Loudon - Lyne

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

216-225

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'Loudon - Lyne', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 216-225. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43461 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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Loudoun

LOUDOUN, or Loudon, a parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 8 miles (E.) from Kilmarnock; containing, with the village of Darvel, and the burgh of barony of Newmilns, 5550 inhabitants. This place is supposed by some to take its name, the first syllable of which signifies a "fire," and the other a "hill," from a hill in the extremity of the parish, which, on account of its commanding site, was used, as many conjecture, as a station for signal-fires. Others, however, derive the name from the Gaelic term Lod-dan, signifying "marshy ground," the land in the vicinity of the river Irvine, on the south, having formerly possessed this character. The parish approaches in figure to a right-angled triangle, the greatest length being about eight or nine miles, and its average breadth three; it stretches on the east to the county of Lanark, and comprises 19,169 acres, of which 10,720 are in tillage, 3153 bent and moor pasture, 882 plantations, and the rest moss. The Irvine, rising in the north-eastern corner, flows in a direction nearly south for about two miles, separating Loudoun from Avondale parish, in Lanarkshire, after which, sweeping round the towering hill of Loudoun, it pursues its picturesque course to the west for seven miles, dividing the parish from that of Galston. The system of agriculture is advanced, and the crops of excellent quality. Great improvements have been made within the last few years on the Loudoun property, comprising chiefly the erection of very superior farm-houses and the construction of roads. Large tileworks have been formed, and have been in operation for several years, often supplying upwards of a million of tiles annually; and other works of the same kind have lately been erected near the village of Darvel, and are intended to furnish tiles for public sale. The coal formation is seen in almost every part of the parish; but it is so much disturbed by the trap-rock as to be in some places incapable of being worked: this trap, of which the columnar trap composing Loudoun hill is a portion, forms part of a large trap-dyke running through the whole Ayrshire coalfield in a north-west and south-east direction. There are also several seams of iron-stone, some of them of considerable thickness; and these, as well as the coal, are expected shortly to be wrought. Limestone is abundant, and is extensively quarried; a bed at Howlet burn, about six feet thick, is wrought by mining, and is at present let to the Cessnock Iron Company for smelting purposes. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9679.

The principal building is Loudoun Castle, the magnificent seat of the ancient family of Campbell, earls of Loudoun, a title now merged in that of the Marquess of Hastings, the present proprietor of Loudoun. This fine baronial residence, mostly rebuilt after its destruction by fire about the beginning of the sixteenth century, has some old portions; but the larger and more splendid part of the structure was completed in 1811. One of the square towers, with its battlements of unknown antiquity, was destroyed when the castle was besieged by General Monk; but another tower, larger and higher, built in the fifteenth century, still remains in good condition. There is an excellent library containing upwards of 11,000 volumes. The plantations around the castle comprise a great variety of trees, many of them of very stately appearance, and brought from America by John, fourth earl of Loudoun, who was governor of Virginia in 1756, and who, during his military services in various parts of the world, sent home every kind of valuable tree he met with. He also formed an extensive collection of willows, selected from England, Ireland, Holland, Flanders, Germany, America, and Portugal; and a laurel, brought from the last-named country, covers with its branches a space 140 feet in circumference. In the grounds of the mansion is also a yew-tree of great antiquity, still fresh and vigorous, and under the shade of which, one of the family charters, it is said, was signed in the time of William the Lion, as well as one of the articles of the Union by Hugh, third earl. The parish contains the villages of Newmilns and Darvel, and the hamlet of Auldtown, the first of which is a burgh of barony, and, as well as Darvel, has a large population, a great proportion of whom are weavers, the males in the parish engaged in this employment being 727, and the females 151, besides a number of subsidiary hands. The only other branch of manufacture is wool-spinning, performed at a mill established in 1804, and belonging to a company of carpet manufacturers in Kilmarnock: about twenty-five hands are at work, who make great quantities of yarn. The agricultural produce is sent for sale to Kilmarnock, and coal is generally brought from pits three miles distant.

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Hastings: the minister's stipend is £191, with a manse, and a glebe of sixteen acres, valued at £35 per annum. The church, situated in the village of Newmilns, is a splendid structure, erected in 1844, with a steeple 133 feet in height. There is a place of worship belonging to the United Associate synod, and another for Reformed Presbyterians. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with a house and garden, £40 fees, and £10, the interest of a bequest of £200. There are also schools at Darvel and Auldtown, the schoolrooms and dwelling-houses being provided by the Loudoun family; and at Newmilns is a female school, supported partly by subscription. The parish contains three libraries, a masonic society, and two or three other friendly societies; and possesses three charities, one, amounting to £60 per annum, for decayed burgesses of Newmilns, left by Mr. James Smith, a native of that place; another, a bequest of £16 per annum for four old people, made by Mrs. Crawfurd; and the third, a legacy left by Mr. Brown, of Waterhaughs, for the education and clothing of twelve children. The principal remains of antiquity are, cairns; the foundations of a Druidical temple, on the top of a hill the highest in the parish except that of Loudoun; the ruins of a castle burnt by the Kennedys, probably in the time of James VI.; and a small ancient castle at Newmilns. In the east of the parish is Wallace's cairn, marking the scene of a conflict between Wallace and a party of English whom he surprised on their way to Ayr with provisions; and at a pass, traversed by the road, the battle of Loudoun Hill was fought in 1307, between Bruce and a body of English troops under the Earl of Pembroke. The parish is, however, chiefly remarkable for its connexion with the ancient family of Campbell, long resident here, and of whom Lambrinus, father of James de Loudoun, possessed the barony in the reign of David I. The first earl, who was buried in the church of Loudoun, was chancellor of Scotland in 1641, and acted a prominent part in the transactions of that eventful period; and his grandson, the third earl, was also of some consideration, enjoying the confidence of William III., and holding the office of an extraordinary lord of session. Flora, Countess of Loudoun, only child of James, fifth earl, in 1804 married the Earl of Moira, who was raised to the dignity of Marquess of Hastings in 1816, in acknowledgment of his highly distinguished services. This lady, who was the mother of the lamented Lady Flora Hastings, died in 1840, and was succeeded by her only son, George, sixth Earl of Loudoun and second Marquess of Hastings, whose decease occurred in the year 1844, when his only son, born in 1832, succeeded to the titles and estates. Lady Flora Hastings, whose sufferings and wrongs excited so deep a sympathy throughout the whole nation, was buried in the family crypt at Loudoun.—See Darvel, and Newmiles.

