Wallacetown - Wia

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

588-608

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'Wallacetown - Wia', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 588-608. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43488 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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Wallacetown

WALLACETOWN, lately a quoad sacra district, in the parish of St. Quivox, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 4620 inhabitants. This is wholly a town district, and formed of the villages of Wallace and Content, which adjoin the burgh of Newton-upon-Ayr, on the east side, and are separated from Ayr by the Ayr river, over which is the handsome structure at this place, called the Bridge of Ayr. The villages are built on the lands of Sir Thomas Wallace, of Craigie, and have arisen since the year 1760, in consequence of the establishment of coal-works in the immediate neighbourhood, and of the increase of manufactures in this part of the country. They consist of indifferent houses, inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in the mines and in weaving, and by agricultural labourers, and artisans in various handicraft trades: the weavers work at their own houses for the manufacturers of Paisley and Glasgow. From the moderate rents, and consequent cheapness of lodgings, numerous of the labouring classes from Ireland have settled here permanently, and many more make it a place of temporary abode. Owing to this district of the parish being by far the most populous part of it, a chapel was erected by subscription in 1835, at a cost of £1550; in the following year it became an independent church, and Wallacetown was then constituted a parish in itself, so far as respected ecclesiastical affairs. It is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and the patronage is vested in the male communicants: the stipend of the minister is £150, derived from seat-rents and collections, but there is neither manse nor glebe. The church is a neat and substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 865 persons, thirty seats being free. There are also places of worship for members of the United Secession, Antiburghers, Reformed Presbyterians, and a congregation of Independents; and a Roman Catholic chapel. In the united villages are likewise six schools.

Walls and Sandness

WALLS and SANDNESS, a parish, in the county of Shetland, 19 miles (W. N. W.) from Lerwick; containing, with the islands of Foula, Linga, Papa-Stour, and Vaila, 2449 inhabitants. This parish, consisting of the four districts of Walls, Sandness, Papa-Stour, and Foula, is situated, with the exception of Foula, longitudinally about the centre of the Shetland Isles, and is bounded on the north, south, and west by the sea. Walls and Sandness, to the former of which belongs the islet of Vaila, are separated from each other by a prominent elevation, and form the chief part of a peninsula united to the rest of the Mainland by a narrow isthmus. Papa-Stour, or Great Papa, is on the north of Sandness, about two miles long and one broad, and divided from it by a boisterous and perilous channel a mile broad, called Papa Sound. Foula, another island, is about sixteen miles west of Walls, measuring three miles in length and one and a half in breadth. Exclusive of the latter island, the parish extends about ten miles in length, between the extreme points of Papa and Vaila; it is five miles in breadth, and comprises, besides considerable tracts of mossy and mountain land, 1000 cultivated acres. The surface of the whole is much diversified; that in the Walls district is marked by numerous small eminences, and the other parts comprehend some tracts of level, and much hilly and mountainous ground. The coast is precipitous; the rocks are generally 100 feet high, and those on the western shore of Foula are even much more lofty, attaining an elevation of several hundred feet, and, in one place, of 1200, and are frequented in summer with swarms of sea-fowl. At the little island of Vaila, the residence of John Scott, Esq., of Melby, the principal proprietor of the parish, is a superior harbour having two entrances, called Vaila Sound.

The inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture and fishing. Some of the farms contain six acres; but in general they only comprise about two or three acres of arable land, with a portion of meadow or pasture adjacent, the ground under tillage being rented, on an average, at £1 per acre. The tenants have the privilege of sending as many sheep, cows, and horses as they please to graze upon the high grounds, and of cutting a plentiful supply of good peat. The usual crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, a few turnips, and cabbages; but the ground is generally prepared by the spade, the ploughs in the parish being but three in number, and belonging to landed proprietors. The tenements are for the most part strongly built; but a due regard is not shown to cleanliness, and the family often live in the same apartment with calves, sheep, pigs, and other animals. The inland and higher parts of the parish are covered with a deep mossy soil, bearing a short heathy grass which is eaten off by large numbers of sheep and horses: the latter run wild about the mountains; the former, in the severity of winter, are driven to the more verdant tracts upon the shore to eat the sea-weed. The fisheries produce chiefly cod, ling, and herrings. The first are taken at no great distance from land, and principally by old men and boys; but the ling-fishery is pursued at a greater distance, and with larger boats, giving full occupation in the season to most of the young and middle-aged men. The herring-fishery succeeds to that of ling about the middle of August, and continues for a month or six weeks, affording in general a plentiful supply, and likely, when better understood and more skilfully followed, to be productive of great benefit to the district.

The prevailing rocks in the Mainland part of the parish are, porphyry, quartz, gneiss, and red sandstone; in the isle of Papa-Stour, porphyry, trap, and red sandstone; and in Foula, old red sandstone, with granite, gneiss, and mica-slate. The only mansions of a superior kind are, one situated at Sandness, and another in the isle of Vaila; both are modern buildings. A cattle-fair is held in May, and another in November; and the disposable part of the produce of the parish is sent to the market-town of Lerwick. The rateable annual value of the parish is £755. It is in the presbytery of Lerwick and synod of Shetland, and in the patronage of the Earl of Zetland: the minister's stipend is £158, of which £62. 10. are received from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. Each of the four districts contains a church, where divine service is performed by the parochial minister, who officiates in Walls once every fortnight, in Sandness and Papa once every month, and sometimes twice a month in summer, and who visits Foula once every year, on which occasion he remains there for two Sundays. In each church, in the absence of the clergyman, a reader, who is usually the schoolmaster of the district, reads a sermon every Sunday, and superintends other parts of divine service. The church at Walls was built in 1743, that at Sandness in 1794, and that at Papa in 1806; the period of the erection of the church at Foula is not known: they contain in the aggregate accommodation for 1064 persons. There are a place of worship for members of the Free Church, three places of worship belonging to Wesleyans, all under the charge of one minister, and two belonging to Independents, having also only one minister. A parochial school is kept in one of the districts, of which the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and £5 fees; and a school in each of the others is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge.

Walls and Flotta

WALLS and FLOTTA, a parish, mostly in the island of Hoy, South Isles of the county of Orkney, 9 miles (W. by S.) from South Ronaldshay, and 16 (S. S. W.) from Kirkwall; containing 1558 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name, anciently Valis or Waes, is of doubtful origin, consists of the southern or Walls part of the island of Hoy, the islands of Flotta and Pharay, and the uninhabited isles of Little Rysay, Flotta-Calf, and Switha; it is bounded on the north by the parish of Hoy, on the east by Scalpa Flow, and on the south and west by the Pentland Frith. The southern portion of Walls is nearly separated from the rest by the inland bay of Longhope, which intersects the district for almost five miles in a direction from east to west; it is connected with the northern portion only by an isthmus 200 feet in breadth at low-water, and at high-water of spring-tides is completely insulated. The eastern coast of Walls is indented by several small bays, of which the principal are, Ore Hope to the north, and Kirkhope to the south, of the bay of Longhope. The western coast is distinguished by the lofty promontory of the Berry rock, projecting into the Atlantic, and forming, with Dunnet head on the Caithness coast, with which it corresponds in feature and in character, the two majestic columns that guard the entrance into the Pentland Frith. The extent of coast bounded by the Frith is about twelve miles, the whole of which is elevated, abruptly steep, and in many parts worn into fanciful caverns by the action of the waves, which rush with resistless violence from the Atlantic. The island of Flotta is situated to the east of Longhope bay, and is bounded on the north by Scalpa Flow, and on the south by the Pentland Frith; it is nearly three miles in length and in some parts about two miles in breadth, and is solely the property of the Earl of Zetland. The coast is less precipitous than that of Walls, and on the east side is an excellent harbour, called Panhope, from some salt-pans formerly established there. Pharay is situated to the north-west of Flotta, and surrounded by Scalpa Flow; it is about two miles in length, and nearly one mile in breadth, and entirely the property of Mr. Heddle. The islands which are uninhabited afford only pasture for sheep and cattle: Little Rysay is to the east of Walls, between the main land and the island of Pharay; Flotta-Calf is to the north-east of Flotta, and Switha to the south of Flotta, and east of Longhope bay.

The number of acres cannot with any degree of precision be ascertained; there are supposed to be about 2000 acres of arable land, and about 1000 in pasture, the remainder being principally undivided common and waste. The surface in Walls is diversified with hills, though in Flotta comparatively level; the scenery is generally of a bold and romantic character, and the view from the higher grounds extensive, embracing features of grandeur and sublimity. The system of agriculture, though far from being perfect, has been much improved by Mr. Heddle, on his lands at Melsetter; and considerable tracts of waste have been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation. The principal crops are oats and bear, with potatoes; little more is raised than is necessary for home consumption, but the quality is quite equal, and in many instances superior, to that of the produce of other lands in the county. The commons afford tolerable pasture to flocks of sheep, which graze at large upon the hills; and the cattle, which are of the black Highland breed, are also numerous, and thrive well: the horses, though larger than those of Shetland, are small, but hardy and active. The rocks are principally of the sandstone formation, and intersected by amygdaloid interspersed with whindykes, and by argillaceous schist: the extensive tracts of peat-moss furnish fuel for exportation. There is little or no timber, though in some parts are small plantations and shrubberies, and the gardens produce apples, pears, plums, currants, gooseberries, and strawberries, which ripen well. Melsetter is an ancient mansion, beautifully situated at the western extremity of Longhope bay, and commanding a fine view of the entrance of the Pentland Frith, and of the Caithness coast, with the lofty mountains of Sutherland in the distance. The Frith affords an ample supply of excellent fish of various kinds. The cod found here are in high estimation; and several fishing-smacks, with wells for preserving them on the voyage, are employed for the supply of the London markets, whither, also, most of the lobsters taken here are forwarded. The herring-fishery is likewise carried on to a large extent by the fishermen of this place, who at the proper season repair to the principal stations; and the fish called sillocks are generally plentiful, affording when young a nutritious food, and of which the liver produces a considerable quantity of oil. The platting of straw is pursued by part of the female population at their own dwellings; but there is no other manufacture, the inhabitants being mostly employed either in agriculture or in the fisheries. There is no village. The post is regular, and the mail is conveyed by a boat to St. Margaret's Hope, in the parish of South Ronaldshay.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cairston and synod of Orkney. The minister's stipend, including £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, is £158. 6. 8., part of which is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum: the patronage is claimed by the Earl of Zetland, and also by Mr. Heddle. Divine service, for some time after the union of the two parishes, was performed by one minister both at Walls and Flotta; but owing to the difficulty of communication between them, from the insular situation of the latter, an ordained missionary has been stationed in Flotta, who is supported by the General Assembly, the people of Flotta, the Earl of Zetland, and the minister of Walls. The church of Walls was erected in 1832, and contains 500 sittings; that of Flotta, of much earlier date, contains only 180 sittings, which are inadequate to the accommodation of the inhabitants of that place, and of those of the island of Pharay, who attend divine service there. There are two parochial schools in Walls; the masters have each a salary of £25. A third school is partly endowed; and a school in the island of Flotta is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. There are some remains of ancient fortifications, thrown up most probably during the hostilities between the inhabitants of Caithness and the people of Orkney, while the latter were subject to the kings of Denmark; the principal are on a rock near the house of Snelsetter, anciently called the House of Walls. There are also some remain of what appear to have been chapels, and several tumuli, none of which, however, have been explored.

Walston

WALSTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the village of Ellsrickle, 493 inhabitants, of whom 101 are in the village of Walston, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Biggar. The ancient name is supposed by some to have been Welston, and derived from the numerous springs here, of which one became celebrated for its efficacy in the cure of cutaneous diseases; other writers think it was Waldefs-town, from its proprietor, Waldef, brother of the Earl Cospatrick. The lands of Walston, together with those of Eldgerith, now Ellsrickle, once constituted a barony co-extensive with the present parish, and forming part of the lordship of Bothwell, which, from repeated forfeitures, belonged at different times to various proprietors. On the forfeiture of James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, in 1567, the barony was granted by James VI. to John, Earl of Mar, by whom it was sold to the Baillie family, from whom, together with the patronage of the church, the manor of Walston was purchased by George Lockhart, Esq., of Carnwath, whose descendant, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart., is the present proprietor. The lands of Ellsrickle are divided among several proprietors, of whom the principal is John Allan Woddrop, Esq. The parish is bounded on the north by the small river Medwin, and is about three miles in length and from two to three in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 4500 acres, of which 2900 are arable, 1100 meadow and hill pasture, and about 40 woodland and plantations. The surface is in some parts gently undulating, and diversified with hills in other parts, rising rapidly. Towards the east is Black-Mount, 1600 feet above the level of the sea: from this the surface declines gradually to little more than half that height, forming on one side the valley of the Medwin, and on the other the gradually expanding vale of Ellsrickle. On the northern side of Black-Mount are the springs from which the parish is supposed to have derived its name, and of which the principal are, the Buckwell, the Silver wells, and Walston well. They afford a copious supply of excellent water, and form numerous burns that flow into the Medwin, which, after passing the parish in a direct channel sunk for that purpose, pursues a winding course to the westward, and falls into the river Clyde.

