The King's Exchange—Friday Street and the Poet Chaucer—The Wednesday Club in Friday Street—William Paterson, Founder of the Bank of
England—How Easy it is to Redeem the National Debt—St. Matthew's and St. Margaret Moses—Bread Street and the Bakers' Shops—St. Austin's, Watling Street—The Fraternity of St. Austin's—St. Mildred's, Bread Street—The Mitre Tavern—A Priestly Duel—Milton's
Birth-place—The "Mermaid"—Sir Walter Raleigh and the Mermaid Club—Thomas Coryatt, the Traveller—Bow Lane—Queen Street—Soper's Lane—A Mercer Knight—St. Bennet Sherehog—Epitaphs in the Church of St. Thomas Apostle—A Charitable Merchant.
Old Change was formerly the old Exchange,
so called from the King's Exchange, says Stow,
there kept, which was for the receipt of bullion to
The King's Exchange was in Old Exchange, now
Old 'Change, Cheapside. "It was here," says Tite,
"that one of those ancient officers, known as the
King's Exchanger, was placed, whose duty it was
to attend to the supply of the mints with bullion,
to distribute the new coinage, and to regulate the
exchange of foreign coin. Of these officers there
were anciently three—two in London, at the Tower
and Old Exchange, and one in the city of Canterbury. Subsequently another was appointed, with
an establishment in Lombard Street, the ancient
rendezvous of the merchants; and it appears not
improbable that Queen Elizabeth's intention was
to have removed this functionary to what was
pre-eminently designated by her 'The Royal Exchange,' and hence the reason for the change of
the name of this edifice by Elizabeth."
"In the reign of Henry VII.," says Francis, in
his "History of the Bank of England," "the Royal
prerogative forbade English coins to be exported,
and the Royal Exchange was alone entitled to give
native money for foreign coin or bullion. During
the reign of Henry VIII. the coin grew so debased
as to be difficult to exchange, and the Goldsmiths
quietly superseded the royal officer. In 1627
Charles I., ever on the watch for power, re-established the office, and in a pamphlet written by his
orders, asserted that 'the prerogative had always
been a flower of the Crown, and that the Goldsmiths had left off their proper trade and turned
exchangers of plate and foreign coins for our
English coins, although they had no right.' Charles
entrusted the office of 'changer, exchanger, and
ante-changer' to Henry Rich, first Earl of Holland,
who soon deserted his cause for that of the Parliament. The office has not since been re-established."
No. 36, Old 'Change was formerly the "Three
Morrice Dancers" public-house, with the three
figures sculptured on a stone as the sign and an
ornament (temp. James I.). The house was taken
down about 1801. There is an etching of this very
characteristic sign on stone. (Timbs.)
The celebrated poet and enthusiast, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, lived, in the reign of James I., in
a "house among gardens, near the old Exchange."
At the beginning of the last century, the place was
chiefly inhabited by American merchants; at this
time it is principally inhabited by calico printers
and Manchester warehousemen.
"Friday Street was so called," says Stow, "of
fishmongers dwelling there, and serving Friday's
Market." In the roll of the Scrope and Grosvenor
heraldic controversy (Edward III.) the poet Chaucer
is recorded as giving the following evidence connected with this street:—
"Geffray Chaucere, Esqueer, of the age of forty
years, and moreover armed twenty-seven years for
the side of Sir Richard Lescrop, sworn and examined, being asked if the arms, azyure, a bend or,
belonged or ought to pertain to the said Sir Richard
by right and heritage, said, Yes; for he saw him so
armed in Frannce, before the town of Petters, and
Sir Henry Lescrop armed in the same arms with a
white label and with banner; and the said Sir
Richard armed in the entire arms azyure a bend or,
and so during the whole expedition until the said
Geaffray was taken. Being asked how he knew
that the said arms belonged to the said Sir Richard,
said that he had heard old knights and esquires
say that they had had continual possession of the
said arms; and that he had seen them displayed
on banners, glass paintings, and vestments, and
commonly called the arms of Scrope. Being asked
whether he had ever heard of any interruption or
challenge made by Sir Robert Grosvernor or his
ancestors, said No; but that he was once in Friday
Street, London, and walking up the street he observed a new sign hanging out with these arms
thereon, and enquired what inn that was that had
hung out these arms of Scrope? And one answered
him, saying, 'They are not hung out, Sir, for the
arms of Scrope, nor painted there for those arms,
but they are painted and put there by a Knight of
the county of Chester, called Sir Robert Grosvernor.'