Louisburgh

LOUISBURGH, a village, in the parish of Wick, county of Caithness; adjoining the burgh of Wick, and containing 360 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the north bank of the river Wick, was built on land leased for that purpose by the proprietor, and received its appellation in compliment to Lady Dunbar, whose Christian name was Louisa; it consists chiefly of cottages inhabited by persons employed in the fisheries.

Lowthertown

LOWTHERTOWN, a village, in the parish of Dornock, county of Dumfries; containing 195 inhabitants. This is an improving village, which has sprung up within the last seven years, and has its name from the proprietor, named Lowther, by whom the land on which it is built is feued. It is situated in the eastern part of the parish, and consists of a large group of cottages inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits.

Luce, New

LUCE, NEW, a parish, in the county of Wigton; containing 652 inhabitants, of whom 278 are in the village, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Stranraer. This place, the name whereof is of uncertain derivation, once formed part of the ancient parish of Glenluce, from which it was separated in the year 1646, since which time the original parish has in contradistinction been generally designated as Old Luce. New Luce, the northern portion, is bounded on the east by the river Tarf, which divides it from the parish of Kirkowan, and on the west by the river Luce, which separates it from the parish of Inch. It is about ten miles in length, and varies from five to six miles in breadth; but, from the great irregularity of the ground, the number of acres cannot be ascertained with any degree of accuracy. The surface, for some breadth along the banks of the Luce, is tolerably level, but rises abruptly towards the east into highlands, interspersed with rocks, or covered with heath and moss. The principal rivers are, the Luce, the Tarf, and the Crosswater; the Luce has its source in the hills on the confines of Ayrshire, and, running southward along the borders of the parish, and through Glen-Luce, falls into the bay of Luce. The Tarf rises in the hills at the northern extremity of the parish, and, after flowing in a winding manner along the boundary of the parish, bends its course to the east, and joins the river Bladenoch. The Crosswater has its source on the confines of Ayrshire, and passing southward with a very devious current through the northern portion of the parish, diverts its course to the west, and flows into the Luce near the church. Salmon, par, and fresh-water trout are found in the Luce and Crosswater in tolerable plenty; the fishery on the former river produces a considerable rental to the proprietor, but that on the latter is not appropriated.

The soil along the banks of the rivers is pretty fertile, and the arable lands are chiefly found there. These however bear a very small proportion to the other lands in the parish, scarcely producing grain in sufficient quantity for the supply of the inhabitants; and the farmers place their chief dependence on the rearing of black-cattle and sheep, for which the hills afford pasture. The system of husbandry has, nevertheless, been much improved within the last few years; many of the farms have been inclosed; and buildings of more substantial character, and better adapted for the use and comfort of the tenants, have been recently erected. The blackcattle, though generally small, are of good quality, and, when removed to richer pastures, are soon fattened; considerable numbers are sent for sale to the Glenluce and Stranraer cattle-markets. The sheep are chiefly purchased by dealers for Glasgow and Liverpool. There are but a few small patches of land under plantation; though the soil is well adapted for the purpose, and such trees as have been planted are all in a highly-thriving condition. The rocks in the parish are of the transition class: lead-ore has been found, and was many years since wrought; and it is in contemplation to renew the search under the auspices of the Earl of Stair, the principal landed proprietor. The rateable annual value of New Luce is £3050. The village is pleasantly situated near the influx of the Crosswater into the Luce; it is neatly built, and contains three good inns, and several shops well stored with various kinds of wares for the supply of the neighbourhood. The inhabitants of it are chiefly employed in handicraft trades; and facility of communication is afforded by the road from Glenluce to Curloch, in the parish of Ballantrae, by other good roads which intersect the parish, and by bridges over the streams. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., including an allowance for communion elements, of which sum £88 are paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum: patron, the Crown. The church, which is situated in the village, is a neat plain structure erected in 1816, and containing 400 sittings, without galleries. The parochial school is attended by about fifty children: the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a small dwelling-house, and the fees average £5 per annum; he also receives the interest of a bequest of £50 for the gratuitous instruction of poor children. A late earl of Stair bequeathed £300, of which the interest is annually divided among the poor. There are several cairns in the parish, in the removal of some of which, sepulchral urns were found; and on a small eminence near its north-eastern extremity are two upright stones, upon one of which is the figure of a cross, rudely sculptured.

Luce, Old

LUCE, OLD, or Glenluce, a parish, in the county of Wigton; containing 2448 inhabitants, of whom 890 are in the village, 10 miles (E. by S.) from Stranraer. This parish anciently included New Luce, the two places together forming the parish of Leuce or Glenluce, which was divided in 1646 into two parts, one called New, and the other Old. The abbey of Glenluce, situated in the deep valley of the river Luce, founded in 1190 by Roland Macdonald, Lord of Galloway, and Constable of Scotland, and covering a large space of ground, was the abode of Cistercian monks who came from Melrose. It was converted, however, in 1602, by James VI., into a temporal barony, in favour of Lawrence Gordon, abbot of the place; and on the death of Lawrence, it was bestowed by royal charter on his elder brother, John, Dean of Salisbury, who, dying in 1619, was succeeded in the barony by his son-in-law, Sir Robert Gordon, the historian. Subsequently it was annexed to the see of Galloway; and at the close of the 17th century, being again made a barony, it conferred the title of Lord Glenluce, upon Sir James Dalrymple, of Carrick, whose son became Lord Glenluce and Earl of Stair. Thomas Hay had been, in 1560, appointed commendator of the abbey, by a bull from the Pope; and from him Sir James Dalrymple Hay, of Park, the present proprietor of the abbey, is descended.

