Ibris - Issay

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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555-584

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'Ibris - Issay', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 555-584. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43448 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Ibris, or Eyebroughy

IBRIS, or EYEBROUGHY, an isle, in the parish of Dirleton, county of Haddington. This islet lies close to the main land of the parish, in the Frith of Forth, and is of small extent, and very narrow. The isle of Fidrey, also appertaining to Dirleton, is distant about a mile east-north-east from Ibris.

Icolmkill

ICOLMKILL, county of Argyll.—See Iona.

Illary

ILLARY, an island, in the parish of North Uist, county of Inverness; containing 80 inhabitants. It is one of the Hebrides, lying westward of North Uist; and is three miles in length, and in most places one and a half in breadth. The soil is partly sandy, and partly a black loam, yielding tolerable crops of barley, and some pasture for cattle. Illary is of insular appearance only at the flow of the tide.

Inch

INCH, a parish, in the county of Wigton, 2½ miles (E.) from Stranraer; containing, with the hamlets of Aird, Cairnryan, and Lochans, 2950 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, and distinguished for its lochs, appears to have derived its name from an island in the loch of Castle-Kennedy, which was called the Inch, an appellation corrupted from the Celtic word Inis or Ynis, signifying "an island." The locality, in very ancient times, was occupied by the Novantes, whose town of Rerigonium was situated on the bank of the Rerigonius sinus, now called Loch Ryan, and was near the farm of Innermessan, adjacent to which is a large circular mound or moat, formerly surrounded, as is supposed, by a fosse, and measuring seventy-eight feet in height, and 336 round its base. Various purposes have been assigned to this work of antiquity; but whether it was intended for the administration of justice, for a rendezvous in times of danger, or for the Beltan (Bel's fire), or for all these, is uncertain. The circumstance, however, of charred wood, ashes, and bones having been found at some depth below the surface, within its line of circumscription, is strong evidence of its having been used occasionally, and perhaps regularly, as a place of sepulture. On or near the site of Rerigonium, at a later period, stood the town and castle of Innermessan. The latter belonged to Sir Andrew Agnew, of Lochnaw; the former, till eclipsed by the town of Stranraer, was the largest place in the Rhins of Galloway; but no traces of either remain, except a sewer about three feet under ground.

The celebrated abbey of Soulseat, or Saulseat, was founded here in the 12th century, by Fergus, lord of Galloway, for Præmonstratensian monks. Though its history is, for the most part, involved in obscurity, Chalmers is of opinion that it was the first institution of the order in Scotland; that its abbots were the superiors of the Præmonstratensian monks throughout the kingdom; and that the establishment was the mother of the more opulent priory of Whithorn, as well as of the abbey of Holywood. In an act of parliament of 1487, it is spoken of as not being subject to the authority or appointment of the Pope. In 1532, it appears that David, abbot of Soulseat, was invested with a commission from the king, to visit and reform all the houses in Scotland of his own order; and in 1658, the abbot is named in a document as uniting with others in defence of the queen. This abbey, situated on a peninsula that stretched out into a lake, to which it gave its name, and surrounded by a burial-ground, was called Sedes Animarum, and Monasterium Viridis stagni, the latter term in allusion to the green appearance, at certain times, of the surface of the lake. It was a ruin in, 1684, and but very small portions of the remains are now to be seen; but a part of the burial-ground is still occasionally used as a place of interment. The mansion of Castle-Kennedy, situated here, and which was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1715, was a lofty and spacious structure, supposed to have been built in the reign of James VI., and was the seat of the powerful earls of Cassilis, whose property and influence spread over so large a part of Wigtonshire. It passed, with the lands, in the time of Charles II., to Sir J. Dalrymple, the younger, of Stairs, in whose family the estate has since continued, though the building, the remaining walls of which are seventy feet high, has not been inhabited since the fire. The structure is surrounded by grounds beautifully laid out after a military plan devised by Marshal Stair; and adjoining are flourishing plantations, containing some lofty and luxuriant ashtrees.

The parish of Inch formerly comprehended a part of that of Stranraer and the whole of Portpatrick. The latter was separated and made distinct in 1628; and about the same period, a portion of Inch, with some land in Leswalt, was allotted to form the parish of Stranraer, and the old parish of Soulseat was united to Inch. The parish has the county of Ayr on the north, the parishes of New and Old Luce on the east, and that of Stoneykirk on the south; on the west it is bounded for about eight miles by Loch Ryan. It is ten miles in length, and in one part nearly of the same breadth, comprising 30,600 acres, of which 12,600 are cultivated or occasionally in tillage, and the remainder waste or natural pasture. The northern portion is principally high land, rising in some places to an elevation of 812 feet above the level of the sea, and, with the exception of a small portion under the plough, is in general rugged, and covered with heath, about 800 acres only being considered capable of cultivation. The southern portion, which is part of an isthmus formed by Loch Ryan and the bay of Luce, is slightly undulated, but has, when viewed from the hills, the appearance of a continuous plain. It contains several hollows, provincially called Pots, which were produced by the action of the water when spread over this division of the parish, and one of which is 1000 feet in circumference, and 100 feet deep.

The river Luce, in which are good salmon, forms the boundary line between this parish and Luce; and the Piltanton, a smaller and slower stream, falling, like the former, into the bay of Luce, divides it from Stoneykirk. The lands are also ornamented with twelve lochs of fresh water, including those of Castle-Kennedy and Soulseat, which are the most celebrated for their beautiful scenery. The whole abound in pike, perch, trout, eels, and roach; and in the frosty weather, some of them are frequented by large numbers of wild-duck, teal, widgeon, coots, and cormorants. These, with the swarms of wild-geese near the brooks and the sea-shore, and the flocks of curlews, plovers, and every kind of game on the high lands, afford ample gratification to the sportsman, and impart an air of liveliness to the district, which is sometimes increased by crowds of persons of all ranks enjoying, upon the frozen surface of the lochs, the favourite amusements of curling and skating. Swans, also, frequently visit the place in the winter; and the sea-mew, in the spring, finds a retreat among the sedge of the lochs, for bringing forth her young. Loch Ryan, situated at the mouth of the Clyde, has long been a secure retreat for vessels entering or leaving that river, and for those navigating the Irish channel, even in the most stormy and dangerous weather, on account of its excellent anchorage and safe shelter off the village of Cairnryan. It is between eight and nine miles in length, from its northern extremity to the town of Stranraer at its head, and is about three miles wide at the entrance. It has at first from four to five fathoms' depth of water, which gradually increases to from seven to eight; and is considered to be admirably adapted for a mail-packet station between Scotland and Ireland. Salmon are taken in its estuaries; and its fishery, the produce of which comprises cod, haddock, whiting, herrings, flounders, and oysters of very superior quality, partly belongs to Sir Alexander Wallace, and is held by charter from the crown.

The soil, varying almost as much as the surface, is in the high grounds partly loam, though chiefly clay, with a considerable proportion of moss, and large tracts of peat, from which the inhabitants are plentifully supplied with good fuel. In the lower parts it is light and fertile, resting on gravel or sand, and produces good crops of all kinds of grain, potatoes, turnips, and hay. The cultivation of the turnip was introduced into the parish, about a century since, by Marshal Stair, and, though practised only to a very inconsiderable extent till within the last few years, has now become a favourite branch of husbandry, the lightness of the soil being remarkably suited to the root. The crops are eaten off the ground by sheep, to the great advantage of the land. The cattle are partly of the Galloway kind; but the great regard formerly paid to this stock has lately much diminished, and the farmers, turning their attention more to the dairy, have introduced the Ayrshire cow to a great extent; and cheese now forms a considerable part of the disposable produce. Numerous improvements in agriculture have taken place within the present century; many acres of bog have been reclaimed, and converted into good arable land, now yielding fine crops; and most of the farm-houses have been rendered comfortable dwellings. The fences on the lower grounds are occasionally formed of thorn hedges, but are generally turf dykes, sown with whins; on the higher lands they are entirely of stone. The rateable annual value of Inch is £10,986. The geology of the parish has no striking features, the hills consisting chiefly of stratified transition rocks, the principal of which is greywacke: detached blocks of granite are occasionally to be seen; and near Loch Ryan is an excellent slate-quarry. Several attempts have been made to discover coal, but without effect. There is a little natural wood, principally in the glens of the Highland district; the plantations cover 655 acres, all inclosed. The oldest are those made by Marshal Stair, and consist chiefly of beech, a wood supposed at that time to be the only one suited to the soil and climate, but which has since been equalled, if not surpassed, in growth and value by the ash and plane. These latter, with oak, elm, and larch, are now to be seen, in a thriving condition, in most of the plantations, and serve very beneficially as a protection to the arable grounds.

The chief village is Cairnryan, which contains 196 persons, and is distant seven miles from the parish church; about 100 reside in another village, and a few in a suburb of Stranraer, lately built in the parish. The high road from London to Portpatrick, and that from Glasgow to the same place, pass through Inch, and are daily traversed by mail coaches. The steam-packet, also, running between Glasgow and Stranraer, and that from Belfast to Stranraer, touch at Cairnryan, for passengers and goods. A monthly market, called "the Stranraer cattle-market," is held from April to October. The parish ecclesiastically is in the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, and in the patronage of the Crown. The stipend is £264; and there is a manse, rebuilt in 1838, with a glebe containing eighteen acres, valued at £15. 15. per annum, and four acres, lately added by the draining of a loch. The church, built in 1770, and capable of accommodating 400 persons, occupies a beautiful situation adjoining the picturesque woods and lake of Castle-Kennedy. The parochial school affords instruction in the classics, practical mathematics, and the various branches of a good education; the master receives the minimum salary, about £23 in fees, and has a house and garden.

At Glenterra is a relic of antiquity called the Standing Stones, situated near the road to New Luce, consisting of four large upright stones, and conjectured to have been originally a Druidical temple: near these is a single stone, also erect. There is likewise a series of stones called the Stepping-Stones of Glenterra, disposed like stairs, extending for about a quarter of a mile along a peaty moss, and supposed to have been placed there for the convenience of transit. Stone axes are occasionally discovered; and there are numerous cairns in the upper, and tumuli in the lower, part of the parish, which are generally thought to have been raised by the Novantes for sepulchral purposes. They are usually called the Auld Grey Cairns, and are formed of a circular heap of stones, from fifty to seventy feet in diameter, and rising from six to eight feet in the centre: in the interior is a cavity formed by large flat stones, in which an urn is generally found, containing bony fragments, ashes, &c. At the farm of Larg, near the river Luce, are the remains of a castle, once the residence of the Lyns of Larg. The castle of Craig-Caffie, also situated here, was the property of the Nelsons, a family now extinct, and is a moderate-sized ancient structure, surrounded by a fosse, and still in good condition, but converted into a farm-house. That part of the parish which, with a portion of Leswalt, was detached to form the parish of Stranraer, was the site of a chapel dedicated to St. John; and near this stood a castle, which Symson, in his description of Galloway, written in 1684, calls "a good house pertaining to Sir John Dalrymple, younger, of Stair," but which is now a jail for the town of Stranraer. There are several chalybeate springs, and some partially sulphureous. Marshal Stair, celebrated in military and political history, was a native of Inch. North-west Castle is the seat of Sir John Ross, the well-known navigator of the Arctic, who was born here in 1777, during the incumbency of his father, the Rev. Andrew Ross; and General Sir Alexander J. Wallace, distinguished as a military officer in Egypt, India, and the Peninsula, also resides in the parish.

Inch-Cailloch

INCH-CAILLOCH, an isle, in the parish of Buchanan, county of Stirling. This beautiful island, of which the name signifies the "Isle of Old Women," is situated in Loch Lomond, and is one of a cluster in that magnificent and celebrated lake. It lies close to the shore, about two miles distant in a line westward from the church of Buchanan, and is a mile in length, elevated, and covered with wood, except where cultivated for wheat and oats, which it produces of very good quality. Here formerly stood a nunnery, the church attached to which was once the parochial church of Buchanan; but owing to the inconvenience arising from crossing to the island in boisterous weather, divine service was transferred to a chapel near the house of Buchanan. This place is the property of the Duke of Montrose.

Inchcolm

INCHCOLM, an island, in the parish of Aberdour, district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Aberdour; containing 5 inhabitants. It is situated in the Frith of Forth, immediately opposite to Aberdour; and the approach to it is very beautiful. On this island are the remains of a celebrated monastery of Augustines, founded in 1123, by Alexander I., in accordance with a vow, and most richly endowed by his munificence. It soon became famous for its sanctity; and in consequence, Alan de Mortimer, lord of Aberdour, bestowed half of the lands of the parish on the monks, for the privilege of a family burial-place in their church. The wealth of the convent proved so great a temptation to the army and seamen employed in the invasion of the kingdom by Edward III., that they ravaged it without mercy, not sparing even the vessels consecrated to divine worship. A storm, however, happening instantly to follow, which overtook their ships, and in which many of them perished, they were struck with what they regarded as a judgment upon their impiety; and they returned on the cessation of the tempest, and restored the spoil. The monastery continued a place of great consequence, and was highly venerated, until the Reformation. On every side the island is hemmed in by rugged rocks; in the centre is a hollow vale, connecting the two circular ends of the island, as if by an isthmus; and a range of fine land and marine scenery appears in all directions, with, on the south-east, a splendid view of the city of Edinburgh. A small part of the island is arable; and a few stunted trees grow round the ancient walls of the ruined cloisters. The isle abounds in rabbits; has an occasional lobster-fishery; and is noted for its onions, which it produces in great quantities. During the late war with France, Inchcolm was garrisoned by a party of artillery; and on the east end, where it is high and rocky, a battery of ten guns was at that time erected.

Inch-Conagan

INCH-CONAGAN, an isle, in the parish of Luss, county of Dumbarton. It lies in the fine water of Loch Lomond, about a mile eastward of the shore, and is one of a group of several isles closely bordering on one another. It is more than half a mile in length, and about two furlongs and a half in breadth; and contains about ninety-four acres, chiefly under natural wood.

Inch-Cruin

INCH-CRUIN, an isle, in the parish of Buchanan, county of Stirling. This isle, of which the name signifies "the Round Island," is situated in Loch Lomond, and is about three-quarters of a mile in length, affording some good arable and pasture ground. There was formerly a retreat here for insane persons.

Inch-Fad

INCH-FAD, an isle, in the parish of Buchanan, county of Stirling. The name, in English, "Long Island," is descriptive of its form; it is about a mile in length, and between two and three furlongs in breadth, and lies, like the two preceding isles, in the loch of Lomond, not far from the main land of the parish. The soil is very fertile, producing excellent grain, and fine pasture; and there is a small portion of wood.

Inchgarvie

INCHGARVIE, an isle, in the parish of Inverkeithing, county of Fife. This is a small islet in the Frith of Forth, about half a mile south of Queensferry, in the parish of Inverkeithing, and double this distance from Queensferry, on the opposite shore of Linlithgow. In the reign of James IV., a fort was erected here, which was latterly used as a state prison; and this fort, or another built on its site, is still remaining on the summit of the isle, in ruins. Owing to the alarm occasioned by the appearance of Paul Jones and his squadron in the Frith, in 1779, the fortifications were renewed, and four twenty-four pounders were mounted upon them; but they have been since removed.

Inchinnan

INCHINNAN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 3 miles (N.) from Paisley; containing, with the hamlets of Broomlands and Luckensford, 500 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "a river island," from its peninsular situation, being almost surrounded by the rivers which form its principal boundaries. In some documents it is mentioned under the designation of Killinan, from the circumstance of the site of its church being totally insulated by the winding of one of those rivers, of which, however, the channel was long since diverted. The manor was one of the many grants conferred upon the ancient family of the Stuarts, previously to their accession to the throne; and is particularly noticed in a charter of Malcolm IV., dated at Roxburgh in 1158, in which that monarch confirms to Walter Stuart the office of high steward of Scotland, and the lands which had been bestowed upon him by David I. In 1511, James IV., by charter, granted to Matthew, Lord Darnley, and second Earl of Lennox, the manor and palace of Inchinnan, with their dependencies, all which, upon the death of the fourth earl, descended to his grandson, James VI., who conferred them upon his great uncle, John, Lord D'Aubigny, whom he also raised to a dukedom in 1581. These estates, again reverting to the crown, were, in 1680, given by Charles II. to his natural son, Charles, whom he had created Duke of Lennox and Richmond, and who sold them to the Duke of Montrose, from whom they were ultimately purchased by the ancestor of Mr. Campbell, of Blythswood, the present proprietor.

The parish is about three and a half miles in length, and varies from three quarters of a mile to something more than two miles in breadth. It is bounded on the north by the river Clyde, which separates it from the parish of Kilpatrick, in the county of Dumbarton; on the south by the river Gryfe, which separates it from the parish of Renfrew; on the east by the river Cart, which also divides it from Renfrew; and on the west, by the parishes of Erskine and Houston. The surface rises gradually from the rivers in a gentle acclivity, in some parts diversified with hills of considerable elevation, cultivated from the base nearly to their summits, which are crowned with plantations, adding much beauty and variety to the scenery, which is also enlivened by the different streams that skirt the parish. The Clyde, which has been much improved by the deepening of its channel, affords some salmon; and great quantities of those fish used formerly to be taken here. The river Gryfe flows with a tranquil course, in a clear and pellucid stream, between banks richly diversified, till it forms the boundary of the parish. It then passes through the grounds of Walkingshaw, receives the Black Cart, and, winding along a level tract of rich land, meanders round the rocky hill on which the church is built: then, being joined by the White Cart near the bridge of Inchinnan, it expands into ample breadth, and continues its course till it falls into the Clyde near Blythswood. These rivers abound with perch, trout, and eels; and in the river Cart, near its confluence with the Clyde, is an island occasionally frequented by the halcyon or kingfisher. On the banks of the Gryfe and other streams, snipes, wild-duck, and other water-fowl are abundant; pheasants and partridges are plentiful, and grouse is often found on the moorlands.

