seat of Sir Francis Mackenzie; around it are some large forest-trees. The ecclesiastical affairs are governed by the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg: the patronage is vested in the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £217, with a manse, erected in 1805, and enlarged in 1823, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, built in 1791, and repaired in 1834, accommodates 385 persons with sittings. There is a parochial school, in which English, Gaelic, Greek, Latin, and mathematics are taught, with the ordinary branches of education; the master's salary is £30, with a house, and about £4 fees. Another school is supported by the Gaelic School Society. The ordinary language spoken is Gaelic; and William Ross, a respectable poet, who was born in the parish, and died here about forty-five years since, wrote in this tongue. The foundations of one or two small forts can be traced near the sea-shore; and at Cairnfield are those of a large building, supposed by some to have been a Culdee religious house.

Gairney-Bridge

GAIRNEY-BRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Cleish, county of Kinross, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Kinross; containing 50 inhabitants. This village takes its name from its situation near a bridge over the river Gairney, a stream which rises among the Cleish hills, and discharges itself into Loch Leven, half a mile south of Kinross. There is a Sabbath school, in which are about 130 children. Michael Bruce once taught a school here.

Gairsay

GAIRSAY, an island, in the parish of Evie and Rendall, county of Orkney; containing 71 inhabitants. This is an isle of the Orkney group, about four miles in circuit, and separated by a strait from Rendall. It consists chiefly of a conical hill of considerable altitude; the whole of the west side is pretty steep, but towards the east it is more level and fertile, and in this quarter, and in the south, the lands are tolerably well cultivated. Here is a small harbour called the Mill-Burn, perfectly secured on all sides by the island itself, and by a holm, which covers the entrance to the south, leaving a passage on each side of it to the anchoring ground.

Galashiels

GALASHIELS, a manufacturing town, burgh of barony, and parish, partly in the district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh, and partly in the county of Selkirk, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Selkirk, and 32 (S. S. E.) from Edinburgh; containing 2140 inhabitants, exclusively of 2396 in the parish of Melrose, into which the town extends. This place, which is of remote antiquity, derives its name, signifying in the British language "a full stream," from its situation on the river Gala, by which, from the rapidity and violence of its current, the town was formerly subject to frequent and disastrous inundations. In the reign of David II., the Scottish army was quartered in the immediate neighbourhood, after the battle of Crichtondean, in which the English, being taken by surprise, had been defeated, and compelled to cross the Tweed near the town. About a mile distant, on the road to Abbots ford, is a tract formerly a marsh, but now in a state of cultivation, where, in a skirmish, some of the English forces were slain, and in which, while draining the land, were found several implements of war. In 1599, the place was erected into a burgh of barony; and in 1622, from a report of the lords commissioners, it appears that it had become of some importance, and contained not less than 400 inhabitants. The town is pleasantly situated on the river Gala, which pursues its course in a direction from north-west to south-east, and is spanned by four bridges. It is of very pleasing appearance, consisting chiefly of houses built within the last fifty years in a neat and handsome style; the streets are well laid out, and partially lighted, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A public library, supported by subscription, has a collection of more than 5000 volumes of general literature; and there are public reading and news rooms, well supplied with newspapers; also a good circulating library, and libraries attached to some of the places of worship.

The principal trade carried on here, and to which the town owes its importance, is the woollen manufacture, which has been gradually brought to a very high state of perfection: the articles produced are, narrow fancy cloths of various quality, known in the market as "tweeds," 6/4 Saxony-wool tartan, shawls, and plaids. The narrow cloths vary in price from twenty to eighty pence per yard, the 6/4 tartan cloak ings from two to nine shillings per yard, and the shawls, which are in high esteem for their texture and for the richness and variety of their colours, from three to thirty shillings each. There are eleven factories in the town, and a twelfth is about to be erected; they are all dependent on water-power, except two, which have the aid of steam, and the spindles now number 17,000, and the looms 563, affording together employment to 1400 persons. The quantity of wool annually used is estimated at fully 1,000,000 lb., value £80,000, principally from Australasia, Germany, and other foreign countries, the use of wool of home growth being nearly superseded: the yearly value of finished goods is £200,000. The great increase of the trade of Galashiels may be understood from the statement of the fact that, seventy years ago, only 722 stone of wool were used by the clothiers, and scarcely as much more could be manufactured by private persons. In the year 1790, it appears that 243 packs of wool, each pack containing twelve stone of twenty-four lb., were purchased by the manufacturers; besides which, they received from different quarters wool, yarn, and weaved cloth, to a considerable amount, to be dyed and dressed. At that period, about 250 women were constantly engaged in spinning wool; there were also occasional spinners; and three machines, having each thirty or thirty-six spindles, were employed two or three days in the week: the number of looms was only forty-three. Hosiery is made to a small extent; there are likewise a tannery, two skinneries, several forges for the manufacture of machinery required for the factories, and a thriving brewery. Three banks have branches in the town. The market, held on Monday, was formerly of considerable note, but has now unaccountably fallen into disuse, and the fairs are but very indifferently attended. The post-office has a tolerable delivery; and facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by excellent roads in every direction, of which the new road from Carlisle passes through the town. Two bridges have been erected in the parish, over the rivers Tweed and Ettrick; there are also a suspension-bridge upon a highly ingenious principle, and other bridges for foot passengers across the various streams. The burgh is governed by a bailie, appointed by the chief lord; but, though he has the jurisdiction common to burghs of barony, he holds no courts either for civil or criminal cases, and the police of the town is managed by constables, who are paid by the two counties in which Galashiels is situated.

The parish, which includes the old parishes of Galashiels and Lindean, is nearly eight miles in length, and about three miles in average breadth; and is bounded by the rivers Tweed, Ettrick, and Gala, the first of which also flows through the parish, between banks richly clothed with wood, and displaying much beautiful scenery. It comprises more than 10,000 acres, of which about one-half are arable, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill-pasture and waste. The surface is diversified with hills and narrow winding glens, and some of the former have a considerable elevation, the highest being the Meigle, which commands the town, and is nearly 1500 feet above the level of the sea: the loftier grounds embrace interesting views of the adjacent country, enlivened by the rivers. The Gala was formerly subject to great inundations, but, from the deepening of its channel, has been rendered less impetuous in its course, and much less destructive of the lands than previously. The chief lake within the parish is Loch Cauldshiels, which is about a mile and a half in circumference, and of great depth; it was adorned on one side, by the late Sir Walter Scott, with beautiful plantations. A smaller lake, about twelve acres in extent, was formerly drained in the hope of finding marl, but afterwards, on the failure of the attempt, suffered to resume its ancient waters; it has plenty of eels, but is perfectly destitute of any ornamental features. The rivers abound with salmon, and trout of very large size are frequently found in them; the fishery on the Tweed has been recently placed under more salutary regulations, and at present does not commence till the middle of February.

The soil is various; in some places a rich black loam, in others a stiff retentive clay, and on the banks of the rivers of a very sandy quality. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is advanced, and the four and five shift courses of husbandry are prevalent. The lands have mostly been well drained, and inclosed partly with stone dykes and partly with thorn hedges, and bone-dust has been partially introduced as manure; the farm-houses and offices are commodiously arranged, and all the more recent improvements have been generally adopted. Great attention is paid to live stock; the cattle are of a good kind, and the sheep of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9649, including £2215 for the Roxburghshire portion. The plantations are Scotch and spruce firs, intermixed with larch, oak, ash, elm, beech, and sycamore; they are well managed, and in a very thriving condition. The substrata are, greywacke, clay-slate, and ironstone, but no quarries have been opened: an attempt has been made to find coal, but hitherto without success, and nothing more than a black shale, quite destitute of any bituminous quality, has been discovered. The seats are, Gala House, a handsome mansion in a well-planted demesne, ornamented with some ancient trees of stately growth; and Faldonside. The parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of Hugh Scott, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £211. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £28 per annum. The church, erected in 1813, is a good structure in the later English style of architecture, with a square embattled tower, and is adapted for a congregation of 1000 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Associate Synod, the Relief Church, Baptists, and Independents. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction, and is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £70 fees, a house and garden, and the privilege of taking boarders. There are also two schools in the rural districts; the master of one has a salary of £8, and of the other £5, in addition to the fees. A Bible and missionary society is supported by subscription; and there is a small but wellassorted library, in connexion with the Sabbath schools. A friendly society, which has been established here for the last twenty years, and a savings' bank, in which the amount of deposits exceeds £700, have contributed to reduce the number of claims upon the parochial funds. Vestiges of two encampments, both supposed to be of Roman origin, may be traced on the lands of Faldonside, and also on the estate of Fairnilee; and there are still some remains of the ancient Roman road in the parish. Nothing is left of the church at Lindean, which had been abandoned, on account of extreme dilapidation, nearly forty years before the two parishes were united.

Galdry

GALDRY, a village, in the parish of Balmerino, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. W.) from Newport; containing 355 inhabitants. In the parish are two ridges, and nearly in the centre of the southern ridge is a large extent of high table-land, in which this village is placed; it is seated on the road from Newburgh to Newport.

Gallatown

GALLATOWN, a village, in the parish of Dysart, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 1 mile (N. N. W.) from Dysart; containing 1198 inhabitants. This village is supposed to have derived its name from the circumstance of the land on which part of it is built having anciently been a place for the execution of criminals. It is on the road from Dysart to Falkland, is of considerable extent, and divided into two portions called East and West Gallatown. The inhabitants were formerly engaged in the manufacture of nails, which was largely established here: since the decline of that trade, the population have found ample employment in the weaving of checks and ticking, in agriculture, and in the mines and quarries in the neighbourhood.

Galloway, New

GALLOWAY, NEW, a royal burgh, in the parish of Kells, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 19 miles (N. by W.) from Kirkcudbright, and 25 (W.) from Dumfries; containing 403 inhabitants. This place, which is of no very great antiquity, is situated on the west bank of the river Ken, over which is a handsome bridge of granite, comprising five arches, whereof the central arch has a span of ninety feet. The town consists chiefly of one main street, from which diverge two smaller streets, extending along the roads from Kirkcudbright to Newton-Stewart and to Dumfries. The houses are but of indifferent appearance, and the inhabitants are mostly occupied in the various handicraft trades requisite for the accommodation of the neighbourhood; there are several shops, and three good inns. The post-office has a daily delivery; a branch of the Edinburgh and Glasgow bank has been established, and facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-roads, and others which are kept in good repair. Four fairs of some importance were formerly held here, and those in April, Midsummer, and at Hallowtide are still tolerably attended, but chiefly for hiring servants. The inhabitants received a charter from Charles I. dated 15th January, 1629, by which all the privileges of a royal burgh were conferred on the town, and the government was vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve common-councilmen; but in 1708, by an act of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the corporation was made to consist of a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and council of fifteen. The provost and other officers of the burgh are all resident; and courts are held by the sheriff and justices of peace on the first Monday in every month. The townhall, attached to which is a gaol for debtors and criminals, is situated in the main street, and has a steeple with a clock. The burgh is joined with those of Wigton, Stranraer, and Whithorn, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the constituency, however, does not exceed seventeen.


Burgh Seal.

Gallowlaw

GALLOWLAW, a hamlet, in the parish of Panbride, county of Forfar; containing 79 inhabitants. It is one of several hamlets, or groups of cottages, in the parish.

Galston

GALSTON, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Kilmarnock; containing, with the village of Greenholme, 4334 inhabitants. This parish, which is fancifully supposed to have derived its name from the temporary settlement of a number of Gauls, is thirteen miles in length, and from four to five miles broad; and comprises 14,577 acres, of which more than one-half arc arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and waste. It is bounded on the north by the river Irvine; on the east by the river Avon, dividing it from the parish of Avondale, in Lanarkshire; and on the west by the river Cessnock, which separates it from the parishes of Riccarton and Craigie. The surface is diversified with hills, of which the chief are Distincthorn and Molmont hill, the former having an elevation of 1100, and the latter of 1000, feet above the level of the sea; the scenery is pleasingly varied, and in some parts enriched with wood and flourishing plantations. There were formerly several lakes in the parish; but in the agricultural improvements that have taken place, they have been all drained and brought into cultivation, with the exception of Loch Gait, which, however, is little more than an inconsiderable tract of marsh. The soil is various; in the higher lands, a loam intermixed with sand, or with a kind of moss; and along the banks of the Irvine, a rich loam: in other parts, a variety of clay is most prevalent. The crops are, grain of different kinds, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is advanced, and much previously unproductive land has been rendered fertile by the practice of furrow-draining, which, by the liberal encouragement afforded by the proprietors, has been carried on to a very great extent. The dairy-farms are extensive and well managed, and about 210 tons of cheese are annually produced; the cows are usually of the Ayrshire breed, and considerable numbers of black-cattle are reared. The sheep are of the black-faced kind, and much attention is paid to the improvement of live stock generally. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and those of more recent erection are of superior order; the lands are enclosed, and the fences well kept up. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,448.

