THROGMORTON STREET.—THE DRAPERS' COMPANY.
Halls of the Drapers' Company—Throgmorton Street and its many Fair Houses—Drapers and Wool Merchants—The Drapers in Olden Times—Milborne's Charity—Dress and Livery—Election Dinner of the Drapers' Company—A Draper's Funeral—Ordinances and Pensions—Fifty—three Draper Mayors—Pageants and Processions of the Drapers—Charters—Details of the present Drapers' Hall—Arms of the Drapers'
Throgmorton Street is at the north-east corner
of the Bank of England, and was so called after
Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, who is said to have
been poisoned by Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Queen
Elizabeth's favourite. There is a monument to his
memory in the Church of St. Catherine Cree.
The Drapers' first Hall, according to Herbert,
was in Cornhill; the second was in Throgmorton
Street, to which they came in 1541 (Henry VIII.),
on the beheading of Cromwell, Earl of Essex, its
previous owner; and the present structure was reerected on its site, after the Great Fire of London.
Stow, describing the Augustine Friars' Church,
says there have been built at its west end "many
feyre houses, namely, in Throgmorton Street;"
and among the rest, "one very large and spacious,"
builded, he says, "in place of olde and small tenements, by Thomas Cromwell, minister of the King's
jewell-house, after that Maister of the Rolls, then
Lord Cromwell, Knight, Lord Privie Seale, VickerGenerall, Earle of Essex, High Chamberlain of
England, &c.;" and he then tells the following
story respecting it:—
"This house being finished, and having some
reasonable plot of ground left for a garden, hee
caused the pales of the gardens adjoining to the
north parte thereof, on a sodaine, to bee taken
down, twenty-two foote to be measured forth right
into the north of every man's ground, a line there
to be drawne, a trench to be cast, a foundation
laid, and a high bricke wall to be builded. My
father had a garden there, and an house standing
close to his south pale; this house they loosed
from the ground, and bore upon rollers into my
father's garden, twenty-two foot, ere my father
heard thereof. No warning was given him, nor
other answere, when hee spoke to the surveyors of
that worke, but that their mayster, Sir Thomas,
commanded them so to doe; no man durst go
to argue the matter, but each man lost his land,
and my father payde his whole rent, whiche was
vjs. viijd the yeare, for that halfe which was left.
Thus much of mine owne knowledge have I
thought goode to note, that the sodaine rising of
some men causeth them to forget themselves."
("Survaie of London," 1598.)
INTERIOR OF DRAPERS' HALL.
The Company was incorporated in 1439 (Henry
VI.), but it also possesses a charter granted them
by Edward III., that they might regulate the sale
of cloths according to the statute. Drapers were
originally makers, not merely, as now, dealers in
cloth. (Herbert.) The country drapers were called
clothiers; the wool-merchants, staplers. The Britons and Saxons were both, according to the best
authorities, familiar with the art of cloth-making;
but the greater part of English wool, from the
earliest times, seems to have been sent to the
Netherlands, and from thence returned in the shape
of fine cloth, since we find King Ethelred, as early
as 967, exacting from the Easterling merchants of
the Steel Yard, in Thames Street, tolls of cloth,
which were paid at Billingsgate.
The width of woollen cloth is prescribed in
Magna Charta. There was a weavers' guild in the
reign of Henry I., and the drapers are mentioned
soon after as flourishing in all the large provincial
cities. It is supposed that the cloths sold by such
drapers were red, green, and scarlet cloths, made
in Flanders. In the next reign English cloths,
made of Spanish wool, are spoken of. Drapers
are recorded in the reign of Henry II. as paying
fines to the king for permission to sell dyed
cloths. In the same reign, English cloths made
of Spanish wool are mentioned. In the reign
of Edward I., the cloth of Candlewick Street
(Cannon Street) was famous. The guild paid the
king two marks of gold every year at the feast of
DRAPERS' HALL GARDEN.
But Edward III., jealous of the Netherlands,
set to work to establish the English cloth manufacture. He forbade the exportation of English wool,
and invited over seventy Walloon weaver families,
who settled in Cannon Street. The Flemings had
their meeting-place in St. Lawrence Poultney churchyard, and the Brabanters in the churchyard of St.