The soil in the valleys is a brown mossy loam, alternated with sand; on the slopes of the hills, of a more tenacious quality; and in some parts, a deep and rich loam. The crops are, grain of all kinds, turnips, potatoes, and hay; the system of agriculture is in a highly advanced state, and the rotation plan generally adopted. The lands have been greatly improved by furrow-draining; and the lower grounds, which were in many parts subject to inundation from the winding course of the Medwin, have been protected by diverting its waters into the straight channel already alluded to constructed in 1829. The dairy-farms are under good management; and the butter and cheese, of which latter the Dunlop kind is becoming more general, find a ready market in Edinburgh. The cows are of the Ayrshire breed, with an occasional cross with the short-horned; about 400 are pastured on the several farms, and on the hills and other lands are about 700 sheep. The plantations are chiefly larch and Scotch fir; but from the small number of acres that have been planted, great want of shelter is still experienced, to the manifest injury of the crops. The hills are mostly of the trap-rock formation, with superincumbent strata of sandstone; and limestone, found in some parts of the parish, was formerly quarried and burnt for manure; but the difficulty of obtaining coal has rendered it more profitable to bring lime from a distance. No minerals are now met with; but there are some caverns on the Borland farm, near Walston well, which indicate an attempt at mining, supposed to have been made by a company of Germans in the reign of James V. The rateable annual value of the parish, according to returns made for the purposes of the Income tax, is £2137.

The village of Walston, situated on the west of the Black Mount, has been for some years declining, and is now very small: the village of Ellsrickle, however, on the south side, has been gradually increasing, and, under the auspices of the proprietor, Mr. Woddrop, who has laid out allotments for building, may soon be of considerable extent. The situation of both villages is pleasing, but the latter has the advantage of some thriving plantations in its vicinity. A few of the inhabitants of both are employed in hand-loom weaving for the cotton manufacturers of Glasgow. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-roads from Dumfries to Edinburgh, and from Carnwath to Peebles, which pass through the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £157. 10. 10., of which more than half is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum: patron, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart. The church is a neat plain structure, chiefly erected about the close of the last century, but having an aisle of more ancient date in the later English style, with a window of elegant design; it is in good repair, and contains 190 sittings. The parochial school is situated at Walston: the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden; the fees average £12 per annum. There is likewise a school at Ellsrickle. A parochial library was commenced in 1814, and has a collection of about 500 volumes, principally on religious subjects. There is also a friendly society, established in 1808, and which has contributed greatly to diminish the claims on the funds for parochial relief. A tripod of brass was a few years since discovered by the plough, on the farm of Borland; it is supposed to be a relic of Roman antiquity, and celts have also been found in different parts. Stone coffins have frequently been dug up; and near the village of Ellsrickle was lately found one containing an urn which, on exposure to the air, crumbled into dust. On the farm of Cocklaw are the remains of a circular camp, consisting of two concentric circles of mounds and ditches; the inner circle is twenty-seven yards in diameter, and between it and the outer circle is an interval of five yards.

Walton

WALTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Cults, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Cupar; containing 28 inhabitants. This is a very small place, situated in the eastern part of the parish, and only remarkable for the vestiges of a Roman camp upon Walton hill.

Wamphray

WAMPHRAY, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 9 miles (S. E. by S.) from the town of Moffat; containing 509 inhabitants. This place derives its name, in the Gaelic signifying "the deep glen in the forest," from the situation of its church in a sequestered and thickly-wooded vale on the south side of the Water of Wamphray. It appears to have been of some little consequence at an early period, and there are still vestiges of the ancient house of Wamphray. There are no events of historical importance recorded in connexion with the place; but at Girth-Head, in the parish, are some remains of a Roman station, and also the vestiges of a road leading from it to Carlisle, on which are several stones at equal distances, supposed to have been Roman milestones, near one of which Charles II. is said to have passed a night on his route to England a little before the battle of Worcester. The parish is situated in the district of Upper Annandale, and bounded on the west by the river Annan, which separates it from the parishes of Johnstone and Kirkpatrick-Juxta. It is about six miles and a half in length and three miles in breadth, comprising 12,000 acres; 3000 are arable, 250 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill-pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is marked by two mountainous ranges, nearly parallel with each other, and with the river Annan, which intersect the parish from the south-east to the north-west, and have an elevation varying from 1000 to 2500 feet above the level of the sea; and also by two ranges of hills of inferior height, of which the highest does not attain more than 1000 feet. Between these heights are some beautiful valleys, and tracts of level land in a state of high cultivation: the vale of the Wamphray is exceedingly fertile, and abounds with pleasingly picturesque scenery. The Wamphray water, which has its source in the hills to the north of the parish, taking a southern direction, flows through the valley to which it gives name, in some parts between banks richly wooded, and in others between precipitous rocks of freestone and basaltic columns mantled with ivy. In about the middle of its gracefullywinding course it forms numerous romantic cascades, behind the manse, not far from the church; and after a progress of nearly two miles and a half between the mountain ranges, and having received not a few streams from the heights, it abruptly diverts its channel to the west, and falls into the river Annan on the boundary of the parish. There is also a beautiful cascade in the northern part of the parish, upon the borders of Moffat; it is called the Bell-Craig, and attracts many visiters from the mineral wells of that place.

The soil is various; on the banks of the Annan, a deep rich loam; in some parts, of lighter quality, varying in colour from a bright red to a dark brown; and in others, clay: the lower grounds have a subsoil of sand or gravel. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses, and vegetables and fruit of all kinds. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved within the last thirty years; the farms are of considerable extent, and the farm houses and offices in general handsomely built, and well adapted to the nature of the farms, upon all of which threshing-machines have been erected. Much waste land has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation, and several of the larger sheep-walks are interspersed with portions of arable ground, producing excellent crops: the lands have been mostly inclosed, and the fences are kept in good repair. Many of the poorer cottagers have pendicles of land attached to their dwellings, in the cultivation of which, during the intervals of labour at their respective callings, they are profitably engaged. The cattle are chiefly of the Galloway breed, and much attention is paid to their improvement; the sheep are of the Cheviot breed, occasionally crossed with the Leicestershire, and of the black-faced breed, of which latter, however, the number is comparatively small. About 500 head of cattle, and nearly 16,000 sheep, including 1000 of the black-faced, are annually reared in the pastures; and a considerable number of swine are fed on the several farms. The grain raised in the parish is either used for home consumption, or sold in the neighbourhood; the cattle are purchased by dealers for the Dumfries market, and the sheep are sent to Liverpool and other places in the south, and occasionally to Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The plantations, which are mostly of recent date, consist of Scotch fir, and larch, interspersed with oak, ash, and other forest-trees; they are under careful management, regularly thinned, and generally in a thriving state. Along the banks of the rivers are some remains of natural wood, chiefly oak and ash. The rocks in the parish are mainly of the secondary formation, and in the lower parts the hills are mostly composed of greywacke; limestone is found in some places, but is not wrought, from the scarcity of fuel; and freestone, but of very inferior quality, occurs in several parts. The rateable annual value of Wamphray is £3573. There are a few good houses occupied by some of the smaller landed proprietors, but no seats, and the village, which is called Newton, is very inconsiderable. Letters are forwarded from the office at Moffat, with which facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road to Langholm; other roads also pass through the parish, and are kept in repair by statute labour. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £221. 12. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a neat substantial structure, erected in 1834, and containing sufficient accommodation for the parishioners. There is also a place of worship for members of the Relief. The parochial school is attended by nearly ninety children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £25 annually. There are vestiges of several ancient camps in the parish, some of which are supposed to be of Roman origin, especially one near the Roman road previously noticed, and another to the rear of it; and there were also till lately the remains of a Druidical circle, almost entire, on a rising ground to the east of the church, but which, in the recent progress of agriculture, were removed. The late Dr. Rogerson, first physician to Catherine, Empress of Russia, spent the earlier part of his life here, and afterwards purchased the principal estate in the parish, near which he resided till his decease; and he, and his son, the late Dr. John Rogerson, physician to the forces, were buried here.

Wandell and Lammingtoune

WANDELL and LAMMINGTOUNE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the village of Lammingtoune, 358 inhabitants, of whom 122 are in the village of Lammingtoune, 6½ miles (S. W.) from Biggar. These two ancient parishes, which were united in 1608, comprise the baronies of Wandell and Lammingtoune. The former barony, anciently Quendall or Gwendall, signifying "the White Meadow," and called also Hartside, belonged in the reign of Alexander II. to William de Hertisheved, sheriff of Lanark in 1225, and in that of David II. to William de Jardin, in whose family it remained till the time of Charles I. of England, when it was conferred upon William, Marquess of Douglas. From him it descended to his son, Archibald, Earl of Angus, who in 1651 was made Earl of Ormond, and whose descendant was by a new patent created Earl of Forfar and Lord Wandale and Hartside; and on the death of the second Earl of Forfar, who fell in the battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715, it reverted to the Duke of Douglas, whose grand-nephew, Lord Douglas, is the present proprietor. The barony of Lammingtoune became, by marriage with the heiress about the year 1296, the property of the Scottish hero Sir William Wallace, whose only daughter conveyed it by marriage to William Baliol or Baillie, ancestor of Alexander D. R. Cochrane Wishart Baillie, Esq., the present laird. In 1715, a number of the Highlanders who had taken arms in favour of the Pretender, under the command of the Earl of Wintoun, refusing to accompany their general into England, dispersed in two companies of about 200 each, one of which, retreating to the hills of Lammingtoune, was assailed by the peasantry of this place under the conduct of their lairds, made prisoners, and, after being confined in the parish church for the night, marched off to Lanark.

The parish extends along the banks of the river Clyde, on the west and south-west, for about nine miles; and is from three to four miles in breadth; comprising an area of 11,300 acres, of which 6100 are in the barony of Wandell, and 5200 in that of Lammingtoune. The surface is boldly diversified with hills of mountainous elevation, but easy of ascent, and of verdant aspect, affording excellent pasturage for sheep. These hills vary in their shape, some of them being finely undulated, and others more abrupt and conical, with portions of barren grey rock protruding above the turf; among them are Hillhouse hill and Lammingtoune hill, the former, near the church, having an elevation of 500 feet, and the latter, to the east of the village, rising to the height of 600 feet, above the level of the surrounding plains. There are several tracts of flat land, watered by streams descending from the hills. Of these, the Wandell, Hartside, Hackwood, and Lammingtoune burns are the most copious; they all form tributaries to the Clyde, which abounds with trout of superior quality and large size, similar to those in Loch Invar and Loch Leven. The hills furnish game of various kinds, and partridges and grouse are especially found in great plenty. Deer were formerly very numerous in the barony of Wandell, from which circumstance that district was called Hartside; but the ancient forest which was their accustomed haunt has long since disappeared, and there is scarcely any wood now to be found in the Wandell district. In Lammingtoune, however, are some hundreds of fine old trees, chiefly about the village, and on the banks of Lammingtoune burn.

Of the lands, about 2300 acres are arable, and about 900 meadow and pasture; the soil is mostly dry and fertile, and the rotation plan of husbandry in general use. The chief crops are, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the dairy-farms are under good management, and the produce is sent weekly to the Edinburgh market. The sheep, of which more than 6000 are fed on the pastures, are of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds, principally the former; the cows are the Ayrshire, with an occasional mixture of the Teeswater; and the horses, of which more are kept than are used for agricultural purposes, are of the Clydesdale breed. The farm houses and offices are comparatively of an inferior order, and covered with thatch, except in the district of Lammingtoune, where the principal buildings are covered with slate. Considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the fences are chiefly stone dykes, with some few hedges of thorn. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3668. The village of Lammingtoune is pleasantly situated on the north and east side of the Lammingtoune burn, and on the road from Biggar to Dumfries. It had formerly a market and two annual fairs, for which a charter was granted to Sir William Baillie in the reign of Charles I.; but they have been long discontinued. The houses are generally ancient, and of very indifferent appearance; but the surrounding scenery, enriched by the bending trees on the banks of the burn, is pleasingly picturesque. Near the burn is a handsome cottage for the gamekeeper of the lord of the manor; and in the village is a spacious house which was originally intended for an inn to accommodate the visiters who might frequent the troutstreams of this place, which afford excellent sport to the angler. Facility of communication is maintained by good roads that pass through the village and parish; by bridges over the several burns; and a bridge of two arches over the Clyde, on the road to Abington and Crawford. A post-office has been established in the village, under that of Biggar, from which letters are forwarded by a runner three times in the week.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale: the minister's stipend is £150, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15. 10. per annum; alternate patrons, Lord Douglas and A. D. R. C. W. Baillie, Esq. The church, situated on the boundary between the two districts, is a very ancient structure, with a fine Norman doorway; the building was repaired and enlarged in 1828, at an expense of £300, and contains about 350 sittings. There were formerly two parochial schools, one in each district; but that of Wandell has been discontinued, and the parochial school at Lammingtoune has been removed from the village to a building erected for its use, within the boundary of Wandell, for the accommodation of both districts. The master has a salary of £35, with a house and garden, and the fees average £12. 10. per annum: connected with the school is a bursary at the High School and University of Glasgow, founded by the last countess of Forfar in 1737. The poor have the proceeds of bequests of £105 charged on the Lammingtoune estates, and £75 by the late Dr. Blinshall, of Dundee. There are some small remains of the ancient castle of Lammingtoune, the seat for some time of the renowned Sir William Wallace, consisting of a portion of the walls, and the western gable, with the arched window of the dining-room: the rest was destroyed, without the knowledge of the proprietor, by the factor on the estate, for the sake of the materials. On an eminence rising from the river Clyde are some remains of the Bower of Wandell, the resort of James V., when pursuing the sport of deer-hunting in the once thickly-wooded hills of Hartside. There are also numerous camps in various parts of the parish, of which three on Whitehill, at the northern extremity of Lammingtoune, are supposed to be of Roman origin: the largest of these, which nearly adjoin each other, is seventy yards long and forty yards in width, and is defended by a ditch five yards in breadth. On Starthope Hill, in Wandell, are the remains of a British camp, inclosed by a circular rampart of earth and stones; and there are numerous others, and also some Druidical relies. Scotch pebbles of great beauty are found in the bed of the Clyde.