The woods are of oak, elm, ash, and other forest-trees; and the plantations, larch and fir, intermixed with oak, ash, and elm. The substrata are red sandstone, alternated with whinstone, coal, limestone, and ironstone: the general dip of the strata throughout is north-west. In the channel of a small burn running into the Irvine, are some beautiful pebbles peculiar to this place, called Galston pebbles; and on Molmont hill are found numerous nodules of agate and chalcedony. Coal, of which there are three seams of six feet in thickness, and one of three feet, and limestone, are both worked, but not to any great extent beyond what is requisite for the neighbourhood; and paving stone and roofing slate are quarried. There is a large work for the manufacture of draining tiles, on the estate of the Duke of Portland, as well as one situated on the lands of Mr. Brown, for the supply of the different farms; the clay is found in abundance, and of good quality. Lanfine is a handsome mansion surrounded with extensive grounds and thriving plantations; Holms, in the ancient English style, is a modern mansion of elegant design; and Cessnock, an ancient house belonging to the Duke of Portland, is an interesting structure. The village is pleasantly situated, and many of the inhabitants are engaged in weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley, and a few have introduced the weaving of fancy silks. There are four corn-mills, a mill for flax, a saw-mill, and a paper-mill. Four fairs are held annually in the village, of which those of any importance are on the third Thursday in April and the first in December. A penny post has been established here, which has a daily delivery; and facility of communication is afforded with Kilmarnock and the neighbouring towns by roads kept in excellent repair, of which the turnpike-road from Glasgow to London passes within the limits of the parish.

Galston is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of the Duke of Portland; the minister's stipend is £178. 16., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, situated in the centre of the village, is a neat and substantial edifice with a handsome spire, erected in 1808, and is adapted for a congregation of 1028 persons. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession; likewise a Free Church place of worship, just built. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with £55 fees, and a house and garden. There are two other schools, the masters of which receive an annual payment of £5. 12. from the heritors. The late Mr. Charles Blair, of Longhouse, bequeathed £4000 for the foundation and endowment of a free school in the parish, when the bequest, by the accumulation of interest, should produce £200 per annum: this has been very lately accomplished, and the establishment is now in operation. John Brown, Esq., of Waterhaughs, also bequeathed £1000, the interest of which is appropriated to the clothing and education of children of the poor. There are the remains of a very extensive Roman camp, the ramparts of which, though in some places greatly obliterated by the plough, still mark out an area of nearly 300 yards in length, and 120 yards in breadth. On this spot was found, in 1831, a silver coin with the legend Cœsar Augustus Divi F. Pater Patriæ; and to the east, in the parish of Avondale, several others were discovered, with the inscription Divus Antoninus. The vicinity of the camp was the scene of an encounter between William Wallace, who, with fifty of his men, lay concealed here, and Fenwick, an English officer, with a force of 200, whom he signally defeated. Other coins, bearing the inscriptions Alexander, David, and Edward, have also been found. On the bank of the Avon, and nearly surrounded by the river, are the remains of some earth-works called Main Castle, most probably connected with the Roman camp.

Gamrie

GAMRIE, a parish, in the county of Banff, 6½ miles (E.) from Banff; containing, with the burgh of Macduff and the villages of Crovie and Gardenstown, 4741 inhabitants, of whom 2001 are in the rural districts. The name of this place, in the Gaelic language, has reference to a memorable victory obtained here over the Danes, by the Thane of Buchan, about the commencement of the 11th century, in gratitude for which, and in fulfilment of his vow, he erected the ancient church in the year 1004, which date may be seen over one of its windows. The parish is bounded on the north by the Moray Frith; on the east by the burn of Nethermill, which separates it from the parish of Aberdour; and on the west by the river Doveran, dividing it from the parish of Banff. It is about ten miles in length, varying from three to four miles in breadth, and comprises an area of 21,500 acres, of which 10,000 are arable, 750 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, of which perhaps 4000 acres might be brought into profitable cultivation, rough pasture and waste. The surface is strikingly diversified with hills, precipitous rocks, and deep glens, most of which are covered with verdure; and is interspersed with fertile valleys and level tracts in good cultivation. The coast, which is more than ten miles in extent, is bold and rugged, and girt with an indented ledge of rocks rising precipitously to a height of 600 feet above the level of the Frith, and perforated with caverns of romantic appearance. The bay of Gamrie, in the east, is formed by two projecting headlands, of which one is called Gamrie Head, and the other, and the more prominent, is Troup Head, near the eastern extremity of the parish; westward are Melrose Head and the Coley rock, near the harbour of Macduff, in the bay of Banff. The rocks on the coast are frequented by multitudes of sea-fowl of almost every variety, of which the most numerous are the kittywake, the razor-bill, the guillemot, and the puffin, each selecting its peculiar ledge for the purpose of incubation. Haddocks, ling, cod, and herrings, with various kinds of flat and shell fish, are taken in abundance, yielding annually on an average a return of more than £13,000. The river Doveran, which abounds with salmon, and on which is a fishery belonging to the Earl of Fife, producing a rent of £2000, flows along the border of the parish into the bay of that name: the burn of Nethermill and the Logie, of which the former joins the sea at Nethermill, and the latter, after a circuitous course, falls into the Doveran, are the only rivulets of importance.

The soil, which is extremely various in different parts of the parish, has been greatly improved by the use of lime brought from England, and of bone-dust, as manure; and the system of husbandry has been gradually advancing. The chief crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; bear is raised on some farms, but wheat, beans, and peas, are very rarely attempted. Large quantities of grain are annually sent to the London markets, and barley and bear are sold to the breweries and distilleries in the adjacent districts. The cattle, of which considerable numbers are shipped from the ports in the parish, are generally of the Aberdeenshire, with some of the short-horned breed: the sheep, of which but few comparatively are pastured, are partly of the Cheviot, and partly of the Leicestershire breed. The rateable annual value of Gamrie is £8231. There are some luxuriant belts of natural wood in the western portion of the parish; and very extensive plantations have been formed in the Tore of Troup, which, together with those around Troup House, extend over more than 700 acres, consisting chiefly of beech and Scotch fir, with larch, the last now becoming more prevalent. The rocks are principally composed of greywacke, primary slate, and granite; and the substrata comprise red sandstone and conglomerate: the greywacke is occasionally quarried for building, and the slate was formerly wrought for roofing, but has been superseded by that obtained from Foudland and Easdale. Troup House is a spacious mansion, built in 1772, and commanding an extensive view of the sea; the demesne is tastefully laid out, and embellished with natural wood and thriving plantations. It was suffered to fall into neglect during the minority of the present proprietor, who built for his residence a picturesque Norwegian cottage at Torewood. There is a small hamlet called Longman, commenced by the late Earl of Fife, who allotted, in small portions, some waste land on the hill of Longman, on the road from Peterhead to Banff. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road to Banff, and by various other good roads which intersect the parish; a messenger delivers letters on alternate days from Banff and Fraserburgh, and application has been made for establishing an office at Dubford, in the parish, where cross roads branch off in all directions.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £224. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, the Crown. The present church, erected in 1830, and situated in a central part of the parish, is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains 1000 sittings. A chapel of ease in connexion with the Established Church was erected and endowed by the late Earl of Fife, at Macduff, to which a district of the parish was attached by the presbytery, towards the close of the last century. The parochial schools of Gamrie and Macduff are both well attended: the master of each has a salary of £25. 13., with a house and garden, and a portion of Dick's bequest; the fees of the former average £25, and of the latter, £50. A school-house, also, has been erected at Longman by the Earl of Fife. The only striking remains of antiquity are the ruins of the old church, built in 1004, and in the thick walls of which were imbedded the skulls of three Danes who fell in the battle previously noticed, of which one is preserved in the museum of the literary institution at Banff. Some remains of the Danish camp near Gamrie Head, have, from the slaughter that took place there, obtained the appellation of Bloody Pits; and there is also an ancient ruin on the farm of Pitgair, called Wallace's Castle, but of which the history is unknown.

Gardenstown

GARDENSTOWN, a fishing village, in the parish of Gamrie, county of Banff, 7 miles (E.) from Banff; containing 348 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the eastern shore of Gamrie bay, appears to have been originally built about the year 1720, by Alexander Garden, Esq., of Troup, from whom it takes its name, and whose descendant is the present proprietor. The village is neatly built at the head of the bay; and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the fisheries off this part of the coast. The fish taken here are, cod, ling, haddocks, whitings, and various kinds of shell-fish, in which about twenty-five boats are generally engaged; and during the season, thirty-five boats, having crews of four men each, are occupied in the herring-fishery. The harbour, though small, is commodious and easy of access, affording secure shelter to the boats engaged in the fisheries; and there are also three vessels belonging to the port, of 130 tons' aggregate burthen, employed in the export of grain, cattle, and fish, for the London market, and in the importation of lime, coal, salt, groceries, and other goods. Facility of communication with Aberdeen and Banff is maintained by good roads. There is a small place of worship for Protestant dissenters of all denominations, situated in the village, and recently erected.

Gareloch-Head

GARELOCH-HEAD, a village, in the parish of Row, county of Dumbarton, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Row; containing 217 inhabitants. This is a rising village, situated, as its name imports, at the head of the Gareloch, a beautiful branch of the Frith of Clyde; and consists chiefly of a collection of cottages. The loch extends in a northern direction about twelve miles into Dumbartonshire, forming the east side of the peninsula of Roseneath, on which is a fine seat of the Duke of Argyll; its average breadth is about a mile, and its greatest depth twenty-three fathoms. The banks are much less precipitous than those of the neighbouring Loch Long, which lies on the western side of the peninsula; and southward they become more level, and some good houses are built on them. At the entrance of the lake is the fine village and watering-place of Helensburgh. A chapel in connexion with the Establishment was built by subscription at Gareloch-Head, about 1838; and there is also a school.

Gargunnock

GARGUNNOCK, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 6 miles (W.) from Stirling; containing 803 inhabitants, of whom 319 are in the village. This place, anciently called Gargownno, is supposed to have derived its name from the Celtic words Caer-guineach, signifying "a pointed or conical fortress," a building answering to this description, called the Peel of Gargunnock, being situated near the north-eastern extremity of the locality. The parish is skirted on the south by the Lennox hills, which form its boundary in that direction, and on the north by the river Forth; it is six miles in length, and four in breadth, comprising 9668 acres, of which 5332 are under cultivation, 3762 natural pasture, and 574 wood and plantations. The hills rise 1400 feet above the level of the sea, and command from their summits one of the most extensive, varied, and beautiful views in the country; and from them the whole of the lands slope northwards, terminating in the plain reaching to the Forth. The river is here about sixty feet broad and twelve deep, and contains large quantities of pike, eels, perch, trout, and salmon, which two last, however, from the casting of moss into the stream, are not so numerous as formerly. In addition to the Forth, with its picturesque meanderings, and besides the many springs in the parish, which afford a constant supply of excellent water, there are several burns running in various directions, of which those of Leckie, Gargunnock, and Boquhan abound in fine trout, and the vicinity of the last is enriched by a glen of its own name, so beautifully wild and romantic as to produce a very striking effect on the mind of the spectator. Cascades are met with in different places, enlivening the mountain ravines; and besides almost every description of wild animals and birds usually found in the country, the district is remarkable for its roe-deer, which breed in the glens in great numbers.

The lands may be portioned into three distinct kinds, moor, dry-field, and carse, the soils of which vary considerably. The first of the tracts, on which sheep and black-cattle are pastured in summer, is a wet gravel and clay; the dry-field for the most part sandy and clayey, with a little loam; and the last-named district a deep rich clayey earth, resting on a subsoil principally of blue clay. Below this blue clay, about ten feet from the surface, is a layer of sea-shells, which is indeed found throughout the whole strath of Monteath, extending twenty miles in length and between three and four in breadth, and is considered a certain indication of this part of the country having formed, in ancient times, a part of the bed of the ocean. Afterwards, this extensive tract was overgrown with wood, called, in the time of the Romans, the Caledonian forest, and cut down by that people in the beginning of the third century. On the dry-field portion, oats, barley, hay, and various kinds of green crops, constitute the chief produce; in addition to which, wheat and beans are grown on the carse land. The sheep are in general the black-faced, and Ayrshire cattle and Clydesdale horses are reared; many swine, also, are bred, some of which are small, but others very large. Great attention is paid to husbandry, and the rotation of crops is regularly followed; draining has been extensively practised, particularly the improved method by wedge-drains, to the great advantage of the soil; and good farm-houses and offices, with excellent fences, have been raised. Roads have been also constructed in different directions; and these various improvements, with numerous others, have increased the price of land within the last forty years to double its former amount: the rateable annual value of the parish, indeed, is now £6856. The rocks in the hills consist of whinstone; and those in the dry-land portion, of red and white sandstone, of each of which there are quarries. Limestone is found in great abundance under the white sandstone; veins of spar exist near the hills, and it is confidently asserted that coal might be obtained on the estate of Gargunnock: peat is plentiful on parts of the Lennox range, and is sometimes cut, but the principal fuel in use is coal brought from Bannockburn, nine miles distant. The natural wood comprises oak, ash, birch, and willow; the plantations consist principally of Scotch and silver fir, elm, larch, and plane.

