Milngavie - Monteith, Port of

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

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1846

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255-272

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'Milngavie - Monteith, Port of', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 255-272. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45303 Date accessed: 22 August 2014.


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Milngavie

MILNGAVIE, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, in that part of the parish of New Kilpatrick which is in the county of Stirling, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Glasgow; containing 1622 inhabitants, of whom 1432 are in the village. This district, which was separated for ecclesiastical purposes from the parish by a recent act of the General Assembly, comprised but a small territory surrounding the village. The village, situated on the river Allander, has increased greatly in extent and population since the establishment of cotton-works and other branches of manufacture, and has become a place of considerable importance. The houses are neatly built; a library is supported by subscription; and there are numerous good shops amply stored with various kinds of merchandise for the supply of the neighbourhood. The printing of calico, for which there is a very extensive establishment, affords occupation to nearly 400 persons; the cotton-factory, recently enlarged, employs 200; and about thirty were once engaged in the paper manufacture, for which a mill had been fitted up with improved machinery. More than eighty persons are employed in the bleaching of cotton and linen, of which above 4,000,000 of yards are annually bleached at the Clober field alone. A distillery has been also established, which produces yearly about 12,000 gallons of whisky; and there are several corn-mills in full operation. A post-office has been opened under that of Glasgow, and every facility of communication is afforded by the various roads which pass through the parish. Schools for the instruction of the children employed in the several works are supported under the superintendence of a committee.

Milntown

MILNTOWN, a village, in the parish of Kilmuir Easter, county of Ross and Cromarty, 9 miles (S.) from Tain; containing 200 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the high road from Tain to Inverness, and near the northern shore of Cromarty Frith, consists of some neatly-built houses and numerous cottages to which are attached small portions of ground. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the various handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the immediate vicinity, and there are several shops for the sale of different kinds of goods. A post-office, which has a daily delivery, has been established at Parkhill, in the village; and fairs for sheep, cattle, and agricultural produce, are held on the first Tuesday in January, the third Tuesdays in March and May, and the last Tuesday in October.

Milton

MILTON, a village, in the parish of Old Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Dumbarton; containing 341 inhabitants. This is one of a cluster of villages in a large manufacturing district in the eastern part of the parish, and derives its prosperity from extensive cotton-works established by William Dunn, Esq., a wealthy and enterprising landowner here, about the year 1821. The factory was built on the site of the old Dalnotter iron-works; a bleachfield and some printing-works were subsequently added, and they are all now in full operation, employing the whole population of the village and its immediate neighbourhood: a powerful steam-engine was erected in 1835. The quantity of cotton goods annually produced at this place, and at the mills of Duntocher, Faifley, and Hardgate, all within less than a mile of the village, may be stated at two millions of yards. The road from Dumbarton to Kirkintilloch passes through the district. A school has been established for the children of the work-people.

Milton

MILTON, a village, in the parish of Glammis, county of Forfar, 1¾ mile (S.) from Glammis; containing 83 inhabitants. This place lies in the glen of Ogilvie, and on the great road from Kirriemuir to Dundee. The glen, anciently the property of the Ogilvies, of Powrie, afterwards of Graham of Claverhouse (Viscount Dundee), and now of Lord Douglas, is very beautiful; and the village is usually called after it, "Milton of Glen of Ogilvie." The Glammis burn passes through the vale.

Milton

MILTON, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Cyrus, county of Kincardine, 6½ miles (N. N. E.) from Montrose; containing 34 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern coast, and is a small fishing-place, consisting of a group of cottages. The former village of Milton of Mathers was built on an ancient shingle beach protected by a projecting ledge of limestone rock; this was quarried for lime to such an extent that the sea broke through, and in 1795 carried away the whole village in one night, and penetrated a hundred and fifty yards inward, where it has maintained itself ever since. The present hamlet was built further inward, on the new shore. The lime-works in this neighbourhood were discontinued about 1836.

Milton

MILTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Barony, suburbs of the city of Glasgow, Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (N. E.) from Glasgow; containing 5364 inhabitants. The village of Milton is in the northern part of Barony parish, and on the Perth road to Glasgow. The district around it was separated for ecclesiastical purposes by act of the General Assembly in 1836, and the church was erected by the Church Building Society of Glasgow, who became patrons of it; it is a neat structure containing 1060 sittings. The stipend of the minister is £100, arising from seat-rents and collections. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship.