Wanlockhead

WANLOCKHEAD, a mining-village, in the parish of Sanquhar, county of Dumfries, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Sanquhar; containing 773 inhabitants. This place is situated at the eastern extremity of the county, bordering on Lanarkshire, and upon the small river Wanlock, from which it takes its name. It appears to have had its origin in the discovery of some valuable veins of lead-ore by Cornelius Hardskins, a native of Germany, who, with 300 of his countrymen, was, during the minority of James VI., employed by the master of the English mint, under Queen Elizabeth, in searching for gold among the hills in the immediate vicinity. After gold had been found to the value of £100,000, the works were discontinued as not remunerating the expenses; but even within the last few years, small quantities of gold have been discovered in the bottoms of the glens, occurring in a granular form among the rocks, mixed with sand and gravel. The lead-mines, which are the property of the Duke of Buccleuch, were opened in the year 1680 by Sir James Stampfield, and subsequently continued by Mr. Matthew Wilson, who extended the workings from Whitcleuch to the Wanlock river. In 1755, Messrs. Ronald Crawford, Meason, and Company, entered upon the concern, which has since been conducted with great spirit. This company erected no less than five steam-engines for carrying off the water, of the aggregate power of 268 horses; but the expense of supplying the engines with coal, brought from a distance of nearly twelve miles, so diminished the profits, that they were subsequently replaced by a water-pressure engine, which answers the purpose at a reduced cost. From the fall in the price of lead in 1829 and 1830, scarcely more than 1000 tons were raised during those two years, though previously the quantity had been large; the number of persons at present employed in the works is about 200, and they earn on an average about £20 per annum each. The village, which is within a mile of the works at Leadhills, in the county of Lanark, has an elevation of nearly 1500 feet above the level of the sea, and is inhabited chiefly by miners and others connected with the lead-works. A subscription library has been established, which has now a collection of 2000 volumes. A church, or preaching-station, in connexion with the Established Church, is also maintained for the accommodation of the inhabitants by the Duke of Buccleuch, who pays the minister's stipend, and likewise the salary of the master of a school for the instruction of the children of the village. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is also a female school, established and endowed by the noble proprietor at the close of the year 1845.

Ward

WARD, THE, a village, in the parish of Cruden, district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen; containing 113 inhabitants. This small fishing-village is situated on the coast, and is the eastern boundary of the bay of Ardendraught, which extends about two miles along the shore, and has a fine beach of sand. There are two other fishing-villages in the parish; and near Ward is a salmon-fishery. Vessels occasionally land coal and lime here; but the place is only accessible to them in temperate weather.

Washington

WASHINGTON, a village, in the parish of Cupar-Angus, county of Perth; containing 119 inhabitants.

Water of Leith

WATER of LEITH, county of Edinburgh.—See Leith, Water of.

Waterbeck

WATERBECK, a village, in the parish of Middlebie, county of Dumfries, 1½ mile (N. E. by E.) from the village of Middlebie; containing 129 inhabitants. It lies nearly in the centre of the parish, on a small stream or beck which flows into the Kirtle water a short distance from the village; the population is chiefly agricultural.

Waterloo

WATERLOO, a village, in the parish of Auchtergaven, county of Perth; containing 117 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the road to Dunkeld, is of recent origin, having been erected within the last thirty years on lands belonging to Mr. Wylie, of Airlywight. It takes its name in commemoration of the celebrated victory of Waterloo, which had been achieved shortly prior to its erection. The houses are neatly built, and the surrounding scenery is diversified; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in weaving at their own houses for the manufacturers of Dundee, Newburgh, and Blairgowrie.

Waternish

WATERNISH, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Duirinish, Isle of Skye, county of Inverness, 17 miles (N. W. by W.) from Portree; containing, with the hamlet of Stein, and island of Issay, 1260 inhabitants. This district, which is situated in the north-eastern portion of the parish, was for ecclesiastical purposes separated from Duirinish, by act of the General Assembly, on the erection of a church by government. The hamlet of Stein, now containing only thirty-eight inhabitants, was built some few years since by the North British Fishery Society, for the encouragement of the fisheries off the coast; but it has not answered the purpose intended, though a few fish are taken in the lochs and bays with which this part of the coast is indented. The island of Issay, situated between the lochs of Dunvegan and Bay, and which is several miles in circumference, containing ninety inhabitants, is luxuriantly fertile and in a high state of cultivation. In the district of Waternish are two schools, of which one is in the hamlet of Stein.

Watersay

WATERSAY, an island, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness; containing 84 inhabitants. This is an isle of the Hebrides, lying to the south of the island of Barra, from which it is separated by a channel about one mile in breadth, called the Sound of Watersay, and by a narrow strait to the westward only passable by small boats. It is about three miles long, and in some places more than a mile broad, and is divided into two distinct hills, Watersay and Kyles, of which the soil is tolerably fertile. The hills are connected by a flat sandy bar, on the east side whereof is an excellent harbour, affording shelter to vessels even of the largest burthen.

Waterston

WATERSTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Ecclesmachan, county of Linlithgow, ¾ of a mile (N.) from the village of Ecclesmachan; containing 33 inhabitants. This is a very small place, lying a little south of the high road from Kirkliston to Linlithgow, and nearly in the centre of the more northern of the two districts which make up the parish of Ecclesmachan.

Watten

WATTEN, a parish, in the county of Caithness, 10 miles (W. N. W.) from Wick; containing 1266 inhabitants. This place originally formed part of the parish of Bower, from which it was separated about the year 1638; it is situated nearly in the centre of the county, and is supposed to have derived its name, in the Danish language signifying "water," from its extensive lakes. The only events of historical importance connected with the parish are, the various incursions of the Danes, and the frequent hostilities between rival clans in its vicinity; and even of these, the memorials rest rather on tradition than on any well authenticated records. The parish is nearly ten miles in extreme length and seven miles in mean breadth, comprising about 38,400 acres; 5500 are arable and under cultivation, and the remainder, of which probably 5000 acres might be reclaimed and rendered profitable, consists of moorland pasture, moss, and waste. The surface is generally undulating, without attaining any considerable degree of elevation; and is intersected, especially in the southern portion, with numerous narrow glens, through which flow various small streams that have their sources in the moorlands. The river Wick has its commencement in the confluence of two rivulets issuing from the lakes, and which in their progress receive several tributary streams: on their union, nearly in the centre of the parish, the river thus formed flows eastward, and falls into the bay of Wick. Loch Watten, near the northern boundary of the parish, is a beautiful sheet of water, about three miles in length, nearly two miles in breadth, and about ten feet in average depth; and is surrounded on all sides by gently rising grounds in a state of rich cultivation. Loch Toftingall, near the southern boundary, is of nearly round form, about five miles in circumference, and having an average depth of eight feet; but being encircled by bleak and barren moors, it is greatly inferior in the beauty of its scenery to Loch Watten. Both these lakes abound with trout and eels, the former fish weighing from half a pound to five pounds, and the latter varying from three to four feet in length. There are numerous springs of excellent water, and in several places are some of which the water is strongly impregnated with iron; they are not very copious, but are all perennial.

The soil varies in different parts: in some there is a rich deep loam, alternated with clay and sand; in others, a stiff friable clay; while in the neighbourhood of the moors are large tracts of peat-moss. The crops are oats and bear, with turnips and potatoes, and the usual grasses. The system of husbandry on the small farms is in a backward state, but on most of the larger has been greatly improved: the principal farm-houses, also, are substantial and well arranged. The lands have been drained, and inclosed partly with dykes of stone, but chiefly with hedges of thorn, now in a thriving state; some of the commons have been divided and inclosed, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. Great attention is paid to the management of live-stock; and under the countenance of the landed proprietors, who give premiums for the best specimens, the sheep and cattle reared in the pastures have been much improved. The sheep are chiefly of the Leicestershire breed, and a cross between that and the Cheviot; and the cattle, of the native Highland breed, with a cross of the Teeswater, recently introduced. Since the facility afforded by steam navigation, great numbers of fat-cattle and sheep have been shipped to Leith, Newcastle, and London. There is now but little wood in the parish, though numbers of trees of large size are found imbedded in the peat-mosses, with the bark perfectly entire, at sixteen feet below the surface. At Scouthel are about ten acres of natural copse, consisting of birch, hazel, and ash; and at Watten is about an acre of plantation of fifteen years' growth, which, the land being well trenched and drained, is in a thriving state. The principal substrata are flag-stone and clayslate, of which the rocks are chiefly composed, with limestone and whinstone, which occur in some few parts; marl is found to a considerable extent in the bed of Loch Watten, and bog iron-ore is thinly scattered over the surface in several places, more especially in the dry moorlands. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4038. There are numerous substantial and handsome houses, formerly the residence of the principal landholders; some of them are now occupied by the tenants of the larger farms, and others are only the temporary resort of sportsmen during the shooting season.

There is no village in the parish, the inhabitants of which are all engaged in agricultural or pastoral pursuits. Fairs for sheep, cattle, and horses, and for hiring servants, and at all of which various kinds of merchandise are also exposed for sale, are annually held on the first Tuesday in May and third Tuesday in September, O. S., and the last Tuesdays in October and December. Large cattle-markets are held on the first Mondays in July, August, and September. At the bridge of Watten is a post-office under that of Wick, which has a daily delivery, and facility of communication is maintained by good turnpike-roads, of which about twenty miles intersect the parish in various directions; by roads kept in repair by statute labour; and bridges over the Wick and other streams. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Caithness and synod of Caithness and Sutherland. The minister's stipend is £192.17. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patron, Sir James Colquhoun, Bart. The church, a very ancient structure, in which were lately some allegorical paintings and other relics of antiquity, was substantially repaired in 1714, and contains about 800 sittings, all of which are free. At Halsery, in the south-west of the parish, a chapel was built by subscription in 1842, containing 350 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and a sum of money in lieu of a garden. A school is also supported by the Assembly. A parochial library was established in 1840, which now contains nearly 400 volumes, and is well supported by subscription. Dr. James Oswald, of Methven, bequeathed a sum of money for the poor of every parish in Caithness, from which this parish received £100, now augmented by donations to £300: the interest is annually divided. There are numerous remains of ancient Pictish forts, and in the heart of the moorlands are the ruins of a Druidical circle, beautifully situated in a hollow covered with turf; there are also vestiges of chapels, of which the burying-grounds are still remaining.

Watt's-Town

WATT'S-TOWN, a village, in the parish of New Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 400 inhabitants. This is one of numerous villages in this and the neighbouring parish of Old Monkland, which in some cases owe their origin, and in others their increase in extent and population, to the prosperity of the manufactures, and the working of the coal and iron mines of the district.

Weem

WEEM, a parish, in the county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W.) from Aberfeldy; containing, with the hamlets of Balnasuim, Caolvallock, Kirkton of Weem, Balwahanaid, Cragganester, Craggantoul, and Tombreck, and part of the quoad sacra parish of Glenlyon, 890 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have taken its name from the Gaelic word uamh, or uamha, signifying "a cave," a recess here of some kind having formerly afforded an asylum for persons in danger or distress, though no traces of it are now to be found. The parish is on the whole extensive, but is distributed into numerous and distant portions, and even those parts of it which are continuous are so penetrated by narrow and long stretched out tracts of other parishes, as to render it impossible to give any correct idea of its outline or dimensions. The most populous part of the parish, and that usually called Weem, is a small district on the northern bank of the Tay, bounded by the parishes of Logierait and Dull, and about one mile and a half in length. The distinct and detached portions are, several extensive farms in Glenlochay, a tract chiefly pastoral, and situated north-west of the village of Killin; the district of Auchmore, also chiefly pastoral, though containing a considerable portion of wood, and which is about two miles in length, extending for a short distance on the southern bank of the river Dochart, and afterwards along Loch Tay; the district of Crannich, stretching for two miles on the north side of Loch Tay, the property of the Marquess of Breadalbane, but formerly belonging to the family of Menzies; a continuous district in Glenlyon, several miles long, and generally called the Roros, as well as some detached farms; Newhall and Sticks, on the south side of the Tay, and between the villages of Kenmore and Aberfeldy; the ancient barony of Comrie, on the south of the river Lyon, near its junction with the Tay, likewise the property of the Marquess of Breadalbane, the ruins of whose ancient family castle stand on the bank of the river; a considerable part of Glenquaich, lying on both sides of the river in the glen, and which, though exceedingly stormy and desolate in winter, contains some of the most highly cultivated lands and most pleasing scenery in the whole county; and lastly, the portion called Murthly, on the south bank of the Tay, and about a mile east from Aberfeldy.

The parish, in nearly all its parts, exhibits a hilly and rugged surface; and the scenery is consequently highly diversified, comprehending, and harmoniously blending together, the interesting features of the picturesque and the imposing features of the romantic and sublime. The most lofty elevation in this part of the country is the mountain of Ben Lawers, the south side of which is in Crannich-Lochtayside, and the north side in Roro-Glenlyon; it is 4015 feet above the level of the sea, and the highest land in the county. The Rock of Weem, situated near the castle of Menzies, and rising about 600 feet from the grounds at its base, in some parts almost perpendicularly, is finely wooded, and is considered one of the most striking and magnificent objects in the county. It commands from its summit views of the castle and its rich scenery, with part of Loch Tay, and the lofty tops of Ben Lawers and Benmore, on the west, and Aberfeldy, the woody retreats of Moness, and the valley of Strathtay, skirted by several ranges of hills, on the east; the whole receiving an increased effect from the numerous windings of the river Tay. The chief lake connected with the parish is Loch Tay, into the west end of which, the river Dochart, rising on the borders of Argyllshire, and having received the waters of the Lochay, pours its augmented stream. Issuing from the east end, the river takes the name of Tay, a word supposed to be derived from the Gaelic teth, signifying "hot or warm," in reference to the well known temperature of the river and loch, neither of which ever freezes.