The most ancient mansion is that of Gargunnock; the next is the seat of Boquhan, built about the beginning of the present century, and the barony of which name was formerly possessed by the Grahams. Leckie is a more modern structure, in imitation of the old English baronial residence, surrounded by beautiful grounds, and commanding a fine view of the strath of Monteath. Meiklewood was erected very recently by Colonel Graham, to whom the parish is indebted for a handsome suspension-bridge, built over the Forth, at his own cost, about twelve years since, near the line of the Dumbarton road, and also for a new road, two miles long, running from the bridge to the great road from Stirling to Callander, by which excellent means of communication have been opened through a highly interesting tract of country. The village, which is in the barony of Gargunnock, stands on a declivity near the church, and commands a richly-diversified prospect of the surrounding country. The parish is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of Sir Francis Walker Drummond, Bart. The minister's stipend is £155, of which about a sixth part is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of 7 acres, valued at £15. 10. per annum. The church was built in 1774, and is a plain building with three galleries, the whole containing 500 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial schoolmaster receives a salary of about £26, and £11 fees. There is a subscription library; and the parish has two charitable bequests, one of £260, and the other of £365. A farmers' club was instituted in 1796, by General Campbell, of Boquhan. At the burn of Boquhan are two chalybeate springs, which are considered of great efficacy, though not much frequented. Keir-hill, the top of which measures about 140 yards in circumference, was a fortified station in the thirteenth century; and the Peel of Gargunnock, situated on an eminence near the Forth, and surrounded by a rampart and ditch, once gave protection to the English till they were dislodged by Sir William Wallace, who occupied Keir-hill.

Garioch, Chapel Of

GARIOCH, CHAPEL OF, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (N. W.) from Inverury; containing 2038 inhabitants. This place was formerly called Logie Durno or Durnock, words signifying "a low or hollow place"; but, upon the annexation of the parsonage of Fetternear, situated on the north of the river Don, to that of this parish, on the north side of the Urie, early in the seventeenth century, the church of Logie Durno was disused, and a new one built on the spot where had once been a chapel called Capella Beatæ Mariæ Virginis de Garryoch, whence the present name of the parish. The district is celebrated in history for the sanguinary battle of Harlaw, which was fought here on the 24th of July, 1411, between the Earl of Mar, who commanded the royal army, and Donald, Lord of the Isles, and which was fatal to so many of the nobility and gentry, and of the bravest soldiers in the country, that Buchanan, the historian, asserts that there perished in this conflict more illustrious men than had fallen in foreign warfare during many years. Donald, having ravaged and plundered other parts, had invited his Highland followers to seize and pillage Aberdeen, and was proceeding thither for that purpose, when the Duke of Albany, who was regent, gave to the Earl of Mar a commission to collect troops to oppose him. In consequence of this, he marched from Aberdeen at the head of a noble train, gathered from different quarters, and met Donald with a force nearly ten times as large as his own, at the little village of Harlaw, a short distance from the confluence of the Water of Urie with the Don. Here the earl attacked the army of Donald, 10,000 strong, with such vigour that he quickly penetrated into the midst of it; but the Highlanders, making up by numbers what they wanted in discipline and in armour, returned the attacks of the earl and his veterans with their usual courage and impetuosity, and a succession of conflicts was carried on through the day which, while they produced the most dreadful carnage on both sides, had given, when night ended the slaughter, victory to neither. The Highland chief retired from the field; the earl was compelled to remain till the morning, through wounds and exhaustion. In the following century, Queen Mary, in her journey to the north, previously to the battle of Corrichie, passed a day here, at Balquhain Castle, the ancient seat of the Leslies, and is said to have attended mass in the parish church. Many years afterwards, the unfortunate Marquess of Montrose, when the Covenanters had triumphed, arrived at the castle of Pitcaple, in the custody of Generals Leslie and Strachan, who thence conducted their illustrious captive, seated on a Highland pony, and ignominiously attired, to the city of Edinburgh, where he was executed on the 21st of May, 1650. Charles II., upon his return from Holland in the same year, was entertained at this castle, in a very sumptuous manner, on which occasion a ball took place on the lawn, under a thorn-tree still standing, and which, for size, is said to exceed all others in this part of Britain.

The parish, the figure of which is very irregular, is eleven miles in length, from north to south, and varies in breadth from two to five miles. It comprises 11,427 acres, of which 8342 are under tillage, including twelve acres of garden and orchard ground; 1010 waste, nearly 900 acres being capable of profitable cultivation; 110 moss; and 1965 wood and plantations; besides which there are between 1000 and 2000 acres of waste on the east front of Benochie hill, which is a common to this and other parishes. The surface is diversified by two considerable ridges, the one on the north, and the other on the south, side of the Urie, and stretching nearly in the same direction with the stream, the interjacent vale being well defended by the hilly ground on each side, and watered by the river for about five or six miles. The Urie is celebrated for its fine trout, and, at a small distance from the parish, falls into the Don; the Don is well stocked with salmon, eels, trout, and pike, and forms about three miles of the southern boundary of the parish in its passage to the German Ocean, which it reaches a mile from Aberdeen. The eminence on which the church stands, south of the Urie, and by which the old turnpike-road from Aberdeen passed, commands, in one part, an interesting view of local and distant scenery, especially of the Garioch district, the prospect embracing nine churches.

The parish is entirely agricultural; and the vale, interspersed by beautifully-formed knolls, of which that of Dun-o-deer is most conspicuous, is under good cultivation. The crops, comprehending grain of various kinds, are indeed so heavy that Garioch is frequently called the granary of Aberdeenshire; and they are in general more early in appearance even than those in some of the southern parts, on account of the richness of the soil. A fine black loam occurs in many places; a good clay in others, on a tilly subsoil; and near the rivers, a rich vegetable mould, on gravel. Wheat, which formerly was grown in but small quantities, is now more extensively produced; and all the usual green crops are raised in abundance. The cattle are chiefly of two breeds, each of which is a cross breed, and are much prized by the English graziers, who fatten large numbers of them for the London market. The rotation system of husbandry is practised; the application of bone manure has been found of great service to the crops of turnips, and the parish has been greatly improved in various other respects during the present century, but especially by the inclosures and extensive drains which have been made, and by the building of good farm-houses and offices. Much waste land has also been reclaimed; and a far larger number of cattle than formerly are reared for sale, through the advance of turnip husbandry. The parish contains seven corn-mills, connected with which are five barley-mills; another barley-mill, and a lint-mill; two mills for carding and spinning wool, and three saw-mills. The rateable annual value of Chapel of Garioch is £7335. The rocks consist of whinstone and granite, the former of which comprises nearly the whole of the strata to the north of the Urie, and for two miles south of it; the granite runs through the remainder of the district. The hill of Benochie supplies the stone principally used for mansion-houses and farm-steadings; and the granite obtained from this quarter admits of a fine polish, and has been employed for chimney-pieces in some of the best residences. The wood comprehends, for the most part, larch, and spruce and Scotch fir, and has nearly all been planted within the present century, with the exception of several fine old plane, horse-chesnut, beech, and fir trees, on the lawns of the mansion-houses. The seats are four in number, and contribute, with their beautiful grounds and plantations, to heighten in no small degree the general effect of the scenery. Logie-Elphinstone is situated upon the north bank of the Urie, and that of Pitcaple on the other side; the mansion of Pittodrie is on an acclivity on the eastern side of the hill of Benochie, which rises 1400 feet above the sea, and commands extensive prospects; and the mansion of Fetternear, the ancient summer residence of the bishops of Aberdeen, built in 1329, by Bishop Kininmonth, stands on the north bank of the Don, and, like the others, is pleasantly situated. A new road has been made to Aberdeen, and the marketable produce is generally sent to that city, being conveyed to Port-Elphinstone, six miles distant, and thence transmitted to its destination by the canal.

Chapel of Garioch is the seat of the presbytery of Garioch, in the synod of Aberdeen, and is in the patronage of Sir Robert Dalrymple Horn Elphinstone, Bart. The minister's stipend is £218, with a manse, and a glebe of eighteen acres, valued at £16 per annum. The church is a neat and commodious edifice, built in 1813, and contains 800 sittings. A second church was opened in June, 1839, at Blairdaff, in the southern part of the parish, about four and a half miles from the mother church; it contains 500 sittings. It was erected at a cost of about £500, by subscription, aided by a grant from the General Assembly's church extension fund; the ground for the site and burial-ground was given by Robert Grant, Esq., of Tillyfour. The accommodation is shared by a part of the adjacent parishes of Oyne and Monymusk, which subscribed to the building, and, with the portion of this parish attached to the church, constitute an ecclesiastical district comprehending 1000 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Greek, Latin, practical mathematics, and geography, besides the elementary branches; the master has a salary of £27, with a portion of the Dick bequest, a house, and £20 fees. There are two other schools, partially supported by the heritors, in which the ordinary branches are taught. The antiquities within the limits of the parish comprise the remains of old tombs and monumental stones of warriors, and a curious stone, half a mile west from the church, called the "maiden stone," and marked with several hieroglyphics, supposed by some to be Danish; the stone is about ten feet high above the ground, and reaches, as is thought, six feet below the surface. The ruins of the churches of Logie-Durno and Fetternear, with their cemeteries, are still visible; and half a mile to the south-east of the present church, is the ruin of the castle of Balquhain, the body of which is said to have been burnt down by the Duke of Cumberland in 1746. Near the castle is a Druidical circle in good preservation. Sir Walter Farquhar, physician to George IV. while Prince Regent, was the son of the Rev. Robert Farquhar, for many years minister of the parish. The Earl of Mar takes the title of Baron Erskine and Garioch from this district.

Garliestown

GARLIESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Sorbie, county of Wigton, 7 miles (S. S. E.) from Wigton; containing 656 inhabitants. This is a considerable modern sea-port village, founded by John, seventh earl of Galloway, when Lord Garlies. It is built in the form of a crescent, and pleasantly situated along the head of a bay which bears its name and affords safe anchorage for vessels; and is an excellent fishing-station. The shore is flat and sandy; the depth of water in the bay, between twenty and thirty feet; and a large number of vessels may ride at anchor in safety in the harbour, which is open to Liverpool, Whitehaven, and other places on the western coast of England. About fifteen vessels belong to the port, of from fifty to 100 tons' burthen each; and foreign ships occasionally touch here. In the village is a rope and sailcloth manufactory. There are two schools, largely endowed by the Earl and Countess of Galloway, in which a number of children have gratuitous instruction.

Garmond

GARMOND, a village, in the parish of Monquhitter, district of Turriff, county of Aberdeen, half a mile (N.) from Cuminestown; containing 226 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-east part of the parish, on the road from Cuminestown to Banff, and is a modern village, having been built subsequently to 1739, when Cuminestown was commenced.

Garmouth

GARMOUTH, a village, in the parish of Speymouth, county of Elgin, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Fochabers; containing 604 inhabitants. This is a burgh of barony, situated near the mouth of the Spey, on the road to Fochabers, and is now so united to the village of Kingston that the two may be regarded as one place. The houses, generally, are not well built; but the streets are regularly laid out, and the appearance of Garmouth is rather neat and pleasing. The harbour here suffers under some natural disadvantages: since the flood of 1829, it has been far from secure, and it is at present unfit for the entrance of any vessels except those of small burthen. A considerable trade was formerly carried on in timber, but it has very much declined. There is, however, a good traffic in the exportation of corn and the importation of coal, and some excellent vessels are built; the place has, besides, the benefit of a valuable salmon-fishery in the Spey. About twelve vessels belong to the port, of the aggregate burthen of nearly 700 tons. The parochial school is here.—See Kingston-Port.

Gartcloss

GARTCLOSS, a village, in that part of the parish of Old Monkland which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Gartsherrie, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (N. W.) from Coatbridge; containing 206 inhabitants. It lies in the north-eastern part of the parish, near the border of Cadder parish, and in the neighbourhood of the Gartcloss coal-mine, one of the most considerable in the district: the inhabitants are chiefly employed in this mine.