Milton

MILTON, a village, in the parish of Campsie, county of Stirling; containing 564 inhabitants.

Milton

MILTON, parish of Dunipace, county of Stirling.—See Herbertshire.

Milton of Balgonie

MILTON of BALGONIE, a considerable village, and also a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Markinch, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing, with the villages of Balcurvie, Haugh-Mill, Burns, and Windygates, 1408 inhabitants, of whom 592 are in the village of Milton, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Markinch. The village takes its name from the extensive mills around which it has arisen; it is situated on the river Leven, and consists of neat substantial cottages inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the mills. Since 1836 it has greatly increased in extent and population. The mills for the spinning of flax and tow are the property of Messrs. Baxter and Stewart, and form a spacious structure, occupying three sides of a quadrangle 160 feet in length and 140 feet in width. Two sides of the quadrangle comprise the buildings for the machinery, which is propelled by the water of the Leven; and the third side contains three spacious warehouses, above which are heckling rooms. In detached situations are a warehouse capable of holding 200 tons of flax, a smithy, gas-works from which the factory is lighted, and stabling. The total cost of raw materials consumed in a recent year was £25,000; the quantity manufactured was 475 tons of flax, imported from the Baltic, Archangel, Holland, France, and Ireland. The number of persons generally employed is about 270, of whom 120 are women, and fifty children. The finer yarns spun here are sold in the adjoining districts, or exported to France; the heavier are manufactured into canvass, sacking, and other articles, chiefly for the London market. This branch of the establishment is at present carried on at Dundee, but will be soon removed to this place, when the number of persons employed in the concern will be augmented by an addition of one hundred men and fifty women. The Balgonie bleachfield, the property of Messrs. William Russell and Company, was established for the bleaching of linen yarns: the works, which are situated on the banks of the Leven, afford employment to about seventy persons, and the quantity of yarn annually averages 480 tons. The quoad sacra parish is about three miles and a half in length and nearly three miles in breadth, comprising an area of eight square miles. The church was erected in 1836, at an expense of £850, of which £140 were a grant from the funds of the General Assembly, and the remainder raised by subscription; it is a neat building containing 625 sittings. There are schools in the village and likewise in Balcurvie. Balgonie Castle, in the neighbourhood of Milton village, an ancient seat of the earls of Leven, is of considerable strength, and supposed to be an erection of the 12th century; its architecture is still very entire. The courtyard is 108 feet by sixty-five feet, and the tower on the north side is eighty feet in height.

Mingala

MINGALA, an island, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness; containing 113 inhabitants. This is one of the most southern of the Barra isles, and is about two miles in length, and one and three-quarters in breadth. It is separated, on the north, from Pabba by the sound of Mingala, and from Bernera, on the south-west, by the sound of that name. The coast around is bold and rocky, and in some parts the ground rises to a great height; the island is chiefly pastoral, and near it is a rock whose summit is covered by luxuriant verdure, to which the sheep are elevated by ropes, and left to pasture for the season. Innumerable seafowl visit the cliffs at the period of incubation, and disappear with their young in autumn.