The soil is exceedingly various; in many places, light and gravelly, especially on the higher grounds. Much of it, however, is capable of producing good crops of wheat or any other grain, were it not for the floodings of the Tay, which has not yet been secured by proper embankments, the adjacent lands being distributed among many proprietors. About 1647 acres are supposed to be in cultivation, in some parts under the four or five shift system of cropping; and there are 300 acres in grass, which were once in tillage. Ploughing-matches formerly took place, at which prizes were adjudged by the late Sir Neil Menzies, a principal heritor; these matches acted with great effect in producing many persons skilful in this branch of husbandry, and much encouragement has also been afforded to agricultural improvement in general by the Athol Club, who hold their meetings every third year in the village of Weem. The cattle are chiefly the West Highland breed; and the sheep, which are very numerous, from 3000 to 4000 being kept in Glenlochay alone, are mostly of the black-faced kind. Sir Robert Menzies, of Menzies, and the Marquess of Breadalbane, hold nearly all the lands; the rent of the arable portion varies from 15s. to £2. 10. per acre, and the usual run of leases is fifteen years. The wood covers between 700 and 800 acres, and of these 190 are in the part called the Rock of Weem; the trees are mostly larch and oak, but ash, elm, and beech are also planted, and there are some native Scotch fir, birch, hazel, and mountain-ash. The rateable annual value of Weem is £4283.

Castle Menzies, to which considerable additions have recently been made, is a fine picturesque structure, the ancient seat of the Menzies family, whose ancestor is supposed to have come over with William the Conqueror, and who are now represented by Sir R. Menzies, Bart. The present castle was built in 1571, and from its situation on a beautiful lawn at the foot of the rock of Weem, in the midst of large trees of oak, plane, and chesnut, is an interesting and conspicuous object in the scenery. The house of Auchmore, some time since the residence of the Marquess of Breadalbane, was formerly of small dimensions; but the ancient portion has been modernised and greatly enlarged. It stands in an extensive park, separated on the west from the parish of Killin by a stream with well-wooded banks, and washed on the north and north-west by the Dochart, the Dochart and Lochay united, and Loch Tay. The village is very small, the parish being entirely pastoral and agricultural: the Gaelic language is generally spoken. This is a polling-place for elections; the Commissioners of Supply hold their statutory road and other meetings here, and the justices of the peace have monthly meetings for small-debt cases, and occasionally assemble for excise business. The presbytery of Weem, consisting at the present time of nine incumbencies, namely, six original and three government churches, was detached from the presbytery of Dunkeld, and erected by an act of the General Assembly, May 24, 1836, into a separate presbytery, appointed to meet in this place. There is a branch post daily through the village from Aberfeldy, conveyed by a four-wheeled carriage fitted up for passengers also: turnpike-roads run through the Weem, Murthly, Crannich, Newhall, and Sticks divisions, and good roads traverse most of the other parts. A bridge crosses the Lochay near Killin; and there is a superior one of five arches over the Tay, between Aberfeldy and the village of Weem, forming a communication between the northern and southern districts. It was finished in the year 1733, under the direction of General Wade, and is situated not far from the spot where Sir John Cope's army is said to have encamped in 1745. The produce of the parish is sent for sale chiefly to Perth, whence coal is procured, though at considerable expense, and used by the higher class; the remainder of the people burn wood and peat, the latter of which is of very inferior quality. Two annual fairs, now almost disused, are held in the village for general traffic.

The parish is in the synod of Perth and Stirling, and under the patronage of Sir R. Menzies: the minister's stipend is £150, with a manse and a glebe of five acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church was built in 1835, and contains 561 sittings, all free. Part of this parish is annexed for ecclesiastical purposes to the district church of Glenlyon, in the parish of Fortingal, and other parts are connected with the mission chapels of Lawers and Amulrie; the distance of the inhabitants, in some places amounting to thirty miles, rendering their attendance at the parish church next to impossible. The parochial school affords instruction in geography, mathematics, and Greek and Latin, in addition to the ordinary branches; the master has a stipend of £34. 4., with a house, and £10 fees. A bequest of £8 per annum by Mr. Gregory, of London, is appropriated to the instruction of the poorer scholars. There are also three schools, where the instruction is the same, partly endowed by the Rev. Archibald Campbell, a former incumbent, who died in 1740; each master receives £5. 11. per annum. The antiquities comprise two upright crosses, in the district of Newhall, supposed to have formed part of the sides of a gateway to an ancient religious edifice; also the east end of the old parish church, containing a curiously sculptured monument, with a Latin inscription, to the memory of Sir Alexander Menzies, the thirteenth of the family, and his wife, Marjory Campbell.

Weesdale

WEESDALE, county of Shetland.—See Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale.

Weir, Bridge Of

WEIR, BRIDGE OF, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Houston and Killallan, and partly in the parish of Kilbarchan, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 1571 inhabitants, of whom 1432 are in the village, 7 miles (W. by N.) from Paisley. This thriving village stands on the river Gryfe, by which it is divided into two nearly equal parts; and is indebted for its prosperity to the cotton manufacture extensively carried on in the parishes of which it forms a portion. It is neatly built, and pleasantly situated within a mile of Houston, and about two miles to the north-west of Kilbarchan. The manufacture was established here about the year 1790, since which time it has been gradually increasing in extent and importance, there being now five large cottonmills, in which about 500 of the population are constantly employed, mostly for the houses of Paisley and Glasgow. The articles manufactured are chiefly of the finer sort; and the mills, which are driven by the river Gryfe, are fitted up with machinery on the best principles. A tannery occupies a considerable number of persons; the several handicraft trades requisite for the various works, and for the supply of the neighbourhood, are carried on; and there are shops in the village for the sale of groceries and other goods. The nearest markettown is Paisley; but Johnstone, within four miles, is a large and thriving town. The village contains a branch post-office which has a regular delivery; and facility of communication is afforded by good turnpikeroads which pass through the parish, by the Glasgow and Ayr railway, and by boats daily from Johnstone to Paisley and Glasgow. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister is appointed by the congregation, and now derives his stipend from the general Sustentation fund of the Free Church; the church, erected in 1826, is a plain structure, and till 1839 was a place of worship for some members of the United Secession, who at that time were received into connexion with the Established Church. In 1843 the building passed into the possession of the Free Church body. A day and evening school in the village, which affords instruction to about 200 pupils, is supported partly by endowment, and partly by the fees.

Well-Park

WELL-PARK, lately a quoad sacra parish, chiefly in St. Mungo's parish, city of Glasgow, but partly in the parish of Barony, suburbs of the city, county of Lanark; containing 2904 inhabitants.—See Glasgow.

Wemyss

WEMYSS, a parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing, with the burgh of West Wemyss, and the villages of Buckhaven, East and West Coaltown, Methill, Kirkland, and East Wemyss, 5403 inhabitants, of whom 859 are in the village of East Wemyss, 3 miles (N. E.) from Dysart, and 947 in the burgh of West Wemyss, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Dysart, and 4 (N. E.) from Kirkcaldy. This place appears to have derived its name, which in the Gaelic language signifies "a cave," from the number of caverns in the rocks that form its boundary towards the coast. It extends about six miles in length, and about one and a half in average breadth, comprehending an area of nearly nine square miles; it is washed on the southeast by the Frith of Forth, and comprises 5000 acres, of which 3556 are arable, 600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface is irregularly raised; the sea-shore is strongly defended by abrupt rocks stretching boldly into the Frith, and the land rises gradually towards the northern and western portions of the parish. The scenery is richly ornamented with thriving plantations of modern date, and with some natural woods in which are many ancient trees of stately and majestic growth. The soil, also, is generally fertile, and the system of husbandry improved; but the parish is more of a manufacturing than of an agricultural character. The substratum forms part of the great coal formation of the district, and consists also of sandstone, clay-slate, and argillaceous ironstone, with boulders of green or whin stone. Numerous fossils are found in the shale above the seams of coal, including some very fine specimens of forest-trees. The coal is extensively wrought; four pits have been opened, and are still in operation. The Wemyss coal-works are on the principal seam, which is nine feet in thickness, and has been wrought to a depth of 300 feet below the level of the sea; the annual produce is about 40,000 tons, and several powerful steam-engines have been erected for draining the water, and expediting the working of the mines, in which more than 200 persons are employed. Some pits for the parrot or gas coal are worked without the assistance of machinery, and employ twenty men; and the two other coal-works, the produce of which is principally for the supply of the neighbourhood, employ together about eighty persons. The ironstone has also been wrought with success, and affords occupation to about forty persons; and a vein of yellow ochre has recently been discovered, and brought under operation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7802.

The weaving of linen employs a great portion of the population, and works have been established at Kirkland, Buckhaven, and other places, the particulars of which are given under their respective heads in other parts of the work. A very extensive salt-manufacture was once carried on at Methill, and at West Wemyss, which, since the removal of the duty, has been altogether discontinued at the former place, and at the latter very greatly diminished; the whole quantity made at both places was formerly 50,000 bushels annually. The quantity now made at the latter is about 6000 bushels, of the average value of £500; the salt is of excellent quality, and finds a ready sale in the neighbouring markets. A fishery, also, is carried on at Buckhaven, which has long been celebrated as one of the most important fishing-stations on this coast; and at West Wemyss, a very convenient harbour has been constructed for the accommodation of the vessels employed in the coal-trade. The sole proprietor of the parish is Captain James Erskine Wemyss, R.N., whose magnificent mansion, Castle Wemyss, is situated near the burgh of West Wemyss, on the summit of a cliff rising abruptly from the rocky shore of the Frith, and commanding an interesting and extensive view of the sea, and the adjacent country, which abounds with picturesque and romantic scenery. Near it is the residence of the agent for the estate, beautifully situated among the woods and plantations on the demesne surrounding the castle. The village of West Wemyss, which stands pleasantly on the sea-shore, about a mile distant from East Wemyss, is a burgh of barony under the government of two bailies, a treasurer, and council; it is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the coal-trade and the manufacture of salt. A subscription library has been established, which is well supported, and contains a good collection of volumes; and a savings' bank has also been opened. The village of East Wemyss is likewise situated on the coast, and is principally inhabited by persons engaged in the weaving of linen, for which it has been long distinguished. There are four extensive factories established here, which, including one at Buckhaven, consume nearly 250,000 spindles of yarn: the chief articles at present manufactured are, ducks, dowlas, and sheeting. The annual produce on the average is more than 1,200,000 yards, which are partly used for home consumption, and the remainder exported; and the amount of wages paid annually to weavers and winders exceeds £10,000. The church and the parochial school are situated in this village: the former, a venerable and ancient structure, forms an interesting feature in the scenery. A subscription library has been established for more than thirty years; it contains about 300 volumes, and is well supported. A savings' bank has also been long established, in which the deposits amount to above £2000. A post-office has been opened in the parish; and facility of intercourse with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads kept in repair by statute labour, and by a turnpike-road from Kirkcaldy by Kennoway to Cupar, which passes through the northern part of the parish.

Wemyss is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, synod of Fife, and patronage of the Town-council of Edinburgh: the minister's stipend is £253. 11.3., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £25 per annum. The church, a cruciform structure, is in the early English style of architecture, displaying some interesting details, and is adapted for a congregation of 1000 persons. A church was recently erected in the village of Methill; it is a handsome edifice of stone, raised at an expense of £1030, and is adapted for 853 persons. There are also places of worship at East and West Wemyss for members of the Free Church, at Buckhaven for the United Associate Synod, and near Methill for the United Christian Congregation. A catechist for the instruction of the colliers and the persons engaged in the salt-works in the parish, is appointed by the family of Wemyss, according to a bequest of the Earl of Cromarty, who, in honour of the memory of Margaret, Countess of Wemyss, and afterwards of Cromarty, appropriated a sum of money from which the catechist derives a salary of £50 per annum. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with £25 fees, a house, and a garden, for the deficiency of which last he has an equivalent of £1. 15. 7. There is also a school in Kirkland, the master of which receives, in addition to the fees, a salary of £30 per annum, paid by Messrs. Neilson and Company, proprietors of the linen manufactory of that place. The late Mr. Archibald Cook, of Kirkcaldy, a native of this parish, bequeathed property to a considerable amount, which, after the decease of his widow, is to be vested in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, in trust for the education of children of Wemyss. There are also Sabbath schools, the children attending which are supplied with books. A society called the Generous Society was established in 1793, for the relief of sick and indigent members; its funds are ample and well administered, and it has contributed greatly to diminish the number on the poor's list. There are some remains of chapels at Methill and near West Wemyss. To the east of East Wemyss are the ruins of an ancient castle said to have been built by Macduff, created Earl of Fife by Malcolm, King of Scotland, about the year 1061; they consist chiefly of two square towers, and portions of the walls of the fortress, and are situated on an eminence overlooking the Frith. Sir Michael Wemyss, of this place, was sent, in conjunction with Sir Michael Scott, of Balweary, as ambassador, on the decease of Alexander III. in 1290, to Norway, to escort Margaret, his grand-daughter, and heiress to the Scottish crown, on her return to Scotland: the princess died at Orkney, on her passage. In Castle Wemyss is still preserved a silver basin which was presented by the King of Norway to Sir Michael Wemyss on that occasion. The Earl of Wemyss and March takes the former of these titles from this parish.

West Bridgend.

WEST BRIDGEND.—See Bridgend, West.—And all places having a similar distinguishing prefix, will be found under the proper name.

Westbarns

WESTBARNS, a village, in the parish of Dunbar, county of Haddington, 2 miles (W. by S.) from the town of Dunbar; containing 170 inhabitants. This village is situated on the west side of Belhaven bay, and on the road from Dunbar to Haddington; it is called Westbarns in contradistinction to Eastbarns, a less considerable village also on the coast, and distant from it about five miles. The principal support of the place was formerly a large distillery employing a number of hands, and a flax-mill erected in 1792; but the expectations of the proprietors not having been realized, both have been relinquished. The small stream of the Beil, flowing through the parish for about three miles, passes at the village into the bay of Belhaven.