The parish is ten miles long and eight miles broad, and contains 40,350 acres. It is bounded on the north by New Luce; on the south by the Bay of Luce; on the east by Mochrum and Kirkowan; and on the west by Inch and Stonykirk. Except in the immediate neighbourhood of the bay, the surface of the land is irregular and hilly. Besides a considerable number of perennial springs, the water of which, coming from rocks, is unusually clear and cold, there are several small lakes, and the two rivers Luce and Pooltanton, the former of which is here about thirty feet wide. It runs for twenty-one miles from its source in Ayrshire, and empties itself into the bay almost at the same place as the stream of Pooltanton. In each of these rivers salmon and sea-trout are taken. The soil varies to a considerable extent, but that which prevails most is of a gravelly or sandy nature, and is light and dry; the best land is found in the southern parts, and in the vicinity of the river Luce. In some places the soil contains large mixtures of moss, clay, or loam, and runs to the depth of two or three feet. The annual crops are as follows: 400 acres of wheat, 1350 of oats, 454 ryegrass, 259 meadow-hay, 60 peas and beans, 467 potatoes, and 160 turnips. About 10,000 acres are uncultivated, and between 300 and 400 are wood. Within the last thirty years the agricultural appearance of the parish has undergone a total change. Large quantities of waste land have been brought into cultivation; and the increase of dairies, supplying plenty of manure, together with the prevalence of the green-cropping system, has produced the most beneficial effect. In those parts suited for pasture, especially among the moors, cattle of the black Galloway breed are preferred; and the sheep most esteemed are of the black-faced breed, with horns, and producing long coarse wool. In the south are some superior dairy-farms, where more than 6000 stone of cheese are made every year. The farm-buildings are in general commodious, and in good condition. The subsoil of the parish is gravelly or sandy, except in the heavier soils, and sinks to a very considerable depth: the rocks are the ordinary greywacke, intermixed with quartz, and granite is found in almost every direction. A greywacke quarry in the vicinity of the village has been wrought for some years, to the great advantage of the parish. The rateable annual value of Old Luce is £10,232.

There are three castles, viz., the Castle of Park, the former residence of the Hays; Castle Synniness; and Carsecreuch, once the residence of the earls of Stair: but of these seats one only is entire. Genoch and Balkail are modern mansions. The village is situated upon the road leading from Newton-Stewart to Stranraer. Corn and carding-mills are regularly at work; there are also a dye-mill and a flax-mill. Cattle-markets are held near the village, from April to December, on the first Friday in each month, and a fair in the month of May; there is a regular post in the village, and the mail from Dumfries to Portpatrick runs through it every day. Within two miles of it is a harbour in the bay, suited to receive small craft bringing coal and lime; but no larger vessels can approach this part of the shore. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, and the patronage is in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £158, of which nearly half is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, erected in 1814, is a commodious edifice, and situated close to the village. The members of the United Secession have a place of worship. The master of the parochial school has a salary of £25. 13., with a house and garden; and his fees average between £30 and £40. There are several other schools, of which two are connected with dissenters, and one is supported by the Hay family. The chief remains of antiquity are the abbey ruins; the chapter-house is still in good condition, and its arches are distinguished by antique figures of white freestone. The celebrated characters connected with the parish have been, John Gordon, Dean of Salisbury, eminent for numerous literary works; Sir Robert Gordon, the historian; and the Rev. Robert Mc Ward, a theological and controversial writer in the reigns of Charles I. and II., and who was at one time secretary to the well-known Samuel Rutherford.

Luckensford

LUCKENSFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Inchinnan, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 2½ miles (W. N. W.) from Renfrew; containing 58 inhabitants. It lies on the high road from Renfrew to Port-Glasgow.

Lucklawhill-Feus

LUCKLAWHILL-FEUS, a hamlet, in the parish of Logie, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (E. by N.) from Logie; containing 79 inhabitants. This is a small place situated in the neighbourhood of the Lucklaw hill, which rises to a considerable height, and from which is an extensive prospect of Fife, Perth, Angus, and Mearns.

Lugton

LUGTON, a village, in the parish of Dalkeith, county of Edinburgh, ½ a mile (N. W.) from Dalkeith; containing 230 inhabitants. The barony of Lugton was taken, in 1633, from the old parish of Melville, and annexed to this parish. The village is situated on the high road from Dalkeith to Edinburgh, and on the banks of the North Esk, over which river is a bridge, built in 1765, and widened in 1816, when, also, the approaches to it were improved. The inhabitants of the place are chiefly colliers, and a school has been established for their children.

Lumphanan

LUMPHANAN, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 2¾ miles (N. by W.) from Kincardine O'Neil; containing 964 inhabitants. This place is celebrated as the scene of the death of the famous Macbeth, who, after reigning for seventeen years, was killed here by Macduff on the 5th of December, 1056. Memorials of the event still remain in "Macbeth's stone," at present standing in the brae of Strettum, on the farm of Carnbady, where the usurper was slain, and in the cairn forming the place of his sepulture on the Perk hill, about a mile from the church. Lumphanan once formed a part of the barony of O'Neil, belonging in the 13th century to the Durwards, of whom Allan de Lundin, named Doorward or Durward, from his office in the king's court, erected an hospital at Kincardine O'Neil dedicated to God and the Blessed Virgin, and conferred upon it the patronage of Lumphanan church, with other immunities, and also the patronage of the church of Kincardine O'Neil. The hospital was in 1330 incorporated with the cathedral establishment of Aberdeen. In 1296, Edward I., having received the homage of many persons of distinction after the battle of Dunbar, advanced from Aberdeen on the 21st of July to this place, with an illustrious retinue, and received the written submission of Sir John de Malevill, a copy of which is preserved in Her Majesty's exchequer. The wooden castle named the Peel-Bog is said to have been the place where the business was transacted.