Minnigaff

MINNIGAFF, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing, with the village of Creebridge, 1826 inhabitants, of whom 170 are in the village of Minnigaff, ½ a mile (N.) from Newton-Stewart. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, is minutely descriptive of its dark mountainous aspect, formed part of the territories of the ancient earls of Galloway, who resided in the baronial castle of Garlies, of which there are still some remains within a mile and a half of the village of Minnigaff. During the contest for the throne between Baliol and Bruce, the latter, after his defeat by the English at Carrick, retired to this place with his followers, and encamped in the secluded wilds at the head of Loch Dee. Bruce lodged at night in the cottage of a poor widow at Craigencallie; and being discovered by his hostess, who had three sons by three different husbands, they all entered into his service, and remained zealous adherents to his cause. At their suggestion the followers of Bruce, not more than 300 in number, and greatly inferior to the English, who had encamped on the opposite side of the river Dee, collected all the wild horses and goats they could find in the neighbourhood; and from the noise thus occasioned, the English, thinking that Bruce had procured a large reinforcement, did not venture beyond the precincts of their camp. In the night Bruce attacked the English, and obtained an easy victory over his enemies, who, fancying themselves assailed by a superiority of numbers, fled with precipitation, many of them being killed in their retreat. The three sons of the widow, whose names were Mc Kie, Murdoch, and Mc Lurg, received from Bruce, after his establishment on the throne, the lands of Hassock and Cumloden in recompense for their services. On the death of the descendant of Mc Kie without male issue, a portion of the lands passed to the family of Heron, of Heron, by marriage with Margaret, his only daughter and heiress; this portion is now the property of Lady Heron Maxwell; and Cumloden, which was the portion of Murdoch, the second son, was sold by his descendant to the Stewart family in the last century, and now belongs to the Earl of Galloway.

The parish is bounded on the east by the Dee, which divides it from the parishes of Kells and Carsphairn; and on the west by the river Cree. It is nearly twenty-four miles in length and from eight to twelve miles in breadth, comprising an area of 86,787 acres, of which 6000 are arable and in cultivation, and the remainder, with the exception of about 1600 acres of woodland and plantations, moorland pasture and waste. The surface is mountainous, including a considerable portion of the hilly range extending from St. Abb's Head, on the eastern coast. The highest of the hills is the Meyrick, which has an elevation of 2500 feet from the level of the sea; and that of Cairnsmuir, though of inferior height, rising from a more elevated base, yet appears equally lofty. The summit of the latter hill commands a most extensive and richly-varied prospect, embracing the valley of the Palnure, the wooded demesnes of the Cairnsmuir and Bargally mansions, the river Cree, the town of Newton-Stewart, parts of Wigtonshire diversified with hill and dale, the Isle of Man, the burgh of Kirkcudbright, and other interesting features, with the mountains of Cumberland in the distance. For several miles along the banks of the Cree, the ground is level, forming a fine tract of carse land, but not of any considerable breadth, in a high state of cultivation. There are numerous springs; and of several picturesque lakes the largest are, Loch Trool, environed with hills, and Loch Dee, neither of which, however, exceeds two miles in length. The streams and lakes abound with trout; salmon are found in the Cree, and sea-trout in June and July.

The soil is various, generally of a dry gravelly kind, but in some parts a tenacious clay interspersed with moss, which, however, at a moderate expense, might be reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation. The crops are, grain of all sorts, with potatoes and turnips, and the different grasses. The system of agriculture is advanced; the lands have in several parts been well drained; the farm-buildings within the last few years have been partly rebuilt in a more substantial and commodious manner; and most of the recent improvements in implements of husbandry have been adopted. The cattle, of which many are reared and pastured in the parish, are chiefly of the pure native Galloway breed, and great attention is paid to the bettering of the stock: there are also about 35,000 sheep, which are of the blackfaced breed with the exception of a few of the Leicestershire on the lower lands. The substrata are mainly greywacke and clay-slate; granite occurs in boulders at various places, and at Craigdhews in great masses, from which blocks have been cut for building purposes. Lead-ore is found in the south-western portion of the parish, and was formerly wrought to a considerable extent; but having lately become unproductive, the mines have been discontinued. The rateable annual value of Minnigaff is £10,976.