Westbridge

WESTBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Kinghorn, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing 568 inhabitants.—See Invertiel.

Westerkirk

WESTERKIRK, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 6 miles (N. W.) from Langholm; containing 638 inhabitants. This place is by some writers supposed to have derived its name, originally Wester Ker or Wester Caer, from its situation to the west of an ancient fortress on the river Megget, near its influx into the Esk; and by others, from its relative position to other churches in Eskdale, of which district a portion was once included within the limits of this parish. The manor, during the 12th and 13th centuries, formed part of the possessions of the family of Soulis, and on the forfeiture of John de Soulis was, together with the advowson of the church, granted by Robert I. to the abbey of Melrose, to which it continued to be annexed till the Dissolution. Towards the close of the 14th century a chapel was founded here by Adam de Glendonyng, who endowed it for the support of a chaplain to sing masses for the repose of the souls of James, Earl of Douglas, and his brother-in-law, Sir James Simon, of Glendonyng, who had fallen in the battle of Otterburn. A portion of the parish subsequently became the property of the Johnstone family, of whom Sir James Johnstone, Bart., in 1760, discovered on the lands of Glendinning a rich mine of antimony, which in 1793 was brought into operation, producing on an average about 100 tons of regulus of antimony annually. A village called Jamestown was built on the Megget, for the residence of the miners, by Sir James Johnstone, in which were a smelting-house and all the requisite apparatus for working the mine, with a schoolroom for the children of the workmen; and roads were formed for connecting the village with the chief lines of conveyance through the county. The produce of the mines on an average made an annual return of £8400; but towards the close of the century, from what cause has not been recorded, the operations were discontinued. The village, being abandoned, fell rapidly into decay; and the only remains of it are the school, which is still frequented in winter by a few children from the neighbourhood.

The parish is bounded on the south for nearly two miles by the river Black Esk, which separates it from the parish of Eskdalemuir; and is almost ten miles in length and from five to six miles in breadth, comprising about 35,000 acres, of which barely 2000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hillpasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is mountainous and hilly, with the exception of the narrow valley of the Esk; but though some of the hills are heathy and barren, the far greater number are covered with verdure affording good pasturage for cattle and sheep. The Black Esk, after forming for part of its course the boundary of the parish, flows into the White Esk at a place called the King's Pool; and this confluence forms the river Esk, which winds through the parish for seven miles towards the south-east, and eventually falls into the Solway Frith. The rivers Megget and Stennis have their sources in a ridge of mountains separating the counties of Dumfries and Roxburgh. The former takes a southern course; the latter flows towards the south-west; and after a progress of six miles the two unite at a place called Crooks, and then flow together into the Esk, which receives also the waters of numerous rivulets that descend from the hills and water the parish in various directions. The Esk formerly abounded with salmon, which are still found in it in moderate numbers, especially after floods; and salmon, sea-trout, and the common burn-trout are taken in some of the other streams, which afford excellent sport to the angler, and are much frequented. The moors afford game of every kind: grouse, partridges, and pheasants are very plentiful; snipes, curlew, lapwing, and plover frequent the hills; and woodcocks, and the various species of common birds, are found in the woods on the Westerhall estate.

The soil, on the low grounds along the banks of the Esk, is chiefly a light loam of great fertility; upon the rising grounds, a deep strong loam intermixed with stones; and the summits of many of the hills present extensive tracts of moss. The principal crops are, wheat, barley, and oats, of which, however, not more is produced than is sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants. There is nothing peculiar in the agriculture of the parish, which is, indeed, chiefly of a pastoral character, a very small proportion of the land being in cultivation; but the system of husbandry has been greatly improved under the encouragement afforded by the landed proprietors, and all the more recent discoveries are in general operation. The cattle are of the pure Galloway breed, which is found to thrive well upon all the pastures; many of them attain a large growth, and find a ready sale at high prices in the various markets. The sheep, of which more than 18,000 are reared, are exclusively of the Cheviot breed, and much attention is paid to their improvement; wool and sheep are, in fact, the principal articles exported, and form the chief dependence of the farmers. There are considerable remains of natural timber along the banks of the Esk, and on the demesne of Westerhall, consisting of oak, ash, elm, plane, horse-chesnut, and other forest-trees, which have attained to a luxuriant growth; and the plantations of recent date are well managed and in a thriving state. The rocks generally are greywacke and greywacke-slate, and secondary trap is found on the summits of the higher hills. Shell-marl occurs on the lands of Megdale, belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch, who is the principal proprietor of the parish; but the pit being on the declivity of a hill, is difficult of access, and consequently but little is used for manure. The only mineral ever discovered in the parish was the antimony previously noticed. The rateable annual value of Westerkirk is £4409. Westerhall, the seat of the late Sir George Frederick Johnstone, Bart., is an ancient mansion on the eastern bank of the river Esk, beautifully seated in a demesne embellished with ancient timber and thriving modern plantations. Burnfoot and Hopesrigg are also handsome houses pleasantly situated. Facility of communication with Langholm, the nearest market-town, is afforded by good roads kept in excellent repair, which traverse the parish in various directions, and of which many were constructed by Sir James Johnstone, to facilitate access to the mine formerly in operation. Of the good bridges across the numerous streams, one over the Esk is a substantial structure of three arches.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Langholm and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £153.4.7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The church, erected in 1778, is a neat plain structure, situated nearly in the centre of the parish; it is in good repair, and contains 700 sittings. In the churchyard, which has a fine avenue of trees, is the mausoleum of the Johnstone family, a handsome structure of stone, of circular form, crowned with a graceful dome supported on fluted columns of the Doric order, and embellished with a richly-sculptured frieze. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction to about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £20 annually. The school in the deserted village of Jamestown is occasionally opened. A parochial library was established in 1795, and now contains a large collection of volumes, of which many were presented by the late Thomas Telford, Esq., civil engineer, a native of this parish, who also bequeathed £1000 to the minister and Kirk Session, to appropriate the interest to the purchase of books for its increase. A friendly society was established in 1789, which has now a fund of £300 for the relief of the sick. On a rising ground between the rivers Esk and Megget are several upright stones, supposed to have formed part of a Druidical circle; there are also, on the hills in the north-west of the parish, some vestiges of camps apparently connected with the Roman station in Eskdalemuir. On the farm of Enzieholm are some remains of a triangular fort of great antiquity; and at Glendinning and Westerhall are ruins of castles.

Westhouses

WESTHOUSES, a village, in the parish of Newbattle, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (S. E.) from the village of Newbattle; containing 133 inhabitants. This small place lies nearly in the centre of the parish; its population consists chiefly of colliers.

Westmuir

WESTMUIR, a village, in that part of the parish of Kirriemuir which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Logie, county of Forfar; containing 209 inhabitants.

Westmuir

WESTMUIR, a village, in the late ecclesiastical district of Shettleston, within the jurisdiction of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark. This place is also called Shettleston, which see.

Westown

WESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Errol, county of Perth, 3½ miles from the village of Errol; containing 72 inhabitants. At this place are the picturesque ruins of an ancient church, which in several old documents is referred to under the designation of the "Church of the Blessed Virgin of Inchmartin," and in which, till within the last fifty or sixty years, the minister of the parish used on every alternate Sabbath to perform divine service. The ruins are situated in a sequestered spot comprising much finely-varied scenery, and display some highly-interesting details of early English architecture.

Westquarter

WESTQUARTER, a village, in the parish of Glasford, county of Lanark, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Strathaven; containing 481 inhabitants. This village, which takes its name from its situation in the western portion of the parish, is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the manufactories of the adjacent district. Westquarter House is a handsome mansion; and the village contains the parish church, the parochial school, and a Sabbath school. There are also one male and one female friendly society, and a temperance society, which are well supported, and patronized by the heritors as productive of benefit to the parish. Near the village are three quarries of freestone, in which several of the labouring poor find employment.

Westry

WESTRAY, a parish, in the county of Orkney, 19 miles (N.) from Kirkwall; containing 1791 inhabitants. This parish, which includes the islands of Westray and Papa-Westray, is supposed to have derived its name from its relative position with respect to those of the Orkney Islands which are situated to the north of Pomona or the Mainland. It is undistinguished by any event of historical importance, except the erection of a strong castle by some Scandinavian chieftain. This castle, which was never fully completed, has, though without sufficient authority, been traditionally referred to a later period; and is said to have been built for the reception of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her husband Bothwell, after their marriage. From the plan of its structure, however, the castle has every appearance of a feudal fortress; it is evidently of remote antiquity, and was calculated, not only for a magnificent baronial residence, but to be an almost impregnable fortress. The building is of quadrangular form, inclosing an area into which is an entrance by an arched gateway of stone, richly ornamented; and within the court-yard is a similar entrance leading to the principal hall, a room sixty-two feet long and twenty-four feet wide, with a finely-groined roof twenty feet high. The walls are of massive thickness, and in the side wall is a narrow flight of stone steps conducting to the upper apartments. The remains, together with the adjoining lands, are the property of John Balfour, Esq., of Trenaby.

The island of Westray is bounded on the south by the Frith of that name, which separates it from the islands of Rousay and Eagleshay; on the west by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by a sound dividing it from the isles of Pharay and Eday; and on the north and east by a sound from three to four miles in breadth, which separates it from the island of Papa-Westray. The coast is indented with numerous bays, of which the principal are those of Tookquoy, Pierowall, Noop, and Rapness. The bay of Tookquoy, on the south-east, is about four miles broad between the two chief headlands, and penetrates into the island for nearly five miles; the bed is sandy, affording good anchorage for small vessels, but from its exposure to gales from the south and south-west, it forms a very insecure roadstead. The bay of Pierowall is only three-quarters of a mile wide at the entrance, but within constitutes a spacious circular basin, sheltered from all winds, and accessible to vessels of 200 tons. The bay of Noop, to the north of the island, is exposed to the full force of the Atlantic, and rendered still more dangerous from its intersection by a reef of rocks called the Rackwick. The bay of Rapness, on the south, is equally unshelterd, affording little security for vessels in rough weather. The headlands are bold and precipitous, and the coast generally rugged and abrupt, and, on the west, for four miles washed by the Atlantic, which has worn the rocks into numerous caverns, in some of which, in tempestuous weather, the water is forced through natural crevices to a considerable height. The surface is varied; in the centre of the island it is low and flat, but to the north and north-east the land rises abruptly to nearly 150 feet above the level of the sea. In the western portion, also, is a range of hills called respectively Skea, Fitty, and Gallo, extending for almost four miles from south to north: of these the highest, which is Fitty, has an elevation of more than 650 feet. The surface of Papa-Westray rises likewise to a good height, forming a ridge, the sides of which slope gradually to the sea-shore. The northern extremity of the ridge terminates in a bold and lofty headland called the Mull of Papa, in which is a cavern of singular formation, spreading into a spacious circular area, whereof the roof is seventy feet in height; the entrance is about fifty feet in width, and the floor, which has a gentle declivity, is perfectly smooth and flat.

The soil of the parish is in some parts sandy, and in others a clay, loam, and gravel; the whole number of acres is estimated at 25,600, of which no more than 3000 are arable, and the remainder pasture and undivided common. The principal crops are oats and bear, with some potatoes and turnips; but little improvement has taken place in husbandry, except on the lands of the chief proprietors; and the farm houses and offices are still of a very inferior order. The breeds of cattle and sheep are both of the smaller kinds; and though some attempts have been made to introduce those of larger growth, they have always been found to degenerate in a short time. There is no timber of any kind in the parish, and every endeavour to cultivate the growth of trees has proved abortive, though in the mosses numerous trunks of trees have been found imbedded. The substratum is chiefly limestone and trap, with blue and grey flagstone; the latter is very abundant, and several quarries have been wrought for roofing. Manganese has been also found, but not wrought. The scenery, from the want of wood, is rather of dreary than of pleasing character. There are, indeed, several lakes in the parish, of which Swartmill and Tookquoy in the south, and Saintear and Burness in the north, are the most considerable; but they are not more than half a mile in breadth. Those of Burness and Saintear, however, abound with trout; and eels are found in Swartmill. There is also a fine lake which extends nearly across Papa-Westray, and in which is a small island with the ruins of a chapel dedicated to St. Tredwall. Holland, the seat of George Traill, Esq., is a handsome mansion; and there are others belonging to landed proprietors. The village of Pierowall, consisting of about twelve scattered houses, is pleasantly situated at the head of the bay of that name, and is principally inhabited by fishermen. The female part of the population of the parish are engaged in the manufacture of straw-plat, which is pursued extensively, affording employment to about 200 persons. The fishery carried on here is chiefly that of cod, lobsters, haddocks, and dog-fish; and most of the fishermen are also engaged in the herring-fishery during the season. There are about seven or eight sloops, of from twelve to thirty-five tons' burthen, engaged in the cod, and thirty in the herring, fishery; and the annual proceeds of all the fisheries is estimated at £1000.