The whole number of acres in the parish is 3060, of which 2600 are arable land in good cultivation, 100 natural pasture, and 300 wood. The soil is generally a stiff clay; on the banks of the rivers, a rich black loam; and in the hilly parts, a light sand and gravel. The crops are, oaks, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is in a very advanced state, and great improvement has been made in draining and inclosing the lands, for the former of which a tile-kiln till lately existed on the lands of Blythswood. Great attention is paid to the management of dairy-farms, and nearly 300 cows are kept for that purpose, which are the finest of the Ayrshire breed: few horses are reared but such as are employed in agriculture, and these are the Clydesdale. The produce of the dairies finds a ready market at Paisley, to which town, also, and to Glasgow, the grain raised in the parish is sent. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and, with very few exceptions, are all roofed with slate. Considerable portions of the moorlands have been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation. Such of them as still remain, produce great quantities of peat, which is used for fuel; and much of the best quality, which is found on the Southbarr estate, is sent to Edinburgh and Clackmannan by water, and to Glasgow and Greenock by land carriage, for the supply of the distilleries. The substratum of the soil is generally a loose gravel, interspersed with boulders of primary and secondary rocks, resting upon a bed of carboniferous rock, traversed by dykes of whinstone, some of which are of great thickness, and alternated with grey sandstone, in which are found occasionally beautiful specimens of fossils. Limestone and coal are predominant; and both have been worked, especially the first, to a very considerable extent. Whinstone is quarried for paving, and for mending the roads. Freestone of very superior quality is also quarried on the lands of Park, whence was taken the stone of which the church and the bridge of this parish are built; and from the whin dykes, all the materials were furnished for the use of the trustees for the improvement of the navigation of the Clyde. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6308. The principal seats are, Southbarr, Park, and House Hill. There is scarcely any assemblage of houses that deserves the name of a village, the population being wholly agricultural. The bridge over the Gryfe and the White Cart, near their confluence, is an elegant structure erected at an expense of £17,000, and consists of two divisions, each spanning one of those rivers: near it is a wharf, to which coal is brought for the supply of the inhabitants; and there is another bridge at Barnsford. Good roads afford an easy communication with the neighbouring towns in different directions.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent is £261; the manse is a comfortable residence of modern erection, and the glebe comprises seven and a half acres of profitable land, valued at £20 per annum. The incumbent also receives the revenue arising from a piece of land called Ladyacre, which, before the Reformation, was given for the maintenance of an altar in the parish church. The old church was a very ancient building, supposed to have been founded before the reign of David I., who granted it, with all its dependencies, to the Knights Templars, after whose suppression it was transferred to the Hospitallers, who had a preceptory at Torphichen, in the county of Linlithgow. The last of the superiors, at the dissolution of monasteries, laying aside his monastic office and title, purchased the lands that had belonged to the establishment from the crown, and was created Lord Torphichen. The patronage of the church of this place was subsequently obtained by the Dukes of Lennox and Montrose, from whom it passed, by purchase, to the ancestor of Mr. Campbell, in whom it is at present vested. The present parish church was erected on the site of the ancient structure, in 1829; it is a neat edifice in the pointed style, with a massive square tower. The parochial school is under good regulation, and is attended by about sixty scholars; the master has a salary of £34, with £24 fees, and a house and offices, a spacious school-room and play-ground for the children, and half an acre of garden. Agricultural chemistry is taught in this school. There is a female school of industry, superintended by a mistress, who has a school-room, house, and garden provided for her by the heritors, and is supported partly by fees, which are very moderate. The parish has also two Sabbath schools, and a parochial library, containing a good collection of religious and historical works, to which all the parishioners have access, on payment of a nominal subscription. The ancient palace of Inchinnan, which was situated in the northern portion of the parish, overlooking the Clyde, was built by Matthew, Earl of Lennox, at the commencement of the sixteenth century: there are now no remains of it, the materials having been used for various purposes; and no memorial is preserved except the site. Silver and copper coins of the reigns of Henry IV. of France, and William and Mary of England, were found among the ruins of the old church, which was taken down in 1828. In the churchyard are several tombs, with crosses of different character, sculptured on the ridges of the covering stone; they are said to have been the tombs of Knights Templars. Robert Law, author of the Memorials of Scotland, was a native of the parish.

Inchkeith

INCHKEITH, an island, in the parish of Kinghorn, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Kinghorn: containing 9 inhabitants. This is a rocky isle, in the Frith of Forth, lying nearly equidistant between Kinghorn and Leith. It derives its name from the gallant Keith, who, in 1010, so greatly signalised himself at the battle of Barrie, in Forfarshire, against the Danes, the island, with the barony of Keith, being conferred upon him on that occasion, as a reward for his valour, by Malcolm II. In the fourteenth century, having fallen to the crown, it was bestowed, with the lands of Kinghorn, on Lord Glammis; and the Strathmore family retained it until 1649, when it became the property, by purchase, of Sir John Scott, of Scotstarvit. After passing subsequently into the hands of various persons, it at length came to the Dukes of Buccleuch, as heritors of the parish. The isle is above a mile in length, and of various breadth, and irregular surface; it has excellent pasturage for cattle and sheep, and some patches of good arable land; with fine springs of water, collected by tubes into a tank for the supply of vessels. On the south side is a small quay; and a lighthouse stands on an elevation of 180 feet above the sea, and is seen at the distance of eighteen nautical miles. At the close of the fifteenth century, Inchkeith was made a place of compulsory retirement for persons labouring under a loathsome disease called the "grandgore." It was subsequently an important military station, particularly during the regency of Mary of Guise, and the reigns of the unfortunate Queen Mary, and Charles I. of England.

Inch-Kenneth

INCH-KENNETH, an isle, in the parish of Kilfinichen, county of Argyll. It lies in Loch-na-Keal, about two miles east of Colonsay, on the western coast of Mull, and twelve miles west-by-south from Aros. It is a pleasant island, about a mile long and half a mile broad, and having some good land. In 1773, InchKenneth was the retreat of Sir Allan Maclean, the chief of his clan, who was here visited by Johnson and Boswell: his residence is now in ruins. Some vestiges of a chapel mark the site of an ancient seminary of monks, dependent on the abbey of Iona.

Inch-Lonaig

INCH-LONAIG, an isle, in the parish of Luss, county of Dumbarton. This islet is one of a numerous group, beautifully situated in Loch Lomond, and is about a mile long and a quarter of a mile broad, and estimated to contain 145 acres, of which a number are under wood. It lies equidistant between Luss, on one side of the lake, and the parish of Buchanan, on the opposite shore; and has been latterly appropriated as a deer-park, by the Colquhoun family, whose handsome seat of Ross-dhu is on the borders of the lake. The isle is remarkable for the number and size of its fine old yew-trees, which are of natural growth, and of which bows and arrows were formerly made.

Inch-Marnock

INCH-MARNOCK, an island, in the parish of Rothesay, and lying in the Frith of Clyde, 2 miles (W.) from the Isle of Bute. This island, which is situated opposite to St. Ninian's Point, in the bay of that name, was anciently a settlement of Culdee monks. It was subsequently granted by Roderick of Cantyre to the monastery of Cantyre, about the year 1229, before the erection of Rothesay into a parish, and continued to form a part of that establishment till the Reformation. It is two miles in length and half a mile in breadth, and comprises 560 acres, of which 120 are arable, and the remainder moorland and pasture. The surface is pleasingly diversified; and near the eastern shore are the picturesque remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Marnock.

Inch-Mickery

INCH-MICKERY, an isle, in the parish of Cramond, county of Edinburgh, situated in the Frith of Forth, near the isle and village of Cramond, and a little to the east of Inchcolm. It is of very small extent, not being more than a few furlongs in circumference; and is remarkable for a profusion of mosses, lichens, and long tangling sea-weed. On its shores are noted oysterbeds.

Inch-Moan

INCH-MOAN, an isle, in the parish of Luss, county of Dumbarton. This isle, of which the name signifies "the Moss Isle," lies in Loch Lomond; is about three quarters of a mile in length and a quarter of a mile in breadth; and contains about 100 acres, mostly covered with moss, and supplying peat to the village of Luss and its neighbourhood.

Inch-Murin

INCH-MURIN, an isle, in the parish of Buchanan, county of Stirling, the largest and most southern of the islands of the loch of Lomond. Its length is about two miles and its breadth one; it is finely wooded, and affords excellent pasture. This isle was the residence of the ancient Earls of Lennox; and at the south end are the ruins of a castle, surrounded by venerable oaks, in which the noble family resided. It is now the property of the Duke of Montrose, and is kept chiefly as a deer-park. In 1793, the late duke built a handsome hunting-seat and offices here, at present occupied by the keeper, who cultivates some ground around the house. From St. Murrin, the tutelary saint of Paisley, the island is said to have derived its name.

Inch-Tavanach

INCH-TAVANACH, an isle, in the parish of Luss, county of Dumbarton, one of the numerous islands in Loch Lomond, and lying near the west margin of the lake, between Ross-dhu and the village of Luss. The name signifies "the Island of the Monk;" and it appears to have been a place of retirement for some contemplative hermit. This is the loftiest land in the loch, and is chiefly composed of grey granite, with some rocks of micaceous schistus, and quantities of quartz. The isle is about three-quarters of a mile in length and three furlongs in breadth, and is largely covered with wood and heath, some out-field occasionally producing good crops. A family resides upon it.

Inishail

INISHAIL, county of Argyll.—See Glenorchy.

Inchture and Rossie

INCHTURE and ROSSIE, a parish, in the county of Perth; including the villages of Baledgarno and Ballindean, and containing 765 inhabitants, of whom 243 are in the village of Inchture, 13 miles (E. by N.) from Perth. The word Inchture is altogether of doubtful derivation, but is supposed by some Gaelic scholars to be formed from the terms innis, "an island," and ear, "the east," the eminence on which the church and village stand being the most eastern of a series of elevations that were formerly islands. The parish, which comprehends the ancient parish of Rossie, now extinct, though the ruin of the church still remains, is situated on the north-west of the estuary of the Tay, and measures in length four miles, from north to south, and three in breadth, comprising 3700 Scotch acres, of which about 3200 are in tillage and pasture, and the remainder under wood. Being mostly in the rich and fertile tract of the Carse of Gowrie, usually considered as the "garden of Scotland," the parish shares in all the superiority of scenery, soil, and produce for which that beautiful district is so justly celebrated. The surface is considerably diversified. On the south-east, where the lands are washed by the estuary, are extensive sand-banks, which, at ebb-tide, are seen stretching over several hundreds of acres, and which are bordered inland with a broad margin of sedge or reeds. This is succeeded by a rich alluvial plain, about twenty feet high, extending the whole breadth of the parish, and reaching north-westerly for two or three miles. At the extremity of this plain, again, is the eminence ornamented with the pleasing village of Inchture; and still further towards the north-west appear, in succession, the hills known by the names of Rossie, Baledgarno, and Ballindean, forming a portion of the district here called the "braes of the carse;" and the border of the Sidlaw range rising about 500 feet high. The parish is watered by two principal streams designated "pows," and which are augmented by numerous rivulets descending from the hills. The one flows for a considerable distance along the south-western boundary, into the Frith at Powgavie, where it forms the harbour of that name; and the other, towards the north, formed of the burns of Baledgarno and Rossie, partly separates the parish from Longforgan, where it reaches the Frith. The estuary is here about three miles wide; but at low water the tide recedes to a great distance from the shore, and the sands are marked by many deep fissures, called "water-runs," being channels for the streams. The water of the Tay is strongly impregnated with salt, in consequence of the rapidity of the tide, and the large influx from the sea.

The soil on the level grounds, which constitute by far the larger portion of the parish, is a rich alluvial clay of great depth; the undulations and hills comprise loam, gravel, and sand, with a little peat, resting generally on red sandstone or whinstone. The whole is highly cultivated, and presents one of the finest specimens to be met with of agricultural skill. All kinds of crops are raised: the rotation followed on about twothirds of the grounds is the seven-shift, and in the remainder the six-shift course is followed. A large part of the district in which the parish is situated being a corn country, the rearing of cattle has hitherto been a subordinate consideration; but much more attention is now paid to it than formerly; and Leicester sheep, and the Ayrshire and Teeswater stock of cattle, have been to some extent introduced, as well as an improved breed of horses. Most of the farms have been thoroughly drained; the reclaiming of land overflowed by the tide is going on with spirit; and many embankments have been raised. Though the inclosures at present are principally in the upper portion of the parish, numerous hedge-rows have been planted, and palings erected, on the lower grounds; and the farm-houses and buildings are, in general, in good condition. In 1838, a threshing-mill driven by steam, the only one of the kind in the parish, was erected on Lord Kinnaird's property at Powgavie. The substratum of the lower parts consists of red sandstone, and the hills of whinstone, of each of which several quarries are in operation. There is limestone, but not at present worked; and the locality contains several veins of copper, which, however, have never been wrought: valuable pebbles, also, and various minerals, have occasionally been found. The plantations, with the exception of the ornamental portions, are chiefly on the hills, and comprise oak, ash, elm, beech, birch, larch, and other kinds. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8011.

Rossie Priory, situated on the slope of Rossie hill, and commanding most extensive and beautiful views, was built chiefly by the late Lord Kinnaird, in 1807; it is a very superior mansion, erected with stone from the quarries on the estate, and has been much enlarged and improved by the present noble proprietor, whose ancestor, in the twelfth century, obtained a grant of the lands here from William the Lion. The only other mansion is a modern edifice, named Ballindean House, and situated near the foot of the hill of the same name. The village of Inchture is famed for its excellent beer; and from its brewery are sent, weekly, large supplies to Perth, Dundee, Cupar-Angus, and all parts of the surrounding district. The parish also contains, besides several hamlets, the villages of Baledgarno and Ballindean. The former is supposed to have been so called from Edgar, who came to the throne at the beginning of the eleventh century, and whose name is contained in the two middle syllables: his castle was on an adjoining hill, still called Castle hill, though no remains of the building are now visible. The manufacture of linen is carried on in the parish in private houses; the article produced is a very coarse fabric for sacks or packing. The population, however, are almost all agricultural, and have somewhat diminished in number within the last few years, in consequence of the consolidation of some of the smaller farms. There is a general post-office established at Inchture; and the high road between Edinburgh and Aberdeen by way of Perth and Dundee, passes through the parish. The harbour of Powgavie, or Polgavie, forms the chief point of traffic: a considerable number of vessels come laden with coal, lime, manure, seeds, and grain, and carry away farm produce, especially corn and potatoes, wood, fruits, &c. The parish is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £200, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church, conveniently situated in the middle of the principal village, was built in 1835, of red sandstone from a quarry in the vicinity. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a dwelling-house, and £27 fees. On the borders of the parish is a large stone, supposed by some to be that on which the falcon alighted when boundaries were assigned to the lands given to the gallant Hay and his two sons, after the celebrated battle of Luncarty. The other antiquities comprise chiefly the ruins of the castle of Moncur, the cross formerly surrounded by the village of Rossie, and the interesting remains of the old church of that name, now overgrown with ivy and ash.

Innerkip

INNERKIP, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Renfrew; including the village of Gourock, and containing 3420 inhabitants, of whom 431 are in the village of Innerkip, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Greenock. This parish, of which the name, originally Inverkip, is derived from its situation at the mouth of the river Kip, formerly included the old parish of Greenock, which was separated from it in 1589, by charter, obtained by Sir John Shaw, of Wester Greenock, and ratified by parliament in 1594. The present parish, which is about seven miles in length and six in breadth, is bounded on the north and west by the Frith of Clyde, on the east by the parish of Greenock, and on the south by the parish of Largs, in the county of Ayr. The coast is indented with several bays, of which the principal are, Gourock on the north, and Lunderston, Innerkip, and Wemyss, on the west. The surface has a gradual ascent from the shore towards the south-east, and is beautifully diversified with level plains and gentle undulations, and intersected by small rivulets, flowing in some parts through verdant meadows, and in others disappearing in thickly wooded glens. The principal rivers are the Kip and the Duff, which latter forms a confluence with the Kip near its influx into the bay of Innerkip. The soil along the shore is light and sandy, in the higher grounds of heavier quality, but much intermixed with gravel. The whole number of acres has not been ascertained: more than half the parish is moorland, of which a considerable part is undivided common; there is a large extent of natural meadow and pasture; and but a small proportion is arable, the farmers relying more upon the produce of the dairy, for which they find profitable markets, than on the cultivation of the soil. Considerable improvement has, notwithstanding, been made in the system of agriculture; furrow-draining has been adopted with success, and some small portions of waste land have been reclaimed. The rocks are principally of the old red sandstone formation, and towards Wemyss bay are intersected with trap: in the upper part of the parish, sandstone of fine quality has been extensively quarried for building. The rateable annual value of Innerkip is £14,205.

The scenery throughout is pleasingly diversified; and the higher grounds embrace extensive and interesting prospects. Ardgowan House, the seat of Sir Michael Robert Shaw Stewart, is an elegant mansion, beautifully situated on the shore near Innerkip bay, embosomed in thriving plantations, and commanding a fine view over the Frith of Clyde. Kelly, the seat of the family of Wallace, is also a handsome mansion, on the shore of Wemyss bay, and embellished with plantations. There are several other good houses belonging to different proprietors. The village is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Kip, near its influx into the Clyde; it is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, and is much frequented during the season for sea-bathing. There are some wellfurnished houses for the accommodation of visiters; and a post-office, subordinate to that of Greenock, has been established here. Facility of communication is afforded by an excellent turnpike-road from Greenock, recently completed. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Greenock and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £278. 14. 6., with a manse, and a glebe of four acres; patron, Sir Michael Robert Shaw Stewart. The parish church is a neat modern structure, containing sufficient accommodation for the population. A church has been erected in the district of Gourock, of which an account will be found under the head of Gourock. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £30. 15., but no house, and the fees average £26 per annum. On the lands of Ardgowan are some remains of the ancient mansion-house, consisting of a venerable tower; and over the Dunrod rivulet is a very antique bridge.

Innerleithen

INNERLEITHEN, a parish, chiefly in the county of Peebles, but partly in the county of Selkirk, 6½ miles (E. S. E.) from Peebles; containing 931 inhabitants, of whom 463 are in the village, and 468 in the rural districts of the parish. This place, properly Inverleithen, derives its name from one of the numerous streams that flow through the lands into the river Tweed. The parish comprises about 30,000 acres, of which 2000 are arable, 500 woodland and plantations, 30 in brushwood, and the remainder, of which probably 1500 might be brought into profitable cultivation, hilly pasture. Its form is that of a triangle, of which the longest side extends along the river Tweed, and the two other sides meet in the ridge of mountains called the Moorfoot hills: the highest hills in this range are the Hartfell, Coomb, and Loch Craig, far off to the south, and having an elevation of about 2800 feet. The surface along the shore of the Tweed spreads into a rich and fertile plain, and in other parts is intersected with numerous deep glens, watered by running streams: of these glens the most spacious is that through which the Leithen flows, and which contains a considerable portion of level meadow land. There are many springs in the parish, some of which possess highly medicinal properties; the principal is that issuing from the base of a hill near the village, which from that circumstance has obtained its rapid increase. The scenery is strikingly varied, and in parts very picturesque. From the farm of Purves Hill, which has a considerable elevation, is a descent towards the river, by a continued succession of terraces, about 200 yards in length and eighteen feet broad, divided into several series by unequal intervals of level ground. These terraces, as seen from the lands below, form a singular feature in the landscape; and some timber of mature growth, and various thriving plantations on some of the lands in the parish, add much to the beauty of the scenery. The soil near the river is rich and fertile, but in the higher grounds of inferior quality, abounding with heath and moss. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, and turnips; the system of husbandry is advanced; the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and the lands are well inclosed. About 400 head of cattle are annually reared, and much attention has been paid to the improvement of the breed, originally the old Tweeddale, by the introduction of the Alderney and Northumberland: 16,000 sheep, also, are annually pastured, which are chiefly of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds. Few horses are reared, except for purposes of agriculture. The woods consist of oak, ash, elm, hazel, and birch; and the plantations, of larch and firs, intermixed with the usual hard-woods. The substrata are, greywacke, greywacke-slate, clay-slate, and porphyry of red and grey colour, the last of which abounds with crystals of felspar. Slate has been quarried in several parts; and a quarry at Hollylee, which had long been abandoned, has again been opened by the proprietor; and the produce used for paving the halls of his mansion. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7072, of which £818 are returned for the Selkirkshire portion.

The chief houses are Glen-Ormiston and Hollylee, which are both spacious and handsome structures, finely situated, and embellished with thriving plantations. The village, which, as already stated, is indebted for its increase to the mineral water of Innerleithen, is neatly built; and several good houses have been erected for the accommodation of the numerous visiters who, during the summer, take up their residence here for the benefit of the water, which is found efficacious in various complaints. The water, on being analysed, is found to contain, in one imperial quart, 5.3 grains of carbonate of magnesia, 9.5 grains of muriate of lime, and 21.2 grains of muriate of soda. The spring issues from a mountain composed of greywacke, clay-slate, and red porphyry; and there is a second spring, which varies a little in the proportions of its ingredients, containing 10.12 grains of carbonate of magnesia, 19.4 of muriate of lime, and 31 of muriate of soda. A handsome building has been erected, with a viranda in front, for the use of the visiters; and the village is growing into some repute as a watering-place. A circulating library, which contained a well-assorted collection, was once supported by subscription; attached to it was a commodious reading and news room. A club has been formed for the promotion of gymnastic exercises, under the patronage of several noblemen and gentlemen of the district; and is supported with much spirit. The woollen manufacture was introduced here about fifty years since, by Mr. Brodie, of Traquair, who erected a large factory for that purpose, which, after his decease, was let to several tenants, by whom the various departments of the trade are still carried on, affording employment to fifty persons. Facility of intercourse with Peebles, the nearest market town, and with the other towns in the district, is afforded by good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Kelso to Glasgow passes for nearly ten miles along the shores of the Tweed. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patron, John Booth, Esq. The stipend of the incumbent is £231; the manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe comprises twelve acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church, built in 1786, is a neat substantial edifice, conveniently situated, and adapted for a congregation of 350 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £40. There is a friendly society, which is well supported, and has contributed materially to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief.

