CHEAPSIDE TRIBUTARIES, NORTH:—WOOD STREET.
Wood Street—Pleasant Memories—St. Peter's in Chepe—St. Michael's and St. Mary Staining—St. Alban's, Wood Street—Some Quaint Epitaphs—Wood Street Compter and the Hapless Prisoners therein—Wood Street Painful, Wood Street Cheerful—Thomas Ripley—The Anabaptist
Rising—A Remarkable Wine Cooper—St. John Zachary and St. Anne-in-the-Willows—Haberdashers' Hall—Something about the Mercers.
Wood Street runs from Cheapside to London
Wall. Stow has two conjectures as to its name—first, that it was so called because the houses in it
were built all of wood, contrary to Richard I.'s
edict that London houses should be built of stone,
to prevent fire; secondly, that it was called after
one Thomas Wood, sheriff in 1491 (Henry VII.),
who dwelt in this street, was a benefactor to St.
Peter in Chepe, and built "the beautiful row of
houses over against Wood Street end."
At Cheapside Cross, which stood at the corner
of Wood Street, all royal proclamations used to be
read, even long after the cross was removed.
Thus, in 1666, we find Charles II.'s declaration of
war against Louis XIV. proclaimed by the officers
at arms, serjeants at arms, trumpeters, &c., at
Whitehall Gate, Temple Bar, the end of Chancery
Lane, Wood Street, Cheapside, and the Royal
Exchange. Huggin's Lane, in this street, derives
its name, as Stow tells us, from a London citizen
who dwelt here in the reign of Edward I., and was
called Hugan in the Lane.
That pleasant tree at the left-hand corner of Wood
Street, which has cheered many a weary business
man with memories of the fresh green fields far away,
was for long the residence of rooks, who built there.
In 1845 two fresh nests were built, and one is still
visible; but the sable birds deserted their noisy
town residence several years ago. Probably, as the
north of London was more built over, and such
feeding-grounds as Belsize Park turned to brick and
mortar, the birds found the fatigue of going miles
in search of food for their young unbearable, and
so migrated. Leigh Hunt, in one of his agreeable
books, remarks that there are few districts in
London where you will not find a tree. "A
child was shown us," says Leigh Hunt, "who was
said never to have beheld a tree but one in St.
Paul's Churchyard (now gone). Whenever a tree
was mentioned, it was this one; she had no conception of any other, not even of the remote tree
in Cheapside." This famous tree marks the site of
St. Peter in Chepe, a church destroyed by the
Great Fire. The terms of the lease of the low
houses at the west-end corner are said to forbid the
erection of another storey or the removal of the tree.
Whether this restriction arose from a love of the
tree, as we should like to think, we cannot say.
St. Peter's in Chepe is a rectory (says Stow),
"the church whereof stood at the south-west corner
of Wood Street, in the ward of Farringdon Within,
but of what antiquity I know not, other than that
Thomas de Winton was rector thereof in 1324."
The patronage of this church was anciently in
the Abbot and Convent of St. Albans, with whom
it continued till the suppression of their monastery,
when Henry VIII., in the year 1546, granted the
same to the Earl of Southampton. It afterwards
belonged to the Duke of Montague. This church
being destroyed in the fire and not rebuilt, the
parish is united to the Church of St. Matthew,
Friday Street. "In the year 1401," says Maitland,
"licence was granted to the inhabitants of this
parish to erect a shed or shop before their church in
Cheapside. On the site of this building, anciently
called the 'Long Shop,' are now erected four
shops, with rooms over them."
Wordsworth has immortalised Wood Street by
his plaintive little ballad—
THE REVERIE OF POOR SUSAN.
"At the corner of Wood Street, when daylight appears,
Hangs a thrush that sings loud, it has sung for three years;
Poor Susan has passed by the spot, and has heard
In the silence of morning the song of the bird.
"'Tis a note of enchantment; what ails her? she sees
A mountain ascending, a vision of trees;
Bright volumes of vapour through Lothbury glide,
And a river flows on through the vale of Cheapside.
"Green pastures she views in the midst of the dale,
Down which she so often has tripped with her pail;
And a single small cottage, a nest like a dove's,
The one only dwelling on earth that she loves.
"She looks, and her heart is in heaven; but they fade,
The mist and the river, the hill and the shade;
The stream will not flow, and the hill will not rise,
And the colours have all passed away from her eyes."
Perhaps some summer morning the poet, passing
down Cheapside, saw the plane-tree at the corner
wave its branches to him as a friend waves a hand,
and at that sight there passed through his mind an
imagination of some poor Cumberland servant-girl
toiling in London, and regretting her far-off home
among the pleasant hills.