The parish is situated between the rivers Dee and Don, and is six miles in length from north to south, and four miles from east to west, comprising 7620 acres, of which 2770 are arable, 550 wood, and the remainder uncultivated. The surface is varied with high and low grounds, in the latter of which the soil is loamy, deep, and fertile, but on the sides of the hills thin and sandy; the produce comprises several kinds of grain and various green crops, cultivated in a superior manner, in some places under the seven, and in others under the six, shift course. The cattle are of the pure Aberdeenshire breed, unchanged by the admixtures and crosses adopted in so many other parts. The improvements in agriculture have been numerous within the last thirty years, comprising chiefly the recovery of waste land, the draining of marshes, the inclosure of farms by fences, and the erection of substantial and commodious farm-steadings. The climate is early, and the crops of oats, bear, and barley in general heavy. The average rent of arable land is about £1 per acre, and the rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £2741. The rocks consist principally of granite; and over the substrata are stretched, in several parts, large tracts of moor and moss, and some marshy waters, of which the loch of Auchlossan, containing numerous eels and pike, covers 250 acres. The woods are principally larch and Scotch fir. There are five seats of proprietors, all modern buildings, named Auchinhove, Findrack, Glenmillan, Pitmurchie, and Camphill. The turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Tarland runs through the parish from east to west; and the military road formed about the year 1746, and the road formed from Kincardine O'Neil to Alford by the parliamentary commissioners for Highland roads and bridges, traverse it from south to north. The produce is usually sent for sale to Aberdeen; but corn and cattle-markets are held at Camphill, in the parish, on the second Monday of each of the winter and spring months.

Lumphanan is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir John Forbes, of Craigievar, Bart.: the minister's stipend is £154, with a manse, and a glebe of seven and a half acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church was erected in 1762, and contains 383 sittings. The parochial school, in addition to the ordinary branches, affords instruction in Greek, Latin, and mathematics; the master has a salary of £27, with a house, and £12. 12. fees, and participates in the benefit of the Dick bequest. There is also a school at Camphill, the master of which receives the interest of £150, left by James Hunter, Esq., of Darrahill. A parochial library at Tillyching, established in 1814, contains upwards of 400 volumes. The chief antiquities are, Macbeth's cairn, already noticed, and the Peel-Bog, a circular earthen mound, situated in a marshy hollow near the church, and forty-six yards in diameter, rising about twelve feet above the level of the ground, and surrounded by a moat. It is supposed to have been constructed in the 13th century; and the wooden castle on its summit was a residence of the Durwards, who possessed a large extent of territory in this county. The wooden fort was succeeded by one of stone, called Haa-ton House, the residence of the proprietor of the neighbouring estates; but this, in the march of agricultural improvement, was razed to the ground about the year 1780. Remains of a strong building called the Houff are still visible; it was once a stronghold of considerable antiquity, but afterwards converted into a burial-place for the family of the Duguids, of Auchinhove.

Lunan

LUNAN, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 7½ miles (N. by E.) from Arbroath; containing 272 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from two Gaelic words signifying "the river of the lakes," supposed to have been applied from the circumstance of the river Lunan rising in a lake near Forfar, and running through two other lakes in its course to the bay of Lunan, in the German Ocean, here. In ancient times the parish was called Lônan, Lôunan, and Inverlunan. The names of several places in the district render it probable, and perhaps certain, that King William the Lion had frequent intercourse with Lunan. He built, it is said, the structure called Redcastle, situated in an adjoining parish, near the influx of the Lunan into the ocean, and which he is reported to have used as a hunting-seat; while in the parish of Lunan are places styled Hawkshill, where he may have kept his hawks; Courthill, where he may have kept his court; Cothill, where his cattle were; and the Castle Knap, which was his prison. Some lands at present in the possession of one of the heritors were formerly called the Kirklands of Inverlunan, and were appended to the abbey of Arbroath. They were conveyed by charter dated July 21, 1544, to Lord John Innermeath and Elizabeth Beaton, his wife, by the commendator and chapter of Arbroath, upon the payment of an annual feu-duty; and in 1587, they passed to the crown by the annexation act. The feu-duties were subsequently, with other estates belonging to the abbey, erected into a temporal barony in favour of James, Marquess of Hamilton, from whom they passed to the earls of Panmure. Being forfeited in 1715, they were bought by the York Buildings' Company; not long afterwards repurchased by the late Earl of Panmure; and sold at length, in 1767, to the ancestor of the present owner.

The parish, which is of oblong form, is one of the smallest in the county, being only two miles in length, and averaging but one mile in breadth. It contains 1950 acres, and is bounded on the north by Marytown and Craig parishes, on the south by the river Lunan, on the east by the ocean, and on the west by Kinnell. The land at the extreme northern boundary reaches an elevation of about 400 feet above the level of the sea, to which height it rises from the shore, at first abruptly, but afterwards more equably. The aspect of the parish from the south is interesting and somewhat imposing; but, upon a nearer approach, the want of trees, and of verdant fences on the cultivated lands, produces considerable disappointment. The parish has a mile and a half of coast, formed by Lunan bay, which measures altogether about five miles in its margin, and is considered one of the most beautiful in Scotland. At each extremity of the bay, rugged and precipitous cliffs rise to a perpendicular height of between 100 and 150 feet; and after a storm or a high spring tide, numbers of fine shells, and sometimes pieces of pebble, onyx, and jasper, are found on its yellow sands. In a northerly direction, near the boundary of the parish, is Buckie Den, commencing from the shore with a wide opening, but narrowing for about half a mile into the land; it is a romantic spot, watered by a rivulet, and almost covered with wild shrubs, interspersed with cowslip and polyanthus.