Innerwick

INNERWICK, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Dunbar; containing, with the hamlet of Skateraw, and village of Thorntonloch, 961 inhabitants, of whom 144 are in the village of Innerwick. This place, of which the name, of Gaelic origin, is descriptive of its relative position, was granted by David I. to Walter Stewart, to whom the gift was confirmed by Malcolm IV., in 1157; and it remained in the possession of his descendants till the reign of Charles II. of England. It afterwards passed to the Hamiltons, and ultimately to Sir Peter Wedderburn, of Gosford, ancestor of the present proprietor. The parish, which is about ten miles in length, and varies from two to three miles in breadth, is bounded on the north-east by the German Ocean, and comprises 11,725 acres, of which 5040 are arable, 6300 meadow and pasture, and 378 woodland and plantations. The surface is varied with fertile vales and deep dells, and, from the shore, rises gently towards the Lammermoor hills: the coast, which extends for about two miles, is rocky, but marked with few features of grandeur. The scenery is pleasing, and in some places enriched with wood: that part of the parish bordering upon the hills is characterized by picturesque beauty. The lands are watered by two small streams, of which one, called the Monynut, rises nearly in the centre of the parish, and, taking a south-eastern course, falls into the Whiteadder at St. Bathan's Abbey, in the county of Berwick. The other, called the Thornton water, rises also near the centre of the parish, and, flowing in a direction from south to north, falls into the sea near the village of Thorntonloch.

The soil is generally fertile, consisting of a deep rich loam; the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in a very advanced state; and the course of husbandry on the lighter soils is a five, and on the heavier a six, shift course. Lime and bone-dust are the principal manures. The farm-houses and offices are substantial and well arranged; and the lands are inclosed, partly with stone, and partly with hedges of thorn, all of which are kept in good order: most of the farms are also furnished with threshing-mills, some driven by steam, others by water. Much attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, for which the extent of natural pasture affords abundant opportunity. About 5000 sheep are fed in the hilly district, and a large number, also, are pastured on the lower lands; the former are chiefly of the Cheviot and black-faced breeds, with occasionally a cross between the two; the latter are the Leicestershire. Very few black cattle are reared; but a considerable number are purchased, and fattened for the markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,384. The woods are mostly oak, and the plantations fir; some of the trees are of very ancient growth; and from the names of several places, it would appear that the lands were formerly covered with extensive woods. The substrata of the higher portion of the parish are, greywacke, greywacke slate, and red sandstone intersected with veins of trap rock; and of the lower, limestone, ironstone, bituminous shale, and indications of coal, which last appears to have been formerly worked. The limestone, which is of excellent quality, is quarried at the Skateraw shore, where is also a kiln for burning it into lime for manure. Great quantities of limestone were formerly sent from these quarries to the Devon iron-works; at present, it is burnt here, and then sent chiefly to Berwickshire. Freestone of good quality for building is also found in the parish, but is worked only as occasion requires. A small harbour was constructed on the Skateraw shore, some years since, for the exportation of the produce of the quarries, and for the importation of coal; and belonging to it are two boats, employed in the fishery off the coast, where haddock, mackarel, lobsters, and other fish are taken. The village of Innerwick is situated about a mile from the London road, which passes through the parish; it consists of irregularly built and detached houses, on the base of a steep, but richly cultivated, hill. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in the trades requisite for the supply of the parish. The nearest market town is Dunbar, with which, and with other places in the district, the people have facilities of intercourse by good roads.

The church of Innerwick, together with its revenues, was granted by Walter Stewart to the abbey of Paisley, which gift was confirmed by Malcolm IV., in the 12th century; it of course ceased to belong to the monks at the Reformation, and in 1670 the great and small tithes were granted to Sir Patrick Wedderburn. The parish is now in the presbytery of Dunbar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of Mrs. Ferguson; the minister's stipend is £277. 19., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, situated on an eminence, in the village of Innerwick, is a neat plain edifice, erected in 1784. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school, also situated in the village, is well attended; the master has a salary of £31, with £33 fees, and a house and garden. There is a parochial library in the village; and at Thorntonloch, a small itinerating library. The poor are partly supported by the interest of £800, vested in securities. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Innerwick, formerly the baronial residence of the Stewarts, and afterwards of the Hamiltons. In 1403, when occupied by an English garrison, it was assaulted and taken by the Regent, the Duke of Albany; and, together with Thornton Castle, which stood on the opposite bank of the glen, it was attacked by the Protector Somerset, on his invasion of Scotland. The remains are now very slight, and are rapidly disappearing. At a short distance from the castle are some small remains of Edinkens Bridge, the origin of which is involved in obscurity: near it were four large stones, apparently indicating the tomb of some distinguished person, supposed to have been Edwin of Northumbria, who took refuge with Malcolm III., from the tyranny of William the Conqueror. Several stone coffins have been found in the parish, in two of which were a ring and part of a sword; and near the village is a field called Corsikill Park, in which tradition records a conflict to have taken place between Cospatrick and William Wallace. On the Skateraw shore was an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Dennys, the remains of which have, within the last few years, been completely destroyed by encroachments of the sea.

Inniskenneth.

INNISKENNETH.—See Inch-Kenneth, and Kilfinichen.

Insch

INSCH, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 3¾ miles (W.) from Old Rain; containing 1379 inhabitants. The word Insch, or Inch, is of Celtic derivation, and signifies "an island," its application to this place having probably been occasioned by the site of the village being formerly surrounded by water. The parish is situated on the northern bank of the small river Shevock, which separates it from the parishes of Premnay and Kinnethmont, and, running eastward, falls at length into the Urie. The lands measure in length six miles, and three in breadth, comprising 7618 acres, of which 5410 are under cultivation, 108 in plantation, and the remainder waste. The surface is much varied by several interesting elevations. That of the hill of Foudland is the most lofty, forming the chief of a series of slate hills stretching on the west into Gartly, and into Culsamond on the east; it rises 1100 feet above the level of the sea, and commands extensive and beautiful prospects, especially of the rich and fertile vale of the Garioch. The hill of Dunnideer, however, about a mile west of the village, though only half the height of the former, is by far the most striking object in the scenery, not only on account of its insulated situation, and its ample base, measuring 3000 yards in circumference, but especially from its abrupt and almost perpendicular ascent, and its conical form. The summit, somewhat flattened, attracts the antiquary by the curious ruins on it, and the tourist by its picturesque beauty. Opposite to it, on the west, is the equally abrupt eminence of Christ-kirk, in the parish of Kinnethmont, which is separated from Dunnideer only by a narrow valley, watered by the Shevock.

The soil in general is a light loam, upon a gravelly or clayey subsoil; but on the sides of the hill of Foudland it is a clay, mixed with slaty earth; and here, as well as in various other parts, are peat mosses, supplying fuel. Most of these, however, have become nearly exhausted, so that wood and coal are now much used, the latter brought from Aberdeen, by canal, to Inverury. Much of the arable land is of superior quality, and produces excellent crops, chiefly of oats. The cattle are of the Aberdeen or the Angus kind, which are frequently crossed with the short-horned or Durham breed; and the improvement in the stock has been considerable, in consequence of the great encouragement offered by the cattle-shows held by the Highland and the local agricultural societies. The six years rotation is that most prevalent; and the general system of husbandry includes all the modern improvements: bone-manure is liberally and successfully applied to the turnip lands; and threshing machines, generally driven by water, are every where in operation. The chief deficiency is the want of inclosures and of good farm-buildings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5334. The chief lands belong to J. M. Lesly, Esq., of Balquhain, who holds the estates called the Barony of Meikle-Wardhouse, Knock-enbaird, and others, and whose ancestors once possessed the larger part of this parish, and also lands in several others in the district of Garioch.

The slate of the Foundland hill quarries, an excellent material of blue colour, has long been highly celebrated, and wrought to a great extent. 900,000 slates were once annually raised, a large proportion of which were sent to Aberdeen; but not more than half this number are now produced, the demand having diminished on account of the facility with which the Easdale slates, from Argyllshire, can be conveyed by sea. The rock in the smaller hills is principally gneiss, with black or grey granite; and on the low grounds, near the base of Dunnideer, considerable quantities of bog-iron ore have been found. The only gentleman's seat is Rothney, a handsome modern mansion in the cottage style, finely situated on a gentle acclivity on the northern bank of the Shevock, beautifully ornamented with wood, and the approach to which from the village is particularly admired. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agricultural occupations, and in trading in corn and cattle; a few are employed in making stockings for the Aberdeen manufacturers. The feuars of Insch are heritable proprietors of their houses and small gardens; they also mostly rent about four acres of ground each, under Sir Andrew Leith Hay, superior of the ancient burgh of Insch, to which it is supposed, from a mound near the village, called the Gallow hill, was formerly attached the power of "pot and gallows." The houses are regularly built, and are in general of two stories, constructed of stone and lime. There are several good shops, chiefly for the sale of necessaries; and these, as well as the dwelling-houses, have been for some years lighted with gas. The mail road from Aberdeen passes through the parish, to the north side of the Foudland hill, from which two lines diverge to Huntly, the one forming a route over the western part of the hill, and the other a longer and more irregular, but more level, one, through Kinnethmont and Gartly. The traffic on these roads is considerable, the country produce being conveyed along them to the canal at Inverury, from which place the carts bring home, on their return, coal, lime, and bones for manure. Two fairs for cattle, horses, and general wares, are held respectively on the third Wednesday in May and third Tuesday in October, both Old style; and there are feeing-markets on the Fridays before the 18th May and 18th November. The weekly market, held on Friday, has disappeared.

The parish is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir John Forbes, Bart. The minister's stipend is £204, with a manse, a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £15, and a right to fuel, which has been commuted for an annual payment of £9. 8. 10. The church, a plain building, standing in the village, is supposed, from the date of 1613 on its fine old belfry, to have been built in that year; it was well-roofed in 1789, and new-seated in 1793, and contains 460 sittings, of which sixty are under the controul of the Kirk Session, and are let on very low terms for the benefit of the poor. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Greek, Latin, English grammar, geography, and mathematics, in addition to the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £27, with a house and garden, and about £15 fees: he also participates in the benefit of the Dick bequest. There is likewise a school supported by the General Assembly, the master of which receives a salary of £25, with £14 fees, and has a house, garden, and three acres of ground. The same branches are taught as in the parochial school; and its situation among the glens of Foudland, convenient for parts, not only of Insch, but of the parishes of Forgue, Drumblade, and Gartly, all far removed from their respective parochial schools, renders it a source of much advantage. A savings' bank has also existed for some years. The relics of antiquity comprise several Druidical remains, on eminences, and stone pillars, and obelisks; but the principal one is the celebrated vitrified fort on the hill of Dunnideer. It consists of an outwork in the shape of a parallelogram, inclosing an old ruin of a tower; and the stones, which are of granite, have been cemented by that singular process seen in similar antiquities in the country, but of the precise character of which many opinions exist. A castle in the interior, constructed apparently of the materials of the vitrified fort, is supposed by some to have been built by King Gregory.

Insh

INSH, lately a quoad sacra parish, formed of part of the parish of Kingussie, and a small part of that of Alvie, in the county of Inverness; containing 613 inhabitants, of whom 88 are in the village of Insh, 7 miles (N. E.) from Pitmain. This place was anciently a vicarage, united to the rectory of Kingussie; and by act of the General Assembly in 1833, was again declared a distinct parish, ecclesiastically, which privilege, however, it has ceased to possess. It is situated on the south bank of the Spey; and when the river swells, a branch of it flows on each side of a small hill whereon the church stands: hence the name of Insh, signifying an island. The Spey passes here through a fine lake called Loch Insh, about a mile and a half in length and nearly the same in breadth; and close to its eastern margin is the mansion-house of Invereshie, where is a ferry across the Spey. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £2. 10. per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Ewan. A school is supported by a committee of the General Assembly. A considerable increase in the population of this district took place within the decennial period between the late and preceeding census.

Inver

INVER, a village, in the parish of Little Dunkeld, county of Perth, ½ a mile (W. S. W.) from Dunkeld; containing 106 inhabitants. This is a small place, situated at the confluence of the rivers Tay and Bran, and on the great Highland road from Perth to Inverness. Before the bridge of Dunkeld was built, here was a ferry across the Tay. The celebrated composer of Scotch reels, Neil Gow, was a native of the village.—See Dunkeld, Little.

Inver

INVER, a village, in the parish of Tain, county of Ross and Cromarty, 4½ miles (E. by N.) from Tain; containing 211 inhabitants. This village is situated at the eastern extremity of the parish, on the shore of Dornoch Frith; and is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the fishery, for which it forms the principal station. The fish taken here are, haddock, flounders, cod, whiting, and skate, which are found in great abundance, for the supply of the adjacent district; and during the season, herrings are also plentiful. A school for the instruction of the children of the fishermen, who speak chiefly the Gaelic language, is supported in the village, by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge.

Inverallochy

INVERALLOCHY, a village, in the parish of Rathen, district of Deer, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Fraserburgh; containing 507 inhabitants. This village is situated on the north-eastern shore of the parish, on the German Ocean, a short distance eastward from Cairnbulg Point, and nearly adjoining the fishing-town of Cairnbulg. The male population consists chiefly of fishermen, who with their families remove in the summer season to Fraserburgh, where they assist in the herring-fishery of that place. On the shore here is an abundance of sea-weed, which is largely used in manuring the neighbouring lands. Until of late, kelp was manufactured to some extent; the reduced value of the article, however, has led almost to the abandonment of its manufacture in this quarter. The castle of Inverallochy, now in ruins, appears to have been a place of considerable strength; it was anciently the property of the Cumyns, Earls of Buchan– There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church.

Inverarity

INVERARITY, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4½ miles (S.) from Forfar; containing 997 inhabitants. This place derives its name from a Celtic term descriptive of the locality of its church, which, till the year 1754, was situated near the spot where the river Arity is joined, almost at right angles, by the Corbie burn, at a small distance from the present house of Fothringham. The parish comprehends the ancient parish of Meathie; it measures three miles square, and contains about 6000 acres. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Forfar; on the south by the parishes of Monikie and Murroes; on the east by Guthrie and Dunnichen; and on the west by Kinnettles, Tealing, and Glammis. The surface is uneven, consisting of a valley, well cultivated and fenced, surrounded by rising grounds and hills of various elevation, some of which are richly wooded. The soil on the higher lands is a dark loam; in several places, it is alluvial; its ordinary character, however, is that of clay. About 4000 acres are cultivated; 1000 are waste, consisting of coarse pasture and moor; and the remainder are plantations, composed of oak, beech, plane, and all the firs usually grown in the country. The annual value of the produce is considerable, grain of every kind forming a prominent article: all the various green crops are raised, and of good quality. The common breed of cattle is the Angus or native black, to which great attention is paid. The best system of agriculture is followed; and extensive drainage, the inclosing with hedges or stone dykes, and marl-manuring, with various other improvements in husbandry, have been carried on to such an extent that very little remains to be done. The prevailing rocks are sandstone and grey slate, several quarries of which are extensively wrought. The mansions are those of Forthingham, the seat of the ancient family of that name, and the House of Kincaldrum. Four miles of the turnpike-road from Forfar to Dundee pass through the parish; and a coach from Aberdeen to Edingburgh, and another from Brechin to Dundee, travel daily upon it. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5593. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns; patrons, the family of Forthringham, of Powrie. The stipend of the minister is £300, with a good manse, and a glebe of twelve acres. The church, in the centre of the parish, was built in 1754, is in good repair, and will accommodate 600 persons with sittings. There is a parochial school, in which Latin is taught, with the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with fees to the annual amount of about £27. The chief relic of antiquity is the Roman camp called "Haer Faads," part of which lies in the parish of Guthrie; it is nearly a parallelogram, measuring about 300 yards by 700. At the Kirk Brae, near the dene of Forthingham, is the last vestige of the old church. James Webster, the traveller in Egypt, &c., whose posthumous works have been published; Drummond, the botanist, who died some time since; and the mother of the distinguished Professor Playfair, were natives of the parish; as was also, it is conjectured, Archibald Constable, the celebrated bookseller of Edingburgh, and publisher of Sir Walter Scott's works.

Inverary

INVERARY, a royal burgh, the county town, and a parish, in the district and county of Argyll, 60 miles (N. W. by W.) from Glasgow, and 114 (W. N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 2285 inhabitants, of whom 1233 are in the burgh. This place takes its name from its situation at the mouth of the river Aray, which here falls into Loch Fyne. It appears to have been for many years only an inconsiderable hamlet consisting of a few fishermen's huts, prior to the fourteenth century, when the Campbell family, selecting it as their principal residence, erected a baronial castle, around which the original town gradually arose. In 1742, Archibald, third Duke of Argyll, pulled down the houses that had been raised nearly contiguous to the castle, and built others, of superior character, on grounds which he gave to the inhabitants at a nominal rent. In 1745 he commenced the erection of the present magnificent castle, which, after a short interruption during the time of the rebellion, was completed at an expense of nearly £300,000, when the ancient castle was taken down. In 1748, the Duke introduced the linen manufacture, which was carried on for some time with considerable benefit to the inhabitants; and in 1776, his distant relative, John, the fifth duke, established a woollen manufacture at the Water of Douglas. For this purpose he built premises, erected machinery, and provided every requisite, at his own expense; giving the farm on which the factory was built, and the works, at a low rent, to a person who carried on the manufacture for a time with tolerable success.


Burgh Seal.

The present Town is beautifully situated on the western shore of Loch Fyne, and to the south of the pleasure-grounds of the castle, of which it commands an interesting view. The houses are substantially built, and of handsome appearance; the streets are extremely clean, and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The principal trade carried on here at present is the herring-fishery, for which the season commences generally about the end of June, and continues till the beginning of January; and the fishermen, during the interval, are many of them employed in agriculture. The number of boats engaged in the fishery averages from fifty to sixty, employing about 110 men and fifty boys; and nearly 140 persons are occupied in curing and packing the fish, of which, on the average, about 2000 barrels are exported. The harbour is not adapted for vessels of any considerable burthen; and previously to 1809 the quay was in a very bad state; but a good pier has since been constructed, which, in 1836, was extended at an expense of £1200, whereof £800 were contributed by the Fishery Board, and the remainder by the Duke of Argyll and the corporationof the town. The post-office has a daily delivery. A ferry to the opposite shore of Loch Fyne is kept up by the corporation; and great facilities of communication are afforded by steamers. The market is well supplied with provisions; and fairs are held annually on the 17th of May and 16th of September, for cattle, and on the 15th of July, for wool.

The first notice of the place occurs in a charter granted to Colin, first Earl of Argyll, erecting the town into a burgh of barony; and it was subsequently made a royal BURGH by charter of Charles I. while a prisoner in Carisbrooke Castle, vesting the government in a provost, four bailies, and a council. Since the passing of the Municipal Reform act, however, the corporation has consisted of a provost, two bailies, and sixteen councillors. The magistrates exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction within the burgh, with the exception of the castle and park of Inverary; but the former kind of jurisdiction has been almost superseded by the sheriff's small-debt court, and the latter is limited to petty riots and assaults. The burgh is associated with those of Oban, Campbelltown, Rothesay, Irvine, and Ayr, in returning a member to the imperial parliament. The number of £10 householders within the parliamentary boundaries is sixty-three, of whom thirty-one are burgesses; and of those above £5, and below £10, twenty-three, of whom four are burgesses. The town-hall, in which the courts for the burgh and for the county are held, is a handsome building, and contains a spacious court-room. Attached to it is a prison, containing five apartments for debtors, and eight cells for criminals; but a much larger prison has been just erected, contiguous to the old one.