St. Michael's, Wood Street, is a rectory situated
on the west side of Wood Street, in the ward of
Cripplegate Within. John de Eppewell was rector
thereof before the year 1328. "The patronage was
anciently in the Abbot and Convent of St. Albans,
in whom it continued till the suppression of their
monastery, when, coming to the Crown, it was,
with the appurtenances, in the year 1544, sold by
Henry VIII. to William Barwell, who, in the year
1588, conveyed the same to John Marsh and
others, in trust for the parish, in which it still
continues." Being destroyed in the Great Fire, it
was rebuilt, in 1675, from the designs of Sir
Christopher Wren. At the east end four Ionic
pillars support an entablature and pediment, and
the three circular-headed windows are well proportioned. The south side faces Huggin Lane, but
the tower and spire are of no interest. The interior
of the church is a large parallelogram, with an ornamented carved ceiling. In 1831 the church was
repaired and the tower thrown open. The altarpiece represents Moses and Aaron. The vestrybooks date from the beginning of the sixteenth
century, and contain, among others, memoranda of
parochial rejoicings, such as—"1620. Nov. 9. Paid
for ringing and a bonfire, 4s."
The Church of St. Mary Staining being destroyed
in the Great Fire, the parish was annexed to that
of St. Michael's. The following is the most curious
of the monumental inscriptions:—
"John Casey, of this parish, whose dwelling was
In the north-corner house as to Lad Lane you pass;
For better knowledge, the name it hath now
Is called and known by the name of the Plow;
Out of that house yearly did geeve
Twenty shillings to the poore, their neede to releeve;
Which money the tenant must yearlie pay
To the parish and churchwardens on St. Thomas' Day.
The heire of that house, Thomas Bowrman by name,
Hath since, by his deed, confirmed the same;
Whose love to the poore doth hereby appear,
And after his death shall live many a yeare.
Therefore in your life do good while yee may,
That when meagre death shall take yee away;
You may live like form'd as Casey and Bowrman—
For he that doth well shall never be a poore man."
Here was also a monument to Queen Elizabeth,
with this inscription, found in many other London
"Here lyes her type, who was of late
The prop of Belgia, stay of France,
Spaine's foile, Faith's shield, and queen of State,
Of arms, of learning, fate and chance.
In brief, of women ne'er was seen
So great a prince, so good a queen.
"Sith Vertue her immortal made,
Death, envying all that cannot dye,
Her earthly parts did so invade
As in it wrackt self-majesty.
But so her spirits inspired her parts,
That she still lives in loyal hearts."
There was buried here (but without any outward
monument) the head of James, the fourth King of
Scots, slain at Flodden Field. After the battle, the
body of the said king being found, was closed in
lead, and conveyed from thence to London, and
so to the monastery of Shene, in Surrey, where it
remained for a time. "But since the dissolution of
that house," says Stow, "in the reign of Edward VI.,
Henry Gray, Duke of Suffolk, lodged and kept
house there. I have been shown the said body, so
lapped in lead. The head and body were thrown
into a waste room, amongst the old timber, lead,
and other rubble; since which time workmen
there, for their foolish pleasure, hewed off his head;
and Launcelot Young, master glazier to Queen
Elizabeth, feeling a sweet savour to come from
thence, and seeing the same dried from moisture,
and yet the form remaining with the hair of the
head and beard red, brought it to London, to his
house in Wood Street, where for a time he kept it
for the sweetness, but in the end caused the sexton
of that church to bury it amongst other bones taken
out of their charnel."
"The parish church of St. Michael, in Wood
Street, is a proper thing," says Strype, "and lately
well repaired; John Iue, parson of this church,
John Forster, goldsmith, and Peter Fikelden, taylor,
gave two messuages and shops, in the same parish
and street, and in Ladle Lane, to the reparation of
the church, the 16th of Richard II. In the year
1627 the parishioners made a new door to this
church into Wood Street, where till then it had
only one door, standing in Huggin Lane."
St. Mary Staining, in Wood Street, destroyed
by the Great Fire, stood on the north side of Oat
Lane, in the Ward of Aldersgate Within. "The
additional epithet of staining," says Maitland, "is
as uncertain as the time of the foundation; some
imagining it to be derived from the painters' stainers,
who probably lived near it; and others from its being
built with stone, to distinguish it from those in the
City that were built with wood. The advowson of
the rectory anciently belonged to the Prioress and
Convent of Clerkenwell, in whom it continued till
their suppression by Henry VIII., when it came to
the Crown. The parish, as previously observed,
is now united to St. Michael's, Wood Street. That
this church is not of a modern foundation, is manifest from John de Lukenore's being rector thereof
before the year 1328.