The most extensive and important portion remaining of the ancient forest of the district is the Cree wood, on the estate of Garlies, the property of the Earl of Galloway, which extends for nearly three miles along the banks of the Cree; it consists chiefly of oak, intermixed with ash, hazel, and birch. Around the castle are also about 500 acres of plantations, the greater portion of modern growth. Kirouchtree, the seat of Lady Heron Maxwell, is beautifully situated in a well-planted demesne; and near the house are many trees of venerable growth. Cumloden Cottage, the summer residence of the Earl of Galloway, was built by Lieutenant-General Sir William Stewart, K. C. B., who commanded the troops embarked with Lord Nelson in the expedition to Copenhagen, and who served under the Duke of Wellington in Spain and Portugal; he died at Cumloden Cottage in 1827. Cairnsmuir and Bargally are both houses well situated. The village of Minnigaff, near the confluence of the rivers Cree and Penkill, though formerly a place of some extent and importance, has since the erection of Newton-Stewart dwindled into a hamlet. About a quarter of a mile below it, a street of good houses has recently been built near a bridge over the river, a handsome structure of granite of five arches, from which the street takes its name. The chief manufacture is that of cotton, in which sixteen persons are employed, and at Cumloden the weaving of blankets and coarse plaids occupies about twelve persons. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Portpatrick to Dumfries, by a turnpike-road to New Galloway, and by the Ayrshire road, viâ Straiton, which last passes for many miles through the upper part of the parish. The Cree is navigable for vessels under 100 tons to Newton-Stewart; and at Palnure is a small wharf, where grain and other agricultural produce are shipped for Liverpool, and coal and lime imported for the supply of the district.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £245. 4. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1836 after a design by Mr. Burn, of Edinburgh, at a cost of £1800, is an elegant structure, in the later English style of architecture, with a square embattled tower, and contains 850 sittings; the interior is well arranged, and the east window embellished with stained glass. In the churchyard is a handsome monument to Sir William Stewart. A church has since been erected at Bargrennan, in the upper part of the parish, to which a district has been assigned; there are 207 sittings, and the duty is performed by a licentiate, who has a stipend of £50 per annum, towards which the Earl of Galloway contributes £20, and Colonel S. Blair, of Penninghame, and the Rev. Mr. Johnstone, £10 each. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees, about £30. There is also a school at Bargrennan, of which the master receives a salary of £23 per annum, in addition to the fees. A school in which twenty-five girls are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, and instructed in needle-work, is supported by the Countess of Galloway; and there is a Sabbath school, to which is attached a library of about 400 volumes. A clothing club was instituted a few years since by Lady Galloway, who adds to the weekly deposits one-half of the amount at the end of the year; a similar institution is under the patronage of Lady Heron Maxwell. On the summit of a bank at the junction of the Cree and Penkill, is a mound which appears to have been anciently a seat for administering justice; and there are various others in the parish. Several tumuli have been opened, in which were found human bones and military weapons. On the lands of Kirouchtree, in forming the plantations, was opened a large mound, covered on the top with clay, under which were ashes, and, beneath, a vitrified substance about an inch in thickness, on removing which a circular wall was discovered, inclosing an area filled with red ashes to the depth of three feet. Below these was a flagstone six feet long and three feet wide, covering a pit, where was found a human body, which on exposure to the air crumbled into dust. About a mile from Creebridge, on the Dumfries road, is a large tumulus supposed to cover the remains of the slain in some battle of the Scots with the Romans or the Picts.

Minnyhive

MINNYHIVE, a village, in the parish of Glencairn, county of Dumfries, 17 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dumfries; containing 667 inhabitants. It is situated nearly in the centre of the parish, on the south bank of the small river Dalwhat, one of three streams that unite a little below the village, and form the Cairn. This place has latterly much increased in extent and population; and the houses which have recently been built are of a superior description; the inhabitants are partly engaged in agriculture, and partly in handicraft trades and manufactures. A post-office has been established; and fairs are held in March, July, and October, chiefly for hiring servants. The Dalwhat is crossed here by a bridge leading to the pleasant village of Dunreggan; and the turnpike-road from Dumfries passes in the vicinity. In Minnyhive is a cross, erected about 1638, when a charter was granted constituting the place a burgh of barony, with power to hold a weekly market; and within a quarter of a mile stands on rising ground a monument, erected in 1828, to the memory of the Rev. James Renwick, the last of the martyrs executed in 1688.

Mintlaw

MINTLAW, a village, in the parish of Longside, district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 8½ miles (W. by N.) from Peterhead; containing about 240 inhabitants. It is situated at the junction of the high roads from Fraserburgh to Aberdeen and Peterhead to Banff, and two miles and a half from the village of Longside. It is of modern date, having been built in the present century, and contains the post-office for the surrounding district. The mail from Aberdeen to Fraserburgh passes twice daily through the village. Fairs for cattle, sheep, and horses are held here on the Tuesdays after the 25th February, 14th April, 14th June, 25th August, 7th October, and 14th December.