The parish, which comprises the ancient parishes of Kilmilieu and Glenary, now united, is situated between the lochs Awe and Fyne, and bounded on the south and east by the latter, along which it extends for about ten miles, in the form of a crescent, presenting an outline of projecting rocks indented with bays. It is sixteen miles in extreme length, varying from three to six miles in breadth, and is supposed to comprise an area of fifty-two square miles, or 34,280 acres, of which by far the greater portion is in pasture. The surface is mountainous, and of great diversity of character. The highest of the mountains is Benbui, which has an elevation of 2800 feet; and in front of the castle are two perpendicular masses of porphyritic rocks, called Dunchuaich and Dunchorvil, of which the former is 700, and the latter 800, feet high. The headlands of Kenmore and Stronshira command an interesting view of the parish. The shores are generally smooth and level; but towards the southern extremity, the rocks rise precipitously from the lake, and assume a bold rugged aspect. The chief rivers are, the Shira, which flows through the vale of Glenshira into the Douloch, or "black lake;" and the Aray, flowing through Glenary into Loch Fyne. A river called the Gear-Amhuinn, or "short river," connects the Douloch with Loch Fyne. The lochs abound with salmon, trout, and other kinds of fish; and salmon-trout, herrings, cod, and flounders are often taken together in the same net. The SOIL near the shore is chiefly a thin light loam, on a gravelly bottom; at the bases of the mountains, in the valleys, a deep dark loam on sand and clay; and in other parts, moss, with a small quantity of earth washed down from the higher grounds. The system of agriculture in the valleys is in an improved condition; but in the higher lands, so much progress has not been made, as the farms contain a much larger portion of pasture than of arable ground. The buildings on the principal farms are substaintial, and handsomely built; but many of those on the smaller farms are of very inferior order. Great regard is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are generally of the West Highland breed; little attention is bestowed on the dairy, but for some years the Highland Society have awarded prizes for the best samples of cheese. The sheep, of which great numbers are reared, are of the black-faced breed; the horses are partly of a mixed breed between the native and the Clydesdale. Considerable numbers of pigs are also fed for market. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6836, of which £1973 are returned for the burgh.

The substrata are chiefly mica-slate intersected with porphyry, limestone, and greenstone; and many of the rocks abound with garnet, and occasionally with felspar. There is an extensive quarry of good paving stone, from which are raised great quantities for the city of Glasgow. The plantations are in a very thriving condition; they consist mostly of oak, Scotch fir, spruce, larch, ash, beech, and plane. They were chiefly formed by the first Marquess of Argyll and his son, the ninth earl, and by Archibald, third duke, and his successors; and are supposed to occupy an area of about 12,000 acres. Among the earliest were those of Dunchuaich and the heights above the castle of Inverary, including the stately avenue of beech at the entrance of the vale of Glenshira; and among the more recent are those of the hills of Douloch and Stronshira, which contain some beautiful specimens of larch, Norway spruce, and American black and white spruce, silver fir, laburnum, and lime. The mansion of Inverary Castle, the seat of the Duke of Argyll, erected near the site of the ancient baronial castle, is a spacious quadrangular structure, with circular towers at the angles. The great hall is ornamented with ancient armour, among which are 150 stand of arms used by the Campbells at the battle of Culloden, ranged on each side: in a circular recess fronting the entrance, are various specimens of Highland armour. The gallery leading to the principal apartments is spacious, and superbly decorated; and the paintings, family portraits, and tapestry are all of the very highest order. The demesne, which is nearly thirty miles in circuit, is tastefully embellished, and laid out in walks and rides, comprising much picturesque and romantic scenery, and commanding extensive and richly-diversified prospects. A noble avenue of stately trees of ancient growth leads into the beautiful glen of Essachossan.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Inverary, of which this is the seat, and of the synod of Argyll. There are two charges: the minister of the first has a stipend of £168. 15., of which one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £45 per annum; and the minister of the second charge, a stipend of £157. 15., of which four-fifths are derived from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron of both, the Duke of Argyll. The church, erected in 1798, and repaired, after being greatly damaged by a storm, in 1838, is a spacious and handsome structure, with a central tower and spire 115 feet in height, dividing it into two distinct portions, one for the first or Gaelic church, containing 450, and the other for the English congregation, containing 410 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and for the United Associate Synod. The grammar school is under the patronage of the corporation, and the master has a salary of £20, with the usual accommodations: the burgh parochial schoolmaster has £25. 13. 4. a year, with a house, &c. A female school in the burgh is supported by the Duke of Argyll, who pays the teacher £20 per annum, to which £4 are added by the council; and a female school of industry, also in the burgh, is supported by the duchess, who allows £26, with a dwelling-house, coal, and other perquisites. In the rural districts of the parish are, a parochial school, of which the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house and garden; a school maintained by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, of which the master has a salary of £15, to which the duke adds £18, with a house and garden, fuel, and grass for a cow; and a female school, the teacher of which has £5 from the society, and a house from the duke. The poor, of whom the average number on the parish list is fifty, are supported partly by collections at the church, averaging £65 annually, and the interest of funds in the hands of the Kirk Session, producing nearly £10; but chiefly by the Duke of Argyll, who, in various ways, distributes not less than £300 annually for their relief. There are some slight vestiges of an old fort at Dunchuaich; of the ancient castle of the Mac Naughtens, on the banks of Douloch; and of some religious houses at Kilbride and Achantiobairt. The market-cross, supposed to have been brought from Iona, was removed from the old town, and erected in the present burgh; and on the lawn around Inverary Castle is an upright stone, thought to have been erected in commemoration of some battle near the spot. Over the water of Douglas is a very ancient bridge of one arch, forming the segment of a circle, and thence called the Roman bridge; but the date of its erection is unknown. Dr. Claudius Buchanan is supposed to have been a native of this place, which gives the title of Baron to the Campbell family, dukes of Argyll.

Inveraven

INVERAVEN, a parish, partly in the county of Eligin, but chiefly in the county of Banff, 11 miles (N. E. by E.) from Grantown; containing 2417 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation at the mouth of the river Aven, which has its source in a lake of that name at the base of the mountains Benmacdui, Bein-na-main, and Cairngorum, and after receiving various streams in its course, enters the parish, and falls into the Spey about a mile above the church. The parish is chiefly noticed in historical records as the scene of a memorable battle which occurred in 1594, between the Earl of Huntly and the Marquess of Argyll, when the latter, after an obstinate engagement, in which many were slain on both sides, was totally defeated. Not far from the field of battle is a tumulus called Lord Auchindown's Cairn, pointing out the spot where Sir P. Gordon, of Auchindown, was killed while fighting on the side of the Earl of Huntly. The parish is bounded on the north-west by the river Spey, and is about twenty miles in length, and varies from nearly four miles to eight or nine in breadth; it comprises 6400 acres of arable land in good cultivation, about 1000 in plantations, and 500 in natural wood, with a wide extent of heath and moor. The surface is mountainous, with large intervening tracts of moorland; and the lower part, near the Spey, is divided from the district of Glenlivet, forming the rest of the parish, by the Cairnocay mountains, a lofty range extending, in a direction almost parallel with the river, from the hill of Benrinnes to the stream of the Aven. The district of Glenlivet is separated into two nearly equal portions by the hill of Bochle, which rises to a considerable elevation from the centre of the vale, which is watered by the Livet, a tributary to the Aven. On this river was formerly a waterfall called the Linn of Livet; but it was destroyed in order to give a readier passage to the salmon that frequent that stream. The Spey, which washes the parish for several miles, abounds with various kinds of fish, and was formerly much celebrated for the size and flavour of its salmon, which were found in greater numbers than at present, both in that river and in the Aven; but the fishery has been much diminished by the establishment of others nearer the mouth of the Spey, which prevent many of the fish from ascending so far up. In that part of the parish bordering on Kirkmichael is a small lake formed by the river Aven, and supposed to be almost of unfathomable depth.

The soil of the cultivated lands, though inferior in some places, is generally fertile, consisting, in the lower portion, of loam partly mixed with gravel, and in the district of Glenlivet of pure loam and a rich strong clay. Considerable improvements have been made in the agriculture of the parish; large tracts of waste have been drained, and brought into cultivation; and numerous thriving plantations have been raised, especially near the Spey, in Inveraven Proper, which abounds with ornamental timber. The principal crop is oats, with a good proportion of barley; and wheat is also raised occasionally in small quantities, of good quality, in the low end of Glenlivet. The plantations consist of larch, oak, and mountain-ash, which grow luxuriantly on the banks of the Spey and Aven; and Scotch and spruce firs, of which there are some beautiful specimens. The Highland and Agricultural Society encourage the breed of live stock by the distribution of premiums; but comparatively little attention is paid to improvement in this respect. The sheep are generally of the black-faced kind, with a few of English breed, which are not so well adapted to the soil; the breed of horses is rather small, but better suited to the state of the country than those of larger size. The farm-buildings are usually commodious, though still capable of great improvement; and in several parts, especially in Glenlivet, are several of very superior character. The vale of Glenlivet was formerly noted for the manufacture of illicit spirits; and on almost every stream in the parish were houses for traffic in smuggled whisky; but this practice has of late materially diminished, and there are now in the vale two very extensive distilleries, where whisky of the best quality is legally produced, which obtains a high price in every part of the country. There are several mills in the parish; also some small manufactories for woollen cloths and plaidings, chiefly under the management of the farmers. The rateable annual value of Inveraven is £5032.

Ballindalloch House, in the parish, is a perfect specimen of the old Scottish castle; it is a square edifice with three circular towers, and some additions have been made to the old building during the last century. It is situated about half a mile from the confluence of the Aven with the river Spey, and is richly embellished with timber, and surrounded by scenery of interesting character. At a short distance may still be traced the foundations of the original castle, which has long been suffered to fall into decay, and almost into oblivion, the only memorial being preserved in a traditionary legend, by which its restoration is said to have been prohibited. The farm-house of Colquoich is conspicuous for the abundance of Scotch fir and larch which grow luxuriantly in the surrounding plantations. The substratum of the parish is generally primitive rock: red granite, of good quality for building, is found near the river Spey, and on the north of the Bentinnes mountain, in which asbestos has also been discovered. Limestone, embedded in gneiss, is found in the vale of Glenlivet; no regular quarries have been opened, but it is frequently dug by the tenants on the different farms, for their own use; and numerous limekilns have been erected in various parts of the vale. The roads and bridges are kept in good repair; and considerable intercourse is maintained with the villages of Tomantoul and Charlestown, respectively three miles from each extremity of the parish, where markets are occasionally held, and also with Grantown and Dufftown. Fairs are held at Burnside, about a mile from the church, on the Tuesday before the third Friday in February, the Tuesday before the 26th of May, the second Tuesday in July, O. S., and the Tuesday before the 23d November, for the sale of horses, cattle, and grain, and also for hiring servants.

The parish is in the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray, and in the gift of the Earl of Seafield; the minister's stipend is £238. 17. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7 per annum. The church, which was erected in 1806, is in good repair, and affords accommodation to about 550 persons. In Glenlivet is a missionary station, supported by the Royal Bounty: the chapel was erected, or rather rebuilt, in 1825. The minister has a salary of £60, with a small farm, a house, and a range of hill pasture for sheep, on the Gordon estate. There are also in the vale two Roman Catholic chapels, the one at Tombia, and the other at Chapelton; the former will contain a congregation of nearly 1000, and the latter of about 300 persons. The parochial school affords education to about fifty children; the master has a salary of £28. 17. 5., with £11 fees, a house and garden, and a portion of the Dick bequest. There are two male, and one female school, for Protestants, in the vale of Glenlivet; the masters derive their salaries from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and the General Assembly's Committee for Highland schools, and have houses and gardens on the Gordon estate: the mistress of the female school has likewise a house, &c., and is paid £5 per annum, in addition to a similar sum from the society. In Glenlivet are likewise three Roman Catholic schools, two for females, and one for males, all supported by funds contributed by the congregations at the two chapels. Various traces of Druidical establishments exist in several parts of the parish, of which the most considerable are at Chapelton, on the farm of Kilmachlie, where, also, ancient coins of silver, of the size of half-crowns, and some old weapons, have been discovered by the plough. The cemetery of a religious house formerly existing at Downan is still used as a burial-ground, as is also that of another, at Buitterlach, near which is a cairn of large dimensions. On the farm of Haughs, at Kilmachlie, is a spot of ground supposed to have been anciently a place of sepulture, and which has been recently planted with trees. A portion of the old castle of Drumin occupies an elevated site on a promontory, near the confluence of the rivers Livet and Aven; the walls on the east and north sides are of considerable height, and of massive thickness. At Blairfindy are the ruins of a hunting-seat formerly belonging to the earls of Huntly.

Inverbervie

INVERBERVIE, county of Haddington.—See Bervie.

Inverbrothock

INVERBROTHOCK, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of St. Vigean's, county of Forfar; containing 5195 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the small river Brothock, forms the principal suburb of the town of Arbroath, and participates largely in the manufactures carried on in that burgh. The spinning of hemp and flax gives employment to more than 1500 of the inhabitants; and the yarn produced from the several mills is partly exported, and partly woven by hand. About 300 persons are employed in weaving the coarser kinds of linen, for sacking, and for sail-cloth for the supply of the shipping. The terminus of the Arbroath and Forfar railway is within this district; and facility of communication is also afforded by the Dundee and Arbroath railway, the great north road, and various other roads. The church was erected in 1828, at an expense of about £2000, raised by subscription, towards which the town council of Arbroath and the principal heritors largely contributed; it is a neat structure containing 1230 sittings. The minister, who is chosen by the proprietors of the pews, has a stipend of £150, with an allowance of £20 for communion elements. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Original Seceders, and a congregation of Wesleyans. A handsome schoolroom was erected in the year 1842, by subscription, aided by a grant from government; it is capable of receiving 250 scholars, and the school is supported wholly by the fees. There is a Sabbath school library, containing 480 volumes; also a theological library of 400 volumes.

Inverchaolain

INVERCHAOLAIN, a parish, in the district of Cowal, county of Argyll, 7 miles (N.) from Rothesay; containing 699 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the Chaolain, a small stream which, at this part, joins Loch Straven, or Striven, an arm of the sea intersecting the parish in a northern direction. Inverchaolain is situated in the south-eastern division of the county, and is about fifteen miles long, and eight miles in extreme breadth, including the loch; it comprises upwards of 40,000 acres, of which 1300 are arable, 1500 low pasture, nearly 1500 wood, and the remainder hill pasture. The surface is irregular, and rises in the form of elevated ranges on each side of the lake, which is more than nine miles long, and about two broad at the entrance, but narrowing as it penetrates into the country. The depth varies in the middle from twenty to fifty or sixty fathoms, but is in general more shallow towards the shores, which in many parts are smooth and sandy, offering excellent facilities for bathing. The only other waters connected with the parish, except a few rivulets, which exhibit several interesting cascades, are the Kyles of Bute and Loch Ridon or Riddan, forming respectively the south-western and western boundaries, and affording herrings and the ordinary white-fish. The whole of the sea-shore belonging to the parish measures between thirty and forty miles.

Near the coast the soil is light and sandy, mixed in some parts with moss; in the more inland tracts it runs through several varieties, and much of the earth is of a red cast. Agriculture is in a very low state, the old system of cultivation generally prevailing. Most of the land is laid out in sheep-farms, merely interspersed with arable tracts, and held on lease for only nine years. Some parts, however, form an exception; are highly cultivated, drained, and fenced; and have very comfortable houses, the leases running for nineteen years. The sheep, usually numbering upwards of 10,000, are of the black-faced kind, excepting a few Leicesters, fed on the lower grounds. Considerable numbers of cows, chiefly the Argyllshire, with some of the Ayrshire for the dairy, are kept; and about 200 calves are annually reared. The cattle are generally disposed of to the drovers, for the low country markets; the sheep are sold to the Greenock, Glasgow, Rothesay, or Dunoon butchers. The strata of the parish comprise chiefly mica-slate, and a variety of hard common rocks lying in beds, with many whinstone dykes. Limestone was formerly quarried; but it has been superseded by Irish lime in shell, the latter being of superior quality and less expensive. The wood comprehends about 440 acres of thriving plantations, principally larch, spruce-fir, oak, ash, and birch: there are also 1000 acres of oak coppice, the periodical cuttings of which make a profitable return. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3283. The mansion of Southhall, situated near the opening to the East Kyles of Bute, embraces beautiful views of the Frith of Clyde; and at Gortan, on the eastern side of Loch Straven, a cottage has recently been built, surrounded with nearly 100 acres of plantations, and commanding fine prospects of Rothesay bay, with Ayrshire and Arran in the distance.

The inhabitants are scattered in various directions, and are chiefly employed in agriculture, but mostly keep nets for taking, at the proper seasons, the fish with which the different waters abound, comprising all kinds of white-fish, with herrings, and tolerable quantities of lobsters, crabs, and other shell-fish. The peat obtained in the district is used for fuel; but the people more frequently burn coal, brought from various places. The parish is tolerably well supplied with roads, some of which are kept in very good order. A fair is held in November, for the sale of black-cattle. Inverchaolain is in the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Bute. The minister's stipend is £150, of which a part is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of nearly five acres, valued at £13. 10. per annum. The church, built in 1812, is situated on an eminence, and surrounded by a picturesque burial-ground; it contains 250 sittings, and forms that accommodate about forty more. A chapel, connected with the Establishment, and situated on the East Kyles of Bute, was opened in 1840, having been built by subscription, and a contribution from the General Assembly's church-extension fund. There are two schools in the parish; the masters have salaries of £22 and £11 respectively, and the fees. In a small island in Loch Riddan is the ruin of the ancient castle of Elland-heirrig, fortified by the Earl of Argyll when he made his descent upon Scotland in 1685, and which is seen by passengers in steam-boats passing along the Kyles of Bute. The island, and the property lying in the vicinity, were at that period possessed by a family named Campbell, now extinct, who had other very considerable lands in this part of Scotland, and were of some celebrity as warriors.

Invercruden

INVERCRUDEN, Aberdeenshire.—See Cruden.

Inveresk

INVERESK, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the town of Musselburgh, and the villages of Monktonhall, Cowpits, Craighall, Stoneyhill, and part of New Craighall, 8263 inhabitants, of whom 211 are in the village of Inveresk. This place derives its name from its situation near the influx of the river Esk into a bay on the south shore of the Frith of Forth. The parish is about three miles in length and two and a half in breadth, comprising 4000 acres, of which, with the exception of a small portion of woodland and plantations, the whole is arable, and in a high state of cultivation. The surface, though generally level, and sloping towards the coast, is pleasingly varied with gentle undulations, which, in the direction of the southern boundary of the parish, terminate in a ridge, though of inconsiderable height, having an elevation of little more than 500 feet above the level of the sea. Along the shore of the Frith are some beautiful downs of great extent, well adapted for the celebration of public games, and on which a fine race-course has been formed, and a handsome and commodious stand erected. The river Esk, combining the waters of the North Esk, which has its source in the Pentland hills, and of the South Esk, which rises in the Moorfoot range, flows from Dalkeith Park (within which the two streams unite), in a pleasing winding course through the parish, and falls into the bay of Musselburgh. Salmon are found in the river, though not in any considerable numbers; and off the coast are taken haddock, cod, flounders, whiting, and occasionally soles and mackerel.