St. Alban's, Wood Street, in the time of Paul,
the fourteenth Abbot of St. Alban's, belonged to
the Verulam monastery, but in 1077 the abbot
exchanged the right of presentation to this church
for the patronage of one belonging to the Abbot of
Westminster. Matthew Paris says that this Wood
Street Church was the chapel of King Offa, the
founder of St. Alban's Abbey, who had a palace
near it. Stow says it was of great antiquity, and
that Roman bricks were visible here and there
among the stones. Maitland thinks it probable
that it was one of the first churches built by Alfred
in London after he had driven out the Danes.
The right of presentation to the church was
originally possessed by the master, brethren, and
sisters of St. James's Leper Hospital (site of St.
James's Palace), and after the death of Henry VI.
it was vested in the Provost and Fellows of Eton
College. In the reign of Charles II. the parish
was united to that of St. Olave, Silver Street, and
the right of presentation is now exercised alternately by Eton College and the Dean and Chapter
of St. Paul's. The style of the interior of the
church is late pointed. The windows appear
older than the rest of the building. The ceiling in
the nave exhibits bold groining, and the general
effect is not unpleasing.
WOOD STREET COMPTER. From a View published in 1793. (See page 368.)
"One note of the great antiquity of this church,"
says Seymour, "is the name, by which it was first
dedicated to St. Alban, the first martyr of England. Another character of the antiquity of it is
to be seen in the manner of the turning of the
arches to the windows, and the heads of the pillars.
A third note appears in the Roman bricks, here
and there inlaid amongst the stones of the building.
Very probable it is that this church is, at least, of
as ancient a standing as King Adelstane, the Saxon,
who, as tradition says, had his house at the east
end of this church. This king's house, having
a door also into Adel Street, in this parish, gave
name, as 'tis thought, to the said Adel Street,
which, in all evidences, to this day is written King
Adel Street. One great square tower of this king's
house seemed, in Stow's time, to be then remaining,
and to be seen at the north corner of Love Lane,
as you come from Aldermanbury, which tower was
of the very same stone and manner of building
with St. Alban's Church."
About the commencement of the seventeenth
century St. Alban's, being in a state of great
decay, was surveyed by Sir Henry Spiller and Inigo
Jones, and in accordance with their advice, apparently, in 1632 it was pulled down, and rebuilt
anno 1634; but, perishing in the flames of 1666,
it was re-erected as it now appears, and finished
in the year 1688, from Wren's design.
THE TREE AT THE CORNER OF WOOD STREET.
In the old church were the following epitaphs:—
"Of William Wilson, Joane his wife,
And Alice, their daughter deare,
These lines were left to give report
These three lye buried here;
And Alice was Henry Decon's wife,
Which Henry lives on earth,
And is the Serjeant Plummer
To Queen Elizabeth.
With whom this Alice left issue here,
His virtuous daughter Joan,
To be his comfort everywhere
Now joyfull Alice is gone.
And for these three departed soules,
Gone up to joyfull blisse,
Th' almighty praise be given to God,
To whom the glory is."
Over the grave of Anne, the wife of Laurence
Gibson, gentleman, were the following verses, which
are worth mentioning here:—
"MENTS VIS MAGNA.
"What! is she dead?
Doth he survive?
No; both are dead,
And both alive.
She lives, hee's dead,
By love, though grieving,
In him, for her,
Yet dead, yet living;
Both dead and living,
Then what is gone?
One half of both,
Not any one.
One mind, one faith,
One hope, one grave,
In life, in death,
They had and still they have."
The pulpit (says Seymour) is finely carved with
an enrichment, in imitation of fruit and leaves;
and the sound-board is a hexagon, having round it
a fine cornice, adorned with cherubims and other
embellishments, and the inside is neatly finniered.
The altar-piece is very ornamental, consisting of
four columns, fluted with their bases, pedestals,
entablature, and open pediment of the Corinthian
order; and over each column, upon acroters, is
a lamp with a gilded taper. Between the inner
columns are the Ten Commandments, done in gold
letters upon black. Between the two, northward,
is the Lord's Prayer, and the two southward the
Creed, done in gold upon blue. Over the commandments is a Glory between two cherubims,
and above the cornice the king's arms, with the
supporters, helmet, and crest, richly carved, under
a triangular pediment; and on the north and south
side of the above described ornaments are two
large cartouches, all of which parts are carved in
fine wainscot. The church is well paved with oak,
and here are two large brass branches and a marble
font, having enrichments of cherubims, &c.