The soil near the coast is sandy, and upon the high grounds shallow and moist, but in other parts rich and fertile: the number of acres under cultivation is 1345; about 400 are waste, ninety common, and fifteen planted with Scotch fir. The value of the grain raised is estimated at £4160, of the potatoes and turnips £824, and of the hay and pasture £910. The system of husbandry is advanced, and the crops produced are of an excellent description; the improvements have been numerous; the crops have been doubled since the adoption of the modern method of agriculture, and the farm buildings and offices, though still needing improvement, have been much bettered. The cattle are the Angus, the black-polled, and a cross of the Angus with the Teeswater, which last breed is found very profitable. The rateable annual value of the parish now amounts to £1964. The means of communication are considerable, Lunan being intersected by the coast-road between Edinburgh and Aberdeen, which is kept in good repair, and upon which six coaches pass, three to the south and three to the north; the other roads are also convenient and in tolerable repair. The bay is deep and well bottomed, and forms a safe shelter for vessels, except on the blowing of the wind from the east, to which it is entirely exposed. A salmon-fishery at the mouth of the river is estimated to produce £420 per annum. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend is £158, of which a third is received from the exchequer. The manse, built in 1783, and enlarged in 1827, stands on high ground about a mile from the old church, to the north-east; the glebe consists of eight acres, valued at £15 per annum. The late church, which was very ancient, was wholly taken down, and a new church erected upon its site in the year 1844; it is situated in the south-eastern portion of the parish. There is a parochial school, where the classics, mathematics, and ordinary branches of education are taught; the master's salary is £31, with about £25 fees, and a bequest of fifty merks for teaching six poor children. In the south-western division of the parish is the mound of Arbikie, with a ridge of land seven yards in breadth, and about 120 yards in length, and a parallel range of tumuli extending 800 yards in length; the ridge and mound are supposed to have formed sepulchres of the conquered, and the tumuli, sepulchres of the dead of the conquerors, in some great battle fought in the neighbourhood.

Lunanhead

LUNANHEAD, a village, in the parish and county of Forfar, 1¼ mile (E. N. E.) from Forfar; containing 191 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the parish, and near the chief source of the river Lunan, whence the name. The loch of Restenneth, in the neighbourhood of the village, was drained about the commencement of the present century; but the powerful springs conducted by the drain through the moss, still form the principal head of the Lunan. This stream flows with a clear current eastward for about twelve or fourteen miles, and falls into the sea at Redcastle, giving name to a fine bay, which comprehends an extent of coast of five miles.

Lunasting

LUNASTING, county of Shetland.—See Nesting.

Lundie and Fowlis

LUNDIE and FOWLIS, two districts, constituting a parish, the former in the county of Forfar, and the latter in the county of Perth; containing, with the hamlet of Kirk, 734 inhabitants, of whom 286 are in Fowlis, and 448 in Lundie, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dundee. Of these two ancient parishes, united by a decree of the High Commissioners in 1618, Lundie derives its name, in the Gaelic Linn-De, signifying, "the pool of God," from a very extensive lake which formed its chief feature: the other district, of which no etymology is known, is often distinguished by the adjunct Easter from the parish of Fowlis Wester, in the same county. Lundie is bounded on the north by the Sidlaw hills; it is about three miles in length and two in breadth, and comprises 4000 acres, of which 2500 are arable, 140 water, and the remainder meadow and hill pasture. Fowlis district is bounded on the north by Lundie, and is about four miles in extreme length, and rather more than one mile in average breadth, comprising an area of 2400 acres, of which nearly 1500 are arable, 160 woodland and plantations, 260 meadow and pasture, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface of Lundie is gently undulating in the central parts, and bounded on the west, north, and east by hills of considerable elevation, of which the Sidlaws rise to the height of 800 feet above the level of the sea. At the base of these hills are four lakes, from which, though much diminished in their extent by draining, the river Dighty issues in two streams, flowing through the valley to which it gives name. Of these lakes, that of Lundie, formerly covering 100 acres, is now reduced to little more than eight; the Long loch is about half a mile in length and one quarter of a mile broad, but the Pitlyal and Balshandie lakes are only of small size. There was formerly a lake of some extent in Fowlis; but it was drained long since for the sake of the marl, and little more of it remains than a reedy marsh frequented by various kinds of aquatic fowl. The other lakes abound with perch, pike, and eels. The higher grounds command extensive and interesting views of the surrounding country; and from the summit of Blacklaw, the only hill of any eminence in Fowlis, is obtained a richly-diversified and beautiful prospect. The glen of this district, a thickly-wooded and deep ravine extending southward from the church, contains much romantic scenery.

The soil is generally a deep black loam, well adapted for all sorts of grain; but is on the higher grounds thin and sharp; and in the lower parts are considerable tracts of marshy land, the greater portion of which has, however, been reclaimed by draining, and is now under profitable cultivation. The chief crops are oats and barley, with a moderate quantity of wheat, and the usual green crops; the system of agriculture is greatly improved. The lands are partly inclosed with fences of thorn; the farm buildings and offices are substantial and well arranged, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. The pastures are rich, and much attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, and to the breed of live stock; the cattle are of the Angus breed, occasionally crossed with the Teeswater, and the sheep of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breed, with a few of the black-faced kind. The produce of the dairies finds a ready sale in the market of Dundee. The substratum of the parish is chiefly common grey freestone, which prevails in the lower parts; the hills are mostly of trap. The rateable annual value of Lundie is £3261, and of Fowlis £3270. There is no regular village, the population being exclusively agricultural, with the exception of a small number who are employed in the several trades requisite for the supply of the parish. Facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by the Dundee and Cupar-Angus turnpike-road, which intersects the parish; and by the Carse of Gowrie road, from which Fowlis is not more than a mile distant. Fairs are held at Lundie in June and August, for the sale of cattle. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns: the minister's stipend is £201, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £9 per annum; patron, the Earl of Camperdown. The church of Lundie is a plain neat structure in good repair, and contains 330 sittings. The church of Fowlis is a very ancient and beautiful structure, having been erected about the year 1142, traditionally in fulfilment of a vow for the safe return of her husband from the crusades, by a Lady Mortimer; it is a remarkably fine specimen of the richest style of Norman architecture, in the most perfect state of preservation, and abounding in interesting details: there are about 300 sittings. A parochial school is supported in each district; the masters have each a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and fees averaging about £25 per annum. A subscription library, of which the schoolmaster has the superintendence, has been established at Fowlis, and contains about 600 volumes. Admiral Duncan, who signalised himself by his intrepidity during the mutiny of the Nore, and by his brilliant victory over the Dutch fleet off Camperdown, was one of the chief proprietors of this parish; he died in 1804, and was interred in the churchyard of Lundie. In a handsome mausoleum adjoining the church are the remains of Sir William Duncan, Bart., M.D., and his lady, the daughter of Sackville, Earl of Thanet. The present Earl of Camperdown, son of the gallant admiral, and proprietor of Lundie, was promoted from a viscounty to an earldom by that title at the coronation of his late Majesty, William IV., and takes the inferior title of Baron Duncan of Lundie from this place. In the church of Fowlis are the remains of Lord Gray, of whose ancestors and family it has been the burial-place for many generations.