Minto

MINTO, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh; containing, with the hamlet of Hassendean, 455 inhabitants, of whom 90 are in the village of Minto, 5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Hawick, and the remainder in the rural districts of the parish. This place, of which the name is of very questionable origin, is of considerable antiquity, and anciently formed part of the possessions of the powerful family of the Turnbulls, from whom it passed to the Riddells, and subsequently, by purchase, to Sir Gilbert Elliot, ancestor of Lord Minto, late first lord of the admiralty, its present proprietor. It comprises a great portion of the old parish of Hassendean, long since suppressed, and of which the church, with the larger part of the lands, was granted by David I. to the Bishop of Glasgow. The parish is nearly four miles in length, and about two miles and a half in breadth, and is bounded on the north by the parish of Lilliesleaf, on the east by the parish of Ancrum, on the south partly by the parish of Cavers and the river Teviot, and on the west by the parish of Wilton. The surface is broken by frequent undulations more or less bold, leaving but a very small proportion of level ground; the highest of the hills is about 900 feet above the level of the sea. They are richly covered with verdure; and a congeries of rocks forms a conspicuous ridge called the Minto Craigs, overhanging the vale of Teviot, to which, with their wooded summits, they give a character of peculiar beauty. The Craigs rise to a mean elevation of 700 feet, and adjacent are several small glens watered by rivulets descending from the higher grounds, and which in the winter months assume the velocity of torrents. One of these glens, near the western extremity of the parish, is strikingly beautiful, and has been tastefully laid out in walks, which lead to the different points of view from which its richest scenery is observed. Another, of narrower dimensions, is planted with evergreens of every variety; and the stream which flows through it, being intercepted in its progress by an artificial barrier, spreads into a beautiful sheet, from which the waters, issuing where they can find an outlet, form a very pleasing cascade. A pathway from this interesting glen leads to the Minto Craigs, the base of which is concealed by large masses of rock that have fallen from the heights at various times, and accumulated on the spot; and large projections from the craggy precipice threaten every moment to add to their number. Among these rugged heights are some intervals of level rock, said to have been the retreats of border chieftains; and on one of them are the ruins of an ancient tower, from which a highly romantic and boldly varied prospect is obtained.

The soil is very various, though in some parts tolerably fertile, and the hills afford good pasturage for sheep and young cattle. The whole number of acres in the parish is estimated at 4500, of which nearly 2000 are arable, 1400 in permanent pasture, and about 800 in natural woods and plantations. The crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in an improved state, and the rotation plan of husbandry in use. Bone-dust has been introduced as manure; the lands have been well drained and inclosed, and the farm-buildings are generally substantial and well arranged. The sheep are of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds, and the cattle of the short-horned breed. The woods consist of oak, elm, ash, beech, and poplar, and the plantations are of Scotch, spruce, and silver firs, with larch, and various kinds of forest-trees intermixed; some of the larch-trees have attained to a remarkably fine growth, and of all the older timber there are numerous stately specimens. The woods and plantations are judiciously managed, and in a flourishing state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4211.

Minto House, the property of the Earl of Minto, is a spacious and elegant mansion, finely situated in an extensive demesne richly wooded, and abounding with picturesque and strikingly romantic scenery. Teviotbank House, recently erected, is a handsome mansion in the early English style of architecture, commanding many highly interesting views. The village is neatly built, and inhabited by persons chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits; it has a facility of communication with the neighbouring towns by good roads, which intersect the parish in various directions, and are kept in excellent repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The stipend of the incumbent is £206: the manse, recently erected, is a very handsome and comfortable residence pleasantly situated, and the glebe is valued at £40 per annum. The church is an elegant and substantial edifice built in 1832, in the later English style of architecture, and is adapted for a congregation of 350 persons. The parochial school affords instruction to a considerable number of children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum, to which may be added the interest of £100 bequeathed for the education of the poor. There are no remains of the church of Hassendean, the very site of which has been covered by encroachments of the river Teviot: of the ancient tower or stronghold of Hassendean only a slight vestige is left; and of the fortress of Minto nothing is left but the site, on which the present house has been erected. On the summit of the Craigs are the remains of an ancient peel called Fatlips Castle, supposed to have been a stronghold of the Turnbull family. When taking down the old church of Minto in 1831, under the foundation of one of the walls were discovered 400 silver coins of the reigns of Edward I., II., and III., of England, and some of the reigns of Alexander and Robert, Kings of Scotland.