In a curious brass frame, attached to a tall
stem, opposite the pulpit is an hour-glass, by
which the preacher could measure his sermon and
test his listeners' patience. The hour-glass at St.
Dunstan's, Fleet Street, was taken down in 1723,
and two heads for the parish staves made out of
Wood Street Compter (says Cunningham) was first
established in 1555, when, on the Feast of St.
Michael the Archangel in that year, the prisoners
were removed from the Old Compter in Bread Street
to the New Compter in Wood Street, Cheapside.
This compter was burnt down in the Great Fire,
but was rebuilt in 1670. It stood on the east
side of the street, and was removed to Giltspur
Street in 1791. There were two compters in
London—the compter in Wood Street, under the
control of one of the sheriffs, and the compter in
the Poultry, under the superintendence of the
other. Under each sheriff was a secondary, a
clerk of the papers, four clerk sitters, eighteen
serjeants-at-mace (each serjeant having his yeomen),
a master keeper, and two turnkeys. The serjeants
wore blue and coloured cloth gowns, and the words
of arrest were, "Sir, we arrest you in the King's
Majesty's name, and we charge you to obey us."
There were three sides—the master's side, the
dearest of all; the knights' ward, a little cheaper;
and the Hole, the cheapest of all. The register of
entries was called the Black Book. Garnish was
demanded at every step, and the Wood Street
Compter was hung with the story of the prodigal
When the Wood Street counter gate was opened,
the prisoner's name was enrolled in the black book,
and he was asked if he was for the master's side,
the Knight's ward, or the Hole. At every fresh
door a fee was demanded, the stranger's hat or cloak
being detained if he refused to pay the extortion,
which, in prison language, was called "garnish."
The first question to a new prisoner was, whether
he was in by arrest or command; and there was
generally some knavish attorney in a threadbare
black suit, who, for forty shillings, would offer to
move for a habeas corpus, and have him out
presently, much to the amusement of the villanouslooking men who filled the room, some smoking
and some drinking. At dinner a vintner's boy,
who was in waiting, filled a bowl full of claret,
and compelled the new prisoner to drink to all
the society; and the turnkeys, who were dining
in another room, then demanded another tester
for a quart of wine to quaff to the new comer's
At the end of a week, when the prisoner's purse
grew thin, he was generally compelled to pass over
to the knight's side, and live in a humbler and
more restricted manner. Here a fresh garnish of
eighteen pence was demanded, and if this was
refused, he was compelled to sleep over the drain;
or, if he chose, to sit up, to drink and smoke in
the cellar with vile companions till the keepers
ordered every man to his bed.
Fennor, an actor in 1617 (James I.), wrote a
curious pamphlet on the abuses of this compter.
"For what extreme extortion," says the angry writer,
"is it when a gentleman is brought in by the watch
for some misdemeanour committed, that he must
pay at least an angell before he be discharged; hee
must pay twelvepence for turning the key at the
master-side dore two shillings to the chamberleine,
twelvepence for his garnish for wine, tenpence for
his dinner, whether he stay or no, and when he
comes to be discharged at the booke, it will cost
at least three shillings and sixpence more, besides
sixpence for the booke-keeper's paines, and sixpence for the porter. . . . And if a gentleman
stay there but one night, he must pay for his
garnish sixteene pence, besides a groate for his
lodging, and so much for his sheetes. . . When
a gentleman is upon his discharge, and hath given
satisfaction for his executions, they must have fees
for irons, three halfepence in the pound, besides the
other fees, so that if a man were in for a thousand
or fifteene hundred pound execution, they will if a
man is so madde have so many three halfepence.
"This little Hole is as a little citty in a commonwealth, for as in a citty there are all kinds of
officers, trades, and vocations, so there is in this
place, as we may make a pretty resemblance
between them. In steede of a Lord Maior, we
have a master steward to over-see and correct all
misdemeanours as shall arise. . . . And lastly,
as in a city there is all kinds of trades, so is there
heere, for heere you shall see a cobler sitting
mending olde showes, and singing as merrily as if
hee were under a stall abroad; not farre from him
you shall see a taylor sit crosse-legged (like a witch)
on his cushion, theatning the ruine of our fellow
prisoner, the Ægyptian vermine; in another place
you may behold a saddler empannelling all his
wits together how to patch this Scotchpadde
handsomely, or mend the old gentlewoman's
crooper that was almost burst in pieces. You
may have a phisition here, that for a bottle of sack
will undertake to give you as good a medicine for
melancholly as any doctor will for five pounds.