The soil near the village is a light sandy loam, of great fertility; and on the higher grounds, a deep clayey loam; the whole producing exuberant crops of wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry has been brought to great perfection, and the lands generally are in the highest state of cultivation; the farm-houses are substantially built and well arranged, and on most of the farms are threshing-mills, some of which are worked by steam. The lands have been well drained, and inclosed either with stone walls or hedges of thorn; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The cattle reared are not confined to any particular breed; the horses are usually the Clydesdale, and the sheep of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds. A considerable portion of land is cultivated as gardens; and large quantities of fruit, flowers, and vegetables are raised for the supply of the Edinburgh and Glasgow markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £26,677. The plantations are, ash, oak, elm, plane, beech, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, with a few pines, all of which seem well adapted to the soil, and are in a thriving state. The principal substrata are, COAL, freestone, and limestone. The coalfield extends under the whole of the parish, on both sides of the river Esk, and contains forty seams, varying from two and a half to nine feet in thickness: of these seams three are wrought, which are respectively three, four and a half, and four feet thick, and at depths of nine, twelve, and ninety fathoms. The chief collieries now in operation are at New Craighall, Monktonhall, and Edmonstone: at New Craighall a steamengine of 140-horse power was many years ago erected, at an expense of £6000, by Messrs. Claud Girdwood and Company, for drawing off the water. Another, of still greater power, has recently been erected. There were formerly collieries at Pinkie-burn, Midfield, and Cowpits; but the workings have been abandoned. Several quarries of limestone are wrought to a considerable extent; and a further supply of that material may readily be obtained from Cousland, in the adjoining parish of Cranston.

Among the principal mansions in the parish is Pinkie House, the seat of Sir John Hope, Bart., anciently the country residence of the abbots of Dunfermline, and, according to an inscription in front of the building, enlarged or improved by Lord Seton, in 1613. The most ancient portion is a massive square tower, crowned with turrets, and of which the walls are of immense thickness, and the ground-floor strongly vaulted. The mansion in its present state, though only part of a more magnificent structure, is spacious, and contains many splendid apartments, in one of which, called the king's room, the abbot entertained his sovereign. The painted gallery, which is 120 feet in length, and decorated with an enriched ceiling painted in device, was used as an hospital for the wounded, after the battle of Pinkie; and Prince Charles Edward slept in the apartment on the night after the battle of Prestonpans. Carberry House is beautifully situated on the acclivity of Carberry hill, upon the summit of which is still pointed out the place where Mary, Queen of Scots, sat, while holding a conference with Kirkaldy of Grange. The 'mansion, which is of great antiquity, has within the last thirty years been repaired, and partly modernised; it commands a fine prospect embracing the Frith of Forth. The grounds are tastefully embellished, and enriched with groves and avenues of oak, chesnut, and beech, of stately and venerable growth. There are numerous other mansions, of which the principal are, Stoneyhill House, anciently the seat of the son of Archbishop Sharpe; Monkton House, said to have been built by General Monk; and New Hailes, formerly the seat of Lord Hailes, author of the Annals of Scotland. The grounds of the last are pleasingly laid out; and near the house is a column, erected to the memory of the Earl of Stair. The village of Inveresk is situated on rising ground overlooking the picturesque and fertile valley of the Esk; and from the mildness of the climate, and the interesting variety of the scenery around, it has long been distinguished as the "Montpelier" of Scotland, and selected as a favourite place of residence.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £324. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £22 per annum; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. There is also an assistant minister, who receives the interest of a bequest of £340, £5 from seat-rents, and from £35 to £40 from his office as session-clerk. The church of St. Michael, a spacious building, supposed to have been erected soon after the introduction of Christianity into Britain, was taken down in 1804, and a new structure erected on its site in 1806. The present church, containing 2400 sittings, is a plain edifice in the Grecian style of architecture, with a lofty tower and spire, forming a conspicuous landmark, and towards the building of which a contribution was made by the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses. A church has been built in Fisherrow, in the parish; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief, United Secession, Independents, and Wesleyans; and an episcopal chapel. A grammar school, at Musselburgh, is supported under the patronage of the magistrates and town council, who give the master a salary of £27. 4. 5., in addition to the house and schoolroom. There are also English schools in Musselburgh and Fisherrow, of which the masters receive salaries of £12 and £17, respectively, from the corporation funds. The relics of antiquity that have been discovered in various parts of the parish, afford striking evidence that this place was not merely a military station, but evidently a Roman colony, or municipum. The ancient church of St. Michael was built on the site, and partly with the materials, of the prætorium of a Roman camp on Inveresk hill. Foundations of baths, and numerous other vestiges of Roman occupation, have been discovered at different times. Among these were, a votive altar inscribed Apollini Granno; a golden coin of Trajan, much obliterated; and a copper medal with the inscription Diva Faustina. Walker, an eminent engraver of portraits, and Burnet, a distinguished historical engraver, were natives of the parish, as is, also, Alexander Ritchie, who has excelled as a sculptor. Logan, the poet, was educated in the grammar school.—See MusselBurgh, Northesk, &c.

Invergordon

INVERGORDON, a village and small sea-port, in the parish of Rosskeen, mainland district of the county of Ross and Cromarty, 19 miles (N. E.) from Dingwall; containing 998 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the north shore of Cromarty Frith, at nearly an equal distance from Tain and Dingwall, has greatly increased in importance since the construction of a commodious harbour by Roderick Mc Leod, Esq., in 1828, at a cost of more than £5000. The village is neatly built, and the surrounding scenery derives much additional beauty from the pleasure-grounds of Invergordon Castle, in its immediate vicinity. A subscription library has been established. A cattle-show takes place annually; there are numerous inns for the accommodation of travellers; and from its central situation, the place is rapidly advancing. The harbour is accessible to vessels of large burthen. The port carries on an extensive trade in the exportation of grain, cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and all the various kinds of agricultural produce; and is one of the most frequented in Easter and Wester Ross. A substantial pier has been erected for the loading and unloading of vessels, and also a slip for building and repairing ships. A wooden jetty has recently been added to the pier, in order to secure a depth of ten feet water at ebb-tides; and the trade of the place is facilitated by a ferry across the Frith to Cromarty. Facility of communication is also afforded by good roads, and by steamers, which ply during the summer months, weekly, to Inverness, Aberdeen, and Leith, and every alternate week to London. The north and south mails pass daily through the village. Fairs for cattle, horses, agricultural produce, fish, and various kinds of wares, are held on the first Thursdays in every month throughout the year; on the second Tuesdays in April, October, and December; on the third Tuesday in February; and the first Tuesday in August.

Invergowrie

INVERGOWRIE, a village, in the parish of Life, Benvie, and Invergowrie, county of Forfar, 3 miles (W.) from Dundee; containing 108 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the south bank of the Tay, and gives name to a fine bay, at the bottom of which is a small mouldering ruin called Invergowrie church, half covered with ivy, close on the water's edge. This is said to have been the first Christian structure north of the Tay, having been founded in the seventh century, by a papal legate named Boniface. From Invergowrie Alexander I. embarked on his escape from assassination at the palace of Liff. The village stands at the commencement of the Carse of Gowrie, and on the high road from Perth to Dundee. About half a mile from it, on Invergowrie hill, are the remains of a Roman camp, which had a communication, on the north-east, with the camp of Hare Faulds, and was designed, it is supposed, to keep up a communication with the Roman shipping in the Tay. Its site is now surrounded with a plantation of trees.

Inverkeillor

INVEREILLOR, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Arbroath; containing, with the hamlets of Leysmill, Chapelton of Boysack, March of Lunanbank, and Millfield, 1879 inhabitants, of whom 141 are in the village of Inverkeillor. This place, which was perhaps anciently called Conghoillis, derives its present name from its situation near the mouth of a small rivulet designated Keillor, which flows into the bay of Lunan about a mile to the south-east of the village. It lays claim to a remote degree of antiquity; and near the mouth of the river Lunan are the ruins of the ancient house of Redcastle, said to have been built by William the Lion for a hunting-seat, the probability of which is confirmed by the names of several of the adjacent lands. The parish is bounded on the north, and also intersected, by the river Lunan; on the east is the North Sea. It is about seven miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying from two and a half to four and a half miles in breadth; and comprises an area of 7500 acres, of which 130 are woodland and plantations, 2500 pasture, and the remainder arable. The surface is generally level, but rises towards the north by a gentle acclivity from the river Lunan, and towards the south from the river Keillor, terminating, in the latter direction, in a high ridge of rocky coast, at the promontory of Redhead, which has an elevation of 230 feet above the level of the sea. The Lunan has its source near Forfar, and, flowing eastward, through the northern portion of the parish, falls into Lunan bay: the Keillor rises in the southern part of the parish, and also joins the sea at the bay. The coast extends for nearly six miles; and the shore along the bay of Lunan is a flat firm sand, beyond which, to the south, it is bold and rocky. The bay affords good anchorage for vessels; and all along the coast are salmon-fisheries.

The soil is in general fertile, in some places a deep rich loam, and in others of a lighter quality; the crops are, grain of every kind, with potatoes and turnips. The system of husbandry is in a very improved state; the lands are well drained; the farm-buildings of superior construction; and the fences, which are chiefly of stone, are kept in good order. The cattle reared in the parish are usually of the Angus black breed, without horns; most of them are sold when three years old, for the English market, where they obtain a high price; and the others are pastured for home use, or for the Glasgow market. The sheep are of the Highland blackfaced breed, with a few of the Cheviot and Leicestershire. The rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £8761. The plantations are, beech, elm, oak, birch, and plane, with larch and Scotch fir, for which the soil is well adapted. The rocks are mostly red sandstone, alternated with trap and porphyry, in which are found agates of great beauty; and the principal substrata are whinstone and freestone. The latter is quarried at Leysmill, where large paving-stones are dressed by machinery driven by steam: in these works, which are the property of Mr. Carnegie of Boysack, about fifty men are constantly employed. Ethie House, the seat of the Earl of Northesk, is an ancient mansion originally erected by Cardinal Beaton, and is pleasantly situated near the coast. The only other houses in the parish of any note are those named Kingblethmont and Anniston.

The village of Inverkeillor is on the great north road from Edinburgh to Aberdeen: the inhabitants are the ordinary tradesmen necessary for the convenience of a country population. Many persons within the parish are employed in the spinning of flax, for which there are several mills, some being driven by steam, and others by the water of the Lunan. Near the church is a posting-house, called Chance Inn, at which the mail delivers letters twice a day; and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and several bridges over the Lunan. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £246. 14., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8. 15. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1735, and enlarged by the addition of an aisle in 1799, is a plain structure containing 700 sittings. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, with a house and garden; he receives also £10 from a bequest for the gratuitous instruction of twelve poor children, and the fees average about £15 per annum. There is also a school at Chapelton, of which the master has a free house and garden, and a salary of £7, arising from a bequest, in addition to the fees. The bequest from which these payments to the schools are made, amounts to £1000, under the management of the Kirk Session, who appropriate the remainder of the proceeds to the poor not upon the parish roll. Near the sea are the remains of St. Murdoch's chapel, with the buryingground attached to it; and at Chapelton are the remains of the chapel of Quytefield, the burial-place of the family of Boysack.


Seal and Arms. Obverse. Reverse.

Inverkeithing

INVERKEITHING, a parish, sea-port, burgh, and market-town, in the district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 12½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Hillend, 2530 inhabitants, of whom 1674 are in the burgh. This place, which is supposed to have derived its name from its position at the influx of the Keithing into the sea, and which at present includes the ancient parish of Rosyth, so called, in the Gaelic language, from its peninsular situation, appears to be of considerable antiquity; and the adjacent ferry was, on her flight from England, the landing-place of Margaret, who afterwards became the queen of Malcolm III. Several battles have at various times occurred in the immediate vicinity, the last of which was between the Scots and the forces of Oliver Cromwell, in 1651; and there are still the remains of a redoubt, said to have been thrown up by Cromwell's army while they were encamped on the Ferry hill. The TOWN is pleasantly and advantageously situated on an eminence overlooking the bay of St. Margaret's Hope, in the Frith of Forth, and consists chiefly of one principal street, from which a smaller street and some lanes branch off in different directions. The houses are in general well built, of sandstone or greenstone; and many of the older buildings have been taken down, and replaced with others of more modern and handsome appearance. There are a public subscription library, a circulating library, and one exclusively for religious works, all of which are well supported. The envirouns are pleasant, and abound with objects of interest; and the place has, on the whole, a clean and cheerful aspect.

A distillery is conducted on a very extensive scale, employing about eighty persons; and the produce, which is chiefly whisky, is shipped off for the supply of the London market. There are two iron-foundries, where works of the larger kind are cast; and in connexion with them are forges, in which steam-engines and various kinds of machinery are manufactured, the whole affording occupation to fifty persons. Bricks for common uses, and fire-bricks of very superior quality, are made in great numbers; and chimney and other ornaments are manufactured, resembling freestone in appearance. There are a tannery, salt-works, and a laboratory for magnesia, in full operation; two mills for meal and flour; one for barley; and a mill worked by steam for crushing bones for agricultural purposes, of which the produce is sent to most places on the eastern coast. The town has also a large yard for building and repairing ships, where a considerable number of people are engaged. The trade of the PORT was once rather more extensive than at present, from the great number of persons employed in the quarries of greenstone, of which vast quantities were shipped off for paving the streets of London, but which has of late been partly superseded by the use of granite from Aberdeen. Much stone was likewise used in the construction of the pier at Leith and the bridge of Stirling, the shipping of which was, of course, discontinued after those works were completed. At present, the trade consists chiefly in the exportation of the produce of coal-mines and manufactories, and in the importation of timber, bark, and large quantities of bones; but much stone is still exported. In 1843 there were twenty-eight vessels, varying from twenty to 160 tons' burthen, registered as belonging to the port, and mostly employed in the coasting trade. Steam-boats sail from the village of North Queensferry, in the vicinity, to Leith, Stirling, and other ports, affording a facility of intercourse with the principal towns in this part of the country; and several lines of good turnpike-road, also, serve to maintain an easy communication with the neighbouring market-towns. An iron railway has been recently constructed, in place of a former one of wood, for conveying coal, lime, bricks, and also stone from the quarries, to the port, for exportation. The market, on Monday, for grain and live stock, is held in a handsome and commodious markethouse. Five annual fairs are held in the town, for horses, cattle, and various kinds of merchandise, which formerly were numerously attended by dealers from various parts; but very little business is at present transacted, except at the cattle-fair in May, and the Lammas fair on the first Friday in August, which latter is resorted to by considerable numbers of people from the neighbouring districts, when horse and foot races regularly take place.

The inhabitants of the Burgh received a charter of incorporation at a very early period, which is recited in a charter granted by William the Lion, and was confirmed and enlarged by charter of James VI., giving to the burgesses the customs on vessels navigating the port from the great stone near Milnathort, on the north, to the middle of the Frith of Forth, on the south; and from the river Leven, on the east, to the river Devon, on the west; with certain tracts of land, and various other privileges. By this charter, the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a council of ten burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers, all chosen under the regulations of the Municipal Reform Act. The provostship was made hereditary, by a grant of Mary, Queen of Scots, in the family of the Hendersons, of Fordel; and the provost of this burgh was, in public processions, next in precedence to the provost of Edinburgh. By their ancient charter, the magistrates had power of jurisdiction in capital offences; and a rising ground near the town still retains the name of Gallow-hill, being the place where criminals were formerly executed. The provost, bailies, and the other officers of the corporation were formerly all elected by the council; and the council filled up vacancies as they occurred from the burgesses, by a majority of their own body. There are five trades, viz., the hammermen, tailors, shoemakers, bakers, and weavers, which are severally governed by deacons; and the freedom of the burgh is obtained by becoming a member of any one of these companies, on the payment of certain fees. The jurisdiction of the provost and bailies, the former of whom is always a justice of the peace by virtue of his office, extends over the whole of the royalty of the burgh, and the magistrates hold courts for the determination of civil actions to any amount; but all criminal cases, except in trifling misdemeanours, are referred to the county assizes. The burgh unites with those of Culross, South Queensferry, Stirling, and Dunfermline, in returning one member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested, by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., in the resident householders of the annual value of £10 and upwards. The number of electors is ninety, of whom thirty-four are burgesses; and the number of persons whose houses are below the value of £10 per annum, is forty-five, of whom six are burgesses. The town-hall is a neat building of stone, and is well adapted to the use of the corporation, and for holding the courts: the prison, which is only for the temporary confinement of offenders, is small and insecure. The market-cross is a neat, and rather lofty, pillar of stone; and between the town and the village of North Ferry, is a handsome building originally erected for a lazaretto, but which has been superseded by stationing a frigate in the bay of St. Margaret's Hope, for the quarantine service. The annual revenue of the burgh is between £600 and £700.


Second Seal of the Burgh.

The parish extends for six miles along the shore of the Frith, including the bay of St. Margaret's Hope, so called from the landing of Queen Margaret; it comprises about 2500 acres, chiefly arable, with a moderate portion of pasture, and a few acres in plantations. The surface is greatly varied, consisting of hills of considerable elevation with intervening valleys, and level sands stretching along the coast and frequently interrupted by cragged heights. In the Frith are the rocky island of Inch-Garvie and the rock of Bimar, which latter has been the cause of frequent shipwrecks. The streamlet called the Keithing, as already stated, here falls into the Frith; and two small burns, after intersecting the parish, unite their streams, and also join the harbour. The scenery is marked rather with features of romantic character, than of picturesque beauty; and the want of ornamental timber gives an appearance of bleakness to the landscape. The soils are various, but generally fertile, and much waste and mossy land has been reclaimed by draining, and brought into profitable cultivation; the system of husbandry, also, has been greatly improved. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips; the little pasture there is, is on the acclivities of the hills. The plantations are chiefly of recent growth, and consist of larch and fir, interspersed with oak, ash, beech, and elm trees; and on the banks of the streams are some alder and willow. The farm-buildings are mostly substantial and commodious, and several, of modern erection, are of very superior style; the lands are inclosed principally with hedges of thorn which are kept in good order, but a few of the fields are fenced with stone dykes. The substratum is generally greenstone, of which the hills consist; and limestone and sandstone abound: coal is found in the northern part of the parish. Among the minerals are, quartz, steatite, felspar, sulphate of barytes, calcareous spar, and pyrites of iron; and boulders of chlorite and mica-slate are frequently found. The greenstone is quarried extensively for building, paving, and for mending the roads; and large quantities are shipped from the port: the sandstone is also quarried, and sent to the towns on the neighbouring coast; and there are quarries of limestone of excellent quality, of which great quantities are forwarded to distant places. The coal is likewise worked to a very considerable extent, about 30,000 or 40,000 tons being annually raised. The rateable yearly value of Inverkeithing is £7431. On the estate of Duloch is an ancient mansion; also a modern house, the occasional residence of its proprietor; and on a promontory near St. Margaret's Hope is a handsome marine villa.

Inverkeithing is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of Lady Baird; the minister's stipend is £263. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £40 per annum. The church, which is situated in the centre of the town, is a handsome edifice in the later style of English architecture, built, with the exception of the tower, in 1827, to replace the former structure, destroyed by an accidental fire in 1825. It is a conspicuous feature in the view of the town, and is adapted for a congregation of nearly 1000 persons. There is a place of worship for a congregation of the United Associate Synod. The parochial school, for which an elegant building has been erected, and which is also the burgh school, affords a liberal education to 170 scholars: the master, who is appointed jointly by the towncouncil and the heritors, has a salary of £34, with £100 fees, and a house and garden. A female school has been established for teaching reading and sewing, the mistress of which is appointed by the council, who pay her a salary of £5, in addition to the fees. There are some Druidical remains on the summit of Letham hill; and in the north of the parish is a stone pillar, about ten feet in height, on which are rudely-sculptured figures of men and horses, which are much defaced by time; it is supposed to have been raised in commemoration of some successful conflict with the Danes. On the summit of a rock in the bay connected by a narrow isthmus with the main land, are the remains of the ancient castle of Rosyth, consisting of the walls of a square tower, which, from the traces of foundations, appears to have been at the north-east angle of a quadrangular range of buildings. The castle is said to have been anceintly the baronial seat of the Stuarts, of Rosyth, descendants of Walter, high steward of Scotland, and father of Robert II.; it is now the property of the Earl of Hopetoun. Over the gateway is a coat of arms, much mutilated, but clearly Queen Mary's, surmounted by a crown, with the inscription M. R. and the date 1561; and near the door on the south side is a couplet in the Scottish dialect, having allusion to the bell, as summoning the guests to the banquet. On the transoms of the windows in the hall, also, are engraved the initials M. S. and M. N. An old building in the town is said to be the remains of the residence of Annabella Drummond, queen of Robert III., in which she died in 1403: the tenement, though in the centre of the town, is exempt from the jurisdiction of the magistrates, who, under their charter from that monarch, were obliged to pay her 100 shillings annually. Near it are numerous ruins, among which were recently discovered the foundations of an ancient chapel belonging to one of the monasteries founded here for brethren of the Franciscan and Dominican orders. There are also in the town some old houses well known to have been residences of the families of Fordel and Rosebery. During the repairs of the former church, was found a beautiful hexagonal font of sandstone, richly sculptured on each face of the shaft with the bust of an angel with expanded wings, bearing on its breast a shield of antique form, in which were the arms of Scotland and of several of the monarchs; it had been apparently buried with care.