Lundinmill

LUNDINMILL, a village, in the parish of Largo, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; containing 499 inhabitants. This place takes its name from an ancient family who were its proprietors from the reign of David I. till it passed by marriage to Robert, son of William the Lion, King of Scotland. A tower of their castle is still preserved in the modern mansion of Capt. Erskine Wemyss, the present proprietor. The village, which adjoins that of Largo, lies on the high road from Kilconquhar to Leven; and south and east of it are the "Standing Stones of Lundin," three huge coarse stones of a triangular form, measuring six yards high above, and probably as much below the ground, supposed to be Druidical remains, or of Roman origin, or to indicate the sepulchres of Danish chiefs.

Lunga

LUNGA, an island, in the parish of Jura and Colonsay, district of Islay, county of Argyll. This island, which is separated from Scarba, on the north, by the small Frith of Bealach-a-Chumhain-Glais, is about three square miles in extent, of rugged surface, and abounding in slate.

Luss

LUSS, a parish, in the county of Dumbarton; containing 1052 inhabitants, of whom 309 are in the village, 9 miles (N. N. E.) from Helensburgh. The name of this parish is derived from a Gaelic word signifying a "plant" or "herb," and probably applied from the circumstance of the river of Luss, or rather the valley through which it flows, being once overspread with shrubs. The most remote historical facts connected with the place relate to St. Mackessog, a native of Lennox, who was a bishop and confessor, and suffered martyrdom here in the year 520: he was buried in the church, which was dedicated to him; and from him, also, a cairn in the southern part of Luss was afterwards called Carn-ma-Cheasog. In the 13th century, when Haco of Norway made a descent upon Scotland, he conducted part of his fleet up Loch Long to Arrochar. From this spot the boats were dragged across an isthmus; and being floated on Loch Lomond at Tarbet, they sailed to Luss, and carried devastation and slaughter through the parish and its neighbouring islands. The estate of Luss fell, about the 14th century, into the possession of the family who have ever since retained it. In the beginning of the 12th century, Alwyn, second earl of Lennox, had made the lands over, by charter, to Malduin, Dean of Lennox; and his descendants, who were styled de Luss, had held them till the 14th century, when they came into the hands of Colquhoun, of Colquhoun, through his marriage with the sole heiress. The descendants of this union kept the property till about the beginning of the last century, when it came, by the marriage of the heiress, to Grant of Grant, ancestor of the present proprietor, Sir James Colquhoun, Bart. Robert, the younger brother of Sir Humphrey Colquhoun, in 1395 obtained the lands of Camstraddan and Achingahan by charter, and thus was ancestor of the family of Camstraddan; but eventually the father of the present proprietor purchased the estate of Camstraddan, and, by re-annexing it to the estate of Luss, became owner of the whole parish.

The parish is about eight and a half miles long, and varies in breadth from two and a half to five miles. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Arrochar; on the south and south-west by the parishes of Bonhill and Row; on the east by Loch Lomond; and on the west by Row and, for a very short distance, Loch Long. The parish was formerly of larger extent, comprehending in its boundaries Arrochar, the lands of Auchindennan, Cameron, Stuckrogert, Tullichewen, and the lands of Buchanan. The last-named district was separated in 1621, and Arrochar in 1658; the others were joined to the parish of Bonhill about the year 1650. The lands, however, of Caldanach, Conglens, and Prestelloch, once belonging to Inch-Cailloch parish, are now annexed to Luss. The surface throughout, with few exceptions, is hilly and mountainous. The least elevated land lies along the Lake Lomond from the southern extremity of Luss to Ross-Dhu; some of this is perfectly level, and the rest is a continuous tract of slopes and acclivities gradually rising till they merge in the ascent of the abrupt and lofty mountains. Among the chief mountains are, Ben-Cornachantian, Aich, Dhu, and Corafuar, which rise nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea, and are broken in every direction by fissures and glens of the wildest and most romantic kind. Of the numerous streams, the Froon runs into Loch Lomond nearly opposite the southern extremity of Inch-Murin, the largest of its islands: this river takes its name from, or gives it to, Glen-Froon, through which it runs, and which was the spot where a sanguinary battle was fought in 1603, between the clans of Colquhoun and Mac Gregor. The rivers Luss and Finlass rise at a small distance from Glen-Finlass, which is parallel with Glen-Froon, and separated from it by a range of mountains: these two streams, diverging from their source, fall into the loch about three miles from each other. On the extreme northern boundary of the parish is Glen-Duglass, at the opening of which to the lake is the ferry of Ruardinnan. All these glens run in an easterly line; and their several rivulets flow into the same great reservoir, Loch Lomond, which is twenty-four miles long. The eastern boundary of the parish embraces about eight miles of its shore. Its extreme breadth is in the part near Ross-Dhu, which is almost eight miles wide; and the islands contained in it which belong to Luss are, Inch-Tavanach, InchConagan, Inch-Lonaig, Inch-Moan, Inch-Galbraith, and Inch-Friechlan. Some of these islands are naked rocks; others are covered with wood, or supply peat to the poor; and one, converted into a park for about 150 deer belonging to the proprietor of the parish, is celebrated for its vast number of ancient yew-trees. This loch, so famous for its unrivalled scenery, exhibits the finest views from the top of Inch-Tavanach, InchMurin, and the northern point of Benbui. Loch Long, already referred to, is a large estuary of the sea, extending from the Frith of Clyde northward between the counties of Dumbarton and Argyll.