Mary Somerset. In 1361 the king removed the
wool staple from Calais to Westminster and nine
English towns. In 1378 Richard II. again changed
the wool staple from Westminster to Staples' Inn,
Holborn; and in 1397 a weekly cloth-market was
established at Blackwell Hall, Basinghall Street;
the London drapers at first opposing the right of
the country clothiers to sell in gross.
The drapers for a long time lingered about
Cornhill, where they had first settled, living in
Birchin Lane, and spreading as far as the Stocks'
Market; but in the reign of Henry VI. the
drapers had all removed to Cannon Street, where
we find them tempting Lydgate's "London Lickpenny" with their wares. In this reign arms were
granted to the Company, and the grant is still
preserved in the British Museum.
The books of the Company commence in the
reign of Edward IV., and are full of curious details
relating to dress, observances, government, and
trade. Edward IV., it must be remembered, in
1479, when he had invited the mayor and aldermen to a great hunt at Waltham Forest, not to
forget the City ladies, sent them two harts, six
bucks, and a tun of wine, with which noble present the lady mayoress (wife of Sir Bartholomew
James, Draper) entertained the aldermen's wives at
Drapers' Hall, St. Swithin's Lane, Cannon Street.
The chief extracts from the Drapers' records made
by Herbert are the following:—
In 1476 forty of the Company rode to meet
Edward IV. on his return from France, at a cost of
£20. In 1483 they sent six persons to welcome
the unhappy Edward V., whom the Dukes of
Gloucester and Buckingham, preparatory to his
murder, had brought to London; and in the
following November, the Company dispatched
twenty-two of the livery, in many-coloured coats,
to attend the coronation procession of Edward's
wicked hunchback uncle, Richard III. Presently
they mustered 200 men, on the rising of the
Kentish rebels; and again, in Finsbury Fields, at
"the coming of the Northern men." They paid
9s. for boat hire to Westminster, to attend the
funeral of Queen Anne (Richard's queen).
In Henry VII.'s reign, we find the Drapers
again boating to Westminster, to present their bill
for the reformation of cloth-making. The barge
seems to have been well supplied with ribs of
beef, wine, and pippins. We find the ubiquitous
Company at many other ceremonies of this reign,
such as the coronation of the queen, &c.
In 1491 the Merchant Taylors came to a conference at Drapers' Hall, about some disputes in the
cloth trade, and were hospitably entertained with
bread and wine. In the great riots at the Steel
Yard, when the London 'prentices tried to sack the
Flemish warehouses, the Drapers helped to guard
the depôt, with weapons, cressets, and banners.
They probably also mustered for the king at
Blackheath against the Cornish insurgents. We
meet them again at the procession that welcomed
Princess Katherine of Spain, who married Prince
Arthur; then, in the Lady Chapel at St. Paul's,
listening to Prince Arthur's requiem; and, again,
bearing twelve enormous torches of wax at the
burial of Henry VII., the prince's father.
In 1514 (Henry VIII.) Sir William Capell left
the Drapers' Company houses in various parts of
London, on condition of certain prayers being
read for his soul, and certain doles being given.
In 1521 the Company, sorely against its will, was
compelled by the arbitrary king to help fit out five
ships of discovery for Sebastian Cabot, whose
father had discovered Newfoundland. They called
it "a sore adventure to jeopard ships with men
and goods unto the said island, upon the singular
trust of one man, called, as they understood,
Sebastian." But Wolsey and the King would have
no nay, and the Company had to comply. The
same year, Sir John Brugge, Mayor and Draper,
being invited to the Serjeants' Feast at Ely House,
Holborn, the masters of the Drapers and seven
other crafts attended in their best livery gowns and
hoods; the Mayor presiding at the high board, the
Master of the Rolls at the second, the Master of
the Drapers at the third. Another entry in the
same year records a sum of £22 15s. spent on
thirty-two yards of crimson satin, given as a
present to win the good graces of "my Lord
Cardinal," the proud Wolsey, and also twenty
marks given him, "as a pleasure," to obtain for
the Company more power in the management of
the Blackwell Hall trade.
In 1527 great disputes arose between the Drapers
and the Crutched Friars. Sir John Milborne, who
was several times master of the Company, and
mayor in 1521, had built thirteen almshouses,
near the friars' church, for thirteen old men, who
were daily at his tomb to say prayers for his soul.