Inverkeithny

INVERKEITHNY, a parish, in the county of Banff, 10 miles (N. E.) from Huntly; containing 687 inhabitants. This place takes its name from the large burn of Keithny, which here falls into the river Doveran, on the south side whereof the parish lies, stretching in length, along the stream, between five and six miles, and measuring from four miles to five in breadth. On the north, the parish is bounded by that of Marnoch, on the west by Rothiemay, on the south-west and south by Forgue, and on the east by Turriff, the two last parishes in the county of Aberdeen. It is computed to contain 5610 acres, of which 4000 are cultivated, 800 waste or natural pasture, and the same number woods and plantations, and undivided common. There is scarcely anything to be met with in the nature of peat or moss. The soil is tolerably good, and a considerable quantity of grain is annually raised; the land is farmed upon the most approved system, and the rents average about 15s per acre, the whole rateable annual value of the parish amounting to £3343. The public road from Banff to Huntly, to the former of which places the agricultural produce is mostly sent, passes through the western portion of the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen; and the patronage is vested in Thomas G. Bremner, Esq. The stipend of the minister is £215, with a manse, built in 1787, and a glebe of nearly six acres, valued in £10 per annum. The church, a very plain edifice, stands in a narrow vale, near the bank of the Doveran, where, also, is the manse. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the salary of the master is £34 per annum, with about £30 fees, and a house: fifty children are educated.

Inverleven

INVERLEVEN, in the county of Fife.—See Dubbieside.

Invekmorriston

INVERMORRISTON, a village, in the parish of Urquhart and Glenmorriston, county of Inverness, 21¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Bonar Ferry; containing 94 inhabitants. This place is situated at the confluence of the river Morriston with Loch Ness; and an excellent road has been formed from it, coastwise, along the north-west shore of the loch, to Bonar Ferry. The Grant family have a handsome seat in the vicinity; and there is an excellent inn. A missionary minister preaches here, and in the upper part of the glen, alternately; and a branch of the parochial school is in the village.

Inverness

INVERNESS, a royal burgh, sea-port town, and parish, in the county of Inverness, of which it is the chief town, 156 miles (N. N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Balloch, Clachnaharry, Culcaboch, Hilton, Resawrie, and Smithtown of Culloden, 15,418 inhabitants, of whom 9100 are in the burgh. This place, which derives its name from its situation near the mouth of the river Ness, is the largest and most flourishing town in the Highlands, of which it may be considered as the capital. It is supposed to have been the ancient metropolis of the kingdom of the Picts, and the residence of their kings previously to the union of the Picts and Scots in the reign of Kenneth II.; and to have been visited, in the sixth century, by St. Columba, for the conversion of the inhabitants to the Christian religion. The CASTLE, for many years the occasional residence of the Scottish kings, is identified by Shakspeare as the scene of the murder of Duncan by Macbeth, lord of Ross and Moray, though, by most historians, the perpetration of that crime is said to have taken place in the vicinity of Elgin. It was razed to the ground, about the middle of the 11th century, by Duncan's son, Malcolm Camnore, who erected, near the site, a strong fortress which was held for the king by one of the most powerful of the nobility, with a view to keep the inhabitants of this Highland district in subjection. Soon after the completion of this castle, some houses were raised in its immediate neighbourhood; and a town gradually arose, which, under its protection, increased in extent and importance, and was frequently visited by the kings. Though often plundered by the inhabitants of the Isles and by the Highlanders, the town continued to prosper; and in the 13th century, it had attained a considerable degree of commercial consequence, being inhabited by numerous Flemings and Saxons, who had settled here, and who carried on a lucrative trade in the exportation of hides, malt, and various kinds of fish.


Arms.

In 1303, the castle was besieged and taken by Edward I. of England; but it was soon afterwards retaken by the adherents of Robert Bruce, who was then raising forces in the Western Islands, to assert his right to the throne; and it remained in the possession of his successors, kings of Scotland, till the reign of James I. In 1411, the town was plundered by Donald, Lord of the Isles, who, in his march from the battle of Harlaw, set fire to the castle, which was nearly destroyed; it was, however, restored by the king, who repaired the fortifications, and made the chief of the Macintosh family, descended from one of the earls of Fife, governor. The castle continued for some time to be a place for the confinement of state prisoners, and, in 1508, was placed under the command of the Earl of Huntly, who was also created heritable sheriff of the county. On the insurrection of a succeeding earl, in 1562, Mary, Queen of Scots, in her progress to the north to quell the rebellion, came to Inverness with a few attendants, and, being refused admission into the castle, at that time held in her name by the insurgent earl, lodged in a house at the base of the fortress. From this perilous situation the queen was relieved by the Frasers, Monroes, and Mackenzies, whom her proclamation had brought to her assistance; the castle was compelled to surrender, and the deputy-governor was executed on the spot. The queen, after remaining for four days in the castle, left the town, and retired to Aberdeen.

During the war in the reign of Charles I., the castle was an object of constant dispute between the contending parties. It was repeatedly besieged and taken for the king by the Marquess of Montrose, and as frequently retaken by his opponents: in 1649, it was nearly demolished by the royalists under Sir Thomas Urquhart; and during the same year, the town was seized by the royal forces under Generals Middleton and Monroe. The castle was, however, recaptured by Cromwell, who erected a strong fortress for the defence of the town, capable of accommodating 1000 men, to provide materials for which he destroyed the monasteries of Kingloss and Beauly, and all the religious houses in the neighbourhood. After the Restoration, this fortress was demolished, to conciliate the Highlanders, who had been held under powerful restraint, and severely annoyed, by the garrison of Cromwell; and several of the more ancient houses in the town were built with the materials. The royal castle which had been nearly demolished by Urquhart was, at the time of the Revolution, restored by government, at an expense of £50,000, and garrisoned, in order to keep the Highlanders in subjection. It was still further improved in 1718, by the erection of a house for the governor; and the whole of the buildings, called FortGeorge, formed a royal garrison under a governor chosen by the crown, an appointment held always by one of the principal of the nobility, and which, though it subsequently became merely nominal, was possessed by the Gordon family till the death of the last duke, in 1836. In 1745, the castle was assaulted by the forces under the command of Charles Edward, son of the Pretender, by whom it was taken and destroyed. That prince, on the night last but one before the battle of Culloden, which took place near the town, slept at the house of Lady Drummuir, in Church-street; and on the night after the battle, the Duke of Cumberland, who made Inverness his head-quarters, slept in the same house, which appears to have been almost the only one of any importance in the place. The circulation of money by the troops of the duke during their stay in the town, appears to have contributed greatly to its restoration from that state of decay into which, from the time of the Revolution, it had been gradually falling. The walls of the royal castle, which remained nearly entire for some years, have been removed, and the site converted into a bowling-green.

The Town is situated chiefly on the east bank of the river Ness, near its influx into the Moray Frith, and consists of several well-formed and spacious streets, crossing each other at right angles. The houses are generally substantial and well built, and many are large and of handsome appearance, the residence of opulent families; the streets are paved with granite, and the foot-paths laid with Caithness flags. The town is lighted with gas from works erected at an expense of £8757, by a company established under an act of parliament; and the inhabitants are supplied with water raised from the river by machinery, and distributed to the houses by pipes. There are several subscription and circulating libraries, and two public reading and news rooms, all well furnished with newspapers, of which three are published in the town, and with the most interesting periodical works. The Northern Institution for the promotion of science and literature, established here in 1825, has been discontinued; and its valuable library, and museum of antiquities and natural curiosities, have been presented to the directors of the Inverness Academy, for the use of the pupils. In Church-street is a plain neat building called the Northern Meeting Rooms, containing an elegant ballroom, in which card and dancing assemblies are held, a spacious dining-room, and other rooms, in which public meetings take place. Leading from the extremity of the High-street, is a handsome bridge of stone, of seven arches, erected in 1685, by subscription, at a cost of £1300, and connecting the principal part of the town with that portion of it which lies on the west bank of the river, and with the various suburbs in that vicinity. Above this is the new bridge, of wood, built in 1808, by private subscription, at an expense of £4000. The environs abound with interesting and pleasing scenery: in the river, which is here of great breadth, are two picturesque islands, beautifully laid out in lawns, shrubberies, and walks, connected with the opposite banks of the stream by suspension-bridges, and forming delightful promenades. There are several good family hotels in the town, of which the Caledonian hotel is very extensive, and elegantly fitted up; also numerous commodious inns and lodging-houses.

The chief manufacture carried on is that of cloth for bags, sacking, and tarpaulins, for the London market, and for exportation to the East and West Indies; about 300 persons are employed, of whom more than half are women. The weaving of Highland plaids and tartans is also pursued to a small extent, affording occupation to twenty-five persons; there are three tanneries, a distillery, and two public breweries; and about a hundred families are supported by the sawing of timber. The trade of the Port consists chiefly in the exportation of wool, grain, and hempen cloths; and the importation of hemp and timber from the Baltic, and tar from Archangel, of which last, upon an average, from 400 to 600 tons are annually landed. There are six vessels belonging to the port, of 130 tons' average burthen, employed in the trade with London; three in that of Leith; and two in that of Aberdeen: the custom duties in the year 1843 amounted to £4357. Since the completion of the Caledonian canal, the commerce of the town has been greatly extended, a direct line of intercourse having been thus opened with Glasgow and Liverpool, and with the manufacturing districts in their vicinity. The jurisdiction of the port, which is the head of the district, extends from the mouth of the river Spey to Dornoch Frith on the east, and from Assynt Point to Ardnamurchan on the west. The aggregate tonnage of the shipping of the whole district is about 8000 tons, of which nearly two-thirds belong to this place. The harbour, at the mouth of the river, is accessible to vessels of 250 tons; and ships of 500 tons can anchor with safety in the Kessock roads, or deliver their cargoes at the wharfs of the Caledonian canal, within a mile of the town. During the summer months, steam-vessels sail regularly from Inverness to Leith, Aberdeen, and London. Shipbuilding has within the last few years been introduced, and is carried on upon a moderate scale. The marketdays are Tuesday and Friday, when butchers' meat, eggs, and poultry, and garden and agricultural produce of every kind, are exposed for sale in great abundance. Fairs are held in February, July, August, and November, for cattle, horses, butter, cheese, home-made stuffs, and various other kinds of merchandise. The July fair is attended by the principal Highland sheep-farmers, and by the south of Scotland and English wool-staplers, when not less than 100,000 head of sheep, and an equal number of stones of wool, are generally sold. The exchange, situated near the town-hall, is a neat building, well adapted for its use; and the old cross, in front of it, is still in good preservation.

The Caledonian Canal, which extends from Inverness, on the north-east, to Corpach, near Fort-William, on the south-west, intersects Scotland from sea to sea. It passes for eight miles within the parish; and its entire length is 60½ miles, of which twenty-three miles have been formed by excavation, and the remainder consists of a succession of natural lakes, Loch Ness, Loch Oich, and Loch Lochy. The canal is 120 feet wide at the top, fifty at the bottom, and the full depth of water corresponding to these dimensions was proposed to be twenty feet; but the works have not hitherto been completed to afford a greater practicable depth than thirteen or fourteen feet. There are twenty-eight locks on the line, fourteen ascending to, and fourteen descending from, the summit level in Loch Oich, which is about ninety-five feet above ordinary high-water at Inverness. The locks are 170 feet long, by forty in breadth, the rise in most cases being eight feet; and the bridges are of cast-iron, and swing horizontally. Acts for the construction of the canal were passed in 1803 and 1804; the works were commenced under the superintendence of Mr. Telford, in 1805; and after an expenditure of nearly £1,000,000 sterling, the navigation was opened in 1822, in the unfinished state already mentioned, and in which it has ever since remained. The present rate of tonnage-duty, levied on sailing-vessels or steam-boats laden or unladen, passing along the canal in either direction, is one farthing per ton per mile; there being no dues chargeable upon goods of any description. The produce of the rate amounted, for the year ending 30th April, 1842, to £2723; and the number of passages made by vessels during that period was 1350. Since then, the navigation has only been partially open, at irregular intervals, owing to the works not being in a perfect state. The detective and unsatisfactory condition of the canal has, however, of late engaged the serious attention of government; and nautical and engineering surveys and reports have been made by Sir Edward Parry and Mr. Walker, who concur in recommending the efficient repair and completion of the works, with the establishment of steam tug-boats and other facilities for the accommodation of the larger classes of commercial shipping. The estimated expense of these operations is about £200,000, towards which the sum of £105,000 was voted by parliament up to 1844; and a contract has been entered into for the engineering details, amounting to £136,000, which will occupy a period of three years from their commencement in October, 1843. The passage from sea to sea is necessarily interrupted during their progress; but parts of the canal are kept open, and made available for the local traffic.

The town was made a royal Burgh by character of David I,; and additional privileges were granted by succeeding monarchs to the time of James VI., under whose charter, in 1591, the government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and fourteen councillors. The councillors were formerly elected by a majority of their own body, five of whom retired every year, and were replaced: the provost, bailies, dean of guild, and treasurer remained members of the council for one year after the expiration of their office, and of course were not of the number that retired. There are six incorporated trades, viz., the hammermen, wrights and coopers, shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and skinners, into one of which a person must enter before he is eligible to the council or magistracy; the fees of admission vary from £1. 1. to £3 for sons of freemen, for apprentices from £5 to £6, and for strangers from £20 to £30. The jurisdiction of the burgh extends over the whole of the ancient and enlarged royalty; and the magistrates hold courts, with jurisdiction equivalent to that of the sheriff, for the determination of civil pleas, and the trial of criminal offences, in which the town-clerk acts as assessor. The average number of civil causes tried annually is forty, of from £2 to £20 in amount; and of criminal causes two. There is also a court held by the dean of guild, as well as a sheriff's court for the recovery of small debts. The burgh, in conjunction with the burghs of Forres, Fortrose, and Nairn, returns a member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident £10 householders. The town-hall, at the extremity of Church-street, was erected in 1708, and contains the necessary accommodations for transacting the public business: the gaol, erected in 1791, has a handsome spire 150 feet in height, but is ill adapted for the classification of prisoners. The county-hall, situated on the Castle Hill, is a good building in the castellated style, erected at an expenses of £7000, after a design by Mr. Burn, of Edinburgh, and has the requisite court-rooms and offices: immediately adjoining is a site reserved for the erection of a new gaol for the county and the town.


Burgh Seal.

The parish extends along the coast of the Moray and Beauty Friths, and is about fourteen miles in length and two and a half in average breadth, comprising an area of 12,000 acres, of which 9000 are arable, and the remainder, of which 1000 might be brought into cultivation, woodland, plantations, and waste. The surface, of which a considerable portions, forming part of the Caledonian valley, or great Glen of Albin, is tolerably level, is diversified on each side by the mountainous chains which bound the vale, and which, towards the coast, decrease in height. These mountains subside on the east into a smooth ridge having an elevation of about 400 feet, and on the west divide into groups of picturesque hills, terminating in Craig-Phadric, a remarkable elevation of vitrified rock, with a tabular summit, to which the ascent is by precipitous and rugged acclivities. Along the line of coast, which is marked with bays of gentle curvature, is a level tract of rich land in the best state of cultivation; and most of the higher grounds are beautifully ornamented with luxuriant woods, and plantations of Scotch fir, larch, ash, elm, beech, and oak. The river Ness, which has its source in Loch Ness, after a course of eight miles, flows through the parish into the bay opposite Kessock point, between the Moray and Beauly Friths; and there are numerous rivulets, of which several in their progress form picturesque cascades. The Ness formerly abounded with salmon, and the fisheries on it produced a rental of £1100 per annum, which, within the last thirty years, has been reduced to £370; and there is a prospect of a still further reduction. A few herrings or coal-fish are occasionally taken on the sea-shore. The prevailing scenery is marked with features, in some parts of grandeur, and in others of romantic beauty; and the views from the higher grounds are extensive and richly varied. Numerous handsome seats of the Highland gentry are situated in the glens, and on the elevated ridges which intersect the parish; and the pleasing hamlets of their tenantry are scattered through the various districts. There are also many tastefully ornamented villas in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. The soil in the upper lands is light and sandy, resting on a substratum of gravel; and in the lower lands, a deep rich loam, intermixed with clay: the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, hay, and the usual green crops. The system of agriculture is advanced; the lands are well inclosed with fences of stone or hedges; and the farm houses and offices are generally substantial and commodious. Considerable portions of waste have been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation; and all the more recent improvements in implements of husbandry have been adopted. The cattle are usually of a mixed breed, partaking of the Old Highland, Moray, and Ayrshire kinds; and considerable attention is paid in rearing them for the dairy, and also for the market. There are some quarries of red and of grey sandstone, which are wrought to a moderate extent, chiefly for domestic purposes. The rateable annual value of the parish is £30,258, including £10,500 for the burgh. Among the gentlemen's seats are, Culloden House, Raigmore House, New Castle, the Inches, Culduthel, Dochfour, Dunain, and Muirtown, all beautifully situated in richly-planted demesnes.

The parish, with which that of Bona was united at a time not distinctly known, is the head of the presbytery of Inverness, in the synod of Moray. There are three parochial ministers, who officiate alternately in the two ancient CHURCHES. The first and second have each a stipend of £276. 10., with a small allowance in lieu of the manses, which, being ruinous, were sold for inconsiderable sums, of which they receive the interest respectively; and the proceeds of the glebe, amounting to £100 per annum, are equally divided between them. The third minister has a stipend of £200, of which part is paid from the exchequer; but he has neither manse nor glebe. Of the two old churches, the one called the High church, in which divine service is performed only in the English language, was built in 1772; it is a plain edifice containing 1260 sittings, and has an ancient square tower, said to have been erected by Oliver Cromwell. The other, called the Gaelic church, because the service is performed in that language, was built in 1794, and is also a plain structure, containing 1220 sittings. The patronage is in the Crown and Lord Lovat; but the latter has transferred his portion of it, during his life, to Professor Scott, of King's College, Aberdeen. The late quoad sacra parish of North Church was separated from the parish of Inverness by act of the General Assembly: the church, erected in 1837, at a cost of £1400, raised by subscription, aided by a grant from the Assembly, is a neat structure containing 1033 sittings. The late quoad sacra parish of East Inverness was nearly five miles in length and about two miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 5000 acres, and including an extensive rural district: the church, built in 1798, at a cost of £1400, by subscription, and altered and repaired in 1822, has 1177 sittings. There is a preaching station in the ancient parish of Bona, where divine service is performed by the assistant of one of the ministers of the parish. The episcopal chapel, erected in 1801, at a cost of £1000, is a neat building; and there are places of worship for the United Secession, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel, erected in 1836, at an expense of £2000. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church.