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of North Isles and synod of Orkney. The minister's stipend is £208. 6. 8., including an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum: patron, the Earl of Zetland. There are two churches in Westray, and one in Papa-Westray, all neat buildings; the North church contains 900 sittings, the East church 700, and Papa-Westray 220 sittings. Divine service is performed at each, in rotation, every third Sunday. There are also places of worship for members of the United Secession and Baptists. The parochial school, in Westray, is well attended; the master has a salary of £28, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £3 per annum. A school in Papa-Westray is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who pay the master a salary of £16. 10.; and there are various other schools supported by the fees. An itinerating library was instituted by Thomas Balfour, Esq., which makes the circuit of the North Isles, remaining in each for one year. There are several remains of ancient chapels, of which one, called Cross Kirk, is on the south-west side of Westray, close to the sea; and on the island of Papa-Westray is another, called the Kirk of How, beautifully situated on a rising ground, and surrounded by a cemetery inclosed with a stone wall. In two fields, one on the north and the other on the south of Westray, are numerous graves which have been discovered by the removal of the sandy surface in strong gales; several have been opened, and found to contain skeletons, with some arms, chiefly swords, in a very decayed state. Doubtless, these were bodies of men slain in some sanguinary battle that took place here. Tumuli are scattered through the parish, in one of which were found an urn, a drinking cup, a quern, and some domestic utensils; and there are also several Druidical remains, and Picts' houses.

Westruther

WESTRUTHER, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Lauder; containing 829 inhabitants. This place was perhaps originally called Wolfstruther, from the number of wolves with which it was infested, but subsequently, on their disappearance, was styled Westruther, to distinguish it from an extensive morass to the east of it, now called Dogden Moss. The term Struther signifies "a marsh." The lands anciently formed part of the parish of Home, from which they were separated at the time of the Reformation, and annexed to the parish of Gordon; and owing to the distance of the church of Gordon, the remains of an old chapel in the village of Bassendean were fitted up as a place of public worship for the inhabitants. This place of worship, however, being eventually found inconvenient for the population of the northern parts of Westruther, a church was erected in the village of Westruther in 1649; and the adjacent lands being severed from Gordon, were erected into an independent parish by act of the General Assembly. A battle is said to have taken place on the northern heights of the parish between the Anglo-Saxons and the Scots, who had previously been engaged in frequent wars. On this occasion, a challenge given by one of the Saxon chieftains to decide the contest by single combat, was accepted by Edgar, the only son of an aged Scottish warrior, and whose twin-brother had been carried off captive in his infancy by the Saxons in a former battle. The Saxon chieftain was killed, and Edgar himself severely wounded. After the combat, an aged Saxon, lamenting the death of the chieftain, whom he eulogised as the bravest of the Edgars, and bewailed as his adopted son, betrayed the secret of his Scottish birth; and Edgar, frantic with remorse, tore the bandages from his wounds, and expired on the corpse of his long-lost brother. Two large piles of stones, now called the Twinlaw Cairns, were raised by the soldiers of both armies to commemorate this melancholy event, for which purpose, suspending all hostilities, and ranging themselves in one continued line, they passed the stones from the brook at the base of the acclivity, from hand to hand, to the summit, till the monuments of their fallen and lamented leaders were completed.

The parish is of elliptical form; nearly seven miles in extreme length from north to south, and from three to five miles in breadth from east to west; comprising about 13,000 acres, of which 11,000 are arable, 850 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland, moss, and waste. The surface is varied, and terminates towards the north in one continuous ridge of hills of bleak and barren appearance, attaining an elevation of 1260 feet above the level of the sea, and commanding extensive prospects over the fertile vales of Merse and Teviotdale, which abound with picturesque and romantic scenery. Towards the south, the lands by a gradual descent expand into a spacious and undulating valley, which intersects the parish from east to west throughout its whole breadth, but, though of wavy appearance, without exhibiting any ground that deserves the name of a hill. The only stream of importance is the Blackadder, which has its source near Wedderlie, in this parish, through which it flows for very nearly three miles in a winding course: afterwards, taking a south-eastern direction, and forming a boundary between the parish and Greenlaw, it falls into the Whiteadder at Allanton. Several rivulets also intersect the grounds in various directions, constituting tributaries to the Leader and the Tweed: of these, the Eden, celebrated for the size and quality of its trout, affords excellent amusement to the anglers whom it attracts from all parts of the circumjacent country. Numerous perennial springs afford an ample supply of pure water; and on Harelaw moor is a chalybeate spring which, from the efficacy of its water in scorbutic complaints, was formerly frequented by numbers of invalids, who took lodgings in the neighbourhood, but which has of late years fallen into neglect.

The soil is generally light, resting on a rocky or gravelly subsoil; in the higher lands, a deep tenacious clay well adapted for wheat; and in some other parts, a black sandy loam. The crops include oats, barley, a little wheat, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. The husbandry is greatly improved; the lands are well drained, and inclosed with hedges of thorn and dykes of stone: and considerable breadths of waste land have been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation. The farms, which were formerly of very small extent, have been much enlarged; the farm houses generally are now substantial, and the offices also well built. Lime, though brought from a distance of twenty miles, is liberally used for the improvement of the lands, and bonedust has been likewise introduced; threshing-mills have been erected on all the larger farms; and under the encouragement afforded by the proprietors, every recent alteration in the construction of agricultural implements has been adopted. The greatest attention is paid to the management of live-stock. The cattle, which are of various breeds, have been much improved by a cross with Teeswater bulls; the sheep are of the Cheviot, Leicestershire, and black-faced breeds; and of all, the number has been for the last twenty years gradually increasing. The produce of the parish, both in grain and cattle, is sent to the market of Dalkeith. Forests of natural wood formerly overspread nearly the whole of the surface, and in the mosses are still found numerous trunks of trees; but the only portion of the woods now remaining is on the lands of Flass, where are some large trees of very ancient growth. The plantations originally formed on the lands of Spottiswoode, by the grandfather of the present proprietor, have been greatly extended, and the whole are generally in a thriving state; they consist of larch, which seems best adapted to the soil, and of firs, interspersed with all the various kinds of forest-trees. At Bruntaburn, one of the highest and most exposed situations on the brow of Lammermoor, and where it was thought no timber would grow, are numerous trees of luxuriant growth. The principal substrata are, greywacke, sandstone, and slate. Near Hounslow, freestone of a reddish tinge, and of good quality for building, is quarried; and from the quarry were taken the materials for the houses of that village, and for part of the new mansion of Spottiswoode. A slate-quarry was formerly wrought at Bruntaburn; but the quality of the slate being very inferior, the works were soon abandoned. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5339.

Spottiswoode House, the seat of John Spottiswoode, Esq., is a stately and elegant edifice in the old English style of architecture, with a tower in the centre, and is surrounded by a handsome terrace 300 yards in length; it is crowned by an open balustrade ornamented with pedestals and vases. The house contains a good suite of rooms, and includes the old family mansion, which has been restored, and incorporated into the present structure. Bassendean, the seat of Colonel Home, is an ancient mansion recently modernised, and is finely situated in a demesne tastefully laid out, and embellished with thriving plantations. Wedderlie, the property of Lord Blantyre, is also an ancient mansion, which has been suffered to fall into neglect, and is seldom inhabited by the family, who reside here only for a few weeks during the shooting season. The village of Wedderlie has been gradually decreasing for many years, and is now extinct; the only villages in the parish are the small ones of Hounslow and Westruther. Facility of communication is maintained by good turnpike-roads, which intersect the parish for nearly fifteen miles, and of which the principal are those from Edinburgh to Kelso and to Dunse, and the road to London through Coldstream. There are good bridges over the various streams.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lauder and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which about one-third is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum: patron, the Crown. The old church, erected on the separation of the parish from that of Gordon in 1649, has, after undergoing several alterations and repairs, been abandoned; and a new church, well adapted to the accommodation of the people, has been erected: it was opened in 1840. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is attended by about 80 children; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 3., with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 annually. The school-house, which is spacious and well suited to the purpose, is situated in the village of Westruther. A library of standard works, purchased by means of subscriptions, is open to the parishioners; and a savings' bank has been established, in which are deposits to the amount of £1300. There are still some remains of the chapel at Bassendean, used as a burying-place by the family there. Of the chapel at Wedderlie, the only portion left is a vault into which, at the Reformation, the monks removed their most valuable effects, and which just serves to mark out the site. The last vestiges of the chapel of Spottiswoode, founded in the reign of David II., have disappeared; and the only relic of it is the baptismal font, which has been preserved. There are some traces of an ancient road called Harits dyke, which extended from Berwick through the county, and passed by the village of Westruther; and there are also remaining, but in a dilapidated state, the walls of a castellated building called Evelaw, which was one of the border fortresses. Several stone coffins, containing skeletons in good preservation, have been discovered by the plough on lands that have been for ages in pasture; they were composed of large broad stones, and were arranged with the greatest regularity. The situation of these graves, together with the circumstance of many similar relics having been found in the adjoining parish of Lauder, appears to strengthen the tradition, already referred to, that a battle occurred in the northern part of Westruther.

Whalsay

WHALSAY, an island, forming part of the parish of Nesting, Lunnasting, and Whalsay, in the county of Shetland; and containing 628 inhabitants. This island is situated to the eastward of the Mainland, on which are Lunnasting and Nesting, the other portions of the parish; and is distant from it between two and three miles, the channel between being interspersed with several small isles. It is about six miles in length and three in breadth; is much indented; has a rocky shore; and the land is of the usual bleak and hilly nature of this part of Shetland, though considered on the whole as tolerably fertile. The culture of the ground, however, is a subordinate occupation, the inhabitants, for the most part, being engaged in fishing, and drawing their chief subsistence from this pursuit. A large and very handsome mansion has lately been erected on the island, by Mr. Bruce, of Simbister, at the estimated cost of £20,000; it is built of fine freestone imported across the sound of Whalsay; but the edifice is considered as ill-placed, and of too expensive a description for an island so destitute of interest, and of inducements to reside upon it. One of three churches in the parish is situated here; it is a very plain structure, built in 1768, and since then new-roofed; and is visited by the minister of Nesting eleven times within the year. The island is distant from Lerwick fourteen miles.

Whines

WHINES, a hamlet, in the parish of Ruthven, county of Forfar, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Ruthven church; containing 19 inhabitants. This small place lies in the south-eastern extremity of the parish, and on the east side of the river Isla.

Whinnie-Fauld

WHINNIE-FAULD, a village, in the parish of Cruden, district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (S. by E.) from the parish church; containing 107 inhabitants. This place, also called Finnyfold, is one of several small fishing-villages on the coast, within the parish. The fish taken here are the white-fish common in this quarter, but near the neighbouring village of Ward is also a salmon-fishery.

Whins of Milton

WHINS of MILTON, a village, in the parish of St. Ninian's, county of Stirling, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Stirling; containing 528 inhabitants. This is now a considerable village, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, close to the Bannock burn, and on the high road from St. Ninian's to Denny. Its vicinity is remarkable as the scene of the murder of James III., the particulars of which treacherous deed are shortly these. During the well-known skirmish between the king and his insurgent nobility at Sauchie, about one mile distant, his Majesty, anticipating his defeat, fled from the field, unattended, and in heavy armour, in the hope of reaching the Forth and getting on board Sir Andrew Wood's fleet, which lay there in wait for him. While endeavouring to cross the Bannock at this village, his horse was startled at the sight of a pitcher which a woman, in the act of lifting water, flung from her on beholding an armed man riding swiftly towards her; and James was thrown. He was carried by a miller and his wife, who were ignorant of his rank, into their house, known as Beaton's mill, near which the accident occurred; and on recovering from his state of insensibility, and fancying himself dying, he informed them that he was their king, and requested they would send for a priest to impart consolation to him in his last moments. The woman ran from the house, calling for a confessor; and happening to meet a party in pursuit of the unfortunate monarch, she intreated of them, if there were a priest among them, that he might instantly attend his Majesty. One of them answered that he was a priest, and desired to be immediately introduced to the king: he found him lying in a corner, and approaching on his knees under pretence of reverence, the regicide stabbed him several times to the heart. The house still stands, a little to the east of the road from Stirling to Glasgow. The village has latterly much increased in size: nail-making, which is carried on to a great extent in the parish, is its staple manufacture.

Whitburn

WHITBURN, a parish, in the county of Linlithgow; containing, with the village of Longridge and part of Blackburn, 2593 inhabitants, of whom 798 are in the village of Whitburn, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Bathgate. This place derives its name of Whiteburn or Whitburn in contradistinction to that of the village of Blackburn, in the adjoining parish of Livingstone, of which it once formed a part. The parish is about six miles in length and two miles and a half in breadth, comprising an area of rather more than 10,000 acres; a considerable portion towards the west is barren waste, but the remainder principally arable land in good cultivation. The river Almond flows through the northern part of the parish, and the Breich skirts it on the south; the surface is also intersected by several smaller streams. The system of agriculture is as much improved as the nature of the soil, which is in many parts a stiff retentive clay, will admit. Draining has been practised with advantage, but not to such an extent as is requisite: the lands, also, are partly inclosed, and some plantations have been formed; but there is still much room for improvement in these respects.

The substratum is rich in minerals. A very valuable seam of coal has been wrought for more than a century, and is still in operation: the mine is singularly ornamented with calcareous stalactites depending from the roof in the form of strong pillars. Ironstone of argillaceous character occurs in beds varying from one inch to several inches in thickness, and also in balls and flat circular pieces; it is formed into pig-iron, yielding from twenty-seven to thirty-three per cent. A rich vein of black-band ironstone, also, has within the last few years been discovered, and is extensively wrought by the Shotts Iron Company, and Messrs. Holdsworth, of Coltness, who have sunk numerous pits, from which the water is pumped, and the ore drawn up, by steamengines. The ironstone is removed from the mouth of the pits by railways, and piled in heaps varying from 400 or 500 to 2000 tons, for the purpose of being calcined, during which process a pile of 1000 tons is reduced sixty-four tons in weight. About 200 persons are employed in these works. There are likewise several quarries of sandstone of various kinds, and a quarry of white siliceous matter which is used for garden walks. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7398.