There was also to be an anniversary obit. The
Drapers' complaint was that the religious services
were neglected, and that the friars had encroached
on the ground of Milborne's charity. Henry VIII.
afterwards gave Crutched Friars to Sir Thomas
Wyat, the poetical friend of the Earl of Surrey,
who built a mansion there, which was afterwards
Lumley House. At the dissolution of monasteries,
the Company paid £1,402 6s. for their chantries
The dress or livery of the Company seems to
have varied more than that of any other—from
violet, crimson, murrey, blue, blue and crimson, to
brown, puce. In the reign of James I. a uniform
garb was finally adopted. The observances of the
Company at elections, funerals, obits, and pageants
were quaint, friendly, and clubable enough. Every
year, at Lady Day, the whole body of the fellowship in new livery went to Bow Church (afterwards
to St. Michael's, Cornhill), there heard the Lady
Mass, and offered each a silver penny on the
altar. At evensong they again attended, and heard
dirges chanted for deceased members. On the
following day they came and heard the Mass of
Requiem, and offered another silver penny. On
the day of the feast they walked two and two
in livery to the dining-place, each member paying
three shillings the year that no clothes were
supplied, and two shillings only when they were.
The year's quarterage was sevenpence. In 1522
the election dinner consisted of fowls, swans,
geese, pike, half a buck, pasties, conies, pigeons,
tarts, pears, and filberts. The guests all washed
after dinner, standing. At the side-tables ale and
claret were served in wooden cups; but at the
high table they gave pots and wooden cups for ale
and wine, but for red wine and hippocras gilt cups.
After being served with wafers and spiced wine,
the masters went among the guests and gathered
the quarterage. The old master then rose and
went into the parlour, with a garland on his head
and his cupbearer before him, and, going straight to
the upper end of the high board, without minstrels,
chose the new master, and then sat down. Then
the masters went into the parlour, and took their
garlands and four cupbearers, and crossed the great
parlour till they came to the upper end of the
high board; and there the chief warden delivered
his garland to the warden he chose, and the three
other wardens did likewise, proffering the garlands
to divers persons, and at last delivering them
to the real persons selected. After this all the
company rose and greeted the new master and
wardens, and the dessert began. At some of these
great feasts some 230 people sat down. The
lady members and guests sometimes dined with
the brothers, and sometimes in separate rooms.
At the Midsummer dinner, or dinners, of 1515,
six bucks seem to have been eaten, besides three
boars, a barrelled sturgeon, twenty-four dozen
quails; three hogsheads of wine, twenty-one gallons of muscadel, and thirteen and a half barrels
of ale. It was usual at these generous banquets
to have players and minstrels.
The funerals of the Company generally ended
with a dinner, at which the chaplains and a chosen
few of the Company feasted. The Company's pall
was always used; and on one occasion, in 1518, we
find a silver spoon given to each of the six bearers.
Spiced bread, bread and cheese, fruit, and ale were
also partaken of at these obits, sometimes at the
church, sometimes at a neighbouring tavern. At
the funeral of Sir Roger Achilley, Lord Mayor in
1513, there seem to have been twenty-four torch-bearers. The pews were apparently hung with
black, and children holding torches stood by the
hearse. The Company maintained two priests at
St. Michael's, Cornhill. The funeral of Sir William
Roche, Mayor in 1523, was singularly splendid.
First came two branches of white wax, borne
before the priests and clerks, who paced in
surplices, singing as they paced. Then followed a
standard, blazoned with the dead man's crest—a
red deer's head, with gilt horns, and gold and
green wings. Next followed mourners, and after
them the herald, with the dead man's coat armour,
checkered silver and azure. Then followed the
corpse, attended by clerks and the livery. After
the corpse came the son, the chief mourner, and
two other couples of mourners. The sword-bearer
and Lord Mayor, in state, walked next; then
the aldermen, sheriffs, and the Drapery livery,
followed by all the ladies, gentlewomen, and
aldermen's wives. After the dirge, they all went
to the dead man's house, and partook of spiced
bread and comfits, with ale and beer. The next
day the mourners had a collection at the church.
Then the chief mourners presented the target,
sword, helmet, and banners to the priests, and a
collection was made for the poor. Directly after
the sacrament, the mourners went to Mrs. Roche's
house, and dined, the livery dining at the Drapers'
Hall, the deceased having left £6 15s. 4d. for that
purpose. The record concludes thus: "And my
Lady Roche, of her gentylness, sent them moreover
four gallons of French wine, and also a box of
wafers, and a pottell of ipocras. For whose soul
let us pray, and all Christian souls. Amen." The
Company maintained priests, altars, and lights at
St. Mary Woolnoth's, St. Michael's, Cornhill, St.