Besides, if you desire to bee remouved before a
judge, you shall have a tinker-like attorney not farre
distant from you, that in stopping up one hole in
a broken cause, will make twenty before hee hath
made an end, and at last will leave you in prison as
bare of money as he himself is of honesty. Heere
is your cholericke cooke that will dresse our meate,
when wee can get any, as well as any greasie scullion in Fleet Lane or Pye Corner."
At 25, Silver Street, Wood Street, is the hall of
one of the smaller City companies—the Parish
Clerks of London, Westminster, Borough of Southwark, and fifteen out parishes, with their master
wardens and fellows. This company was incorporated as early as Henry III. (1233), by the name
of the Fraternity of St. Nicholas, an ominous name,
for "St. Nicholas's clerk" was a jocose nom de guerre
for highwaymen. The first hall of the fraternity stood
in Bishopsgate Street, the second in Broad Lane, in
Vintry Ward. The fraternity was re-incorporated
by James I. in 1611, and confirmed by Charles I.
in 1636. The hall contains a few portraits, and in
a painted glass window, David playing on the harp,
St. Cecilia at the organ, &c. The parish clerks
were the actors in the old miracle plays, the parish
clerks of our churches dating only from the commencement of the Reformation. The "Bills of
Mortality" were commenced by the Parish Clerks'
Company in 1592, who about 1625 were licensed
by the Star Chamber to keep a printing-press in
their hall for printing the bills, valuable for their
warning of the existence or progress of the plague.
The "Weekly Bill" of the Parish Clerks has, however, been superseded by the "Tables of Mortality in
the Metropolis," issued weekly from the RegistrarGeneral's Office, at Somerset House, since July
1st, 1837. The Parish Clerks' Company neither
confer the freedom of the City, nor the hereditary
There is a large gold refinery in Wood Street,
through whose doors three tons of gold a day have
been known to pass. Australian gold is here cast
into ingots, value £800 each. This gold is one carat
and three quarters above the standard, and when the
first two bars of Australian gold were sent to the
Bank of England they were sent back, as their wonderful purity excited suspicion. For refining, the
gold is boiled fifteen minutes, poured off into
hand moulds 18 pounds troy weight, strewn with
ivory black, and then left to cool. You see here
the stalwart men wedging apart great bars of silver
for the melting pots. The silver is purified in
a blast-furnace, and mixed with nitric acid in platinum crucibles, that cost from £700 to £1,000
apiece. The bars of gold are stamped with a
trade-mark, and pieces are cut off each ingot to
be sent to the assayer for his report.
"I read in divers records," says Stow, "of a house
in Wood Street then called 'Black Hall;' but no
man at this day can tell thereof. In the time of
King Richard II., Sir Henry Percy, the son and
heir of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, had
a house in 'Wodstreate,' in London (whether
this Black Hall or no, it is hard to trace), wherein
he treated King Richard, the Duke of Lancaster,
the Duke of York, the Earl Marshal, and his father,
the Earl of Northumberland, with others, at
The "Rose," in Wood Street, was a sponginghouse, well known to the rakehells and spendthrifts of Charles II.'s time. "I have been too
lately under their (the bailiffs') clutches," says Tom
Brown, "to desire any more dealings with them,
and I cannot come within a furlong of the 'Rose'
sponging-house without five or six yellow-boys in my
pocket to cast out those devils there, who would
otherwise infallibly take possession of me."
The "Mitre," an old tavern in Wood Street, was
kept in Charles II.'s time by William Proctor, who
died insolvent in 1665. "18th Sept., 1660," Pepys
says, "to the 'Miter Taverne,' in Wood Street (a
house of the greatest note in London). Here some
of us fell to handycap, a sport that I never knew
before." And again, "31st July, 1665. Proctor,
the vintner, of the 'Miter,' in Wood Street, and
his son, are dead this morning of the plague; he
having laid out abundance of money there, and
was the greatest vintner for some time in London
for great entertainments."
In early life Thomas Ripley, afterwards a celebrated architect, kept a carpenter's shop and coffee
house in Wood Street. Marrying a servant of Sir
Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister of George I.,
this lucky pushing man soon
obtained work from the Crown
and a seat at the Board of
Works, and supplanted that
great genius who built St.
Paul's, to the infinite disgrace
of the age. Ripley built the
Admiralty, and Houghton
Hall, Norfolk, for his early
patron, Walpole, and died
rich in 1758.
PULPIT HOUR-GLASS (see page 368).