Polkemmet, the seat of Sir William Baillie, is an ancient mansion, which has within the last few years been new fronted and otherwise improved; it is pleasantly situated, and the grounds are embellished with thriving plantations. The village is neatly built, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in weaving cotton goods with hand-looms at their own houses. A public library has been established, towards the foundation of which £50 were given by Mr. Wilson, of this place; it is supported by annual subscription, and contains a wellassorted collection. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend, including £100 from land bequeathed for that purpose in the county of Lanark, is £203. 6. 11., subject to certain payments to the minister of Livingstone, from which the parish of Whitburn was separated in 1718; there is a manse, and the glebe is valued at £3. 10. per annum. The church was erected, and partly endowed, by subscription; it is a neat structure. There are places of worship for Burghers and another body of seceders. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and about nine acres of land; and the school fees average about £27 per annum. The late Mr. James Wilson bequeathed £4250 for the erection and endowment of free schools in this and the parishes of Shotts and Cambusnethan: with these funds two schools have been established here, of which the masters have each a salary of £20 per annum, with a house and garden. About 200 children are taught in the several schools, of which number about seventy attend the parochial school. Two Roman coins of gold have been dug up in a bog at Cowhill, in the parish.

Whitefaugh

WHITEFAUGH, a hamlet, in the parish of Carrington, county of Edinburgh, 1¾ mile from Carrington village; containing 49 inhabitants. This is a small place, lying in the north-west part of the parish, and near the borders of the parish of Lasswade.

Whitehall

WHITEHALL, a village, in the old parish of St. Peter, island of Stronsay, county of Orkney; containing 295 inhabitants. This village is situated on a narrow promontory forming the northern boundary of Mill bay and southern shore of Papa sound, on the north-east of the island: the inhabitants are chiefly employed in fishing. Kelp was formerly manufactured here, as in the rest of Stronsay, in considerable quantity. It was first made in 1722, under the auspices of Mr. James Fea, of this village, whose name, for so important a benefit, continues to be remembered by the population with respect. The manufacture, however, has latterly very much declined.

Whitehill

WHITEHILL, a village, in the parish of Dalkeith, county of Edinburgh, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from the town of Dalkeith; containing 178 inhabitants. It lies in the south-eastern extremity of the parish, a little south of the high road from Dalkeith to Cranston; and is of modern erection, having been built for the accommodation of the colliers engaged in the mines in the vicinity. The dwelling-houses are of a superior description, and impart an air of comfort, as well as neatness, to the place.

Whitehills

WHITEHILLS, a village, in the parish of Boindie, county of Banff, 2½ miles (W.N.W.) from Banff; containing 626 inhabitants. It is situated on the coast of the Moray Frith, half-way between the towns of Banff and Portsoy. About half of the population are engaged in the herring, salmon, and lobster fisheries carried on in the adjacent seas. The first of these occupies from twenty to twenty-five boats from July to September; and the herrings, when cured, are exported to Germany and Ireland. Sixteen boats, during the remainder of the fishing season, are employed in taking haddocks, ling, cod, and other fish, in general very successfully: the salmon caught at Blackpots, near here, average in value £225 yearly, and when iced, or boiled and pickled with vinegar, are sent to the London market. The lobster-fishery is carried on by five or six boats with basket-nets; upwards of 1000 are taken in the season, averaged at fourpence each, and sent to London in smacks provided with wells. The annual value of the whole of the fisheries in the parish is computed at £3000.

Whitekirk and Tynninghame

WHITEKIRK and TYNNINGHAME, a parish, in the county of Haddington; containing 1170 inhabitants, of whom 84 are in the village, 3 miles (N.) from Prestonkirk. This place, which comprises the ancient parishes of Tynninghame, Aldhame, and Hamer, united in the year 1761, derives its name of Whitekirk from the appearance of the church of the last parish. Christianity is said to have been first introduced into East Lothian in the 6th century, by St. Baldred, the disciple of Kentigern, who established a cell at Tynninghame, where a monastery was subsequently founded in honour of his memory: after an extensive and laborious ministry in propagating the truths of Christianity, he died here in 606. The monastery was plundered by the Danes under Anlaf, who also burnt the village of Tynninghame, in 941; but it continued to flourish till the Dissolution, and, with its revenues, was granted to the Bishop of St. Andrew's, who, on the erection of the college of St. Mary, conferred it upon the principal and fellows of that establishment. The tithes still continue to be paid to the college; but since the year 1628 the lands of the monastery have formed part of the possessions of the earls of Haddington, to whom the patronage of the church also passed. Of the ancient church of Tynninghame, which had the privilege of sanctuary, and was in high repute, the only remains are two stately arches of Norman character, marking out the burial-place of the Haddington family. On the invasion of East Lothian by Edward III. in 1356, his forces plundered the church of Hamer or Whitekirk, which at that time belonged to the monks of Holyrood, and was in such reputation that frequent pilgrimages were made to visit the shrine of its founder. It was under pretence of visiting that shrine in fulfilment of a vow for the safety of her son, that the Queen-Mother contrived to deceive Chancellor Crichton, who had the custody of James II., and to remove the young prince from Edinburgh to Stirling. The church and barony of Hamer were in 1633 annexed to the see of Edinburgh; but on the subsequent suppression of that bishopric, the patronage of the living reverted to the Crown.

The parish is situated at the mouth of the Frith of Forth, along the shore of which it extends for four miles; it is nearly five miles in length, and comprises 6000 acres, of which 4000 are arable, and the remainder woodland and pasture. The surface is gracefully undulated, rising in no part to an elevation of more than 300 feet above the level of the sea; and when viewed from the eminence of Whitekirk hill, or that of Lawhead, which are the loftiest points, it displays a richly-diversified and beautiful landscape, embellished with stately woods of great extent. Lands in the highest state of cultivation finely contrast with the appearance of the Frith; and the prospects embrace numerous interesting objects, of which the castles of Tantallon and Dunbar, and the Bass rock, are the most prominent. The river Tyne intersects the old parish of Tynninghame, and passing through the lands of Tynninghame House, forms within the demesne at the flow of the tide, a spacious and beautiful lake which disappears at the ebb; it falls into the sea at Tynninghame bay. This river abounds with trout, eels, and other fish, and is frequented also by the grey salmon, but not in large quantities: the right of fishery in the river, and on the sea-coast to within a mile of Dunbar, belongs exclusively to the Earl of Haddington. There is also a small rivulet called the Peffer, which flows through the western part of the parish. The soil is generally a rich brown loam, in some parts intermixed with clay: towards the estuary of the Tyne, a waste and sandy marsh of about 300 acres has been reclaimed by embankment; and even on the highest hills the soil, though thin, is extremely fertile. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and the rotation plan is practised: bonedust has been introduced with great advantage for manure. The farms are mostly from 400 to 500 acres in extent; the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, the lands inclosed, and the fences kept in good repair. Particular attention has been paid to the improvement of the cattle, which are generally of the Teeswater breed, introduced by Mr. John Rennie. The sheep, of which a very great number are fed in the parish, are of the Cheviot and black-faced breeds, with a few of the Leicestershire; about 2000 are fed upon turnips, and a much larger number fattened upon grass for the Edinburgh market.

The woods, which are very extensive, and were first planted in 1705, by Thomas, sixth earl of Haddington, consist of oak and almost every other variety of forest-tree, which thrive well, and display numerous specimens of stately size. The earl planted, about the same time, some hedges of holly to form a screen from the seabreezes; they have attained a remarkable growth, and are a complete defence against the bleak winds prevailing on this coast. There are also many single trees in several parts of the parish of fine growth: in Binning wood, and also near the mansion of the Earl of Haddington, are several which are eight feet in girth, and more than fifty feet high. The substrata are, whinstone and red sandstone, and, in some parts, greenstone approaching to the basaltic formation, clay-slate, and ironstone. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,720. Tynninghame, the seat of the earl, is a stately mansion embosomed in wood, and plantations of great beauty: on the south-west of the house is a grass-walk, nearly 800 yards in length, planted on both sides with hedges of holly, eleven feet broad at the base, and about fifteen feet in height. Newbyth, the residence of Sir David Baird, is a spacious mansion also inclosed with thriving plantations; and Sea-Cliffe House, the residence of George Sligo, Esq., is romantically situated near the sea, of which it commands an exceedingly fine view. The market-towns of Haddington and Dunbar are chiefly resorted to for the sale of the agricultural produce; and facility of communication with those places, and with other towns in the neighbourhood, is afforded by means of good roads, of which the high road from Edinburgh to London passes through the south, and that from Dunbar to North Berwick through the centre, of the parish. There is a post-office in the parish of Prestonkirk, from which letters are forwarded daily. The parish is in the presbytery of Dunbar, synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and alternate patronage of the Crown and the Earl of Haddington: the minister's stipend is £306. 11. 2., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £30 per annum. The church is a venerable and handsome structure in the decorated style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower, and, occupying an elevated site, forms an interesting and conspicuous feature in the landscape; it has been recently repaired, and is well adapted to the accommodation of the parishioners. There are two parochial schools, affording together a liberal course of instruction to about 120 scholars; the masters receive each a salary of £34. 4. per annum, with a house and garden, and the fees of each average £35. The poor have the interest of various bequests amounting to nearly £600. Eleven cottages for the reception of widows were erected prior to 1745, on ground given for the purpose by the Earl of Haddington; to each of them is a good garden, and the widows have also an allowance of coal.

Whiteletts

WHITELETTS, a village, in the parish of St. Quivox, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 1½ mile (E. N. E.) from Ayr; containing 754 inhabitants. This is a rapidly thriving village of recent origin, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and on the high road from Mauchline to Ayr. It is in the heart of a district abounding in coal, for the conveyance of which, from the several collieries to the harbour of Ayr, a railway has been laid down: the coal is shipped for various places on the Irish coast. In the village is a respectable private school.

Whitemyre

WHITEMYRE, a village, in the parish of Dyke and Moy, county of Elgin; containing 83 inhabitants.

Whiteness

WHITENESS, county of Shetland.—See Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale.

Whithorn

WHITHORN, a royal burgh and a parish, in the county of Wigton, 11 miles (S.) from Wigton, and 97½ (S. by W.) from Glasgow; containing, with the village of Isle of Whithorn, 2795 inhabitants, of whom 495 are in Isle of Whithorn, and 1502 in the burgh. This place, which occupies the south-eastern extremity of the county, is of remote antiquity, being identified as the Leucophibia of Ptolemy, during the Roman occupation of Britain, and as subsequently the capital of the Novantes, who made themselves masters of the whole of Galloway. It seems to have derived its present name from the erection of a church here by St. Ninian in the 4th century, which, being the first in the country that was built of white freestone, obtained from its light appearance the appellation of Candida Casa. In the eighth century the place became the seat of the ancient bishops of Galloway; and it continued to be the head of that diocese after its revival in the 12th century. Fergus, Lord of Galloway, in the reign of David I. founded here a priory for Præmonstratensian canons, of which the church was appropriated as the cathedral of the see. This establishment was eminent from the possession of the relics of St. Ninian, and for centuries before the Reformation was the frequent resort of devotees on their pilgrimage to visit the shrine of that saint, among whom were some of the Scottish sovereigns. In 1425, James I. granted full protection to all strangers coming into Scotland for that purpose; and in 1473, Margaret, queen of James III., attended by a retinue of ladies of her household, made a pilgrimage to the shrine. James IV, during his reign paid frequent visits to the church, on which occasions he presented numerous offerings in honour of the saint; and his son and successor, James V., in the years 1532 and 1533, performed pilgrimages to the shrine, which, even for a considerable time after the Reformation, continued to attract devotees. Among the most distinguished of the priors of this establishment were, Gavin Dunbar, afterwards Archbishop of Glasgow, and James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, and Chancellor of Scotland. The priory flourished till the Dissolution in 1561, when its revenues amounted to £1016 in money, and various payments in kind. Of the ancient buildings there are but very inconsiderable remains, consisting chiefly of some arches of the church, one of which, however, almost entire, is a remarkably fine specimen of Saxon architecture.


Burgh Seal.

The town, which is situated almost in the centre of the parish, consists principally of one spacious street more than half a mile in length, which towards the centre expands into unusually great breadth, and from which diverge two or three smaller streets and lanes. The houses are generally neatly built, and roofed with slate; many of the more ancient have been taken down, and rebuilt in a better style; and various other improvements have recently been made in the appearance of the place. The principal street is intersected nearly in the middle by a rivulet, over which is a neat bridge. There are no manufactures carried on; and the only trade is that which the town derives from its proximity to the small port of Isle of Whithorn, which is separately described, and from the pursuit of the usual handicrafts requisite for the supply of a neighbourhood. Branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, and an agency for the Aberdeen Insurance office, have been established; and a fair, chiefly for hiring servants, is held annually at Midsummer, and a cattle market monthly from April to January. The town was erected into a royal burgh by charter of King Robert Bruce, which was confirmed by charter of James IV. in 1571. The government is vested in a provost, two bailies, and fifteen councillors; but there are no incorporated trades possessing exclusive privileges, and every inhabitant is free to carry on trade within the burgh. The magistrates have the usual jurisdiction of burghs royal; but no civil causes are brought for their decision, and in criminal matters their jurisdiction extends only to breaches of the peace. The town-hall, situated on the west side of the principal street, is a substantial structure with a tower and spire, and attached to it is a gaol, used as a place of temporary confinement. The burgh is associated with New Galloway, Stranraer, and Wigton, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters at present registered is fifty.