Thomas of Acon, Austin Friars, and the Priory
of St. Bartholomew.
The Drapers' ordinances are of great interest.
Every apprentice, on being enrolled, paid fees,
which went to a fund called "spoon silver." The
mode of correcting these wayward lads was sometimes singular. Thus we find one Needswell in
the parlour, on court day, flogged by two tall
men, disguised in canvas frocks, hoods, and
vizors, twopennyworth of birchen rods being expended on his moral improvement. The Drapers
had a special ordinance, in the reign of Henry IV.,
to visit the fairs of Westminster, St. Bartholomew,
Spitalfields, and Southwark, to make a trade search,
and to measure doubtful goods by the "Drapers'
ell," a standard said to have been granted them
by King Edward III. Bread, wine, and pears
seem to have been the frugal entertainment of the
Decayed brothers were always pensioned; thus
we find, in 1526, Sir Laurence Aylmer, who had
actually been mayor in 1507, applying for alms, and
relieved, we regret to state, somewhat grudgingly.
In 1834 Mr. Lawford, clerk of the Company, stated
to the Commissioners of Municipal Inquiry that
there were then sixty poor freemen on the charity
roll, who received £10 a year each. The master
and wardens also gave from the Company's bounty
quarterly sums of money to about fifty or sixty
other poor persons. In cases where members of
the court fell into decay, they received pensions
during the court's pleasure. One person of high
repute, then recently deceased, had received the
sum of £200 per annum, and on this occasion
the City had given him back his sheriff's fine.
The attendance fee given to members of the court
was two guineas.
From 1531 to 1714, Strype reckons fifty-three
Draper mayors. Eight of these were the heads of
noble families, forty-three were knights or baronets,
fifteen represented the City in Parliament, seven
were founders of churches and public institutions. The Earls of Bath and Essex, the Barons
Wotton, and the Dukes of Chandos are among the
noble families which derive their descent from
members of this illustrions Company. That great
citizen, Henry Fitz-Alwin, the son of Leofstan,
Goldsmith, and provost of London, was a Draper,
and held the office of mayor for twenty-four
In the Drapers' Lord Mayors' shows the barges
seem to have been covered with blue or red cloth.
The trumpeters wore crimson hats; and the
banners, pennons, and streamers were fringed
with silk, and "beaten with gold." The favourite
pageants were those of the Assumption and St.
Ursula. The Drapers' procession on the mayoralty
of one of their members, Sir Robert Clayton, is
thus described by Jordan in his "London Industre:"—
"In proper habits, orderly arrayed,
The movements of the morning are displayed.
Selected citizens i' th' morning all,
At seven a clock, do meet at Drapers' Hall.
The master, wardens, and assistants joyn
For the first rank, in their gowns fac'd with Foyn.
The second order do, in merry moods,
March in gowns fac'd with Budge and livery hoods.
In gowns and scarlet hoods thirdly appears
A youthful number of Foyn's Batchellors;
Forty Budge Batchellors the triumph crowns,
Gravely attir'd in scarlet hoods and gowns.
Gentlemen Ushers which white staves do hold
Sixty, in velvet coats and chains of gold.
Next, thirty more in plush and buff there are,
That several colours wear, and banners bear.
The Serjeant Trumpet thirty-six more brings
(Twenty the Duke of York's, sixteen the King's).
The Serjeant wears two scarfs, whose colours be
One the Lord Mayor's, t'other's the Company.
The King's Drum Major, follow'd by four more
Of the King's drums and fifes, make London roar."
"What gives the festivities of this Company an
unique zest," says Herbert, "however, is the visitors
at them, and which included a now extinct race.
We here suddenly find ourselves in company with
abbots, priors, and other heads of monastic establishment, and become so familiarised with the
abbot of Tower Hill, the prior of St. Mary Ovary,
Christ Church, St. Bartholomew's, the provincial
and the prior of 'Freres Austyn's,' the master of
St. Thomas Acon's and St. Laurence Pulteney, and
others of the metropolitan conventual clergy, most
of whom we find amongst their constant yearly
visitors, that we almost fancy ourselves living in
their times, and of their acquaintance."