Wood Street is associated
with that last extraordinary
outburst of the Civil War
rising in January, 1661.
On Sunday, January 6,
1661, we read in "Somers'
Tracts," "these monsters
assembled at their meetinghouse, in Coleman Street,
where they armed themselves,
and sallying thence, came to
St. Paul's in the dusk of
the evening, and there, after
ordering their small party, placed sentinels, one of
whom killed a person accidentally passing by, because he said he was for God and King Charles
when challenged by him. This giving the alarm,
and some parties of trained bands charging them,
and being repulsed, they marched to Bishopsgate,
thence to Cripplegate and Aldersgate, where, going
out, in spite of the constables and watch, they declared for King Jesus. Proceeding to Beech Lane,
they killed a headborough, who would have opposed
them. It was observed that all they shot, though
never so slightly wounded, died. Then they hasted
away to Cane Wood, where they lurked, resolved
to make another effort upon the City, but were
drove thence, and routed by a party of horse and
foot, sent for that purpose, about thirty being taken
and brought before General Monk, who committed
them to the Gate House.
"Nevertheless, the others who had escaped out
of the wood returned to London, not doubting
of success in their enterprise; Venner, a winecooper by trade, and their head, affirming, he was
assured that no weapons employed against them
would prosper, nor a hair of their head be touched;
which their coming off at first so well made them
willing to believe. These fellows had taken the
opportunity of the king's being gone to Portsmouth, having before made a disposition for drawing
to them of other desperate rebels, by publishing a
declaration called, 'A Door of Hope Opened,'
full of abominable slanders
against the whole royal family.
"On Wednesday morning,
January 9, after the watches
and guards were dismissed,
they resumed their first enterprise. The first appearance
was in Threadneedle Street,
where they alarmed the trained
bands upon duty that day,
and drove back a party sent
after them, to their main
guard, which then marched in
a body towards them. The
Fifth Monarchists retired into
Bishopsgate Street, where some
of them took into an alehouse, known by the sign of
'The Helmet,' where, after a
sharp dispute, two were killed,
and as many taken, the same
number of the trained bands
being killed and wounded.
The next sight of them (for
they vanished and appeared
again on a sudden), was at College Hill, which
way they went into Cheapside, and so into Wood
Street, Venner leading them, with a morrion on his
head and a halbert in his hand. Here was the
main and hottest action, for they fought stoutly
with the Trained Bands, and received a charge
from the Life Guards, whom they obliged to give
way, until, being overpowered, and Venner knocked
down and wounded and shot, Tufney and Crag,
two others of their chief teachers, being killed by
him, they began to give ground, and soon after
dispersed, flying outright and taking several ways.
The greatest part of them went down Wood Street
to Cripplegate, firing in the rear at the Yellow
Trained Bands, then in close pursuit of them. Ten
of them took into the 'Blue Anchor' ale-house,
near the postern, which house they maintained until
Lieutenant-Colonel Cox, with his company, secured
all the avenues to it. In the meantime, some of the
aforesaid Yellow Trained Bands got upon the tiles
of the next house, which they threw off, and fired
in upon the rebels who were in the upper room,
and even then refused quarter. At the same time,
another file of musketeers got up the stairs, and
having shot down the door, entered upon them.
Six of them were killed before, another wounded,
and one, refusing quarter, was knocked down, and
afterwards shot. The others being asked why
they had not begged quarter before, answered they
durst not, for fear their own fellows should shoot
The upshot of this insane revolt of a handful of
men was that twenty-two king's men were killed,
and twenty-two of the fanatics, proving the fighting
to have been hard. Twenty were taken, and nine
or ten hung, drawn, and quartered. Venner,
the leader, who was wounded severely, and some
others, were drawn on sledges, their quarters were
set on the four gates, and their heads stuck on
poles on London Bridge. Two more were hung
at the west end of St. Paul's, two at the Royal
Exchange, two at the Bull and Mouth, two in
Beech Lane, one at Bishopsgate, and another, captured later, was hung at Tyburn, and his head set
on a pole in Whitechapel.
The texts these Fifth Monarchy men chiefly
relied on were these:—"He shall use his people,
in his hand as his battle-axe and weapon of war,
for the bringing in the kingdoms of this world into
subjection to Him."A few Scriptures (and but
a few) as to this, Isa. xli. 14th verse; but more
especially the 15th and 16th verses. The prophet,
speaking of Jacob, saith: "Behold, I will make
thee a new sharp threshing instrument, having
teeth; thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat
them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff; thou
shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them
"Maiden Lane," says Stow, "formerly Engine
Lane, is a good, handsome, well-built, and inhabited street. The east end falleth into Wood
Street. At the north-east corner, over against
Goldsmiths' Hall, stood the parish church of St.