Mochrum

MOCHRUM, a parish, in the county of Wigton; containing, with the villages of Eldrig, Kirk of Mochrum, and Port-William, 2539 inhabitants, of whom 187 are in the village of Kirk of Mochrum, 7½ miles (S. W.) from Wigton. This place, of which the name is altogether of unknown derivation, appears to have formed part of the possessions of the Dunbar family, having been conferred about the year 1368 upon the second son of Patrick, Earl of Mar, their ancestor. Among his descendants, who were subsequently raised to the dignity of baronets, the most distinguished was Gavin, son of Sir John Dunbar, who, having devoted himself to study, was in 1504 made prior of Whithorn, and in 1522 succeeded James Beaton as archbishop of Glasgow. In 1526 he was made lord chancellor of Scotland, and in 1536 was chosen one of the lords of the regency during the absence of James V. at the court of France while celebrating his marriage with Magdalene, daughter of Francis I. The original residence of the Dunbars, knights of Mochrum, an ancient castle called the Old Place of Mochrum, of which the walls, of great strength, are still nearly entire, is situated in the vicinity of an extensive moor surrounded with numerous lakes, and has an interesting and highly picturesque appearance. The castle, and the lands attached to it, remained in the possession of the Dunbars till towards the close of the last century, when they passed to the earls of Dumfries, and subsequently to the family of the present Marquess of Bute; but the title of baronets of Mochrum is still retained by their descendants, whose representative is Sir William Rowe Dunbar, Bart. With the exception of the lands appertaining to the Old Place, nearly one-half of the parish is the property of the Maxwells, who settled here in the early part of the 17th century, and whose representative is Sir William Maxwell, Bart.

The parish is bounded on the south-west by the bay of Luce, and is nearly ten miles in length and from four to five miles in breadth, comprising 22,000 acres, of which 200 are woodland and plantations, about 1000 waste, and the remainder, almost in equal proportions, meadow, pasture, and arable land in good cultivation. The surface, though not rising into hills of any considerable elevation, is boldly undulating, and diversified with tracts of level land and gentle acclivities in pleasing variety; and the higher grounds command a fine view, extending over the bay of Luce and the Irish Channel, and embracing the Mull of Galloway, the Isle of Man, the mountains of Morne on the Irish coast, and the heights of Skiddaw in Cumberland. Towards the north-west are numerous lakes, of which the most important are Mochrum and Castle lochs, each about a mile and a quarter in length and a quarter of a mile in width, and containing islets of picturesque appearance. From these, and also from the smaller lakes, issue many rivulets intersecting the lands in various directions; and some. uniting their streams, form the Malzie water, which flows eastward through the parish into the Bladenoch, and is the only water approaching in character to a river. The coast extends nearly ten miles, and for the greater part is a flat smooth gravelly beach about fifty yards in width, but is bounded by a precipitous bank rendering communication with the interior difficult, and at about a mile from the western extremity terminates in a steep rock projecting into the bay, and forming a bold and almost inaccessible shore. There are several indentations or creeks affording shelter to boats; but the only harbour accessible to trading vessels of any considerable burthen is Port-William, near the eastern extremity of the bay, which has safe anchorage for vessels of 200 tons, and was constructed during the last century by Sir William Maxwell. The bay abounds with fish of almost every variety, and of excellent quality; salmon and herrings are taken in moderate quantities, and cod, mackerel, whiting, and other white-fish are found in considerable numbers.

