Sir Christopher Wren.
It is interesting to note that Sir Christopher was engaged by
Sir John Moore, in 1693, to design his school building at Appleby, a
work that was carried out by Sir William Wilson. See pages 66, 67.
Sir Robert Smirke.
He was the second son of Robert Smirke who was born at Wigton
in 1752, became an R.A. in 1793, who executed the famous mezzotint
of John Christian Curwen in 1791 and who was noted for the beauty
of the innumerable coats-of-arms he painted on coach panels. The
eldest son, Richard (1778–1815) became an antiquarian draughtsman
of great ability and was employed by the Society of Antiquaries to
make facsimiles from ancient paintings in St. Stephen's Chapel at
Robert, the second son was born in London in 1781. He entered
the schools of the Royal Academy and in 1796 became articled to Sir
John Soane who was then occupied with the building of the Bank of
England; in 1799 he gained the Academy Gold Medal, was elected
A.R.A. in 1808 and R.A. in 1811. He was Knighted in 1832. Most
of his works, both public and private were classical, massive in
construction, heavy and sombre in treatment. He was employed on
the London Mint in 1809; was surveyor to the Inner Temple where
he erected the Library and Dining Hall between the years 1814 and
1828; in 1829 he was occupied with the restoration of York Minster
after the fire; the east wing of Somerset House; the central portion
of the London Customs House; the College of Physicians in Trafalgar
Square, and many clubs. But his two finest and best known works
were the General Post Office in St. Martins-le-Grand and the main
facade of the British Museum.
In his younger days he rebuilt Lowther Castle between the years
1802 and 1808; in 1810 the southern tower of Carlisle Citadel; and
in 1812 the cloister to the church of St. Laurence at Appleby. His
restoration of Crosby Ravensworth church between the years 1809
and 1816 was not a happy one. He retired in 1845 and died on
18 April, 1867, aged 86.
He was born in 1799, educated at Durham and went up to London
as an apprentice to John Nash. So thorough was his work and so
high his merit that in after years he became recognised as the greatest
authority on medieval military architecture. The Prince Consort
chose him to restore the Curfew Tower, the Hundred Steps and
Henry vii's Library at Windsor; also the Beauchamp Tower, White
Tower, St. Thomas' Tower and the Traitor's Gate at the Tower of
London. The castles of Carisbrook, Carnarvon, Bangor, Newark-upon-Trent, Durham, Warwick, Warkworth (1853–8), Dunster and
Brancepeth, in turn were restored by him. He almost rebuilt
Alnwick Castle. In our district he directed the preservation of
Lanercost Priory; he restored the mansions of Greystoke (1840),
Newbiggin (1844), Naworth (1845), Hutton-in-the-Forest (1845),
Whitehall and Muncaster. He built Patterdale Church, the parsonage houses of Keswick and Denton and the County Hotel at Carlisle.
At the age of 82 he died at Haselmere in 1881.
Joseph S. Crowther.
Of the firm of Messrs. Bowman and Crowther of Manchester, who
restored Manchester Cathedral. In 1859–60 he built the vicarage
at Kendal; built Staveley Church in 1863, and restored Kendal
Parish Church between the years 1864–68. But the work that he
will be best known by in our district was his wonderful restoration of
Crosby Ravensworth Church, under Canon Weston, between the
years 1850 and 1886.
Known chiefly as the great architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In 1853 he commenced to restore Carlisle Cathedral
and the Canonry in 1856. In 1863 he restored St. Laurence's church
Charles John Ferguson.
He was the younger son of Joseph Ferguson of Carlisle and brother
to the late Chancellor. After serving his articles with J. A. Cory he
was chiefly occupied in building or restoring the churches of the
neighbourhood. But he also did fine work in domestic Gothic
architecture as is seen in his restorations of Naworth and Muncaster
castles. He built Tebay Church in 1880; restored Ormside Church
in 1885-6; and built a new wing to Newbiggin Hall in 1981. He died
in 1904 at the age of sixty-four years.