John Zachary, which since the dreadful fire is not
rebuilt, but the parish united unto St. Ann's, Aldersgate, the ground on which it stood, enclosed within
a wall, serving as a burial-place for the parish."
The old Goldsmiths' Church of St. John Zachary,
Maiden Lane, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not
rebuilt, stood at the north-west corner of Maiden
Lane, in the Ward of Aldersgate; the parish is
annexed to that of St. Anne. Among other
epitaphs in this church, Stow gives the following:—
"Here lieth the body of John Sutton, citizen, goldsmith,
and alderman of London; who died 6th July, 1450. This
brave and worthy alderman was killed in the defence of the
City, in the bloody nocturnal battle on London Bridge,
against the infamous Jack Cade, and his army of Kentish
"Here lieth William Brekespere, of London, some time
Goldsmith and alderman, the Commonwele attendant,
With Margaryt his Dawter, late wyff of Suttoon,
And Thomas, hur Sonn, yet livyn undyr Goddy's tuitioon.
The tenth of July he made his transmigration.
She disissyd in the yer of Grase of Chryst's Incarnation,
A Thowsand Four hundryd Threescor and oon.
God assoyl their Sowls whose Bodys lye undyr this Stoon."
This church was rated to pay a certain annual
sum to the canons of St. Paul's, about the year
1181, at which time it was denominated St. John
Baptist's, as appears from a grant thereof from the
Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's to one Zachary,
whose name it probably received to distinguish
it from one of the same name in Walbrook.
St. Anne in the Willows was a church destroyed
by the Great Fire, rebuilt by Wren, and united
to the parish of St. John Zachary. "It is so
called," says Stow, "some say of willows growing
thereabouts; but now there is no such void place
for willows to grow, more than the church-yard,
wherein grow some high ash-trees."
"This church, standing," says Strype, "in the
church-yard, is planted before with lime-trees that
flourish there. So that as it was formerly called
St. Anne-in-the-Willows, it may now be called St.
St. Anne can be traced back as far as 1332.
The patronage was anciently in the Dean and
Canons of St. Martin's-le-Grand, in whose gift
it continued till Henry VII. annexed that Collegiate Church, with its appendages, to the Abbey
of Westminster. In 1553 Queen Mary gave it to
the Bishop of London and his successors. One
of the monuments here bears the following inscription:—
"Peter Heiwood, younger son of Peter Heiwood, one of
the counsellors of Jamaica, by Grace, daughter of Sir John
Muddeford, Kt. and Bart., great-grandson to Peter Heiwood, of Heywood, in County Palatine of Lancaster, who
apprehended Guy Faux with his dark lanthorn, and for his
zealous prosecution of Papists, as Justice of the Peace, was
stabbed in Westminster Hall by John James, a Dominican
Friar, An. Dom. 1640. Obiit, Novr. 2, 1701.
"Reader, if not a Papist bred,
Upon such ashes gently tred."
The site of Haberdashers' Hall, in Maiden
Lane, opposite Goldsmiths' Hall, was bequeathed
to the Company by William Baker, a London
haberdasher, in 1478 (Edward IV.). In the old
hall, destroyed by the Great Fire, the Parliament
Commissioners held their meetings during the
Commonwealth, and many a stern decree of confiscation was there grimly signed. In this hall
there are some good portraits. The Haberdashers'
Company have many livings and exhibitions in
their gift; and almhouses at Hoxton, Monmouth,
Newland (Gloucestershire), and Newport (Shropshire; schools in Bunhill Row, Monmouth, and
Newport; and they lend sums of £50 or £100
to struggling young men of their own trade.
INTERIOR OF ST. MICHAEL'S, WOOD STREET (see page 365).
The haberdashers were originally a branch of
the mercers, dealing like them in merceries or
small wares. Lydgate, in his ballad, describes the
mercers' and haberdashers' stalls as side by side in
the mercery in Chepe. In the reign of Henry VI.,
when first incorporated, they divided into two
fraternities, St. Catherine and St. Nicholas. The
one being hurrers, cappers, or haberdashers of hats;
the other, haberdashers of ribands, laces, and small
wares only. The latter were also called milliners,
from their selling such merchandise as brooches,
agglets, spurs, capes, glasses, and pins. "In the
early part of Elizabeth's reign,"says Herbert, "upwards of £60,000 annually was paid to foreign
merchants for pins alone, but before her death
pins were made in England, and in the reign of
James I. the pinmakers obtained a charter."