The soil along the coast is mostly a rich deep loam, alternated with patches of lighter quality; towards the central part it gradually becomes thin and stony; and in the west and east are some tracts of moor and moss, with intervening portions of dry and fertile arable land. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved under the auspices of Sir William Maxwell, liberal encouragement being afforded to his tenants; favourable crops of all kinds of grain are raised, and considerable numbers of cattle and sheep are reared. The farms are well inclosed, chiefly with hedges of thorn; the farm houses and offices are generally substantial and commodiously arranged, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The plantations, though not extensive, add much to the beauty of the scenery, and such of them as are sheltered from the sea breezes are in a thriving state; but the soil does not appear to be adapted to their extension. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8980. Monreith House, the seat of Sir William Maxwell, is a modern mansion, situated on an eminence near the eastern boundary of the parish, about a mile from the sea, and at the head of a small but beautiful lake surrounded with plantations. Myrton Cottage, a handsome residence, was built by the same gentleman within the last few years. The village of Mochrum, in which the church stands, is neatly built; and its inhabitants are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits. The villages of Eldrig and Port-William are described under their respective heads; at Port-William is a post-office which has six deliveries in the week, and facility of intercourse is maintained by good roads, of which the turnpike-road to Glenluce passes along the coast for several miles, opening a communication with the Rhinns of Galloway. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £153. 3. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, built in 1794, and successively enlarged by the addition of galleries in 1822 and 1832, is a substantial structure containing 700 sittings. There is a place of worship for members of the Relief. The parochial school is well attended; the master receives the minimum salary, with an allowance in lieu of a house, and the fees average about £16 annually. The schoolroom is a handsome building, adapted for the reception of 150 children. Near the church is a large earthen mound surrounded by a deep fosse. On the summit of an eminence not far from the eastern extremity of the coast, are some very distinct traces of an Anglo-Saxon camp; and near the shore, about two miles from the western extremity, are the ruins of the ancient chapel of St. Finian.

Moffat

MOFFAT, a parish, partly in the county of Lanark, but chiefly in that of Dumfries; containing 2199 inhabitants, of whom 1413 are in the town of Moffat, 21 miles (N. N. E.) from Dumfries, and 52 (S. by W.) from Edinburgh. This place, of which the name is of doubtful etymology, is not distinguished by many events of historical importance; the principal on record are, the defeat of Edward Baliol in 1333, by Sir Archibald Douglas, at the head of 1000 horse, and the passage of a division of the Highland army in the service of the Pretender in 1715, on their route to England. The parish, with the exception of two farms only in the county of Lanark, is situated in the district of Annandale, and is about fifteen miles in extreme length and nine miles at its greatest breadth, comprising 38,400 acres, of which 3750 are arable, 800 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill-pasture, moor, and waste. Nearly one-half of the lands are the property of Mr. Hope Johnstone of Annandale, a descendant of the Johnstones of Lochwood, lords of Annandale, of whom William, the second earl, was created a marquess in the reign of William III.; the remainder is divided among numerous proprietors. The surface is generally hilly, and towards the borders mountainous. On the north boundary are the mountains of Hartfell and Lochcraig, nearly equal in height, and of which the former has an elevation of 3000 feet above the level of the sea, terminating in a flat summit of very considerable extent: in the north-east are the heights of Saddleyoke, Bodisbeck, and Lochfell. The vales of Evan, Annan, and Moffat, through which flow the rivers of those names, are nearly parallel, and inclosed by ranges of hills of moderate elevation. The Evan, which runs for four miles through the parish in a south-eastern direction, and the Moffat, which takes a south-western course of about seven miles, both fall into the Annan, a few miles below the town; and the Annan, after a southern course of ten miles here, and receiving the waters just referred to, passes through the rest of Annandale into the Solway Frith. The only lake of importance is Loch Skeen, situated to the north-east, at an elevation of 1400 feet above the level of the sea; it is about three-fourths of a mile in length and one-fourth in breadth, and surrounded by mountains of dreary aspect. In the centre is a rocky islet, the undisturbed resort of the eagle. The lake abounds with trout, and is frequented by anglers: a stream from it issues with great force, and, falling from precipitous rocks nearly 400 feet in height, forms a stupendous cataract called the Grey Mare's Tail.