Gartly

GARTLY, a parish, partly in the county of Banff, and partly in the district of Strathbogie, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (S.) from Huntly; containing 1037 inhabitants. This parish is divided nearly in the centre, by the river Bogie, into two portions, of which the one, called the Barony, is within the county of Banff, and is said to have been separated from Aberdeenshire by its proprietor, Barclay, one of the feudal barons of the ancient earls of Huntly, who, being at that time sheriff of Banff, was desirous of having his property under his own immediate jurisdiction. The other portion of the parish, called the Braes, is in the county, and within the controul of the sheriff, of Aberdeen. Few events of historical importance have occurred with respect to this place, which is chiefly distinguished for a visit by Mary, Queen of Scots, who, on her return from an excursion to Inverness and Ross shire, spent a night at Gartly Castle, the baronial residence of the Gordon family, of which, though now in ruins, some small portion is still remaining. The parish, irregular in form, is about twelve miles in length, and four miles and a half in breadth, and comprises about 17,000 acres, of which 5600 are arable, 11,000 pasture, moorland, and moss, and the remainder, with the exception of a few acres of natural wood and plantations, roads and waste. The surface is diversified with hills and valleys, and with numerous glens of highly picturesque appearance: from the hills many rivulets descend into the Bogie, which rises in Auchindoir, and, after winding for fourteen miles through this parish and that of Rhynie, joins the Doveran near Huntly, and falls into the sea at Banff. The eastern and western parts of the parish are especially hilly, and have extensive moors abounding with grouse and other game; the hills are covered with moss, which supplies both Gartly and the town of Huntly with fuel, and particularly the mosses in the west are of great depth. The glen of Tylliminnet is richly embellished with a fine wood of birch and several young and thriving plantations, and is seen among the surrounding hills with the most romantic effect; the banks of the river are planted with alder, but there is little other wood in the parish. The moors are well adapted to the growth of timber, and if planted it would tend much to the improvement of the parish; a considerable portion, also, of the moors might, at a moderate outlay, be brought into a profitable state of cultivation.

The soil, especially in the lower grounds and valleys, is extremely fertile, producing abundant crops; and the system of agriculture is advanced: the five-shift course of husbandry is generally prevalent, and is found best adapted to the climate and soil. Since the introduction of turnip cultivation, the breed of cattle, to which much attention is paid, has been greatly improved; the principal kinds are the old Aberdeenshire, crossed by the Argyleshire, which is found to answer well. But few sheep, not more than about 1700, and these chiefly the black-faced, are pastured on the hills. The substratum is mostly gravel: limestone is also found, but in so small quantity, and at such a depth, as to render the working of it unprofitable to the farmer, who can obtain it in the neighbouring parish of Cairnie at less expense. On several of the hills are quarries of slate of good quality, the working of which affords remunerative employment to many labourers. Much improvement has been recently made in draining, and considerable portions of waste have been reclaimed, particularly on the farm of Bucharn by Mr. George Gordon, who, in 1828, received the gold medal from the Highland Society, and who has also divided and inclosed his lands with stone walls. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious; and there are tolerable facilities of intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns by the turnpike-road which passes through the parish for nearly four miles. The rateable annual value of Gartly is £4437.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £191. 6. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patron, the Duke of Richmond. The church, an ancient building, was erected in 1621; but, with the exception of the steeple, little of the original edifice is remaining: it has undergone many alterations within the last twenty years, and now affords accommodation to nearly 600 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords a useful education; the salary of the master is £32. 10., with £20 fees, and a house and garden. The parochial library contains more than 200 volumes. Some slight remains exist of Gartly Castle; and till lately there were several tumuli on the farm of Mill Hill, near the church, where, according to tradition, a skirmish took place in 1411. They have almost all been levelled: in one of them were found two ancient dirks, and in another some brass buckles, supposed to have been used to fasten the sword-belts of the warriors. On the farm of Faich hill has been discovered an urn containing bones; and on the lands of Cockston was recently found an urn of clay, in which were numerous round pieces of stamped leather, thought to have been anciently current for money. A stone coffin was found on the lands of Coldran by Captain Gordon, but nothing is known of its history; and in a vault in the church are preserved the ashes of Viscount Aboyne, and of John Gordon, laird of Rothiemay, with some of their followers, who were burned in the old tower of Frendraught, in the parish of Forgue, in 1630. At Muirellis, James I. is said to have passed an evening with the tenant of that farm, which he visited incognito, and to have been so much pleased with the hospitality of his host, that he obtained from the Earl of Huntly a grant that he and his descendants should have possession of the land rent-free. It is also on record, that an infant son of the Baron of Gartly was drowned by an inundation of the Bogie, in returning from the chapel of Brawlinknows, after receiving the rite of baptism.

Gartmore

GARTMORE, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Port of Monteith, county of Perth, 15 miles (W. by S.) from Doune; containing 347 inhabitants, of whom 253 are in the village. This district is about two miles and a half in length, and one mile and a half in breadth, and comprises about 1360 acres, of which 760 are in tillage and pasture, 200 under plantation, and 400 uncultivated. The surface partakes of the general mountainous character of the Highland country of which it forms a part, and the prevailing scenery is beautifully diversified; the substratum is red sandstone. The river Forth flows on the north and north-east, the Kelty on the south, and the road from Dumbarton to Stirling passes within four miles. A market or fair takes place on the 16th of June, at which cattle of all descriptions are exposed for sale, and servants for the ensuing year are engaged. Gartmore House, a substantial and very commodious mansion, is of considerable antiquity, and stands in grounds tastefully embellished, and commanding some interesting views. The village is pleasantly situated, and has a rural aspect; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture, and partly in the handicraft trades requisite for the wants of the district. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling, and the patronage is vested in the communicants: the church, erected in 1790, at an expense of £400, raised by subscription, is a neat plain edifice, containing 415 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there are two schools.

Gartsherrie

GARTSHERRIE, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Old Monkland, county of Lanark; containing, with the villages of Coatbridge, Coatdyke, Gartcloss, Merrystone, and Summerlee, 5906 inhabitants, of whom 1499 are in the village of Gartsherrie, 2 miles (W.) from Airdrie. This is a considerable mining district, in the works connected with which the chief of the population are employed: the iron-works are of great magnitude, and include a number of blast-furnaces for the smelting of the ore. The coal-mine here is also worked on a very extensive scale; there are five strata of coal, between each of which is a stratum of sandstone and shale: the seams of coal vary in thickness from one foot four inches to four feet. The Glasgow and Garnkirk railway, which starts from St. Rollox, in the north-east quarter of the city, joins the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway at this place. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and the patronage is vested in the subscribers to the church: the stipend of the minister is £150, secured by bond. The church, erected at a cost of £3300, is an elegant structure, with a tower rising to the height of 136 feet, and contains 1500 sittings. Near it is the Academy, erected in 1844, at a cost of £2300; and there is a large Sabbath school in connexion with the Establishment.

Gartwhinean, Easter and Wester

GARTWHINEAN, EASTER and WESTER, hamlets, in the parish of Fossoway and Tulliebole, county of Perth, 2 miles (E.) from Dollar; the one containing 96, and the other 49 inhabitants. These places lie on the south side of the river Devon, which here separates the parish from that of Muckart. A rocky pinnacle in the neighbourhood, called Gibson's Crag, was the rendezvous of the chiefs of the Murrays.

Garvald and Bara

GARVALD and BARA, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Haddington; containing 862 inhabitants, of whom 257 are in the village. Garvald derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "the rough water," from the situation of its village on a rapid and impetuous stream, forcing its way through a channel of rugged fragments of rock, and which, after floods or continued rains, in the violence of its course throws out stones of great weight upon the low grounds. Garvald and Bara were united in 1702, and service was alternately performed in the church of each parish till the year 1744, when that of Bara fell into a state of dilapidation. The parish is nearly nine miles in length, from east to west, and almost five in breadth, from north to south; and is bounded on the north and east by the parish of Whittingham, on the south by that of Lauder, in Berwickshire, and on the west by the parishes of Gifford, Haddington, and Morham. The surface is varied, rising in elevation towards the Lammermoor hills, displaying in some parts an intermixture of heath and grass, and in others being richly cultivated and covered with luxuriant verdure. The soil in several places is a deep loam, resting upon clay, and exceedingly fertile; and in others, of a light gravelly nature, well adapted for the growth of turnips and potatoes, both of which are raised to a very considerable extent. The chief crops are oats and barley, with some wheat, potatoes, turnips, beans, and peas; the system of agriculture is highly improved; the farms are thoroughly drained and well inclosed, and much ground that was formerly barren heath has, by a liberal use of lime, been brought into an excellent state of cultivation. The higher lands afford fine pasturage for sheep, of which more than 7000 are annually reared, chiefly of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds, with an occasional cross of the Leicestershire, which appears to answer well; about 300 black-cattle, also, are annually fed and fattened for the butcher. The farm-houses and offices are substantial, and all the recent improvements in agricultural implements have been generally adopted. The rateable annual value of Garvald and Bara is £7571.

Nunraw, a seat in the parish, was anciently a nunnery, a cell belonging to the priory of Haddington; a great portion of the building has been modernised, but it still displays many indications of antiquity. Hopes is an elegant mansion built by the present owner; it is pleasantly situated in a sequestered glen, near the Lammermoor hills, and in a well-disposed demesne, enriched with thriving plantations formed by the proprietor, who has also added greatly to the beauty and interest of the parish by various others on the estate. The village is neatly built, and has facility of communication with neighbouring places by good roads kept in repair by statute labour, and by the turnpike-road from Dunse to Haddington, which passes for six miles through the parish. Most of the inhabitants are employed in weaving, and in the various trades requisite for the supply of the parish; and several are engaged in some freestone quarries situated near the village. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £189; the manse is a comfortable residence, erected in 1820, and the glebe comprises thirteen and a half acres of land, valued at £25 per annum: the church is an ancient structure, repaired and enlarged in 1829; it is adapted to a congregation of 360 persons, and contains fifty free sittings, but is inconveniently situated at one extremity of the parish. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords a useful education to about sixty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £16 per annum. There are two friendly societies, which render much assistance to the poor not on the parish list. Near the Lammermoor hills are the ruins of Whitecastle, a strong ancient fortress, erected for the defence of a pass from the Merse and from the English frontier. On the lands of Garvald farm are the remains of a circular encampment, about 1500 feet in circumference: there was also a similar camp on the lands of Carfrae, the stones of which were used to form an inclosure; and in removing them for that purpose, the brass handle of a sword was discovered. At Newlands are tumuli called respectively the Black and the Green Castle; the spot was planted by the Marquess of Tweeddale, within the last few years, with Scotch firs. There are also two other encampments, one on Park farm, and the other on the estate of Hopes.

Garvelloch

GARVELLOCH, or Holy Islands, a cluster of small islands, in the parish of Jura and Colonsay, district of Islay, county of Argyll. These islands, which are situated in the Atlantic, to the west of Balnahuaigh, obtained their second name from having been the residence of the monks of Iona previously to the foundation of that monastery; and there are still some remains of a chapel and cemetery, and of the ancient conventual buildings. The isles are the property of Colin Campbell, Esq., of Jura, to whom they pay a rental of £150 per annum, derived chiefly from their excellent pasture for sheep and black-cattle. Here is also a marble-quarry, which appears to have been wrought at a very early period, and of which some of the produce is to be seen in the castle of Inverary.

Garvock

GARVOCK, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Laurencekirk; containing 446 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, is descriptive of the general appearance of its surface, formed part of the ample possessions of the Keiths, earls-marischal of Scotland, who occasionally resorted to it for the diversion of hunting; but since 1715, when the estate was forfeited, the lands have been divided among several proprietors, of whom the Earl of Kintore is the principal. Though few traces of its original character are now remaining, it appears to have been one extensive forest; and within its limits, in the reign of James I., was perpetrated the inhuman murder of Melville, of Glenbervie, sheriff of Mearns, whom Barclay, laird of Mathers, and others, had treacherously invited to join them on a hunting party. The parish is rather more than seven miles in length, and nearly four miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 8500 acres, of which 2900 are arable, 100 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, of which about one-half might be reclaimed, moorland pasture and waste. The surface in the central portion is a hollow plain, surrounded by ascending grounds except on the east; in other parts it is gently undulated, rising, towards the south-west, into the hills of Garvock, which have an elevation of 750 feet above the level of the sea, and command from their summit an unbounded and richly-diversified prospect. There are numerous springs of excellent water in various parts, and at the north-west base of Garvock hill is one strongly impregnated with chalybeate properties: but the only river connected with the parish is the Water of Bervie, which forms a portion of its north-east boundary, and falls into the sea at Bervie.

The soil is naturally wet, resting on a subsoil of clay; on the higher grounds, light and gravelly; and in the lowlands, chiefly alluvial deposit. The crops are, oats, barley, and bear, with potatoes and turnips: wheat has been raised, and also peas, though not with any degree of success; beans, however, have been recently introduced with every prospect of a fair return. The system of husbandry has been greatly advanced within the last few years; considerable tracts of waste have been reclaimed, and brought into profitable cultivation, by draining and the use of lime; but the farm-buildings, with few exceptions, are still of very inferior order, and the lands are only partially inclosed. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, and the butter made here obtains a decided preference in the market. The cattle are generally the Angus, with a mixture of the Aberdeenshire breed; much care is bestowed on their improvement, and large numbers are sent to London: few sheep are bred. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3285. There are some small remains of ancient wood; and the plantations, which are chiefly of recent growth, consist of larch, and spruce and Scotch firs, interspersed with ash, beech, and plane, all which, with the exception of the larch and Scotch fir, are in a thriving condition. The rocks are mostly sandstone, conglomerate, and trap: a coarse kind of limestone occurs in the hill of Garvock, though, from the difficulty of access, it is not wrought; and red sandstone, of good quality for building, is occasionally quarried.