In the reign of Henry VII. the two societies
united. Queen Elizabeth granted them their arms:
Barry nebule of six, argent and azure on a bend
gules, a lion passant gardant; crest or, a helmet
and torse, two arms supporting a laurel proper and
issuing out of a cloud argent. Supporters, two
Indian goats argent, attired and hoofed or; motto,
"Serve and Obey." Maitland describes their
annual expenditure in charity as £3,500. The
number of the Company consists of one master,
four wardens, forty-five assistants, 360 livery, and
a large company of freemen. This Company is the
eighth in order of the chief twelve City Companies.
INTERIOR OF HABERDASHERS' HALL.
In the reign of Edward VI. there were not more
than a dozen milliner's shops in all London, but in
1580 the dealers in foreign luxuries had so increased
as to alarm the frugal and the philosophic. These
dealers sold French and Spanish gloves, French
cloth and frieze, Flemish kersies, daggers, swords,
knives, Spanish girdles, painted cruises, dials,
tablets, cards, balls, glasses, fine earthen pots, saltcellars, spoons, tin dishes, puppets, pennons, inkhorns, tooth-picks, fans, pomanders, silk, and silver
The Haberdashers were incorporated by a Charter
of Queen Elizabeth in 1578. The Court books
extend to the time of Charles I. only. Their
charters exist in good preservation. In their
chronicles we have only a few points to notice.
In 1466 they sent two of their members to attend
the coronation of Elizabeth, queen of Edward IV.,
and they also were represented at the coronation
of the detestable Richard III. Like the other
Companies, the Haberdashers were much oppressed
during the time of Charles I. and the Commonwealth, during which they lost nearly £50,000.
The Company's original bye-laws having been
burnt in the Great Fire, a new code was drawn
up, which in 1675 was sanctioned by Lord Chancellor Finch, Sir Matthew Hale, and Sir Francis
The dining-hall is a lofty and spacious room.
About ten years since it was much injured by
fire, but has been since restored and handsomely
decorated. Over the screen at the lower end is
a music gallery, and the hall is lighted from above
by six sun-burners. Among the portraits in the
edifice are whole lengths of William Adams, Esq.,
founder of the grammar school and almshouses at
Newport, in Shropshire; Jerome Knapp, Esq., a
former Master of the Company; and Micajah
Perry, Esq., Lord Mayor in 1739; a half-length
of George Whitmore, Esq., Lord Mayor in 1631;
Sir Hugh Hammersley, Knight, Lord Mayor in
1627; Mr. Thomas Aldersey, merchant, of Banbury, in Cheshire, who, in 1594, vested a considerable estate in this Company for charitable uses;
Mr. William Jones, merchant adventurer, who bequéathed £18,000 for benevolent purposes; and
Robert Aske, the worthy founder of the Haberdashers' Hospital at Hoxton.
Gresham Street, that intersects Wood Street,
was formerly called Lad or Ladle Lane, and
part of it Maiden Lane, from a shop sign of the
Virgin. It is written Lad Lane in a chronicle
of Edward IV.'s time, published by Sir Harris
Nicolas, page 98. The "Swan with Two Necks,"
in Lad Lane, was for a century and more, till
railways ruined stage and mail coach travelling,
the booking office and head-quarters of coaches to
Love Lane was so named from the wantons
who once infested it. The Cross Keys Inn derived
its name from the bygone Church of St. Peter
before mentioned. As there are traditions of Saxon
kings once dwelling in Foster Lane, so in Gutter
Lane we find traditions of some Danish celebrities.
"Gutter Lane," says Stow, that patriarch of London
topography, "was so called by Guthurun, some
time owner thereof." In a manuscript chronicle of
London, written in the reign of Edward IV., and
edited by Sir N. H. Nicolas, it is called "Goster
Brewers' Hall, No. 19, Addle Street, Wood Street,
Cheapside, is a modern edifice, and contains, among
other pictures, a portrait of Dame Alice Owen,
who narrowly escaped death from an archer's stray
arrow while walking in Islington fields, in gratitude
for which she founded an hospital. In the hall
window is some old painted glass. The Brewers
were incorporated in 1438. The quarterage in this
Company is paid on the quantity of malt consumed
by its members. In 1851 a handsome schoolhouse was built for the Company, in Trinity Square,
In 1422 Whittington laid an information before
his successor in the mayoralty, Robert Childe,
against the Brewers' Company, for selling dear ale,
when they were convicted in the penalty of £20;
and the masters were ordered to be kept in prison
in the chamberlain's custody until they paid it.