And that was the first time he ever heard speak of
Sir Robert Grosvernor or his ancestors, or of any
one bearing the name of Grosvernor." This is
really almost the only authentic scrap we possess
of the facts of Chaucer's life.
The "White Horse," a tavern in Friday Street,
makes a conspicuous figure in the "Merry Conceited Jests of George Peele," the poet and playwriter of Elizabeth's reign.
At the Wednesday Club in Friday Street, William
Paterson, the founder of the Bank of England, and
originator of the unfortunate Darien scheme, held
his real or imaginary Wednesday club meetings,
in which were discussed proposals for the union of
England and Scotland, and the redemption of
the National Debt. This remarkable financier was
born at Lochnabar, in Dumfriesshire, in 1648, and
died in 1719. The following extracts from Paterson's probably imaginary conversations are of
"And thus," says Paterson, "supposing the
people of Scotland to be in number one million,
and that as matters now stand their industry yields
them only about five pounds per annum per head,
as reckoned one with another, or five millions yearly
in the whole, at this rate these five millions will by
the union not only be advanced to six, but put
in a way of further improvement; and allowing
£100,000 per annum were on this foot to be paid
in additional taxes, yet there would still remain a
yearly sum of about £900,000 towards subsisting
the people more comfortably, and making provision against times of scarcity, and other accidents,
to which, I understand, that country is very much
"And I remember complaints of this kind were
very loud in the days of King Charles II.," said
Mr. Brooks, "particularly that, though in his time
the public taxes and impositions upon the people
were doubled or trebled to what they formerly were,
he nevertheless run at least a million in debt."
"If men were uneasy with public taxes and debts
in the time of King Charles II.," said Mr. May,
"because then doubled or trebled to what they had
formerly been, how much more may they be so
now, when taxed at least three times more, and the
public debts increased from about one million, as
you say they then were, to fifty millions or upwards? . . . . and yet France is in a way of being
entirely out of debt in a year or two."
"At this rate," said Mr. May, "Great Britain may
possibly be quite out of debt in four or five years,
or less. But though it seems we have been at least
as hasty in running into debt as those in France,
yet would I by no means advise us to run so hastily
out; slower measures will be juster, and consequently better and surer."
THE DOOR OF SADDLER'S HALL (see page 341).
Mr. Pitt's celebrated measure was based upon
an opinion that money could be borrowed with
advantage to pay the national debt. Paterson proposed to redeem it out of a surplus revenue,
administered so skilfully as to lower the interest in
the money market. The notion of borrowing to
pay seems to have sprung up with Sir Nathaniel
Gould, in 1725, when it was opposed.
St. Matthew's was situate on the west side of
Friday Street. The patronage of it was in the
Abbot and Convent of Westminster. This church,
being destroyed by the Fire of London, in 1666,
was handsomely rebuilt, and the parish of St. Peter,
Cheap, thereunto added by Act of Parliament. The
following epitaph (1583) was in this church:—
"Anthony Cage entombed here doth rest,
Whose wisdome still prevail'd the Commonweale;
A man with God's good gifts so greatly blest,
That few or none his doings may impale,
A man unto the widow and the poore,
A comfort, and a succour evermore.
Three wives he had of credit and of fame;
The first of them, Elizabeth that hight,
Who buried here, brought to this Cage, by name,
Seventeene young plants, to give his table light."
"At St. Margaret Moyses," says Stow, "was buried
Mr. Buss (or Briss), a Skinner, one of the masters
of the hospital. There attènded all the masters
of the hospital, with green staves in their hands,
and all the Company in their liveries, with twenty
clerks singing before. The sermon was preached
by Mr. Jewel, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury; and
therein he plainly affirmed there was no purgatory.
Thence the Company retired to his house to dinner.
This burial was an. 1559, Jan. 30.
The following epitaph (1569) is worth preserving:—
"Beati mortui qui in Domino moriuntur."—Apoc. 14.
"To William Dane, that sometime was
An ironmonger; where each degree
He worthily (with praise) did passe.
By Wisdom, Truth, and Heed, was he
Advanc'd an Alderman to be;
Then Sheriffe; that he, with justice prest,
And cost, performed with the best.