There is no village, or even hamlet of any importance, in the parish. A fair was formerly held annually on the hill of Garvock, on the third Tuesday in July (O. S.), and continued for three following days, for the sale of sheep, cattle, merchandise, and for hiring servants; it was called St. James' fair, but has recently been removed by the proprietor of the tolls. A messenger from the post-office of Laurencekirk arrives every morning, and returns in the afternoon; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads, which have been recently made. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Fordoun, and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £177. 11. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church is a neat structure erected in 1778, and contains 300 sittings. The parochial school is attended by about sixty children; the master has a salary of £31, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. for garden, and the fees average £15. The present minister, the Rev. John Charles, has assigned £100, the interest to be paid to the master for the gratuitous instruction of poor children. A parochial library, now containing 490 volumes, was established in 1835. There are numerous cairns, and many Druidical remains, in various parts of the parish; and on the farm of Nether Tulloch, under three hillocks, have been found three stone coffins, of which two contained only some black earth, and the third an urn and a human skeleton.

Gask, Nether

GASK, NETHER, or Findogask, a parish, in the county of Perth, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dunning; containing, with the village of Clathy, 436 inhabitants. The name of this place is supposed by some to be derived from a word in the Gaelic language, signifying "a slope;" but its etymology is extremely doubtful. The length of the parish is about two miles, and the breadth nearly the same; it contains about 2560 acres. The ground slopes, on each side, from the Roman causeway which runs through the middle of the parish, on the highest ground: the southern side is a pleasant tract, laid out in cultivated fields; on the other slope, towards the north, are plantations of fir, oak, and beech, interspersed with cornfields and pastures. The parish is bounded on the north by Madderty and Methven parishes, on the south by Dunning, on the east by Tibbermore and Forteviot, and on the west by Trinity-Gask. The river Earn runs along the southern boundary, and, though not navigable, is a considerable stream, the line of whose windings in this part is about three miles in length; it contains salmon, white and yellow trout, perch, flounders, pike, and eels. The soil is partly clayey and partly loamy: in the northern quarter is an extensive moss, a portion of which has been reclaimed and cultivated, and the rest supplies the people with peat for fuel. Grain of all kinds is produced, as well as green crops, the whole of good quality: more than 1200 acres are underwood, consisting mainly of larch, Scotch fir, and oak; and the woods abound with every description of game. The modern system of agriculture has been adopted for the last thirty years, and all the land is cultivated, except the part under wood: the cattle are the Teeswater and Ayrshire; the sheep are the Leicesters, and the common breed of horses is usually reared. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3500. The rocks consist of sandstone and grey slate, both of which are quarried; and marl is found in different places.

The mansion of Gask is the residence of the chief proprietor, whose ancestors for many generations have resided on the property; it is a commodious and substantial building, erected in the beginning of the present century, and ornamented with many large and beautiful trees. The turnpike-roads have been improved, and the parish roads are in a tolerably good state; the road from Perth to Stirling intersects the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £155, with a manse, built in 1800, and a glebe of twenty acres, valued at £15 per annum. The church was erected also in 1800, and is a plain edifice in good repair, accommodating nearly 400 persons with sittings, all of which are free. There is a parochial school, in which Latin is taught, with all the ordinary branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and about £12 fees. A parochial library was founded in 1824, and is supported by subscription. The Roman causeway which runs through the parish is twenty feet broad, and has been macadamized within these few years; it leads westward to a camp still visible in the parish of Muthill, and eastward to another camp in the parish of Scone. By its side are stations, capable of containing from twelve to twenty men, and inclosed by ditches, which are very distinct. Within the policy of Gask, vestiges of two other camps may be traced, one on the south, and the other on the north, of the causeway; and the prætorium of the latter is yet marked, though the ground has been planted with fir. One of these camps seems to have been capable of containing 500 men, and the other, half that number. The place gives the title of Baron to the ducal family of Murray.

Gask, Trinity

GASK, TRINITY, a parish, in the county of Perth, 2 miles (N.) from Auchterarder, and 4 (S. E.) from Crieff; containing 620 inhabitants. This parish derives its name Gask, of Gaelic origin, from the peculiar nature of its surface, consisting almost entirely of braes and undulated ground; its distinctive prefix, Trinity, arose from the union of three districts, which constitute the present parish. It is chiefly situated on the north bank of the river Earn, and in the picturesque strath to which that river gives name; and is about five miles in length, and three in breadth. The surface is pleasingly varied, containing but few tracts of level land; and the scenery is enlivened by the windings of the Earn, which flows from west to east, displaying much beauty in the natural wood and thriving plantations with which its banks are crowned. The soil, greatly differing in various parts, has, in some, been rendered productive by draining, and by the construction of embankments to protect the lower lands from the occasional over-flowings of the Earn; and through the improvement that has taken place in the system of agriculture, a considerable portion of barren land has been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation. Of the whole number of acres in the parish, nearly 4300 are arable, and 1000 in woods and plantations; and of the remainder, which is chiefly moorland and waste, it is supposed that about 2000 acres maybe rendered arable, when the measures at present in contemplation for that purpose shall be completed. The river abounds with various kinds of fish, of which the principal are, salmon, trout, perch, and pike; but the quantity of salmon has greatly diminished since the use of stake-nets has been introduced in the Tay. The crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips: bone-dust and lime are employed as manure, but on account of the expense of bringing those articles from a great distance, the quantity is not adequate to the wants of the soil. Great attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are mostly of the short-horned breed, introduced by Lord Strathallan, and which are found to answer well; the sheep, though very limited in numbers, are chiefly of the Leicestershire breed. The farm-buildings are substantial, and on all the large farms are threshing-mills, of which several are driven by water; there are also corn-mills in various parts. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4700.

The oldest of the woods are Scotch fir; and the plantations of more modern date are principally spruce, larch, oak, and beech, all of which, under judicious management, are in a thriving state. The substrata are chiefly sandstone and whinstone, of which there are several varieties, and occasionally a gray stone, of great compactness, containing a portion of copper, but not sufficient in quantity to repay the cost of working it. The sandstone and whinstone are quarried for building purposes, and for the roads; but the stone is of inferior quality. Millearne, a seat in the parish, is a spacious mansion in the later English style, beautifully situated in grounds laid out with great taste, and forming a conspicuous feature in the landscape. Colquhalzie is a handsome mansion, finely seated on the south bank of the Earn, and commanding some highly interesting views. Facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads; a ferry-boat plies across the river, and at Kinkell is a bridge of four arches, built by subscription in 1793, and kept in excellent repair. An agricultural society has been established in the parish, for the promotion of husbandry by the distribution of prizes to the successful candidates in ploughing matches. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Earl of Kinnoull. The stipend of the incumbent is £230; the manse is a commodious residence, and the glebe comprises fourteen and a half acres of profitable land, with about ten acres of wood. The church is adapted for a congregation of about 350 persons, but is inconveniently situated. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod. The parochial school affords a useful education; the master has a salary of £34, and the fees average about £12** per annum. The poor have the interest of a bequest of £80. Some remains exist of an ancient castle called Gascon Hall, of which, however, there are no authentic records; and a considerable portion of the Roman road leading to the camp at Ardoch is within the parish. A kistvaen, containing human bones and ashes, was found a few years since upon the lands belonging to the Earl of Kinnoull; it consisted of four upright stones, with one lying horizontally on the top.

Gasstown

GASSTOWN, a village, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of St. Mary, in the burgh and county of Dumfries, and containing 162 inhabitants.

Gatehouse Of Fleet

GATEHOUSE OF FLEET, a burgh of barony, manufacturing town, and port, partly in the parish of Anwoth, but chiefly in that of Girthon, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 7 miles (W.) from Kirkcudbright.; containing 1832 inhabitants, of whom 419 are in the parish of Anwoth. This place, which was built on the site of the ancient town of Fleet, about the middle of the last century, takes its name from an old tenement, the only house at that time in existence, and which was situated at the gate of the avenue leading to Cally. The mansion of Cally was the family seat of the founder, and is now the residence of his descendant, Alexander Murray, Esq., of Broughton, M.P. for the stewartry, who is lord of the manor, and the superior of the burgh. The town is pleasantly seated on the river Fleet, near its influx into the bay of that name, and consists principally of three spacious and well-formed streets, parallel with each other, and of which the eastern leads to a handsome stone bridge of two arches, connecting it with that portion of the burgh lying on the opposite bank of the river. The houses are well built and of good appearance; the inhabitants are amply supplied with water; and the immediate vicinity of the town abounds with pleasingly-diversified and interesting scenery.

The chief manufacture is that of cotton, introduced here by the late James Murray, Esq., who for that purpose induced Messrs. Birtwhistle and Sons, from Yorkshire, to erect two large mills, which for the last twelve years have been conducted by their lessees, John Mc Kie and Company, by whom the business is carried on with great success. One of these mills was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1840, but has been rebuilt, and fitted up with machinery of the most improved kind; and both are in full operation, affording employment to 200 persons. The works are driven by two water wheels of fifty-five horse power, supplied by a tunnel cut from Loch Whinnyan, at an expense of £1400; and the average quantity of cloth annually made is 60,000 pieces, of twenty-four yards each in length. A brewery has been established upon a moderate scale. There is a tannery on the west bank of the river; green hides are dressed in the town, to the amount of £400 annually; and about 60,000 bricks are made in some works a little to the north. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of different cotton goods, leather, and agricultural produce; and in the importation of cotton wool, timber, lime, coal, wine, and groceries. Several vessels belong to the port, averaging eighty tons' burthen; and in 1840, the number of vessels that entered inwards was forty-two, of 931 tons' aggregate burthen; and in the same year, sixteen cleared outwards, of 395 tons.

The harbour, called Boat-Green, about 300 yards below the bridge, is accessible for vessels of 160 tons, and has been greatly improved, at a cost of nearly £3000, by Mr. Murray, who, in 1824, constructed a canal 1400 yards in length, into which he diverted the waters of the Fleet, which previously inundated the lands at every tide. By this work, the navigation from Fleet bay to the town has been much facilitated, and a considerable tract of marshy ground reclaimed. From two rocks on opposite sides of the canal, a swivel bridge has been thrown across, which has removed the road from the demesne of Cally, and affords an easier approach to the town. A market is held on Saturday, and is amply supplied with provisions of all kinds; there are large markets for cattle, for eight successive weeks, beginning on the first Friday in November; and a fair is held on the 27th June, or Monday after. The town was erected into a burgh of barony, by royal charter, in 1795, and is governed by a provost, two bailies, and four councillors, annually elected by the resident £2 proprietors. The magistrates exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction within the burgh, but only to a small extent; there is a prison for the temporary confinement of petty offenders, but it is seldom used. The post-office has a daily delivery; and a branch of the Western Bank of Scotland has been established. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads kept in repair by statute labour; and the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Portpatrick passes through the town.

Gateside

GATESIDE, a village, in the parish of Beith, district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 1¼ mile (N. E. by E.) from Beith; containing 270 inhabitants. It lies in the northern part of the parish, on the borders of Renfrewshire, and a little east of the road from Beith to Paisley.

Gateside

GATESIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kirkgunzeon, stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing 23 inhabitants.

Gateside

GATESIDE, a village, in the parish of Neilston, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, ¾ of a mile (N. N. E.) from Neilston; containing 673 inhabitants. This village has arisen from the establishment of the cotton manufacture in this part of the parish, soon after its introduction, and the consequent erection of a spacious mill for spinning and weaving cotton, in 1786. It is neatly built, and is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the cotton-works, and in the printing and bleaching establishments connected with them.

Gattonside

GATTONSIDE, a village, in the parish and district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh, 1 mile (N. by W.) from Melrose; containing 252 inhabitants. The situation of this village, in the finest part of the vale of Melrose, is romantically beautiful. It is seated on the southern slope of a hill on the north bank of the Tweed, opposite to Melrose, with which town it has been lately connected by a wire bridge. The houses, which are generally thatched, are situated amidst orchards and gardens; and a greater quantity of fruit is grown here than in any other portion of the vale. The inhabitants are partly employed in agriculture, and partly in the manufactures of Galashiels.

Gavinton

GAVINTON, a village, in the parish of Langton, county of Berwick, 1¼ mile (S. W. by S.) from Dunse; containing 206 inhabitants. This village takes its name from David Gavin, Esq., a former proprietor of the parish, who, finding the ancient village of Langton an impediment to the extensive improvements he was making on his estate, induced the inhabitants, by a very advantageous grant of lands, to abandon their old residence, and build themselves houses on the site of the present village. It is situated on the south side of a stream, a tributary to the Blackadder water, and also south of the high road from Dunse to Lauder. The parochial school is in the village.

Geilston-Bridge

GEILSTONE-BRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Cardross, county of Dumbarton, ½ a mile (N. N. W.) from Cardross; containing 133 inhabitants. It is situated on the east side of the coast road from Dumbarton to Helensburgh, and on a stream which shortly falls into the Clyde. In the village is a library of more than 400 volumes.