The soil is light and gravelly, mixed in some places with rich loam; a great portion of the land is waste, and many hundreds of acres are covered with wood. The average rent of good arable land is £2 per acre. Agricultural improvement has not made very rapid advances, and the farm-buildings are still in rather an inferior condition; but much encouragement has been recently given by the establishment of a society in the parish, which distributes prizes annually for improvements in husbandry and the breeding of cattle. The sheep are the black-faced and the Cheviots; Highland cattle are pastured on the hilly grounds, and the cows are in some parts the Ayrshire, and in others a crossbreed between these and the Highland. With regard to the geological features of the parish, the rocks in the south-east are the conglomerate or red sandstone; the mountains comprise clay-slate with all its varieties, and quartz is often found in the vicinity of the clay-slate, as well as crystals of cubical iron pyrites. There is a freestone-quarry, the produce of which is used in the parish; and at Luss and Camstraddan are extensive slate-quarries, from which superior roofing-slates are obtained, and sent to the neighbouring parishes, and, by the river Leven, to Dumbarton, Paisley, Glasgow, Port-Glasgow, and Greenock. About fifty men are employed in the works, which yield two varieties, viz., the light and the dark blue, the latter bringing the highest price in the market. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4215. The only mansion of note is Ross-Dhu House, the seat of Sir James Colquhoun, built about seventy years ago, on the promontory of the same name. It is surrounded by several hundreds of acres of the best land in the parish, beautifully laid out in pasture and plantations, the scenery of which derives variety from the ruins of a part of the old family mansion, and a roofless chapel still used as a cemetery for the family.

The village of Luss, romantically situated about thirteen miles from Dumbarton, on the margin of the lake, is a central spot from which much of the beautiful scenery in this part of the county can be visited; it is crowded with pleasure parties during summer, and there is an excellent inn. There is a good turnpike-road to Helensburgh, and the post-road from Dumbarton along Loch Lomond to the Highlands traverses the whole length of the parish. Several branch roads supply further facilities of communication; and there is a post-office in the village, with a daily delivery from Dumbarton and Inverary. There are three bridges across the Froon, on three respective lines of road; also a bridge over each of the rivers Finlass, Luss, and Duglass. Water communication is afforded by Loch Lomond, by which access may be had to every part in the vicinity of its shores. There is a fair on the third Tuesday in August, at the village, for the sale of sheep and lambs.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and the patronage is vested in Sir James Colquhoun: the stipend of the minister is £234, with a manse, and a glebe of nine arable acres, with two or three under wood. The church, built in 1771, is a plain building in good repair, containing 500 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school in the village, the master of which receives a salary of £34. 4.; he has a house, and his fees average £12. Another school is situated at Moorland, four miles south of the village, the master of which has £15, with fees, and a house recently built by the proprietor of the parish; and a girls' schoolmistress receives a similar amount for teaching in another part of the parish. There are two libraries, one of which has been long in existence, and contains about 100 old volumes, mostly in Greek and Latin; the other, a circulating library, containing eighty volumes, chiefly of practical divinity, was instituted a few years ago by the incumbent. The chief relic of antiquity is the cairn of St. Mackessog, called Carn-ma-Cheasog; and traces exist of an old fortification at Dumfin, traditionally represented as a stronghold of the celebrated Fingal.

Luthermuir

LUTHERMUIR, a manufacturing village, in the parish of Marykirk, county of Kincardine, 6½ miles (N. N. E.) from Brechin; containing 967 inhabitants. This place, formerly a barren tract of uncultivated moorland on the banks of the river Luther, has within the last few years risen into importance through the introduction of the linen manufacture into this part of the country, and is now become an extensive and populous village. The inhabitants are still partly engaged in hand-loom weaving for the houses of Montrose and Brechin, who supply the yarn. At present, however, only about 200 persons are employed in this branch of manufacture, which was till lately carried on to a much greater extent, but has experienced considerable depression. The remainder of the population are occupied in agriculture; the neighbouring lands have been brought into cultivation, and the district is progressively improving. A handsome schoolhouse, with a dwelling for the master, has been erected by Sir John Forbes, Bart., and the heritors, and is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who allow the master a salary of £15 per annum; the fees average about £22, and the master has also three acres of land rent free, given by Sir J. Forbes.

Luthrie

LUTHRIE, a village, in the parish of Creich, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 3 miles (N. W. by. N.) from Cupar; containing 163 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated within a mile of Brunton. The inhabitants are mostly employed in hand-loom weaving for the manufacturers of Cupar and Newburgh; the articles woven are chiefly Osnaburghs, brown and white sheetings, and dowlas, of which the quantity annually produced here, and at Brunton, averages about 177,200 yards. An agent of one of the principal houses resides in the village, and supplies the main part of the materials; forty persons are employed in weaving, of whom twelve are females, and about twenty females are engaged in winding. There are likewise in the village a brewery, a bakehouse, and mills for meal and barley; several persons, also, are occupied in the various handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the parish; and there is a small inn. The river Motray flows through the village; and on an eminence in the immediate vicinity is the parish church.

Lybster

LYBSTER, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Latheron, county of Caithness, 13 miles (S. W.) from Wick; containing 2699 inhabitants, of whom 461 are in the village. This village, which is situated near Amherst bay, on the eastern coast, was originally planned by Lieut. Gen. Sinclair, of Lybster House, who, in 1802, granted certain portions of his lands on building-leases; and within the last twenty years it has rapidly increased in extent. It contains many well-built houses, and, from the improvements which have been made by the present proprietor, Temple Frederick Sinclair, Esq., promises to become a place of importance. The inhabitants are principally employed in the herring-fishery; and for the protection of the numerous boats, a harbour has been constructed at the cost of the proprietor, affording shelter for more than 100 boats, and capable of receiving vessels of 100 tons' burthen. A stone pier, 300 feet in length, has been carried out from the bank of a small river which flows into the sea at this place; and within the last three years not less than from sixty to eighty vessels of 100 tons have landed, and taken in, their cargoes here during the summer and harvest months. A post-office has been established. Facility of communication is afforded by the great north road, which extends along the coast, and by steam-boats, plying from Wick to Aberdeen and Leith. The parish was, for ecclesiastical purposes, separated from Latheron by act of the General Assembly, after the erection of a church here in 1836. The church was built by subscription, at an expense of £830; it is a neat and substantial structure containing 800 sittings. There is also a place of worship for members of the Free Church, erected in 1845.