In almes frank, of conscience cleare;
In grace with prince, to people glad;
His vertuous wife, his faithful peere,
Margaret, this monument hath made;
Meaning (through God) that as shee had
With him (in house) long lived well;
Even so in Tombes Blisse to dwell."
"Bread Street," says Stow, "is so called of bread
there in old times then sold; for it appeareth by
records, that in the year 1302, which was the 30th
of Edward I., the bakers of London were bound
to sell no bread in their shops or houses, but in the
market here; and that they should have four hall
motes in the year, at four several terms, to determine
of enormities belonging to the said company. Bread
Street is now wholly inhabited by rich merchants,
and divers fair inns be there, for good receipt
of carriers and other travellers to the City. It
appears in the will of Edward Stafford, Earl of
Wylshire, dated the 22nd of March, 1498, and
14 Henry VII., that he lived in a house in Bread
Street, in London, which belonged to the family of
Stafford, Duke of Bucks afterwards; he bequeathed
all the stuff in that house to the Lord of Buckingham, for he died without issue."
The parish church of "St. Augustine, in Watheling
Street" was destroyed by the Great Fire, but rebuilt in 1682. Stow informs us that here was a
fraternity founded A.D. 1387, called the Fraternity
of St. Austin's, in Watling Street, and other good
people dwelling in the City. "They were, on the
eve of St. Austin's, to meet at the said church,
in the morning at high mass, and every brother
to offer a penny. And after that to be ready, al
mangier ou al revele; i.e., to eat or to revel, according to the ordinance of the master and wardens of
the fraternity. They set up in the honour of God
and St. Austin, one branch of six tapers in the
said church, before the image of St. Austin; and
also two torches, with the which, if any of the said
fraternity were commended to God, he might be
carried to the earth. They were to meet at the
vault at Paul's (perhaps St. Faith's), and to go
thence to the Church of St. Austin's, and the
priests and the clerks said Placebo and Dilige, and
in matins, a mass of requiem at the high altar."
"There is a flat stone," says Stow, "in the south
aisle of the church. It is laid over an Armenian
merchant, of which foreign merchants there be
divers that lodge and harbour in the Old Change
in this parish."
St. Mildred's, in Bread Street, was repaired in
1628. "At the upper end of the chancel," says
Strype, "is a fine window, full of cost and beauty,
which being divided into five parts, carries in the
first of them a very artful and curious representation of the Spaniard's Great Armado, and the
battle in 1588; in the second, the monument of
Queen Elizabeth; in the third, the Gunpowder
Plot; in the fourth, the lamentable time of infection, 1625; and in the fifth and last, the view and
lively portraiture of that worthy gentleman, Captain
Nicolas Crispe, at whose sole cost (among other)
this beautiful piece of work was erected, as also the
figures of his vertuous wife and children, with the
arms belonging to them." This church, burnt down
in the Great Fire, was rebuilt again.
St. Mildred was a Saxon lady, and daughter of
Merwaldus, a West-Mercian prince, and brother to
Penda, King of the Mercians, who, despising the
pomps and vanities of this world, retired to a convent at Hale, in France, whence, returning to
England, accompanied by seventy virgins, she was
consecrated abbess of a new monastery in the Isle
of Thanet, by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury,
where she died abbess, anno 676.
On the east side of Bread Street is the church
of Allhallows. "On the south side of the chancel,
in a little part of this church, called The Salter's
Chapel," says Strype, "is a very fair window,
with the portraiture or figure of him that gave it,
very curiously wrought upon it. This church,
ruined in the Great Fire, is built up again without any pillars, but very decent, and is a lightsome
"In the 22nd of Henry VIII., the 17th of August,
two priests of this church fell at variance, that the
one drew blood of the other, wherefore the same
church was suspended, and no service sung or
said therein for the space of one month after; the
priests were committed to prison, and the 15th of
October, being enjoined penance, they went at the
head of a general procession, bare-footed and
bare-legged, before the children, with beads and
books in their hands, from Paul's, through Cheap,
Among the epitaphs the following, given by Stow,
"To the sacred memory of that worthy and faithfull minister
of Christ, Master Richard Stocke; who after 32 yeeres spent
in the ministry, wherein by his learned labours, joined with
wisedome, and a most holy life, God's glory was much
advanced, his Church edified, piety increased, and the true
honour of a pastor's life maintained; deceased April 20, 1626.