Gelston

GELSTON, a village, in the parish of Kelton, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Castle-Douglas; containing 146 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish of Kelton, in which it is now comprehended; but it was anciently a parish of itself, and here are the ruins of its church, which fell into decay previously to 1689, when the union of the two parishes and that of Kirkcormack took place. A small burn, flowing in a northern direction, passes near the village, and falls into the Carlinwark loch; and two others take a south-eastern course, one on each side of Gelston hill. Gelston Castle was built by the late Sir William Douglas, Bart., and is remarkable for the elegance of its architecture, and the romantic beauty of its situation. In the village is one of three parochial schools. Various antiquities have been discovered in the neighbourhood: on opening a sepulchral tumulus, near Gelston, a stone coffin was found, seven feet long and three wide, which contained human bones of unusual length and thickness.

Georgetown

GEORGETOWN, a village, in the Old Church parish of Dumfries, county of Dumfries; containing 154 inhabitants.

Gibbiestown

GIBBIESTOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of Methven, county of Perth; containing 26 inhabitants.

Gifford

GIFFORD, a village, in the parish of Yester, county of Haddington, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Haddington; containing 525 inhabitants. This village, which is beautifully situated on the east bank of the Gifford water, and in the picturesque vale of Yester, is built chiefly on lands leased from the Marquess of Tweeddale, and held by tenure of certain feudal services. In consequence of agreeing to render these services, the inhabitants were exempted by the marquess from various taxes and imposts, and were endowed with a grant of common land, comprising sixty acres, valued at £100 per annum, and the produce of part of which, now under cultivation, is applied to the improvement of the place. The marquess, as lord of the manor, formerly appointed a baronbailie, and held a Birla or Boorlaw court, to which was attached an officer called a constable, who long retained his office: this court, which was discontinued only within the last fifty years, exercised jurisdiction in petty misdemeanors, and had a prison and stocks for the confinement and punishment of offenders. The village consists principally of two streets of regularly-built and handsome houses, one of which extends in a line with the avenue leading to Yester House, the property of the marquess, and terminates with the parochial school-house, a handsome building surmounted with a small cupola: at the extremity of the other street is the parish church. The inhabitants are employed chiefly in the various trades requisite for the supply of the vicinity, and partly in the cultivation of the adjacent lands. The weaving of linen was formerly carried on to some extent, affording occupation to more than twenty persons at their own houses; but since the introduction of improved machinery, it has greatly diminished, and not above three or four persons are little more than half engaged in that pursuit. A penny post-office has been established, which has a daily delivery; and the East Lothian Agricultural Society hold an annual meeting here, to award premiums for improvements in husbandry, and for the best pens of sheep. Fairs for the sale of sheep, cattle, and horses, are held on the last Tuesday in March, the third in June, and the first in October, which are numerously attended, and at which seldom less than 4000 sheep, 500 head of cattle, and an equal number of horses, are brought for sale. All the poor used to receive soup three times in the week, from the kitchen of the Marquess of Tweeddale, when the family were residing at Yester House; and they still derive a supply of fuel from his grounds, whence the wood is, in winter, driven home to their doors.

Giffordton

GIFFORDTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Collessie, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 71 inhabitants. It is a modern hamlet, the houses in which are generally well arranged and of neat appearance.

Gigha and Cara

GIGHA and CARA, a parish, in the district of Cantyre, county of Argyll, 21½ miles (S. by W.) from Tarbert; containing 550 inhabitants. Some persons derive the name of the former of these two districts from the compound Gaelic term Eilean-Dhia, signifying "God's island;" others are of opinion that it may be traced to the word geodha, "a creek," applied on account of the numerous inlets and bays here. The word Cara is supposed to signify "a monastery." The parish consists of two islands, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, between the southern portion of the island of Islay and the peninsula of Cantyre, and separated from the latter by a channel 3½ miles across, in which the current is often extremely strong, especially at new and full moon. They are both but little elevated above the sea: the highest point in Gigha, called Creag-bhan, or "the white rock," rises only to the height of 400 feet; and Cara, situated a mile and a half south of the former island, has, in this respect, the same general appearance. Gigha measures in length, from north to south, almost seven miles, and is two and a half miles in extreme breadth; Cara is nearly a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth, and the two isles comprise together about 4000 acres, of which half are arable, ten under plantation, and the remainder pasture and waste. The coast of Gigha is computed at twenty-five miles in extent, being very circuitous in consequence of the great number of its creeks; on the west side it is bold and rocky, and contains, near the middle, a cave called the Great Cave, and another named the Pigeons' Cave, from the many wild-pigeons frequenting it. Though rugged, however, along the larger part of the western line, there are, at the two extremities, and on the eastern side, several bays well adapted for bathing, and containing a fine white sand, formerly exported in large quantities to Dumbarton, for the manufacture of glass. In about the centre of the eastern coast is the bay of Ardminish, ornamented at its head by the church and manse, and resorted to by vessels taking away produce, or bringing to the island coal, lime, and other commodities. A little north of this is the bay of Drimyeon, a spacious and secure retreat; and firm anchorage is also usually found in all the other bays in the island, especially in that of Tarbert, within a mile of its north-eastern extremity.

Between Gigha and Cara is the small uninhabited islet of Gigulum; and between this and Gigha is a sound affording good anchorage for large shipping, and much used by government cutters, and by vessels trading with the northern Highlands, as well as by those from England and Ireland, which visit this and the adjacent parish of Killean for the purchase of seed-potatoes. The principal entrance to the sound is from the east, rocks lying on the opposite side. The most prominent headland in the parish, called Ardminish point, is on the north side of the bay of that name. At the south-west end of Gigha is Sloc-an-leim, or "the springing pit" a subterraneous passage 133 feet long, into which the sea rushes with considerable fury. The shore of the island of Cara is rocky and steep, except towards the north-east; and at its southern extremity is a precipitous rock, 117 feet high, called the Mull of Cara, thronged by sea-fowl, and the resort, too, of the hawk. Around this coast also, as well as that of the other islands, mackerel, sea-perch, lythe, rock-cod, and many other fish are found; and cod, ling, and large haddocks may be obtained on the banks, two or three miles distant. Some rocky portions of the surface of Gigha are covered with various species of lichen, of which those named parmelia, sticta-ramalina, and lecanora are much esteemed as valuable dyes; and the juniper, which is abundant and prolific upon the eastern coast, supplies in the summer and autumn quantities of berries, here used in order to flavour whisky. Many tracts are clothed with stunted heath; but the surface is in different places pleasingly diversified with knolls and hillocks, profusely ornamented with musk roses. On the coast is found the ulva-latissima, used as a pickle, as well as the different kinds of Carigean moss.

The soil is a rich loam, containing in some parts an admixture of sand, clay, and moss; it is tolerably fertile, and produces good crops of bear, oats, potatoes, and turnips. The land is particularly adapted to the growth of the last, but, in consequence of the demand for seed-potatoes, especially for Ireland, more attention is paid to the cultivation of these than the turnips. A small part of the arable land is still under the old system of husbandry, the larger property only being subject to the rotation of crops; the farms are to some extent inclosed and subdivided, but the buildings require further improvement. There is a corn-mill, to which a new road was lately formed at a cost of £250; the mill itself has been repaired, and among other improvements that have been found of general advantage is the draining of the Mill-dam loch, affording an opportunity to the people to obtain from it turf for fuel. A few sheep are reared, of the Cheviot breed, and many from other places are wintered here; about 1000 hogs, also, are annually brought, at the close of autumn, from Jura and other contiguous parts, to be tended at the rate of 2s. 6d. each for five months. The rateable annual value of Gigha and Cara is £2091. The strata of the parish comprise mica-slate, felspar-slate, quartz, and hornblende, with chlorite-slate, crossed in many places at right angles by basaltic dykes; and boulders of hornblende are frequently seen both on, and a little below, the surface, measuring two and three feet in diameter. Traces of copper are observable in Gigha, and of iron-ore at the south end of Cara. The plantations, which are but few, consist of oak, ash, larch, plane, Scotch fir, and pineaster, the last being less affected by the sea air and storms than any of the other kinds.

The population exhibit more of the maritime than of the agricultural character; the young men generally become sailors, and a large proportion of the rest are engaged in fishing for cod and ling for several months, beginning about Candlemas. Upwards of twenty boats, carrying four men each, are engaged in this pursuit; they proceed to the banks already referred to, north-west and south-west of the parish, and usually take as many fish as enable them, after a plentiful supply for their own families, to dispose of about fifty tons. These, when cured, are sold at Glasgow, Greenock, and Campbelltown, at from £10 to £14 per ton. Besides the fishing-boats and twenty of smaller size, a vessel of thirty tons and another of fourteen are employed in carrying agricultural produce to market; they convey annually, on the average, 800 tons of potatoes, 400 quarters of bear, and 150 quarters of oats, besides black-cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs, and a considerable portion of dairy produce. Coal, lime, and other articles are imported; and vessels of large burthen visit the parish from Ireland, England, and the Clyde, for potatoes, and sometimes for cod and ling. A steam-boat, running between Loch Tarbert and Islay, passes Gigha three times weekly in summer, and once in winter; there is also a ferry from each of the properties to Tayinloan, a hamlet on the Mainland, where is the receiving-house for letters. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of Argyll, and the patronage belongs to the Duke of Argyll; the minister's stipend is £266, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church was built about the year 1780, and is in tolerable repair. The parochial school affords instruction in English and Gaelic, and Latin is also taught, with all the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and about £14 fees. At the distance of a mile from the present church may be seen the walls of the former edifice, with a stone font, standing in the midst of the burial-ground. About the centre of Gigha is Dun-Chifie, formerly, as is traditionally reported, a strong fortification occupied by Keefie, the King of Lochlin's son, who, it is said, was killed here by Diarmid, one of the heroes of Fingal.

Gigha Isle

GIGHA ISLE, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness. It is one of the Hebrides, and lies north-east of Barra island, having Ottervore bay on the west: the isle is of small extent, and is inhabited.

Gigulum Isle

GIGULUM ISLE, in the parish of Gigha and Cara, district of Cantyre, county of Argyll. This is a small uninhabited islet, situated between the islands of Gigha and Cara; and in the sound between Gigulum and Gigha is good anchorage ground for large vessels, as is more particularly noticed in the article on the parish.

Gilcomston

GILCOMSTON, a district, and lately an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish of Old Machar, city, district, and county of Aberdeen; containing 5194 inhabitants. This place, which forms part of the northern suburbs of the city, is pleasantly situated on a gentle acclivity, and near a rivulet which in its course turns some mills. The streets are irregularly formed, apparently without any regard to uniformity of plan; and the houses are generally indifferently built, of mean appearance, and chiefly inhabited by labourers employed in agriculture and in the several manufactories in the neighbourhood. A distillery of whisky was established in 1750, by a joint stock company, at the mill of Gilcomston; but, for want of sufficient encouragement, it was in a few years discontinued, and a public brewery was subsequently established on the premises. To the west of the town is the celebrated chalybeate called the Well of Spaw; and the environs abound with picturesque scenery. The district was separated from the parish of Old Machar by act of the General Assembly, in 1834, and was, for a short time, for ecclesiastical purposes, a parish of itself; it comprised about 600 acres of tolerably fertile land, in good cultivation. The church, originally a chapel of ease, was erected in 1771, and enlarged by galleries in 1796; it is a neat structure, conveniently situated, and contains 1522 sittings. The minister's stipend is £230, derived solely from the seat-rents. There are also an episcopal chapel, erected by subscription in 1812, and containing 386 sittings, and places of worship for members of the Free Church and of the Original Secession. Several Sabbath schools collectively contain nearly 300 children; and connected with them is a library of 400 volumes.

Gills

GILLS, a township, in the parish of Canisbay, county of Caithness, 15 miles (N. by w.) from Wick; containing 164 inhabitants. It is situated on the shore of the Pentland Frith, nearly opposite the island of Stroma, and at the head of Gills bay, into which a small stream runs, after passing through the village. The bay is tolerably safe for vessels in moderate weather, and in this respect is preferable to Duncansbay and Freswick bay, both in the parish; but it cannot be regarded as an eligible place of anchorage at other times.

Gilmerton

GILMERTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Liberton, county of Edinburgh; containing 942 inhabitants, of whom 548 are in the village of Gilmerton, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Edinburgh. This district comprises about 1100 acres, the whole in tillage or pasture, with the exception of some small plantations around the seats of the principal heritors. It contains several coal-mines, of which those of Gilmerton, Drum, and Somerside are the principal: the Gilmerton mine ceased to be wrought in 1838, but is now again brought into operation. Iron-ore is known to exist in considerable quantity, some of it of the best black-band kind; and the lime-works here are, perhaps, among the oldest in the kingdom. Drum House, a fine mansion, was erected in 1698 by Lord James Somerville, but has since passed through the hands of various families; Gilmerton House, the property of Sir David Baird, Bart., is also an ancient structure; and an elegant residence in the Elizabethan style has lately been built at Fernieside. The village is situated on the road from Edinburgh to Carlisle, and colliers and carters from a large part of its population: in the district are the two smaller villages of Edgehead and Todhills. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; and the patronage is vested in the male communicants. The church, opened for divine service in April, 1837, is a neat structure, seated for 300 persons, and built at a cost of about £600, raised by subscription aided by a grant from the General Assembly. The members of the Free Church also have a place of worship. There is a school, of which the teacher has a salary contributed by Sir David Baird and others, and a house and garden; and a small library was founded by the late Rev. James Grant, minister of Liberton. Gilmerton Cave, or, as it is usually termed, "the Cove," is a curious and extensive subterraneous passage, consisting of several apartments, dug out of the solid rock, with forms and tables, similarly wrought, for the convenience of visiters. It was the work of five years' hard labour of an eccentric individual, a blacksmith, named Paterson, by whom it was completed in 1724; and it has since continued to attract the attention of all strangers. In the cave is also a well.