The last public procession of the Drapers' Company was in 1761, when the master wardens and
court of assistants walked in rank to hear a sermon
at St. Peter's, Cornhill; a number of them each
carried a pair of shoes, stockings, and a suit of
clothes, the annual legacy to the poor of this
The Drapers possess seven original charters, all
of them with the Great Seal attached, finely written,
and in excellent preservation. These charters comprise those of Edward I., Henry VI., Edward IV.,
Philip and Mary, Elizabeth, and two of James I.
The latter is the acting charter of the company.
In 4 James I., the company is entitled "The
Master and Wardens and Brothers and Sisters of
the Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary,
of the Mystery of Drapers of the City of London."
In Maitland's time (1756), the Company devoted
£4,000 a year to charitable uses.
CROMWELL'S HOUSE, FROM AGGAS'S MAP. (Taken from Herbert's "City Companies.")
Aggas's drawing represents Cromwell House
almost windowless, on the street side, and with
three small embattled turrets; and there was a
footway through the garden of Winchester House,
which forms the present passage (says Herbert)
from the east end of Throgmorton Street, through
Austin Friars to Great Winchester Street. The
Great Fire stopped northwards at Drapers' Hall.
The renter warden lost £446 of the Company's
money, but the Company's plate was buried safely
in a sewer in the garden. Till the hall could
be rebuilt, Sir Robert Clayton lent the Drapers a
large room in Austin Friars. The hall was rebuilt
by Jarman, who built the second Exchange and
Fishmongers' Hall. The hall had a very narrow
escape (says Herbert) in 1774 from a fire, which
broke out in the vaults beneath the hall (let out as
a store-cellar), and destroyed a considerable part
of the building, together with a number of houses
on the west side of Austin Friars.
The present Drapers' Hall is Mr. Jarman's
structure, but altered, and partly rebuilt after the
fire in 1774, and partly rebuilt again in 1870. It
principally consists of a spacious quadrangle, surrounded by a fine piazza or ambulatory of arches,
supported by columns. The quiet old garden
greatly improves the hall, which, from this appendage, and its own elegance, might be readily
supposed the mansion of a person of high rank.
The present Throgmorton Street front of the
building is of stone and marble, and was built
by Mr. Herbert Williams, who also erected the
splendid new hall, removing the old gallery, adding
a marble staircase fit for an emperor's palace, and
new facing the court-room, the ceiling of which
was at the same time raised. Marble pillars,
stained glass windows, carved marble mantelpieces, gilt panelled ceilings—everything that is
rich and tasteful—the architect has used with
The buildings of the former interior were of fine
red brick, but the front and entrance, in Throgmorton Street, was of a yellow brick; both interior
and exterior were highly enriched with stone ornaments. Over the gateway was a large sculpture of
the Drapers' arms, a cornice and frieze, the latter
displaying lions' heads, rams' heads, &c., in small
circles, and various other architectural decorations.
The old hall, properly so called, occupied the
eastern side of the quadrangle, the ascent to it
being by a noble stone staircase, covered, and
highly embellished by stucco-work, gilding, &c.
The stately screen of this magnificent apartment
was curiously decorated with carved pillars, pilasters, arches, &c. The ceiling was divided into
numerous compartments, chiefly circular, displaying, in the centre, Phaeton in his car, and round
him the signs of the zodiac, and various other
enrichments. In the wainscoting was a neat recess,
with shelves, whereon the Company's plate, which,
both for quality and workmanship, is of great value,
was displayed at their feasts. Above the screen, at
the end opposite the master's chair, hung a portrait
of Lord Nelson, by Sir William Beechey, for which
the Company paid four hundred guineas, together
with the portrait of Fitz-Alwin, the great Draper,
already mentioned. "In denominating this portrait
curious," says Herbert, "we give as high praise as
can be afforded it. Oil-painting was totally unknown
to England in Fitz-Alwin's time; the style of dress,
and its execution as a work of art, are also too
In the gallery, between the old hall and the
livery-room, were full-length portraits of the English sovereigns, from William III. to George III.,
together with a full-length portrait of George IV.,
by Lawrence, and the celebrated picture of Mary
Queen of Scots, and her son, James I., by Zucchero.
The portrait of the latter king is a fine specimen of
the master, and is said to have cost the Company
between £600 and £700. "It has a fault, however," says Herbert, "observable in other portraits
of this monarch, that of the likeness being flattered.
If it was not uncourteous so to say, we should call
it George IV. with the face of the Prince of Wales.