Some of his loving parishioners have consecrated this monument of their never-dying love, Jan. 28, 1628.
"Thy lifelesse Trunke
(O Reverend Stocke),
Like Aaron's rod
Sprouts out againe;
And after two
Full winters past,
And ripe fruit amaine.
For why, this work of piety,
Performed by some of thy Flocke,
To thy dead corps and sacred urne,
Is but the fruit of this old Stocke."
The father of Milton, the poet, was a scrivener
in Bread Street, living at the sign of "The Spread
Eagle," the armorial ensign of his family. The first
turning on the left hand, as you enter from Cheapside, was called "Black Spread Eagle Court," and
not unlikely from the family ensign of the poet's
father. Milton was born in this street (December
9, 1608), and baptised in the adjoining church of
Allhallows, Bread Street, where the register of his
baptism is still preserved. Of the house in which
he resided in later life, and the churchyard of St.
Giles, Cripplegate, where he was buried, we give a
view on page 349. Aubrey tells us that the house
and chamber in which the poet was born were often
visited by foreigners, even in the poet's lifetime.
Their visits must have taken place before the fire,
for the house was destroyed in the Great Fire, and
"Paradise Lost" was published after it. Spread
Eagle Court is at the present time a warehouseyard, says Mr. David Masson. The position of
a scrivener was something between a notary and a
There was a City prison formerly in Bread Street.
"On the west side of Bread Street," says Stow,
"amongst divers fair and large houses for merchants,
and fair inns for passengers, had they one prisonhouse pertaining to the sheriffs of London, called
the Compter, in Bread Street; but in 1555 the
prisoners were removed from thence to one other
new Compter in Wood Street, provided by the
City's purchase, and built for that purpose."
The "Mermaid" Tavern, in Cheapside, about
the site of which there has been endless controversy, stood in Bread Street, with side entrances, as
Mr. Burn has shown, with admirable clearness, in
Friday Street and Bread Street; hence the disputes
Mr. Burn, in his book on "Tokens," says, "The
site of the 'Mermaid' is clearly defined, from the
circumstance of W. R., a haberdasher of small
wares, 'twixt Wood Street and Milk Street, adopting the sign, 'Over against the Mermaid Tavern
in Cheapside.'" The tavern was destroyed in the
Here Sir Walter Raleigh is, by one of the traditions, said to have instituted "The Mermaid Club."
Gifford, in his edition of "Ben Jonson," has thus
described the club:—"About this time (1603)
Jonson probably began to acquire that turn for
conviviality for which he was afterwards noted. Sir
Walter Raleigh, previously to his unfortunate
engagement with the wretched Cobham and others,
had instituted a meeting of beaux esprits at the
'Mermaid,' a celebrated tavern in Friday Street.
Of this club, which combined more talent and
genius than ever met together before or since, our
author was a member, and here for many years he
regularly repaired, with Shakespeare, Beaumont,
Fletcher, Selden, Cotton, Carew, Martin, Donne,
and many others, whose names, even at this distant
period, call up a mingled feeling of reverence and
respect." But this is doubted. A writer in the
Athenæum, Sept. 16, 1865, states:—"The origin
of the common tale of Raleigh founding the 'Mermaid Club,' of which Shakespeare is said to have
been a member, has not been traced. Is it older
than Gifford?" Again:—"Gifford's apparent invention of the 'Mermaid Club.' Prove to us that
Raleigh founded the 'Mermaid Club,' that the
wits attended it under his presidency, and you will
have made a real contribution to our knowledge of
Shakespeare's time, even if you fail to show that
our poet was a member of that club." The tradition, it is thought, must be added to the long list
of Shakespearian doubts.
But we nevertheless have a noble record left
of the wit combats here in the celebrated epistle
of Beaumont to Jonson:—
"Methinks the little wit I had is lost
Since I saw you; for wit is like a rest
Held up at tennis, which men do the best
With the best gamesters. What things have we seen
Done at the 'Mermaid?' Heard words that have been
So nimble, and so full of subtle flame,
As if that every one from whence they came
Had meant to put his whole wit in a jest,
And had resolved to live a fool the rest
Of his dull life. Then, when there hath been thrown
Wit able enough to justify the town
For three days past—wit that might warrant be
For the whole city to talk foolishly
Till that were cancelled; and when that was gone,
We left an air behind us, which alone
Was able to make the two next companies
Right witty; though but downright fools, more wise."