The old burgh grammar school has long merged into the Royal Academy, founded in 1792, for the education of children in the higher classes of the Highland population; incorporated by royal charter; and endowed by liberal subscriptions, and the transfer of the funds appropriated by the burgh to the support of the old grammar school. To these sources of income has been added a munificent bequest of property, now amounting to £26,794, by Captain William Macintosh, of Farr, in 1803, for the education of boys of that name, of the families of Farr, Holm, Dalmigavie, and Kellachy, or the nearest of kin, of whom there are nearly forty in the establishment. The academy is under the direction of the provost and magistrates of the burgh, the sheriff of the county, the moderator of the presbytery, and a committee of five persons chosen annually from the subscribers; and the instruction is given by a rector, who has a salary of £250 per annum, without any fees, and four classical and other masters, who, in addition to their fees, have salaries varying from £30 to £40 each. The course of studies consists of the classics, mathematics, the elements of chemistry, natural history, and philosophy, with all the branches of a commercial education: there are at present about 300 pupils. Mr. John Raining, of Norwich, in 1747, bequeathed £1000 to the General Assembly, for the foundation of a school, which has been established here, and placed under the direction of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; it has two masters, who receive salaries of £48 and £40 per annum, respectively, with a house and garden each; and the number of pupils is 250. There are also two other schools in the parish, of which the masters have salaries of £17 and £15 each, supported by the same society, A large school, likewise, has recently been erected by the magistrates, to whom the Rev. Dr. Bell bequeathed £10,000, in trust, for the foundation and support of schools on the Madras system. The Infirmary, to which is attached a lunatic asylum, was founded in 1804, chiefly through the exertions of the provost, William Inglis, Esq., and is supported by subscriptions and donations. It is under the direction of the magistrates of the burgh, the sheriff of the county, the moderator of the presbytery, the ministers of the parish, and a committee of subscribers annually chosen; the medical department is superintended by the faculty, who visit the institution gratuitously, a resident house-surgeon and apothecary, a matron, nurses, and the requisite attendants. The building, which is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the river, beyond the town, is a handsome and spacious structure, including a distinct arrangement for the asylum, which is detached from the infirmary. The latter contains numerous airy and well-ventilated wards for the various classes of patients, with hot and cold baths. The Dispensary, situated on Muirtown Green, was established in 1832, for administering advice and medicines to the poor, and has afforded extensive relief; it is wholly supported by subscription. There are also several benefit societies in the town, which have tended to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief. Mr. Jonathan Anderson, of Glasgow, bequeathed to the magistrates property now amounting to £3845; and Mr. Klien, also, bequeathed £1000, of which the interest is distributed annually among decayed householders. The United Charitable Institutions, for which a neat building has been erected on an eminence to the south of the Castle Hill, to which it is proposed to add a tower, fitted up for an observatory, include an infant school, a female school, a female work society, and an association for the distribution of blankets and clothing to the poor.

Above the village of Clachnaharry, to the west of the town, are some rocky eminences called the Watchman's stones, where anciently a guard was stationed to give notice of the approach of any hostile force, and on one of which a lofty column was erected by the late H. R. Duff, Esq., of Muirtown, to commemorate a sanguinary conflict that took place in 1333, between the Clan Chattan and the Monrose of Fowlis. Near these eminences is the hill of Craig Phadric, on the summit of which, at an elevation of 435 feet above the level of the sea, is a vitrified fortress with a double vallum, exhibiting heaps of boulder stones strongly cemented by fire. It was connected with a chain of similar fortresses extending in various directions into the centre of the county, and upon which beacon-fires were anciently lighted, to convey signals to the opposite coast. To the west of Craig Phadric is a high gravelly ridge called Tor-a-Bhean, supposed to contain the tomb of Donald Bane, a chieftain of the Hebrides, who, in 1187, at the head of a body of islanders, encountered Duncan Macintosh, son of the governor of Inverness Castle, when a severe conflict ensued, in which both were killed. Near the base of this ridge, on the shore of the Caledonian canal, a massive silver chain of thirty-three double circular links was found in 1808, weighing 104 ounces, and thought to have been worn by that island chief as an ensign of office; it is now in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. On the margin of Loch Dochfour are the remains of the church of Bona; and between Loch Dochfour and Loch Ness is a quadrilateral inclosure, rounded at the angles, supposed to have been a Roman camp, and on the highest point of which are the ruins of a fort commanding the fords across the river Ness. In the same vicinity are numerous sepulchral tumuli. The eastern portion of the parish contains part of the memorable field on which the battle of Culloden was fought; and bordering on the parish of Croy are many cairns, and various circles of stones, supposed to be Druidical. Near the mouth of the river Ness is Cairn Arc, a large pile of stones, in the Moray Frith; and in Beauly Frith are several similar cairns, which are corroborative of the opinion, not unsustained by facts, that the sea has made considerable encroachments on this part of the coast. The late Duke of Sussex bore the inferior title of Earl of Inverness; and the place at present gives the title of Duchess to the widow of his royal highness.

Inverness-Shire

INVERNESS-SHIRE, an extensive county, in the north of Scotland, bounded on the north by Ross-shire and the Moray Frith; on the east, by the counties of Nairn, Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen; on the south, by Perth-shire and the county of Argyll; and on the west, by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 56° 54' and 57° 50' (N. Lat.) and 4° 20' 10" and 6° 35' (W. Lon.), and is about ninety miles in length, and nearly eighty in extreme breadth; comprising an area of 7200 square miles, or 4,608,000 acres, exclusive of the several islands attached to it; and containing 19,779 houses, of which 19,194 are inhabited; and a population of 97,799, of whom 45,538 are males, and 52,261 females. This county, which takes its name from its chief town, originally formed the western portion of the ancient province of Moray, and, prior to the union of the two kingdoms under Kenneth II., was inhabited by the Picts, who are said to have had frequent battles with the Danes, by whom their territories were invaded. The town of Inverness is thought to have been the residence of the Pictish kings, and is so identified with the historical events of the county as to render any notice of them here superfluous. Prior to the Reformation, the county was part of the diocese of Moray; since that event it has been included in the synods of Moray, Ross, and Glenelg, containing several presbyteries, and about forty-five parishes. For civil purposes, it is under the superintendence of four sheriffs-substitute, appointed by the sheriff, and who hold their courts respectively at Inverness, Fort-William, Skye, and Long Island. The county contains the villages of Fort-George, Fort-Augustus, Portree, Grantown, Campbelton, Kingussie, Beauly, and several others. Under the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., it returns one member to the imperial parliament.

The surface is strikingly diversified by wild and lofty mountains interspersed with deep and narrow glens, and by numerous ridges of hills inclosing valleys of various width and appearance. The main land is divided into two nearly equal parts by the vale of Glenmore, which intersects it throughout in a direction from north-east to south-west, reaching from the Moray Frith to Loch Eil, and containing a succession of lakes, by the connecting of which the Great Caledonian canal has been formed. On both sides of this valley are numerous straths, separated by mountainous ridges, and all watered by streams descending from the heights. The country on the west of Glenmore, between it and the Atlantic, is the more extensive and mountainous, constituting the Highland district; that on the east is the Lowland district, and, though in many parts of wild aspect, is in a better state of cultivation. The coast is indented with a variety of inlets from the sea, forming salt-water lakes, of which several, on the south-west, separate it from the county of Argyll; and in addition to the districts of Badenoch, Lochaber, Glenelg, Glengarry, Arisaig, Moydart, and Strathglass, into which the main land is naturally divided, the county contains the Isle of Skye, part of Lewis, North and South Uist, Benbecula, Barra, Eigg, Eriskay, Bernera, and others of the Hebrides. The principal mountains are, Ben-Nevis, which has an elevation of 4370 feet above the level of the sea; Mealfourvonie, which rises to the height of 3600 feet; Scarsough, 3412 feet; and Craig Phadric, which is above 400 feet in height.

The chief rivers are the Ness and the Spey. The Ness issues from Loch Ness, in the valley of Glenmore, and, taking a north-eastern course for a few miles, falls into the Moray Frith, forming the harbour of Inverness, to which town it gives its name. The river Spey has its source in Loch Spey, in the district of Badenoch; and, flowing eastward with great rapidity, and receiving numerous tributary streams in a winding course of 120 miles through the strath to which it gives name, it passes the village of Rothes, and, diverting its course to the north, falls into the Moray Frith at Garmouth. Of the smaller rivers, the Beauly, the Foyers, and the Garry alone are deserving of any particular description. The Beauly has its source in the confluence of the rivulets Farrar, Carrick, and Glass, which give their names to the straths through which they flow: after a course of about eight miles, between rocky and precipitous banks, in which it makes some beautiful falls, whereof the chief is at Kilmorack, it falls into Beauly Frith. The Foyers rises in the mountainous district of Badenoch, and, after a course of ten miles through a tract of country abounding in romantic scenery, joins Loch Ness. In its progress it makes some highly-picturesque cascades. At one part, its waters form three successive descents together from a height of above 200 feet into a pool beneath, beyond which, the stream, flowing through a narrow rocky channel, falls from an elevation of more than 212 feet in one unbroken sheet, which, after heavy rains, has an impressive grandeur of effect. The river Garry has its source in a small lake of that name, nearly in the centre of the county, and, passing through the strath of Glengarry, runs into Loch Oich. The principal rivers, and also their tributaries, abound with salmon. The chief lakes are, Loch Ness, Loch Lochy, Loch Oich, and Loch Eil, which are situated in the valley of Glenmore, and connected with each other by the Caledonian canal; Lochs Laggan, Treag, and Ericht, in the south; Lochs Affarie, Benevian, Clunie, and some others, in the north; and Lochs Quoich, Arkaig, and Shiel, in the western part of the county. The salt-water lakes, or inlets from the sea in the mainland, are, Lochs Moidart, Morir, Nevish, Hourn, and Beauly.

Of the lands, not more than one-twelfth part is under cultivation, the remainder being either covered with heath, or in mountain pasture. The soil on the level grounds near the sea is chiefly clay alternated with loam, and in some parts a fine rich black mould. In some of the straths, also, between the mountain ridges, the soil is extremely fertile, except in those parts where, from the rapidity of the mountain streams, beds of gravel accumulate. The arable lands are in a good state of cultivation, producing excellent crops of wheat, barley, and oats; great quantities of potatoes are likewise raised. The system of agriculture has been much improved, and considerable tracts of waste have been drained and brought into cultivation; the farm houses and offices, also, are generally substantial and well arranged; but the cottages of the labourers are very indifferent. Many of the farms are of course in pasture; and the breed of cattle and sheep has of late been an object of considerable attention. The cattle, of which the stock may be averaged at 50,000, are principally of the Skye or Kyloe breed: the sheep, of which from 120,000 to 130,000 are pastured on the different farms, are of the Linton and Cheviot breeds. The horses, previously to the increase of the sheep-pastures, were of the Old Highland breed; but the number has been greatly reduced, and those which are now reared, chiefly for purposes of husbandry, are of various kinds, according to the choice of the different proprietors, who breed them only for their own use. Considerable numbers of swine have been lately reared in several parts, the Highlanders having overcome, in a great measure, their wonted prejudices against that kind of food; and the stock has been improved by the introduction of the Chinese breed.

The whole county appears to have been at a very remote period covered with woods; and in most of the mosses, of which some are very extensive, are found trunks of trees. In Glenmore and Strathspey are not less than 15,000 acres of natural fir, exclusive of 70,000 acres of modern plantations of firs and larch; and in other parts of the county are most extensive and flourishing plantations of fir, larch, beech, plane, and oak, of which last there are some carefully-preserved woods at Lochiel and Fasfern. The substrata are principally limestone, freestone, and granite: the limestone abounds in many places, yet, from the scarcity of fuel, little of it is burnt into lime, which for agricultural purposes is chiefly imported. Slate of durable texture is largely quarried, and great quantities are annually shipped off; a quarry of grey slate was opened at Aultmore, but of too porous a texture for roofing. Marble of every variety of colour, and of excellent quality, is found in Ben-Nevis and in most of the islands; and common granite, of which the hills principally consist, is extensively quarried. A dark-coloured granite occurs in many places, in large blocks with scarcely any fissures, and is much esteemed for ornamental buildings; and a variegated kind of granite, with black, white, and red spots, which sparkle in the sun, is found in Badenoch. Freestone of a reddish colour, of compact texture, and susseptible of a high degree of polish, is met with on the lands of Lovatt; but no sandstone occurs in the county. There are some indications of coal; but the only mineral worked is lead-ore, of which there are mines in Ben-Nevis, at Inverskaddel, near Loch Arkaig, Glengarry, and other places. Black-lead, of good quality for pencils, is also found, but is not wrought: there is clay for bricks and tiles along the coast. The seats are, Castle-Grant, Dunvegan, Castle-Mc Leod, Castle-Chis-holme, Fasfern, Lochiel, Beaufort, Belladrum, Rothiemurchus, Kinrara, Farraline, Belville, Glengarry, Dalchully, and others.

The principal manufactures are those of hemp, thread of various colours, kelp, bricks, and tiles; and some branches of the woollen manufacture, chiefly for domestic use, and confined to private families. There are several bleaching and print fields, tanneries, breweries, and distilleries; and at the villages on the coast, a considerable trade is carried on in the exportation of cattle, sheep, wool, timber, and slates, and in the importation of coal, lime, flour, oatmeal, groceries, and other articles for home consumption. There are valuable salmonfisheries on the rivers; the herring-fisheries, also, employ a considerable number of the inhabitants on the western coast. Facility of communication is afforded by several good roads which have been formed throughout the interior; and the Great Caledonian canal, which intersects the county from north-east to south-west, passing through the valley of Glenmore for more than sixty miles, and connecting the German Ocean with the Atlantic, affords means of inland navigation for ships of almost any burthen, and facility for the conveyance of produce of all kinds. The rateable annual value of the county is £182,064, of which £161,499 are returned for lands, £17,894 for houses, £2596 for fisheries, and £75 for quarries.

Among the various remains of Antiquity are the ruins of ancient fortresses consisting of stones of enormous size, placed together without cement of any kind; they are generally of circular or elliptical form, containing, between two concentric walls, a considerable interval supposed to have been used for keeping military and other stores. The area within the inner wall, which alone was pierced with windows, is thought to have been occupied by the garrison. Of these fortresses the three most perfect are at Glenelg, Castle-Spynie, in the district of Aird, and Dun-da-law, in Badenoch. On the summit of Craig-Phadic are the remains of a vitrified fort of elliptical form, of which the longer diameter is 220 feet, and the shorter little more than half that length; and near Fort-William are the remains of a similar fortress, called Dunghairdghall. Upon the east bank of the river Lochy are the remains of Inverlochy Castle, a square structure with circular towers at the angles, surrounded by a ditch inclosing an area of 7000 square yards. On the summit of a precipitous rock which divides the channel of the Lochy, are the ruins of Tor Castle; and on a projecting rock on the west side of Loch Ness, are the remains of Urquhart Castle, which was taken in 1303, by Edward I. of England, who, exasperated at the obstinate and protracted defence, put the governor and the whole of the garrison to the sword. The roads of Glenroy, consisting of three parallel lines on one side of the river, opposite to three similar lines on the other, are most probably natural, though some suppose them to have been made for the purpose of hunting. There are several Druidical remains; and in the Frith of Beauty are some ancient cairns, of which two, larger than the rest, rise above the surface of the water, and have been found to contain beams of timber, and human bones.

Invernochite

INVERNOCHTIE, county of Aberdeen.—See Strathdon.

Inveritel

INVERTIEL, or Westbridge, lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Abbotshall, and partly in that of Kinghorn, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. W. by S.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 1465 inhabitants. This district is estimated to comprise 1000 acres, of which about 700 are in tillage, 200 in pasture, and the remainder under plantation. The substratum consists chiefly of brown sandstone of the coal formation; and coal was for some time wrought, but no mines are at present in operation. About 700 persons are employed in hand-loom weaving; and there is a flax-spinning mill, in which 100 hands are engaged. The Frith of Forth lies on the south of the parish, and the public road between Edinburgh and Dundee runs close by the village. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and the patronage is vested in the heads of families being communicants: the stipend of the minister partly arises from seat-rents and collections. The church, a plain structure, erected in 1836–7, by subscription, aided by a grant of £272 from the Church-Extension fund, contains 726 sittings, whereof a portion are free: its erection removed, in a considerable measure, the inconvenience felt in the parish of Kinghorn from want of accommodation and pastoral attendance. The members of the Free Church have now possession of it. Sir Michael Scott, a celebrated statesman and philosopher of the 13th century, one of the most learned men of his age, and called by the people of his times "the Wizard," was born, and resided, at Balwearie, in this district: he was knighted by Alexander II., and died in 1296.

Inverury

INVERURY, a royal burgh, and a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 16 miles (N. W.) from Aberdeen, and 137 (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing 2020 inhabitants, of whom 1619 are in the burgh. This place, which derives its name from its situation at the confluence of the river Ury with the Don, is of remote antiquity, and, as part of the lordship of Garioch, was granted by William the Lion to his brother, David, Earl of Huntingdon. Of the baronial castle of the earl, which occupied a site near the Bass, and which appears to have been the first stronghold erected in the county, there are no remains; but a charter of the date of 1178 is still extant, by which the earl granted the church of Inverury, with several others, to the abbey of Lindores. During the wars with England in the reign of Edward I., Robert Bruce, who had removed to this place from Sliach, in Strathbogie, in a state of ill health, was attacked by the English army under Cumyn, over whom he obtained a signal victory, in acknowledgment of which he erected the town of Inverury into a royal burgh. In 1745, a battle occurred here between the forces of the Pretender and the Macleods, the latter of whom Lord Loudon had sent from the north, with a body of men, to relieve the city of Aberdeen, at that time in the possession of the rebels, who had imposed upon the inhabitants a tribute of £1000. The Macleods, on their arrival at this place, were attacked by Lord Lewis Gordon, who, with a force of £1200 men, crossing the river Ury, surprised and defeated them: there was, however, a sharp encounter, in which many were killed and taken prisoners on both sides.


Burgh Seal.

The town consists of irregularly-built and detached houses, scattered along the turnpike-road from Huntly to Aberdeen. From the difficulty of access previously to the erection of the bridge over the Don, which was built at a cost of £2000, in 1791, the place was not much more than an obscure village, and had neither any manufacture nor trade. Upon that event, however, it became of some little importance. The opening of the Aberdeen and Inverury canal, which was completed in 1807, at a cost of £44,000, gave an additional impulse to its trade; and the subsequent erection of bridges over the river Ury has supplied all that was wanting to its prosperity. Considerable improvements have since taken place in the town, which is now lighted with gas. The manufacture of linen is pursued to some extent, affording employment to more than sixty of the inhabitants. Various handicraft trades, also, are carried on for the accommodation of the adjacent district; and there are several shops well supplied with goods of every kind. The increase of trade since the completion of the canal has been very great; and large quantities of grain, lime, coal, salt, and also other produce, are now sent to, or received from, Port-Elphinstone, where the canal terminates, near the bridge over the Don, on the opposite bank of the river, in the parish of Kintore. The post-office has a tolerable delivery. Branches of the Aberdeen, the Town and County, and the North of Scotland, banks, have recently been established; and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by the canal, on which an iron boat for passengers and light goods plies daily to Aberdeen. Fairs for cattle, sheep, horses, and grain are held monthly, those at Whitsuntide and Martinmas being likewise for hiring servants; also every alternate Tuesday from November to March. The town, after the loss of its original charter, was created a royal burgh by charter of novodamus by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1558: the government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and four councillors, chosen under the regulations of the Municipal Reform act. There are no incorporated trades; but the guild burgesses have an exclusive privilege of trading, and are exempt from the payment of custom dues. The magistrates have jurisdiction over the whole of the royalty, and hold courts, in civil actions to an unlimited amount, and in criminal cases for the trial of petty delinquencies. The burgh is associated with those of Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Kintore, and Peterhead, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is ninety-four.