Gilmerton

GILMERTON, a village, in the parish of Fowlis Wester, county of Perth; containing 203 inhabitants. This is a modern village of neat appearance, well built, and pleasantly situated on the high road from Perth to Crieff.

Gilston, New

GILSTON, NEW, a village, in the parish of Largo, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Largo; containing 229 inhabitants. It lies in the northern part of the parish, and near its eastern boundary. In the vicinity of the village is a singular mass of rum-coal, said to be eighty feet in thickness, and wrought in open quarry. In this quarter of the parish, also, are considerable plantations consisting of oak, ash, beech, elm, and other trees, and greatly enriching the scenery.

Girthon

GIRTHON, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 6 miles (N. W.) from Kirkcudbright; containing, with the larger part of the burgh of Gatehouse of Fleet, 1874 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, is supposed to have derived its name, signifying, in the Celtic language, an inclosure or sanctuary, from some religious establishment having that privilege, and which existed at a very early period, at the passage of the river Fleet. In 1300, Edward I. of England, during the contested succession to the Scottish throne, resided for several days at the old town of Fleet, now Gatehouse, and presented an oblation at the altar of Girthon: after levying some fines from the town, for the misconduct of the inhabitants, who had attempted to oppose his progress, he retired without further molestation. The lands anciently belonged to a branch of the family of the Stewarts, from whom they passed by marriage to Donald de Levenax, or Lennox, son of the Earl of Lennox; and on the death of the seventh lord of Girthon, the estate, together with the family seat of Cally, was conveyed by his daughter, in marriage, to Richard Murray, of Broughton, whose descendant, Alexander Murray, Esq., M.P., is the present proprietor.

The parish, which is bounded on the south and west by the bay and river of Fleet, is about sixteen miles in length, and from two to five in breadth, comprising 15,480 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder heath and waste, affording tolerable pasture for sheep and cattle. The surface towards the north and east is mountainous and bleak; towards the south, with the exception of some gentle undulations, pretty level. In the mountainous district are several lakes, of which the principal are, Loch Greanoch, about three miles in length, and half a mile in breadth; Loch Skerroch, nearly half a mile square; Loch Fleet; and Loch Whinnyan, on the eastern border of the parish. From Loch Fleet flows the little water of Fleet; and this, after a few miles, is joined by the great water of the same name, together making the river Fleet, which, after a winding course, dividing the parish from that of Anwoth, runs into Fleet bay. In Loch Greanoch are found char in great abundance, and pike in Loch Skerroch; a few salmon are taken in the river Fleet, and flounders in great plenty; and near the mouth of the river are two small islands, where excellent oysters are obtained. These isles are uninhabited, affording only pasturage for sheep. The soil is various: the arable lands, which are under good cultivation, produce favourable crops, and the meadows are luxuriant. The farm-houses, most of which have been rebuilt, are substantial and commodious; and all the more recent improvements in husbandry have been adopted. The cattle, of which about 1200 are annually reared, are of the Galloway breed; and the sheep, of which 8000 are fed in the mountain pastures, are of the small native kind. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5698.

There are considerable remains of ancient woods at Castramont and a few other places; and the plantations of more recent date are in a thriving condition. The substrata are chiefly clay-slate and granite, of which latter the rocks are principally composed. A slatequarry was some years since in operation, but has been superseded by the importation of slate from England and Wales, at a cheaper rate; and a vein of copper-ore, which was formerly wrought by a company from Wales, has been also discontinued. The principal mansion is Cally, the seat of Mr. Murray, a spacious and elegant structure of granite, erected in 1763, and since much improved; it contains a noble hall of marble, in which are some handsome pieces of sculpture, and has many stately apartments, with valuable paintings. The pleasure-grounds and gardens are extensive and tastefully embellished, and in the park are numerous herds of deer, and some fine specimens of the ancient Caledonian breed of cattle. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, situated at Gatehouse, is a neat substantial structure, erected in 1818, and contains 714 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is attended upon the average by ninety children: the master has a salary of £45, increased to that amount by Mr. Murray, with a house and garden; and the fees average about £40 per annum. A charity school is supported by Lady Anne Murray, in which the children are gratuitously clothed and instructed. The site of the palace of the bishops of Galloway is still pointed out here, though there are no vestiges of the building; and in the pleasure-grounds of Cally are the remains of the ancient family seat. There are several small moats, called it "Doons," and also an ancient camp, forming one of a line which traverses the stewartry.

Girvan

GIRVAN, a busy sea-port, market-town, and parish, in the district of Carrick, county of Ayr, 29 miles (N. N. E.) from Stranraer, and 97 (S. W. by W.) from Edinburgh; containing 8000 inhabitants. Girvan is supposed to have derived its name from the river on which it is situated, and which, on account of the rapidity of its course, was called the Griffan, from two Celtic words descriptive of its character. Few circumstances of historical importance are connected with the place, and its origin and early history are not distinctly recorded. The town is beautifully seated at the mouth of the river, which here discharges its waters into a spacious bay; and commands an extensive and interesting view of the sea, the rock of Ailsa, the mull and promontory of Cantyre, the islands of Sanda, Arran, and Little Cumbray, part of the Isle of Bute, and the coast of Ireland in the distance. It appears to have risen into note from the grant of a charter to Thomas Boyd, of Ballochtoul, which was recited and confirmed to Sir Archibald Muir, of Thornton, provost of Edinburgh, in 1696, by William III., who bestowed on it all the privileges of a burgh of barony; and from the advantage of its situation on the coast, and in a large manufacturing district, it gradually increased in population and extent, and ultimately became the seat of trade and manufacturing industry. The number of inhabitants has been greatly augmented since the introduction of cotton-weaving by the settlement of numerous weavers from Ireland, for whom many small houses have been built in the town and suburbs. A public library is maintained by subscription, and two circulating libraries have been recently established, which are well supported; there is also a library belonging to the agricultural society of the district. Not less than 2000 looms are employed in weaving cotton for the Glasgow and Paisley manufacturers, who have agents settled here for conducting that business; and many of the inhabitants are engaged in the several trades connected with the port, and requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood with various articles of merchandise.


Burgh Seal.

The Girvan is frequented by salmon, and a considerable fishery was formerly carried on, under the protection of the charter, by the proprietors on both sides of the river; but it has been greatly diminished by laying down stake-nets. The bay abounds with white-fish of every kind, the chief of which are cod, haddock, whiting, mackerel, soles, flounders, turbot, and lobsters; but, not withstanding, very little attention was paid to this valuable fishery till of late, when some steps were taken to render it more available to the trade of the place. A considerable business is also carried on in the shipping of grain, of which about 1200 bolls of wheat are sent off quarterly, on the average; and the trade of the town would be much extended by the construction of a rail-road from the collieries in the district. The harbour, till recently, was in a totally unimproved condition, admitting only vessels of very small burthen; but a quay, though at present only on a small scale, has been constructed, which has much facilitated the exportation of potatoes and coal; and when further improvements have been made, the harbour will be one of the most commodious on this part of the coast. There are at present upwards of twenty vessels belonging to Girvan, of from 100 to 300 tons' burthen; and ship-building is carried on with spirit. Branch banks have been established, and also a post-office: the market, which is amply supplied with provisions of all kinds, is regularly held, once a week; and fairs, to which black-cattle are brought for sale, are held on the last Mondays in April and October, chiefly for the hiring of servants. Facility of intercourse with all places of importance in the district is afforded by excellent roads, of which that from Glasgow to Portpatrick passes along the west side of the parish for nearly nine miles; and there are good inland roads traversing the parish in all directions. The burgh, under its charter, is governed by two bailies and a council of twelve burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, treasurer, and other officers; four of the council retire annually, but are capable of re-election by the majority of the burgesses; and the bailies are annually elected by the council. The other officers of the corporation are appointed by the magistrates; the senior bailie is, by virtue of his office, a member of the council, and the junior bailie takes the office of senior magistrate for the ensuing year. The jurisdiction extends over the whole of the burgh and the barony of Ballochtoul; and a bailie's court is held weekly, on Wednesday, in the town-hall, for the determination of civil pleas to the amount of £2, and for the trial of petty offences, which are generally punished by the imposition of fines not exceeding £1, and with imprisonment for non-payment. The average number of civil cases appears for some years to have been gradually diminishing, and at present is under fifty. All persons wishing to carry on trade must enter as freemen, for which a fee of £2 on admission is paid to the common fund. The police is under the management of the magistrates; and sixty of the inhabitants are annually appointed constables for the preservation of the peace. The town-hall is a neat building; and attached to it is a prison for petty offenders in default of payment of their fines, and for the temporary confinement of others previously to their being sent to the gaol of Ayr.

The parish, situated on the coast, is nine miles in length, and extends about four miles in mean breadth, though of very irregular form, varying from two to seven miles. It is bounded on the west for nearly the whole of its length, by the sea, and comprises about 19,000 acres, of which, with the exception of a small portion of woodland and plantation, the greater part is arable land and moorland pasture, and the remainder waste. The surface, which in no part is very level, is diagonally intersected by a boldly elevated ridge, of which the highest point is 1200, and the mean height 900, feet above the level of the sea. The lands are watered by three rivers, of which the Girvan is the principal; the Lendal, a comparatively small stream, falls into the sea at Carleton bay, and the Assel, after flowing through the parish, falls into the Stinchar in the parish of Colmonell. There are also two lakes; but, though of great depth, they only cover a very inconsiderable portion of ground. The soil is generally fertile, and in the lower lands well adapted for the growth of wheat; in the higher parts the lands are coarse, and comparatively unproductive. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, and bear, potatoes, beans, peas, and many acres of turnips for the sheep; the system of husbandry is improved, and draining has been practised on the lands requiring it, recently to a great extent. Sea-weed, found in abundance on the shore, is very generally used as manure, though not altogether to the exclusion of lime: the farm houses and offices in the parish have been almost all rebuilt within the last fifty years, and are in general substantial and commodious; and some, of more recent erection, are inferior to none in this part of the country. Great attention is paid to live stock, though from a greater quantity of land having been improved and rendered arable, the number of cattle pastured has proportionally diminished. The dairy-farms are well managed; the cows are of the Ayrshire breed, and about 500 are kept on the several farms, and 300 head of young cattle pastured every year. The sheep are chiefly of the larger black-faced breed, with a few of the Cheviot; 2200 are annually reared, and about 400 bought in and fed on turnips for the markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,845.

There is very little natural wood, and the plantations are on a limited scale. The substrata are mostly limestone, red freestone, whinstone of a bluish colour, and graystone in detached masses; the limestone has been extensively quarried for the supply of the neighbouring district. Copper has been found on some of the lands; and it is thought that there are abundant veins of ore at Ardmillan. Indeed, attempts have been made to ascertain the fact, but upon too inefficient a scale to warrant any just conclusion: what ore was obtained was found to be of rich quality, and in searching for it several beautiful specimens of asbestos were discovered. Along the coast, the rocks are chiefly of the conglomerate kind; and huge masses are seen, piled upon each other, and in some instances so nicely poised on the slender props which sustain their prodigious weight as to fill the beholder with fearful apprehensions. The parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, the Crown. The minister's stipend is £269. 12., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, situated in the centre of the town, and close to the Glasgow and Portpatrick road, was erected about the year 1780, when the population was scarcely a fourth of the present number; it is adapted for a congregation of 850 persons, but is altogether inadequate to the wants of the parishioners. There are places of worship for Burghers, Wesleyan Methodists, the Free Church, and Seceders from the Free Church. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with £50 fees, and an allowance of £20 in lieu of a house and garden. He also receives the interest of £1000 bequeathed by Mrs. Crauford, of Ardmillan, for the education of forty children without fees, of whom ten are taught church music by the precentor of the church, to whom she left £12 per annum for that purpose. Another school is supported by subscription, for teaching children to read the scriptures, and for instructing them in their catechism. A savings' bank has been established, and some benevolent societies have contributed to diminish the number of applications for parochial aid. Vestiges remain of numerous small circular camps; and there were formerly many cairns, but most have been destroyed to furnish materials for fences: on removing one of these, a stone coffin of thin slabs was found, and an urn of earthenware, rudely ornamented, containing ashes.

Glack

GLACK, a hamlet, in the parish of Methven, county of Perth; containing 36 inhabitants.