"Many," says Fuller, "were the wit combats
betwixt him (Shakespeare) and Ben Jonson, which
two I behold like a Spanish great galleon and an
English man-of-war. Master Jonson (like the
former) was built far higher in learning, solid, but
slow in his performances; Shakespeare, with the
English man-of-war, lesser in bulk, but lighter in
sailing, could turn with all tides, and take advantage
of all winds, by the quickness of his wit and
These combats, one is willing to think, although
without any evidence at all, took place at the
"Mermaid" on such evenings as Beaumont so
glowingly describes. But all we really know is
that Beaumont and Ben Jonson met at the "Mermaid," and Shakespeare might have been of the
company. Fuller, Mr. Charles Knight reminds us,
was only eight years old when Shakespeare died.
John Rastell, the brother-in-law of Sir Thomas
More, was a printer, living at the sign of the "Mermaid," in Cheapside. "The Pastyme of the People"
(folio, 1529) is described as "breuly copyled and
empryntyd in Chepesyde, at the sygne of the
'Mearemayd,' next to Pollys (Paul's) Gate." Stow
also mentions this tavern:—"They" (Coppinger
and Arthington, false prophets), says the historian,
"had purposed to have gone with the like cry and
proclamation, through other the chiefe parts of the
Citie; but the presse was so great, as that they
were forced to goe into a taverne in Cheape, at the
sign of the 'Mermayd,' the rather because a gentleman of his acquaintance plucked at Coppinger,
whilst he was in the cart, and blamed him for his
demeanour and speeches."
There was also a "Mermaid" in Cornhill.
In Bow Lane resided Thomas Coryat, an eccentric traveller of the reign of James I., and a
butt of Ben Jonson and his brother wits. In 1608
Coryat took a journey on foot through France,
Italy, Germany, &c., which lasted five months,
during which he had travelled 1,975 miles, more
than half upon one pair of shoes, which were
only once mended, and on his return were hung
up in the Church of Odcombe, in Somersetshire.
He published his travels under this title, "Crudities
hastily gobbled up in Five Months' Travels in
France, Savoy, Italy, Rhetia, Helvetia, some parts
of High Germany, and the Netherlands, 1611,"
4to; reprinted in 1776, 3 vols., 8vo. This work
was ushered into the world by an "Odcombian
banquet," consisting of near sixty copies of verses,
made by the best poets of that time, which, if
they did not make Coryat pass with the world
for a man of great parts and learning, contributed
not a little to the sale of his book. Among these
poets were Ben Jonson, Sir John Harrington, Inigo
Jones (the architect), Chapman, Donne, Drayton,
Parsons, an excellent comedian, also resided in
"A greater artist," says Dr. Doran, in "Her
Majesty's Servants," "than Baddeley left the stage
soon after him, in 1795, after three-and-thirty years
of service, namely, Parsons, the original 'Crabtree'
and 'Sir Fretful Plagiary,' 'Sir Christopher Curry,'
'Snarl' to Edwin's 'Sheepface,' and 'Lope Torry,'
in The Mountaineers. . . . . His forte lay
in old men, his pictures of whom, in all their
characteristics, passions, infirmities, cunning, or
imbecility, was perfect. When 'Sir Sampson Legand' says to 'Foresight,' 'Look up, old stargazer! Now is he poring on the ground for a
crooked pin, or an old horse-nail with the head
towards him!' " we are told there could not be a
finer illustration of the character which Congreve
meant to represent than Parsons showed at the time
in his face and attitude.
In Queen Street, on the south side of Cheapside,
stood Ringed Hall, the house of the Earls of
Cornwall, given by them, in Edward III.'s time, to
the Abbot of Beaulieu, near Oxford. Henry VIII.
gave it to Morgan Philip, alias Wolfe. Near it was
"Ipres Inn," built by William of Ipres, in King
Stephen's time, which continued in the same family
Stow says of Soper Lane, now Queen Street:—"Soper Lane, which lane took that name, not
of soap-making, as some have supposed, but of
Alleyne le Sopar, in the ninth of Edward II."