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Don, and on the north and east by the Ury, is about four miles in extreme length and two miles in breadth, comprising an area of 5100 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface, though level near the banks of the rivers, rises gradually towards the west, terminating in the three nearly equidistant hills of Manar to the south, Knockinglew in the centre, and Drimmies to the north, between which are some fine tracts of fertile vale. The soil on the lower grounds is a rich light mould, superincumbent upon sand, but on the higher grounds of less fertility; the chief crops are oats and barley, with potatoes and turnips, and the usual grasses. The system of husbandry is improved, and the rotation of crops is duly observed; lime and bone-dust, for which the canal affords facility of conveyance, are used as manure; and some of the unprofitable land has been brought into cultivation. The Aberdeenshire breed of cattle is that most prevalent; but on some farms, a few of the short-horned, &c., are reared. There are no regular flocks of sheep pastured, though a few of the English breed are kept for domestic use, and chiefly for their wool. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6395. The plantations are well attended to, and are generally in a thriving state: there are considerable remains of ancient wood. The rocks are chiefly of granite. Manar House is a substantial modern mansion, beautifully situated on the southern acclivity of Manar hill, commanding a fine view of the river Don, and surrounded with plantations.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £257. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Earl of Kintore. The old church, built in 1775, contained only 400 sittings, a number very inadequate to the increased population; and, consequently, a new church, containing 1330 sittings, has been erected by the heritors and the magistrates of the burgh. The present structure is of beautiful granite, in the later English style of architecture. The burial-ground of the parish lies near the river Don. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Independents, and Wesleyans; and an episcopal chapel has recently been built. A Roman Catholic seminary, formerly at Aquthorties, in this parish, has been removed to Blairs, in the parish of Maryculter, county of Kincardine; and the ancient building, beautifully situated, is at present a farm house. The parochial school is attended by about ninety children; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £35 annually. The chief monuments of antiquity are two tumuli, one of which, called the Bass, and situated at the southern extremity of the town, is in the form of a truncated cone, and is supposed to have been a seat for the administration of justice; the other, called the Conyng hillock, is traditionally said to have been raised over the remains of one of the Pictish kings. There is also a very complete Druidical temple. Inverury gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Kintore.

Iona

IONA, or Icolmkill, an island of the Hebrides, and also a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Kilfinichen, district of Mull, county of Argyll; containing 1084 inhabitants, of whom 460 are on the island. This place, which is of remote antiquity, is situated to the south-west of the Isle of Mull, in the Atlantic Ocean; and, at a very early period, was the principal seat of the Druidical worship, from which circumstance it obtained the appellation of Inish-Druinish, or the "Island of Druids." It was subsequently occupied by the ancient Culdees, for whom, it is recorded, Fergus II. erected a monastery and a stately church, which became the burying-place of many of his successors, kings of Scotland. Its name Iona, signifying, in the Gaelic language, the "Island of Waves," appears to have been derived from the violent agitations of the narrow sound by which it is separated from Mull: that of Icolmkill, by which it is not uncommonly known, arose from the foundation of a religious establishment by St. Columba, about the middle of the sixth century. St. Columba, emigrating from Ireland, for the conversion of the natives of the Hebrides to the Christian faith, landed here, with twelve of his companions, in the year 563, and, having converted many of the northern Picts to Christianity, received from their king a grant of the island, on which he founded a Monastery for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine. This monastery, which was amply endowed, flourished under the superintendence of its founder, and acquired such reputation for sanctity and learning as to obtain for the isle the appellation of the Holy Island, and to render it the resort of pious and learned men from Ireland, Norway, and all parts of Scotland, for which it was the principal school of theology and philosophy.

St. Columba presided over the monastery he had founded till his death in 597, at which time his zeal for the propagation of Christianity had prompted him to found, in various parts of Britain, 100 monasteries and 365 churches, and to ordain not less than 3000 priests. The island hence became the grand centre from which the truths of the Christian religion, and the benefits of sound learning, were diffused to every portion of the kingdom; and after the death of St. Columba, the monastery continued to flourish under his successors, and was held in such veneration, that the island was regarded as consecrated ground, and became the buryingplace of many of the kings of Ireland and Norway. From this monastery, which was independent of the papal jurisdiction, and in which, under St. Columba and his successors, the principles and discipline of the Culdees were retained, Oswald, king of Northumbria, in 632, obtained a bishop to teach his subjects the principles of Christianity; and in 765, Neil Frasach, King of Ireland, abdicated the sovereignty, and retired to this island, where he died. In 777, Asglal, son of the King of Connaught, became a monk of Iona, which was still, and continued for many years, the principal university of Britain, to which the young princes of Scotland, Northumbria, and other kingdoms, were sent to receive their education. The monastery subsequently became subject to the predatory incursions of the northern pirates, by whom it was frequently plundered and laid waste; and in 797, it was burnt by the Danes, who, again, in 801, massacred nearly eighty of the monks, and compelled the abbot and the rest to seek safety by flight. On its restoration after the retreat of the Danes, the monastery was refounded for monks of the Cluniac order, under whose superintendence it subsisted till the dissolution; its revenues were then appropriated to the see of Argyll, and, after the abolition of episcopacy, became the property of the dukes.

Of the ancient buildings connected with the monastery, the principal remains are those of the abbey church, which was also the cathedral of the bishops of the Isles, and, with its tower, is almost entire. It is a cruciform structure of red granite, chiefly in the Norman style, 160 feet in length, seventy feet across the transepts, and twenty-four feet in mean breadth, with a tower rising from the centre to the height of seventy feet. The choir, which is sixty feet in length, is divided from the nave by massive circular columns, supporting the tower, and of which the capitals are sculptured with grotesque figures, displaying scriptural allusions and other devices. The nave and choir are separated from the aisles by ranges of columns of similar form, and obtusely-pointed arches, sustaining the roof; and are lighted by a lower tier of large windows of various character and inelegant design, and by a range of clerestory windows, of which some are Norman, and others headed in trefoil. The high altar, of marble brought from the Isle of Skye, unfortunately acquired the reputation of possessing a charm against shipwreck, and has totally disappeared by fragments. Around the cathedral are various ruins of walls, supposed to have been chapels, and parts of the monastic buildings: four of the arches of the cloister are still remaining, and portions of the bishop's palace, the hall, and the refectory. On the south side of the cathedral are the remains of St. Oran's chapel, a rude edifice sixty feet in length, and twenty-two feet broad, in a roofless state, but otherwise in good preservation: the sculpture of the doorway, which is a Norman arch, with chevron mouldings, is especially worthy of attention. It contains various tombs of different periods, among which is that of St. Oran, the disciple of St. Columba, a handsome monument, apparently of much more recent date than the chapel. On the north of this chapel are the ruins of the Nunnery, or rather the chapel of the Nunnery, a structure in the Norman style, nearly of the same dimensions as the chapel of St. Oran; part of the vaulted roof is still remaining, and there are some very slender traces of the conventual buildings. The tombstone of the Princess Anna, lady abbess, is yet to be seen; it bears the date 1543, and has a figure of the abbess, in the attitude of prayer to the Virgin Mary, who has an infant in her arms, and a mitre on her head.

To the south of St. Oran's chapel is the inclosure called "Relig-Owran," or "the burying-place of Oran," in which are a vast number of tombs, overgrown with grass and weeds, and mostly so defaced as to render the inscriptions on them altogether illegible. In this cemetery it is said that one of the kings of France, four kings of Ireland, eight kings of Norway, and forty-eight kings of Scotland, are interred, the last commencing with Fergus II. and ending with Macbeth, whose successor, Malcolm Canmore, removed the place of royal sepulture to Dunfermline. The precincts of the cemetery, which contained also the tombs of the lords of the Isles, and of the most distinguished families, had the privilege of sanctuary; and in various parts of the island were not less than 360 crosses of stone, of which four only are now left. At the time of the Reformation, the synod of Argyll ordered sixty of these crosses to be thrown into the sea; and the remainder appear to have been either wantonly destroyed, or suffered to fall from neglect. Of those that remain, two are in a perfect state, of which one is sculptured with figures of Adam and Eve, standing by the forbidden tree; the third has only ten feet of the shaft, and of the fourth the foot only is left, imbedded in a mound of earth. In order to preserve all these venerable remains from further injury, they have been inclosed with walls by the Duke of Argyll, and placed under the vigilant superintendence of a keeper.

The island is about three miles in extreme length, and a mile and a half in average breadth, comprising an area of 2000 acres, of which not more than 600 are arable, and the remainder hill pasture, rock, or morass. The surface rises into eminences, of which the highest, Dun-ii, has an elevation of 400 feet above the level of the sea. The coast on the eastern side is low and sandy, and is indented with a bay, called the Bay of Martyrs, in which were landed the bodies of such as were intended for interment in the cemetery. This bay, which affords good anchorage in five fathoms, within two cables' length of the shore, is frequented by numerous steamers conveying passengers to visit the island; and near it is the village, containing about 170 persons. On the western shore of the isle is Port-na-Currach, or the " bay of the boat," where St. Columba is said to have landed, in commemoration of which event a heap of earth, about fifty feet in length, was thrown up in the form of a boat, with the keel upwards. Numerous small springs of excellent water intersect the island; and near the abbey gardens are vestiges of an artificial lake of several acres, surrounded by hills; also the ruins of a mill. The soil of the arable land is light and sandy, but fertile, producing favourable crops; several of the hills are arable to their summit, and in good cultivation, and most of the others afford excellent pasture. Marble of good quality was formerly wrought by the Duke of Argyll, and considerable quantities sent to Leith and London; but the mines have been discontinued for some time. Pebbles of green serpentine, also, are found along the shore; they are susceptible of a high polish, and are formed into various elegant trinkets. The quoad sacra parish of Iona, erected by authority of act of parliament, comprises, besides the island, a district of Mull, containing a population of 620 persons: the ecclesiastical affairs are placed under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £120, paid by government, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £1. 10. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected by government, in 1828, at a cost of £700, is a neat structure containing 266 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A school, for which an appropriate building has been erected by the Duke of Argyll, is supported by government; and there is also a school maintained by a Society.

Irongray

IRONGRAY, Kirkcudbright.—See Kirkpa-Trick-Irongray.


Seal. Obverse. Reverse.

Irvine

IRVINE, a parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 26 miles (W. S. W.) from Glasgow, and 68½ (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing 5214 inhabitants, of whom 4594 are resident within the burgh of Irvine; exclusively of 3053 in the parish of Dundonald, into which the town extends, the total population of the town being 7647. This place derives its name from the river on which it is situated, and appears to have attained a high degree of importance at a very early period. The inhabitants obtained from Alexander II. a charter conferring upon the town all the privileges of a royal burgh; and a charter confirming all previous grants was subsequently given to them by Robert Bruce, in recompense of their services during his wars with England in the reign of Edward I. These two charters were renewed and enlarged by successive sovereigns till the reign of James VI.; and the various immunities possessed by the inhabitants were ratified by parliament in 1641. The TOWN is finely situated on the north-east bank of the river Irvine, near its junction with the Garnock, and consists partly of one spacious street, extending throughout its whole length, from which diverge several smaller but well-formed streets, at right angles. The streets' are well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A public library was established in 1796, and is supported by subscription; there is also a reading and news room, well supplied with the daily journals and the most esteemed periodical publications. A handsome bridge, erected in 1746, and greatly improved in 1827, connects the town with the spacious suburb of Fullarton, on the opposite bank of the river; and in the immediate vicinity are some fine downs, on which the game of golf takes place, and the Eglinton races are held. The environs are interspersed with numerous pleasant villas; and the scenery, in itself picturesque, is heightened by the proximity of the grounds of Eglinton Park.

The chief manufacture carried on is the weaving of book-muslin, jaconets, and checks, in which more than, 500 looms are engaged; and great numbers of females are employed in tambouring muslin. The manufacture of anchors and cables is also considerable: there are extensive rope-walks, a yard for ship-building, and some works for magnesia and other chemical processes. The trade of the port, which, previously to the erection of Port-Glasgow, was the shipping-place of the Glasgow merchants, now consists principally in the export of coal, of which nearly 300,000 tons are annually shipped, chiefly for Ireland and various parts of the British coast, but occasionally for France, Malta, Gibraltar, and other foreign parts. The chief imports are, timber, and sometimes grain, from America; grain and butter, in large quantities, from Ireland; and iron, slates, and lime-stone, from various places. The number of vessels belonging to the port, in 1843, was 122, of 15,380 tons' aggregate burthen; and the amount of duties paid at the custom-house, £2040. The harbour, which was greatly improved in 1826, and has since been under the superintendence of commissioners, has more than thirteen feet depth of water on the bar at spring-tides, and is accessible to vessels not exceeding 250 tons. The jurisdiction of the port extends over that portion of the coast included between Troon and Largs. The post-office has a good delivery. Branches of the Union, Ayrshire, and British Linen Company's banks, have been established; and great facility of communication is afforded by the Glasgow and Ayr railway, which has one of its intermediate stations in the town. The market, which is abundantly supplied with grain and provisions of all kinds, is on Monday. Fairs are held on the first Wednesday in January, for horses; the first Tuesday in May, for cattle; and the third Monday and Wednesday in August, for horses, and for lint and wool. The ancient market-cross, a very elegant structure in the centre of the town, was removed in 1694, and the materials employed in the erection of the present meal-market.

The government of the burgh, by the charter of James VI., is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, and a treasurer, with twelve councillors, chosen under the regulations of the Municipal Reform act. There are six incorporated trades, namely, the shoemakers, coopers, tailors, weavers, hammermen, and squaremen. The fee of admission as a guild burgess is £5; and as a common burgess, £2. 10. for a stranger, and half that sum for a son or son-in-law of a burgess. The magistrates, whose jurisdiction is confined to the royalty, hold burgh courts both in civil and criminal matters; and a justice-of-peace court is regularly held here, as is also a sheriff's court. The townhall, situated in the centre of the principal street, was built in 1745, and is a neat plain structure, containing a court-room and a council-chamber, the public library, and three apartments for criminals. The debtors' prison has been discontinued since 1840, under the new Prison act, and has been transferred to the county gaol of Ayr, whither, also, all criminal prisoners are sent whose cases require more than temporary confinement. The burgh is associated with those of Ayr, Campbelltown, Inverary, and Oban, in returning a member to the imperial parliament: the number of qualified voters, including the suburb of Fullarton, which is within the parliamentary boundaries, is 237.

The parish, situated in the north-western portion of the county, is bounded on the east and south-east by the river Annick; on the west, by the Irvine; and on the north-west, by the river Garnock. It is about four miles in length and nearly two in extreme breadth, comprising an area of almost 4000 acres, of which 3000 are arable, and the remainder, woodland, plantations, and waste. The surface along the shore, and on the banks of the rivers, is flat and sandy; the soil near the town is a light rich loam, and in the higher parts a strong clay. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is improved; the lands are well drained and inclosed, and the farm-buildings generally substantial and commodious. The dairy-farms are well managed, and the produce is in high reputation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,156. The plantations distributed over various parts are mostly in a thriving state: there are some considerable remains of ancient timber. The chief substrata are, coal, of which there are numerous seams; and whinstone, of good quality for building, and of which an extensive quarry, near the town, is in full operation. The only seat of importance is Bourtree Hill, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Annick, about a mile and a half to the east of the town.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Irvine, of which this place is the seat, and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £280. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The church, erected in 1774, and repaired in 1830, is a spacious structure with a handsome tower and spire, and contains 1800 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief and Secession Synods, and Baptists. The academy, for which a building was erected in the town in 1816, capable of receiving 500 pupils, is under the patronage of the corporation, who appoint a rector with a salary of £30, and an English master and a commercial master, who are in receipt of salaries of £30 each, in addition to the fees, which, however, are moderate. Near Bourtree Hill are some remains of an ancient structure called Stone Castle, belonging to the Earl of Eglinton; the principal portion is a square tower, of unknown antiquity. With this castle is said to have been connected a nunnery with a chapel and cemetery. Irvine is remarkable as the birthplace of Montgomery, the poet, and of Galt, the novelist; and as having been for some time the residence of Burns: whilst the last named was endeavouring to establish himself in business here, his shop was unfortunately burnt, and his prospects blighted.

Islay

ISLAY, a large island, in the county of Argyll; comprising the parishes of Kilchoman, Kildalton, and Kilarrow; and containing 13,602 inhabitants. It is variously called, by some Ila, Ilay, and Isla, but more commonly Islay; and is, according to some accounts, twenty-eight miles in length and eighteen in breadth, while others make its length twenty-five miles and its breadth twenty-two. The island is separated from Jura by a narrow sound, over which is a ferry from Portas-kaig to Feoline on the opposite shore. Islay was once a part of the kingdom of the lords of the Isles, who were crowned here by the bishops of Argyll, upon a large stone, which is still pointed out; and numerous ruins and memorials of antiquity, consisting of castles, forts, and chapels, are to be found in almost every direction, attesting the former importance of the isle. It continued under the lords until the reign of James III.; and when their power was abolished, their descendants, the Macdonalds, were the proprietors, holding directly of the Crown. It afterwards passed, by the fortune of war, to the Macleans; but James VI., irritated at the disturbances raised by the private wars waged between these and other clans, rescinded the grant made by his predecessor, and transferred the lands of Islay, Jura, and Muckairn, to Sir John Campbell, of Cawdor, ancestor of the earls Cawdor, in consideration of an annual feuduty, whereof the portion for this island was £500, paid to this day. It is now the property of another family of the same name, a member of whom was lately the representative of the county.

Islay is in general mountainous, especially towards the north, but there is much low, level, and cultivated land; the coast is indented by bays and points, and the shores are for the most part rugged. The inlets of Loch Indal and Loch Grunard nearly insulate a considerable part of the district of Kilchoman; and besides several inland lakes, there are numerous streams and rivulets, in some of which are salmon and trout: the whole coast, also, abounds with fish. Lead-mines were at one time very successfully wrought, to the north-west of Portaskaig; and a copper-mine, likewise, was long in operation; but as the ore was mixed with lead, and the separation was troublesome, both mines were at length abandoned. The facilities for the improvement of the land are very great, and more than one-half of the surface could be brought into regular tillage. The island boasts of the breed and number of its cattle and horses; but whisky, for which it is also celebrated, is the great staple commodity, producing annually to government a revenue of more than £30,000: two-thirds of the grain used in the distillation are raised on the isle. Bowmore is the principal village; it is situated on the banks of Loch Indal, at the extremity of the bay, and is a neat and improving modern village, consisting of regularly-formed streets, which intersect each other at right angles, and the houses are in general well built. It has an excellent harbour, with a fine quay, and there is good anchorage for vessels drawing ten feet of water. The village is the seat of the presbytery of Islay and Jura. See Bowmore. There are a few handsome seats: Islay House stands at the head of Loch Indal, having in front an extensive level lawn, and is surrounded by plantations, the ground gently rising, and being extremely well-wooded behind. Ardnave, near Loch Grunard, was either the birthplace or the paternal residence of the lady of Prince Polignac, involved in the fate of Charles X. of France, and for years a state prisoner in the fortress of Ham. On the islet of Oversay, opposite to Portnahaven, is a very fine light-house, of which the light, flashing every five seconds, is seen at the distance of seventeen nautical miles.—See Kilchoman, Kildalton, and Kilarrow.

Isle Of Whithorn.

ISLE OF WHITHORN.—See Whithorn, Isle of.

Issay

ISSAY, an island, in that part of the parish of Duirinish which constituted the late quoad sacra parish of Waternish, county of Inverness; containing 90 inhabitants. This isle, also called Eilean Isa, or "Island of Jesus," is the largest of several isles lying between Loch Bay and Loch Dunvegan, two considerable north-western inlets of the Isle of Skye. It is about three miles in circumference; and the soil, being generally fertile, affords comfortable support to about fifteen families.