Gladsmuir

GLADSMUIR, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Tranent; containing, with the villages of Samuelston, Long Niddry, and Penston, 1699 inhabitants. This place, which was anciently a wide uncultivated moor, is supposed to have derived its name from its being the resort of vast numbers of kites. It formed part of the possessions of Alexander Baliol, whose brother, John, father of John Baliol, King of Scotland, founded the college at Oxford called after his name, and whose son, William, obtained, by marriage with the daughter of William Wallace, the lands of Lamington, in the county of Lanark, and, altering his name to Baillie, founded the family of the Baillies of Lamington, whose lineal descendant is the present proprietor. The parish is five miles in length, extending from the Frith of Forth, on the north, to the river Tyne, on the south; it is four miles in breadth, and comprises 6731 acres, of which 6386 are arable and in good cultivation, 302 woodland and plantations, thirty-four are homesteads, and seven and a half, roads. The surface rises gradually from the northern and southern extremities, forming an elevated ridge nearly in the centre of the parish, on the highest point of which the church is situated, and along which passes the great London road. The shore of the Frith, which bounds the parish for about a mile, is rugged, and interspersed with large masses of detached rocks. The Tyne, which forms a boundary for something more than a mile and a half, is but an inconsiderable stream, scarcely sufficient for turning some mills in its course. In the lower lands are several copious springs, affording an abundant supply of water. The scenery is generally pleasing, and in some parts finely embellished with rich and flourishing plantations; and from the higher grounds are obtained extensive and interesting views of the surrounding country.

The soil is various; in some parts a rich loam, in others loam intermixed with clay, in some light and sandy, and in others a deep moss: the crops are, barley, oats, wheat, beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in a very advanced condition; the lands have been greatly improved by draining, and by the introduction of bone-dust and guano as manures; much waste has been reclaimed, and many tracts of sterile marsh brought into a highly-cultivated state. The farm-houses are substantial and well built, and on most of the farms are threshing-mills, driven by steam; the lands are inclosed with hedges of thorn, and ditches, which are kept in good order. Great attention is paid to the rearing of live stock: the sheep, of which about 3000 are annually pastured, are chiefly of the Cheviot breed, with a cross between that and the Leicestershire; the cattle, of which 500 are annually fattened for the markets, and the milch-cows, are partly of the Ayrshire breed. About 220 horses, also, are reared, chiefly for agricultural purposes. The woods consist of oak, beech, lime, birch, elm, chesnut, and hazel; and the plantations of Scotch fir, spruce, and larch. The lands are rich in mineral wealth, and the inhabitants, in addition to their agricultural pursuits, are extensively employed in mining. The substrata are principally coal, limestone, and ironstone. The coal is found mostly in the district of Penston, where it has been worked for some centuries; the old mines being almost exhausted, new ones have been opened in the same field, and every where coal is found in abundance. The seams vary in thickness from thirty-two inches to three feet; steamengines have been erected in the new pits, to drain off the water, and the workings are successfully carried on. In 1835, a blacksmith residing at the village of Mc Merry, on the property of St. Germains, in sinking a well behind his house, discovered a vein of parrot coal, which was profitably wrought for some time, but has lately failed. Between Gladsmuir and the village of Samuelston, the magistrates of Haddington attempted to form a colliery on their own land; but after an outlay of more than £2000, they abandoned the proceedings. Limestone is worked in several parts, and near Long Niddry is a kiln for burning it into lime; there are also kilns in other places, but the works are not carried on to any great extent. Iron-ore is frequently found; it was wrought for some time on the lands belonging to the Earl of Wemyss; and from the increase in the demand for iron, the works will most probably be resumed. The rateable annual value of Gladsmuir is £11,103. Elvingston House, a seat in the parish, is a handsome mansion, completed in 1840, and pleasantly situated in a tastefully laid-out demesne, approached by an avenue of trees about 300 yards in length. Southfield, the property of the earl, is also a handsome house, surrounded with plantations, and now in the occupation of a tenant; and at Greendykes are some farm-buildings of very superior character. The nearest market-town is Haddington, which is the principal mart for the agricultural produce, and with which, and the neighbouring towns, facilities of communication are afforded by excellent roads: the London road passes for nearly three miles through the parish, and the numerous cross-roads are kept in good repair by statute labour.

The parish consists of the lands of Samuelston, Penston, Elvingston, and others, which, in the year 1650, were severed from the parishes of Haddington and Aberlady, and a church erected at Thrieplaw, which continued to be the parochial church till 1695, when another edifice was built, and the original one was suffered to fall into decay. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; alternate patrons, the Crown and the Earl of Hopetoun. The minister's stipend is £316. 17., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a handsome structure, and adapted for a congregation of about 750 persons. The eminence on which it is built commands a magnificent prospect embracing the Frith of Forth, with the county of Fife, the North Berwick and the Traprain hills, the vale of Tyne and the Lammermoor hills, the distant heights of Dumbarton and the county of Perth, and a vast variety of other interesting objects. The parochial school affords education to nearly 100 children; the master has a salary of £34, with £32 fees, and a house and garden. There are also schools at Samuelston and Long Niddry, the masters of which have a house and garden rent-free, and the former a salary of £15, paid by Lord Haddington, and the latter one of £9, in addition to the customary fees.

In various parts are the foundations of old houses, leading to an opinion that the parish was once more populous; and there are also remains of several ancient mansions. Of these are, the mansion of Long Niddry, the seat of a branch of the Douglas family; the houses of East and West Adniston, of which scarcely any vestiges are remaining; and the old mansion-house of Penston, once of great strength, with arched roofs, but which has been long a ruin, and its remains converted into farm-buildings. Some stone coffins have been discovered at Seaton hill, containing many human bones; they were generally of red flagstone, about five feet long and two feet wide, and near them was found an urn filled with burnt bones. On the lands of Southfield, some labourers, while making drains, dug up a considerable number of small British coins of silver; and several similar coins have been found at Greendykes. John Knox, when compelled to leave St. Andrew's, took refuge at Long Niddry, where he acted as tutor to the sons of Mr. Douglas; and during his stay there, he preached the reformed doctrines in a chapel near the mansion-house, which still, though in ruins, retains the name of "Knox's Kirk." There are slight vestiges of the ancient parochial church which was situated at Thrieplaw: on the establishment of the coal-works at that place, the remaining walls were incorporated into the dwellings of the miners. Near the village of Penston, also, are the ruins of an old windmill, which, in the earlier working of the collieries in the neighbourhood, was erected for the purpose of drawing off the water from the pits, which is now much more effectually done by steam-engines. Dr. Robertson, principal of the university of Edinburgh, was incumbent of this parish, where he succeeded his uncle, Andrew Robertson, in 1744; and during his residence here, he composed the greater portion of his History of Scotland.

Glaidney

GLAIDNEY, or Glaidney-Cotton, a village, in the parish and district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 195 inhabitants. This village, which is situated near the southern extremity of the parish, and is connected with the northern portion of it by a handsome bridge over the river Eden, is neatly built, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the various manufactures of the town and parish.

Glammis

GLAMMIS, a parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with the villages of Arnyfoul, Charleston, Drumglay, Grasshouses of Thornton, Milton, Newton, and Thornton, 2167 inhabitants, of whom 556 are in the village of Glammis, 52 miles (N) from Edinburgh. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is identified with the murder of Malcolm II., which, according to some writers, is said to have occurred in the castle of Glammis, at that time a royal residence, and, according to others, to have happened in a skirmish with his assailants in the immediate vicinity, in which he was mortally wounded. The castle, and the lands belonging to it, were granted by Robert II. to Sir John Lyon, ancestor of the Strathmore family, upon whom, also, he conferred his second daughter in marriage, and the barony of Kinghorn. On the conviction of Lady Glammis, who was executed in 1537, for an alleged conspiracy against the life of James V., the castle was forfeited to the crown, and again became a royal residence; but on a subsequent discovery of her innocence, the honours and the estate were restored to her son. Lord Glammis, whose descendant, the Earl of Strathmore, is the present proprietor. The parish, which forms part of the southern portion of the vale of Strathmore, is situated near the base of the Grampian hills, and is about ten miles in length, varying from one mile to five miles in breadth, and comprising an area of 15,000 acres, of which 8000 are arable, 4500 meadow and pasture, 1600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder roads and waste. The surface towards the north is generally level, with an elevation of about 260 feet above the sea; towards the south, it rises by gentle undulations to the Sidlaw hills, which are from 1000 to 1500 feet in height. The principal river is the Dean, which, issuing from Loch Forfar, at the north-eastern extremity of the parish, flows in a western direction, receiving in its course the Ballandarg burn, the Kerbet water, and the Glammis burn, and falling into the river Isla. Loch Forfar, of which the western extremity is within the parish, was formerly 200 acres in extent, but has been reduced to nearly one-half by draining, There are also several springs in the parish, of which some are slightly chalybeate.

The soil, though much diversified, is generally fertile: on the north side of the river Dean, it is a light loam, alternated with gravel and sand, and in the hollows are some tracts of moss; on the south side is a deep brown loam of great richness, with other kinds. The system of agriculture is advanced, and the lands have been improved by large quantities of marl, procured by the draining of the lake. The cattle, of which great numbers are reared in the pastures, are partly of the native Angus breed, and are sent by the Dundee steamers to the London market, where they obtain a high price. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7801. The plantations, which are extensive, and all of modern growth, consist of ash, elm, oak, birch, and larch, with spruce and Scotch firs; they are under careful management, and in a thriving state. The chief substrata are of the old red sandstone formation, whinstone, and trap; and near the Sidlaw hills are some beds of slate, which have been extensively worked. The sandstone is quarried for building, and the whinstone for the roads; a kind of grit is also formed, of which mill-stones are made for exportation, and there are veins of lead-ore, of which those near the village were formerly wrought. Glammis Castle, the seat of the Earl of Strathmore, is a venerable structure of great antiquity, consisting of two quadrangular ranges of great strength, crowned with turrets and lofty towers, of which the principal, 100 feet in height, constitutes the central portion of the mansion. The buildings were repaired, and partly modernised, under the superintendence of Inigo Jones; and other restorations and additions have been subsequently made. In front of the mansion is a massive pedestal, on which are four lions rampant of gigantic size, each holding a dial, facing one of the cardinal points. The mansion contains a splendid collection of paintings, an extensive assortment of ancient armour, and a valuable museum of natural curiosities and antiques. The park in which it is situated abounds with ornamental timber, and with stately avenues of ancient growth, leading to the house, and of which one, particularly worthy of notice, is more than a mile in length.

The village of Glammis, which is nearly in the centre of the parish, on the great road from Aberdeen to Edinburgh, is neatly built. A public library, containing about 700 volumes, is supported by subscription; and a handsome building, containing two spacious halls, has been erected by the friendly societies of masons and gardeners. The manufacture of brown linen, chiefly Osnaburghs and sheetings, is carried on to a considerable extent, for which purpose a mill for spinning flax was erected on the Glammis burn in 1806; the machinery is driven by a water-wheel of twenty-four-horse power. The yarn spun at this mill is woven, in several of the numerous villages in the parish, into brown linen, of which about 4000 pieces are annually made for the Dundee market; and 7500 pieces are woven by private individuals in different parts of the parish, in addition to what is made from the yarn spun at the mill. A circulating library, containing 300 volumes, has been opened for the use of the persons employed by the millowner. The post-office has a daily delivery; and facility of communication is maintained by the roads from Aberdeen to Edinburgh and from Kirriemuir to Dundee, which intersect each other in the village, and by good roads in various other directions through the parish. A branch of the Dundee and Newtyle railway was made from Newtyle to this place in 1835; it is seven and a half miles in length, and at about a mile from Newtyle a line diverges from it to Cupar-Angus. Fairs for cattle and sheep are held annually; the older in May and November, and those of more recent date in April, July, and October.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £255. 15., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16. 10. per annum; patron, the Earl of Strathmore. The church, erected in 1793, is a neat plain structure with a spire, and contains 950 sittings. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. There were three ancient castles; one at Cossins, the property of the Strathmore family; one in the glen of Ogilvie, and one in the glen of Denoon; but they have all been totally destroyed. Within a short distance of the church is an obelisk of rude design, raised to commemorate the murder of Malcolm: on one side are sculptured the figures of two men, above which are a lion and a centaur; and on the other are several sorts of fishes, supposed to have allusion to the loch of Forfar, in which the assassins were drowned while making their retreat from the castle. In a wood not far from the village of Thornton is a large cairn, on which is also an obelisk, similar to the former, and named King Malcolm's Gravestone. Near Cossins is a third obelisk, called St. Orland's Stone, on one side of which is a cross fleuri, and on the other the figures of four men on horseback, in full speed, one of whom is trampling under his horse's feet a wild boar; and near the base of the obelisk is the figure of a dragon. This place gives the title of Baron Glammis to the Earl of Strathmore, that dignity having been conferred on Patrick Lyon in 1445.

Glasford

GLASFORD, county of Lanark.—See Glassford.



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