Respecting the portrait of Mary and her son, there
has been much discussion. Its genuineness has
been doubted, from the circumstance of James
having been only a twelvemonth old when this
picture is thought to have been painted, and his
being here represented of the age of four or five;
but the anachronism might have arisen from the
whole being a composition of the artist, executed,
not from the life, but from other authorities furnished to him." It was cleaned and copied by
Spiridione Roma, for Boydell's print, who took
off a mask of dirt from it, and is certainly a very
interesting picture. There is another tradition of
this picture: that Sir Anthony Babington, confidential secretary to Queen Mary, had her portrait,
which he deposited, for safety, either at Merchant
Taylors' Hall or Drapers' Hall, and that it had
never come back to Sir Anthony or his family. It
has been insinuated that Sir William Boreman,
clerk to the Board of Green Cloth in the reign of
Charles II., purloined this picture from one of the
royal palaces. Some absurdly suggest that it is the
portrait of Lady Dulcibella Boreman, the wife of
Sir William. There is a tradition that this valuable
picture was thrown over the wall into Drapers'
Garden during the Great Fire, and never reclaimed.
The old court-room adjoined the hall, and formed
the north side of the quadrangle. It was wainscoted, and elegantly fitted up, like the last. The
fire-place was very handsome, and had over the
centre a small oblong compartment in white marble,
with a representation of the Company receiving
their charter. The ceiling was stuccoed, somewhat
similarly to the hall, with various subjects allusive
to the Drapers' trade and to the heraldic bearings
of the Company. Both the (dining) hall and this
apartment were rebuilt after the fire in 1774.
The old gallery led to the ladies' chamber and
livery-room. In the former, balls, &c., were occasionally held. This was also a very elegant room.
The livery-room was a fine lofty apartment, and next
in size to the hall. Here were portraits of Sir Joseph
Sheldon, Lord Mayor, 1677, by Gerard Soest, and
a three-quarter length of Sir Robert Clayton, by
Kneller, 1680, seated in a chair—a great benefactor
to Christ's Hospital, and to that of St. Thomas, in
Southwark; and two benefactors—Sir William Boreman, an officer of the Board of Green Cloth in the
reigns of Charles I. and Charles II., who endowed
a free school at Greenwich; and Henry Dixon, of
Enfield, who left land in that parish for apprenticing
boys of the same parish, and giving a sum to such
as were bound to freemen of London at the end of
their apprenticeship. Here was also a fine portrait
of Mr. Smith, late clerk of the Company (threequarters); a smaller portrait of Thomas Bagshaw,
who died in 1794, having been beadle to the Company forty years, and who for his long and faithful
services has been thus honoured. The windows
of the livery-room overlook the private garden,
in the midst of which is a small basin of water,
with a fountain and statue. The large garden,
which adjoins this, is constantly open to the
public, from morning till night, excepting Saturdays,
Sundays, and the Company's festival days. This
is a pleasant and extensive plot of ground, neatly
laid out with gravelled walks, a grass-plot, flowering
shrubs, lime-trees, pavilions, &c. Beneath what
was formerly the ladies' chamber is the record-room,
which is constructed of stone and iron, and made
fire-proof, for the more effectually securing of the
Company's archives, books, plate, and other valuable
and important documents.
Howell, in his "Letters," has the following
anecdote about Drapers' Hall. "When I went,"
he says, "to bind my brother Ned apprentice, in
Drapers' Hall, casting my eyes upon the chimneypiece of the great room, I spyed a picture of
an ancient gentleman, and underneath, 'Thomas
Howell;' I asked the clerk about him, and he
told me that he had been a Spanish merchant in
Henry VIII.'s time, and coming home rich, and
dying a bachelor, he gave that hall to the Company
of Drapers, with other things, so that he is accounted one of the chiefest benefactors. I told
the clerk that one of the sons of Thomas Howell
came now thither to be bound; he answered that,
if he be a right Howell, he may have, when he is
free, three hundred pounds to help to set him up,
and pay no interest for five years. It may be,
hereafter, we will make use of this."
The Drapers' list of livery states their modern
arms to be thus emblazoned, viz.—Azure, three
clouds radiated proper, each adorned with a triple
crown or. Supporters—two lions or, pelletted.
Crest—on a wreath, a ram couchant or, armed
sables, on a mount vert. Motto—"Unto God only
be honour and glory."