"In this Soper's Lane," Strype informs us, "the
pepperers anciently dwelt—wealthy tradesmen, who
dealt in spices and drugs. Two of this trade were
divers times mayors in the reign of Henry III.,
viz., Andrew Bocherel, and John de Gisorcio or
Gisors. In the reign of King Edward II., anno
1315, they came to be governed by rules and
orders, which are extant in one of the books of the
chamber under this title, 'Ordinatio Piperarum
de Soper's Lane.' " Sir Baptist Hicks, Viscount
Campden, of the time of James I., whose name is
preserved in Hicks's Hall, and Campden Hill,
Kensington, was a rich mercer, at the sign of the
"White Bear," at Soper Lane end, in Cheapside.
Strype says that "Sir Baptist was one of the first
citizens that, after knighthood, kept their shops,
and, being charged with it by some of the aldermen, he gave this answer, first—'That his servants
kept the shop, though he had a regard to the special
credit thereof; and that he did not live altogether
upon the interest, as most of the aldermen did,
laying aside their trade after knighthood.'"
The parish church of St. Syth, or Bennet Sherehog, or Shrog, "seemeth," says Stow, "to take
that name from one Benedict Shorne, some time a
citizen, and stock-fish monger, of London, a new
builder, repairer, or benefactor thereof, in the reign
of Edward II.; so that Shorne is but corruptly
called Shrog, and more correctly Shorehog, or (as
now) Sherehog." The following curious epitaph
is preserved by Stow:—
"Here lieth buried the body of Ann, the wife of John
Farrar, gentleman, and merchant adventurer of this city,
daughter of William Shepheard, of Great Rowlright, in the
county of Oxenford, Esqre. She departed this life the
twelfth day of July, An. Dom. 1613, being then about the
age of twenty-one yeeres.
"Here was a bud,
Beginning for her May;
Before her flower,
Death took her hence away.
But for what cause?
That friends might joy the more;
Where there hope is,
She flourisheth now before.
She is not lost,
But in those joyes remaine,
Where friends may see,
And joy in her againe."
"In the Church of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, there
do lie the remains," says Stow, "of Robert Packinton, merchant, slain with a gun, as he was going
to morrow mass from his house in Cheape to St.
Thomas of Acons, in the year 1536. The murderer
was never discovered, but by his own confession,
made when he came to the gallows at Banbury
to be hanged for felony."
The following epitaph is also worth giving:—
"Here lies a Mary, mirror of her sex,
For all that best their souls or bodies decks.
Faith, form, or fame, the miracle of youth;
For zeal and knowledge of the sacred truth.
For frequent reading of the Holy Writ,
For fervent prayer, and for practice fit.
For meditation full of use and art;
For humbleness in habit and in heart.
For pious, prudent, peaceful, praiseful life;
For all the duties of a Christian wife;
For patient bearing seven dead-bearing throws;
For one alive, which yet dead with her goes;
From Travers, her dear spouse, her father, Hayes,
Lord maior, more honoured in her virtuous praise."
"The Church of St. Thomas Apostle stood
where now the cemetery is," says Maitland, "in
Queen Street. It was of great antiquity, as is
manifest by the state thereof in the year 1181. The
parish is united to the Church of St. Mary Aldermary. There were five epitaphs in Greek and Latin
to 'Katherine Killigrew.' The best is by Andrew
"Of monuments of antiquity there were none left
undefaced, except some arms in the windows, which
were supposed to be the arms of John Barnes, mercer,
Maior of London in the year 1371, a great builder
thereof. A benefactor thereof was Sir William
Littlesbury, alias Horn (for King Edward IV. so
named him), because he was most excellent in a
horn. He was a salter and merchant of the staple,
mayor of London in 1487, and was buried in the
church, having appointed, by his testament, the
bells to be changed for four new ones of good tune
and sound; but that was not performed. He
gave five hundred marks towards repairing of highways between London and Cambridge. His dwelling-house, with a garden and appurtenances in the
said parish, he devised to be sold, and bestowed in
charitable actions. His house, called the 'George,'
in Bred Street, he gave to the salters; they to find
a priest in the said church, to have six pounds
thirteen and fourpence the year. To every preacher
at St. Paul's Cross, and at the Spittle, he left fourpence for ever; to the prisoners of Newgate, Ludgate, from rotation to King's Bench, in victuals, ten
shillings at Christmas, and ten shillings at Easter
for ever," which legacies, however, it appears, were