Lynchat

LYNCHAT, a village, in the parish of Alvie, county of Inverness; containing 73 inhabitants. This is a very inconsiderable place, consisting only of a group of cottages built on the Belleville property, and inhabited by persons engaged in agriculture.

Lyne and Megget

LYNE and MEGGET, a parish, in the county of Peebles, 5 miles (W.) from Peebles; containing 175 inhabitants. The district of Lyne, though consisting only of two farms, is, from being the site of the parochial church and manse, regarded as the head of this extensive parish, which comprehends also the suppressed parish of Megget, nearly fifteen miles distant from Lyne, and locally separated by the intervening lands of Manor and the river Tweed, but notwithstanding annexed to it under an act of the presbytery, both for ecclesiastical and for civil purposes. Lyne is about three miles and a half in length and almost three in breadth; while that portion of the parish which was formerly the parish of Megget, situated at the southern extremity of the county, is about six miles in length, and more than five in breadth. The whole comprises 17,850 acres, of which 910 are arable, about thirty in woodland and plantation, and the remainder chiefly affording pasturage for sheep and cattle. The surface of the lands of Lyne is for the most part gently acclivous, but in some places diversified with a range of hills of considerable elevation, extending in a direction nearly parallel to the river Lyne, from which they recede towards the north, leaving on the east a wide tract, extremely fertile, between them and the stream. The river has its source near the confines of Tweeddale, and, after washing the district, and dividing it from Stobo, falls into the Tweed a little below its limits; there is also a small rivulet, which for some distance forms a boundary between Lyne and Peebles parish. The scenery is generally pleasing, the hills being covered with verdure; but there is a deficiency of timber, and few plantations have been made. The soil in Lyne is gravelly, but produces fair crops, and the lower grounds are exceedingly fertile. The surface of the lands in the Megget district is almost all hill, with very little intervening level. The hills extend in two parallel ranges from east to west, having between them a vale about a quarter of a mile in breadth, watered by the Megget, which rises near the western extremity of the district, and, after receiving numerous streams from the hills in its progress, flows into a beautiful sheet of water at the eastern extremity of the district, called St. Mary's Loch, which abounds with fish, and is much frequented by anglers. The soil even in the vale is but ill adapted for agriculture; and though in some parts of the hills it is light and dry, yet it is in general wet and mossy, and incapable of profitable cultivation. The hills, however, afford excellent pasturage for sheep.

The crops raised in the parish are, oats, barley, wheat, peas, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is much improved, and most of the tenants are connected with local associations formed for the purpose of distributing rewards for the promotion of husbandry among the successful competitors. Draining has been generally practised where requisite; much waste land has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation, and embankments have been constructed to preserve the lower lands from inundation. The chief farm houses and offices are substantially built and commodiously arranged; the lands are inclosed chiefly with stone dykes, but there are some few fences of thorn: six good cottages of stone, roofed with slate, have been built in the Megget district for the use of the shepherds. Great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep and young cattle. About 9000 sheep are annually pastured, and about 150 head of cattle; the former are of the Cheviot and black-faced breeds in nearly equal numbers, and the latter are usually a mixture of the Ayrshire and short-horned breed. The sheep are in very high repute, and the pastures are considered superior to any in this part of the country. The substrata of the parish are chiefly whinstone, of which the rocks are composed, and slate; but little of either is quarried, except for the supply of the lands on which they are found. Facility of intercourse with Glasgow, Hawick, and other places is maintained by roads kept in excellent order, and by good bridges, two of which cross the stream that separates the district of Lyne from the parish of Stobo. The rateable annual value of Lyne and Megget is £3021.

The parish is in the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the Earl of Wemyss and March: the minister's stipend is £153. 9. 1., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum. The church is an ancient and venerable edifice of the later English style of architecture, and a portion of the original building has been parted off, and adapted for a congregation of 100 persons; it was thoroughly repaired in 1830, without any deviation from its original character. A chapel of ease has been erected in the Megget district of the parish, to which is attached a good schoolroom; but the distance of the chapel from the manse, which is at least fourteen miles, and, when the Tweed is flooded, and a circuitous route through Peebles becomes necessary, twenty miles, is a serious inconvenience to the incumbent. The parochial school, situated at Lyne, is well conducted, and is amply sufficient for the children of that district; the master has a salary of £25. 13, with £12 fees, and a house and garden. There is also a school at Megget, which, however, on account of the difficulty of access to it, is kept open only during the summer half-year; the master receives a salary of £7, paid by the heritors, with a small bequest, and is supplied with board and lodging by the parents of the scholars in succession. There are few poor permanently on the parish list; but assistance is occasionally given to families in distress by collections at the church. At Megget are the remains of two ancient towers, probably places of security in case of sudden incursions of the English, to which this place, situated so near the border, was peculiarly exposed; or they might be watch-towers, from which signals of approaching hostilities were displayed for the purpose of raising the country. At Henderland are the remains of a chapel and burying-ground; and about a quarter of a mile to the west of the church at Lyne are distinct traces of a Roman camp, of which the form is clearly marked out; and also of a road that led to it. The area has been frequently cultivated, and various Roman coins are said to have been discovered by the plough. The Rev. Mr. Mitchelson, who was minister of Lyne and Megget about a century since, bequeathed £50, the interest of which is at present received by the master of the school at Megget.