The parish is bounded on the south by the Irish Channel, and on the east by the bay of Wigton; it is about eight miles in extreme length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, comprising an area of 10,000 acres, of which the whole, with the exception of about 200 acres of meadow and a little waste, is arable. The surface, though generally level, is marked by numerous hillocks of various form and appearance, most of them covered with briars and whin, which give to the parish an aspect of sterility. There are no rivers of any importance; but three small burns flow through the lands into the sea, each of which in its course gives motion to some corn-mills; and there are numerous springs of clear water, of which one, on the Isle of Whithorn, is slightly chalybeate. The several lakes have been drained, and some of them brought under tillage: of those which have not been cultivated, some form peat-mosses, and others produce great quantities of excellent marl. The coast, which is more than nine miles in extent, is in some parts bold and rocky, especially towards Burrow Head, on the south, where many of the rocks rise perpendicularly from the sea to a height of 200 feet. Some of the rocks are perforated with deep caverns; and on the east are several bays, whereof the principal are, PortAllan, Port-Yarrock, and the Isle of Whithorn, at which last is a commodious harbour.

The soil is generally fertile, and in some parts a rich vegetable mould resting upon a bottom of rock; it has been much improved by a liberal use of bone-dust and guano as manure. The chief crops are, wheat, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry is making steady progress; a due rotation of crops is uniformly observed; the farm-buildings are substantial, and roofed with slate, and the lands mostly inclosed with stone dykes. The cattle, once wholly of the Galloway breed, and to the improvement of which the greatest attention is paid, have since the increase of dairy-farms been partly of the Ayrshire breed; and considerable numbers are now fed on turnips till fit for the market, and sent by sea to Liverpool. The plantations are gradually increasing in extent, and at Castlewigg are some noble specimens of oak, ash, beech, and firs. An attempt was at one time unsuccessfully made to work coal; and at Tonderghie, copper of rich quality was discovered by a mining company from Wales, but the works have long been discontinued. The rateable annual value of the parish, according to returns made under the Income tax, is £10,313. Castlewigg, the seat of Hugh Hathorn, Esq., is an ancient and venerable mansion, beautifully situated in a richly-planted demesne, near the western border of the parish; and Tonderghie, near the southern coast, the seat of Hugh D. Stewart, Esq., is a handsome modern mansion, commanding a fine view of the English coast and the Isle of Man. The only village is Isle of Whithorn, which is described under its own head.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £246. 15. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected on part of the site of the priory in 1822, is a substantial and neat structure containing 800 sittings: in the churchyard are the only remains of the priory and cathedral, conveying but a faint idea of the ancient grandeur of the buildings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Secession Synod, and Reformed Presbyterians, and a Roman Catholic chapel. Of the two parochial schools, one is in the burgh and the other at Isle of Whithorn: the master of the burgh school has a salary of £39, with £6. 6. in lieu of a dwelling-house, and the other master a salary of £19. 10.; the school fees averaging £50 per annum in the aggregate. About half a mile to the west of the town are the remains of a Roman camp, and numerous Roman coins have been found near the priory, and in various other parts of the parish. On the shore are the ruins of several castles and fortresses, which are supposed to have been built for the protection of the coast from the frequent incursions of the Scandinavians, who made the Isle of Man their common rendezvous in their predatory attacks on this part of the country.

Whithorn, Isle Of

WHITHORN, ISLE OF, a sea-port village, in the parish of Whithorn, county of Wigton, 2½ miles (S. E.) from the town of Whithorn; containing 495 inhabitants. This place, which is situated at the head of a small bay in the south-eastern coast of the parish, derives its name from an island at the mouth of the bay, on which are the ruins of an ancient church supposed to have been the first place of Christian worship erected in this part of Scotland. The island is less than half a mile in length, and scarcely a quarter broad; it affords shelter from easterly winds to vessels entering the bay, but is not distinguished by any particular features of importance. The village is neatly built, and principally inhabited by seamen and others employed in the trade of the port, which consists chiefly in the exportation of cattle, sheep, and swine, grain, and other agricultural produce; and in the importation of coal and lime from England, and various kinds of merchandise for the supply of the district. The harbour, though narrow at the entrance, has good accommodation for the vessels employed in the coasting-trade; and a commodious pier was constructed towards the close of the last century, by aid from the funds of the Convention of Royal Burghs. Vessels sail weekly to Whitehaven and other towns on the English coast; and the Galloway steamers call at this place occasionally on their passage to and from Liverpool.

Whitsome and Hilton

WHITSOME and HILTON, a parish, in the county of Berwick; containing 622 inhabitants, of whom about 200 are in the village of Whitsome, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Coldstream. These two ancient parishes, which are in the eastern portion of the county, were united in 1735, after the decay of the old church of Hilton, from the situation of which upon an eminence that district derived its name. The incumbents of both the parishes, together with several of the clergy in the vicinity, swore fealty to Edward I. of England, at Berwick, in 1296, upon which occasion their parsonages were restored to them. In 1482, the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. of England, in his progress through the county of Berwick, burnt this place, and laid waste many of the circumjacent lands. The parish is about four and a half miles in length and nearly two miles in breadth, comprising an area of 4900 acres, of which 4720 are arable and pasture, and 180 woodland and plantations: there is no waste. The surface towards the north and east is generally level, but in other parts diversified with rising grounds and hills, of which the highest has an elevation of almost 350 feet above the level of the sea. The only river is the Leet, a small stream which, from its source near the northern boundary, flows southward through the parish, and after receiving various tributaries in its course, falls into the Tweed at Coldstream.

The soil is highly fertile, and the lands are under excellent cultivation; the crops are, grain of every kind, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. Great improvement has taken place in the system of husbandry, and some tracts of land previously unprofitable have been drained and rendered productive. The farm-houses are substantial and well arranged; on all of the farms are threshing-mills, some of them driven by steam; and the cottages of the labourers have in many instances been rebuilt in a more comfortable style. The lands are inclosed with hedges of thorn, kept in excellent order; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. Few sheep or cattle are reared in the parish; such as are kept on the pasture lands are generally purchased at the neighbouring markets. The plantations, though not extensive, include firs and the various kinds of forest-trees, which are all in a thriving state, and contribute materially to the beauty of the scenery. The principal substrata are sandstone and whinstone, of which there are extensive quarries in operation; and in 1824 and 1825 an attempt was made to work coal, of which, after boring to a great depth, some seams were discovered, but not sufficiently promising to warrant the opening of a mine. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7639. The village of Whitsome, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is neatly built, and has a pleasingly rural appearance; it is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in agriculture. Adjoining it, on the east and north, are two portions of the ancient common, used for bleaching, and in each of which is a spring of pure water. Letters are transmitted through the post-office at Horndean, two miles distant; and facility of communication with Dunse, Berwick, Coldstream, and other towns, is maintained by good roads and by bridges over the various streams.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The minister's stipend is £233. 17. 11., with a manse, and the glebes of Whitsome and Hilton, together containing thirty acres, and valued at £60 per annum; patron, David Logan, Esq. The church, erected in 1803, is a neat plain structure containing 260 sittings. The parochial school, situated west of the village, is attended by nearly ninety children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £60 per annum. In a field on the farm of Leetside, called the "Battle Knowes," are the remains of a camp supposed to be of Roman origin; it is of quadrilateral form, each side forty-two yards in length, with the entrance on the southeast, to which was an ascent by a causeway of rough stones recently removed. Near the site, some workmen, draining a field in 1827, discovered a vessel of copper, now preserved in Blackadder House; and in the vicinity were found, more recently, several stone coffins about four and a half feet in length, each composed of six flags, and containing the remains of a skeleton apparently of six feet in stature. In each of the coffins was also an urn of unglazed pottery, of triangular form, containing black dust. In draining some lands near Leetside in 1832, a well, inclosed with hewn stone, was discovered at a considerable depth below the surface of the ground. According to tradition, there were some houses near the well, called Temple Hall from their proprietors, the Knights Templars, who possessed lands in this parish.

Whittingham

WHITTINGHAM, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Prestonkirk; containing 700 inhabitants, of whom 42 are in the village. This place, which is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Saxon language "the Town of the White Meadow," from the colour of the soil, is of very considerable antiquity. It was in the 14th century the baronial residence of the earls of March, who held their courts here, and whose descendant, Patrick, in 1363 granted to Sir Alexander de Ricklington one-half of the lands of Spot, forming part of their barony. In 1372 George, Earl of March, gave in marriage with his sister, Agnes, to James Douglas of Dalkeith, the whole of the manor of Whittingham, with the patronage of the chapel; and it remained in the possession of that family for nearly two centuries. In 1564, Mary, Queen of Scots, conferred the manor and castle, the patronage of the church, and all its appurtenances, on James, Earl of Morton, the representative of the Douglas family, which grant was ratified by the Scottish parliament in 1567. Soon after receiving these lands, he was banished from his country for the part he had taken in the murder of David Rizzio, and took refuge in England; but having obtained his pardon from the queen, he returned to Scotland, and was restored to his possessions. The earl had not, however, been long returned before he again conspired against the laws; and entertaining the Earl of Bothwell at his castle of Whittingham, he concerted with that nobleman the murder of Darnley, the queen's consort, for which he was tried at Edinburgh, found guilty, and executed, having the night previous to his execution amply confessed his guilt. The manor, together with the other portions of the earldom which had been forfeited by the attainder and execution of the earl, was however restored to the family by James VI., and remained in their possession till, by marriage of the daughter of Sir Archibald Douglas, who succeeded her father as heiress of Whittingham, the manor was conveyed to Lord Seton, of Kingstone. Ultimately, on the death of her brothers, the title becoming extinct, the property was vested in the Lady Elizabeth Seton, who married the Honourable William Hay, of Drummelzier, by whose descendants the estate was in 1817 sold to James Balfour, Esq., whose son, James M. Balfour, Esq., succeeded him in April, 1845.

The parish is about eleven miles in length from north to south, and about four miles in average breadth; and comprises 20,675 acres, of which 3958 are arable, 215 woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface is varied and irregular, abruptly undulated, and rising into hills of considerable elevation. The highest is Stoneypath hill, having near its summit the remains of an ancient castle which forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape, and commanding a rich and extensive prospect, embracing part of the German Sea, the island of May, the Bass rock, the Frith of Forth, the coast of Fife, and a large portion of East and Mid Lothian. The lands are watered by two fine streams. That called the Whittingham water has its source in the parish of Garvald, and after being augmented by the Nunraw burn, flows through a beautiful and romantic glen, between banks, of which the acclivities are embellished with stately trees; it falls into the sea at Belhaven. The Whiteadder has its source also in the parish of Garvald, and after receiving some tributary streams in its course, joins the Tweed within a few miles of Berwick. There are likewise numerous springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply.

The soil is various; in some parts light and sandy, in others a sterile clay, and in some a rich and fertile loam: the higher division of the parish comprises part of the Lammermoor hills, in some places arable, but generally furnishing only pasturage. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry is improved, and the lands are well inclosed; the fences on some farms are thorn hedges, and on others dykes of stone, both kept in good condition. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and all the recent improvements in the implements of husbandry have been adopted. The farms on the higher lands, among the Lammermoor hills, are very extensive; and though on some of them, as already observed, part of the lands are arable, they are generally grazing land. About 6000 sheep are fed, which produce on an average between 800 and 900 stone of wool annually; and a few black-cattle are also reared. The woods and plantations are chiefly around the mansion of the principal proprietor, and on the sloping banks of the Whittingham water. The substrata are mostly transition rocks and greywacke, of which the Lammermoor hills are composed, with some granite found in masses, and red freestone of excellent quality, which has been extensively quarried for building and other purposes. Iron and copper ores, also, have been met with on the banks of a stream in the Lammermoor district. Whittingham House is a handsome and spacious mansion in the Grecian style of architecture, pleasantly situated on the bank of Whittingham water, and commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country and of the sea; the grounds are formed into walks and gardens tastefully laid out, and the approaches to the demesne are remarkably fine, consisting of avenues of stately timber. The village is on an eminence having an elevation of about 360 feet above the level of the sea. It is small, but neatly built, and possesses facility of communication with Haddington and Dunbar, the nearest market-towns, by good roads, and also with the other parts of the parish by roads kept in excellent order by statute labour, and which traverse more than thirty miles in various directions within its limits. The rateable annual value of the parish is returned at the sum of £7339.

The district anciently consisted of the two chapelries of Penshiel and Whittingham, both subordinate to the church of Dunbar; the former was appropriated to the Lammermoors, and the latter to the lower district of the parish, and each constituted the head of a prebend in the church of Dunbar when it was made collegiate in the year 1342. The present parish is in the presbytery of Dunbar, synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of Mr. Balfour: the minister's stipend is £266. 12. 1., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £18 per annum. The church, situated on the north bank of the Whittingham water, was built in 1722, and was put into complete repair in 1820; it is a small edifice adapted only for a congregation of 350 persons, and is at an inconvenient distance from the extreme parts of the parish. The parochial school affords a liberal education to about seventy-five scholars; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £30 fees, and a house and garden. At Prieslaw, in the southern portion of the parish, are the remains of an encampment, of an oval form, and nearly 700 yards in circumference; it is defended by three ditches on the north side, and by four on the south. These ditches are separated from each other by intervals of about twelve yards, and the outer one is continued round the whole area. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Whittingham, part of which is in good preservation, and still inhabited; and also of Stoneypath Tower, which was the property of James Douglas, first lord Dalkeith: it appears to have been strongly fortified, and great part of the lofty walls are yet left. Some slight remains exist of the old baronial mansion of Penshiel, and of the ancient chapel, which was situated in a glen, near the house now called "Chapel Haugh." At Papple, also, about twenty feet of one of the walls of a religious house are still remaining; but nothing is known either of its original foundation or of its history.

Wia

WIA, an isle, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness. This is a small isle of the Hebrides, and is uninhabited.

Wia

WIA, an isle, in the parish of South Uist, county of Inverness. It lies on the south-east of the island of Benbecula, from which it is separated by a very narrow channel called the Sound of Wia, where is a small and safe harbour. The isle is about two miles in length and one mile and a quarter in breadth, and is much indented on every side; its rocks, like those of nearly all the islands in this quarter, are wholly gneiss.



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