The soil in the vales, especially those of Annan and Moffat, is rich, dry, and fertile; and in the higher lands, light and heathy, chiefly affording pasture for sheep, for which purpose above 30,000 acres are appropriated. The crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes and turnips, with the various grasses. The system of agriculture is improved; the farm-buildings have been rendered more substantial and commodious, and many of the cottages have been rebuilt in a comfortable style, and roofed with slate. Great attention is paid to the management of live-stock, and a farming association has been established. About 400 milch-cows of the Ayrshire breed are kept on the dairy-farms, and 550 head of young cattle are annually reared; the number of black-cattle fed on the pastures is about 1000, of sheep 25,000, of swine 400, and about fifty horses. The remains of the ancient woods are at Craigieburn and in a few other places; the plantations consist of oak, ash, birch, larch, and mountain-ash, and are well managed and in a thriving state. The chief substrata are sandstone and blue whinstone, with slate of good quality for roofing; an attempt to find coal was made very recently, but without success, and a search for copper-ore in Hartfell was equally unavailing. The principal seats are, Craigieburn House, the seat of Mr. Proudfoot, and which, with the adjacent wood, is celebrated by the poet Burns; Dumcrief, once the residence of Mc Adam, the improver of roads, whose remains lie interred in the churchyard of Moffat; Granton, the seat of Mr. Jardine, a new and elegant structure; and Heathryhaugh, the seat of the late Mr. Tod, a beautiful spot, situated on the road conducting to Moffatt well.

The town, standing near the opening of the vale of Annan, on an elevated site 300 feet above the level of the sea, is neatly built, consisting of one spacious street, in the centre of which is the market-place, a square area where is a public cistern for supplying the town with water. This place is much frequented by visiters, who resort in numbers during the season to drink the waters of the mineral springs in its immediate neighbourhood, and for whose accommodation there are several good inns and respectable lodging-houses. The vicinity abounds with beautifully picturesque scenery and with objects of interest; many new houses have been erected, and some pleasing villas have been built, and are inhabited by opulent families. The Well of Moffat is about a mile and a half from the town, and is approached by an excellent carriage road; it is strongly sulphureous, and on analysis by Dr. Garnet a wine gallon was found to contain, of muriate of soda thirty-six grains, sulphuretted hydrogen gas ten cubic inches, of azotic four, and carbonic acid gas five. It evaporates quickly, and can be drunk with due effect only at the well, for which purpose a spacious pump and reading-room has been erected, to which is attached a bowling-green; baths have also been constructed on a superior plan, and there is good stabling at the inn. The Hartfell Spa, about four miles from the town, is a powerful chalybeate issuing from a deep ravine on the west side of the mountain. A wine gallon contains, of sulphate of iron eighty-four grains, sulphate of alumina twelve grains, and of azotic gas five cubic inches; it is a powerful tonic, and may be kept for a considerable time without losing its efficacy. The Evan-Bridge Spa, a little to the south of the town, is a chalybeate less powerful than the Hartfell, containing in a wine gallon, of oxide of iron two grains, of carbonic acid gas thirteen cubic inches, and of azotic gas two.

The weaving of stockings is carried on to a moderate extent, and there are a mill for fulling cloth, a saw-mill, and a corn-mill; many of the inhabitants are employed in the various handicraft trades for the supply of the neighbourhood, and there are numerous handsome shops well stored with merchandise. A market is held weekly, and a couple of branch banks have been established; the post-office has a tolerably good delivery. The police is under the management of two special constables; two magistrates reside in the town, and a court of petty-sessions is held monthly. Facility of communication with Dumfries and Edinburgh, and with Glasgow, Carlisle, and other places, is afforded by good roads. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5209. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £260. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The church, a handsome structure, built by James, Earl of Hopetoun, and beautifully situated, contains about 1000 sittings. There are places of worship for Burghers and members of the Free Church. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 6., with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. A distinct grammar school was formerly supported from the proceeds of a bequest of £1000 by Robert Johnstone, Esq., of London, for its erection and endowment; but this and the parochial school are at present one academy under a head-master and an assistant. A school is also supported by subscription; and there are others, depending solely on the fees. Part of the Roman road through the vale of Annan to Crawford may still be traced in the parish; and there are some tolerably perfect remains of Frenchland Tower, of which little of the origin is recorded; also of a more ancient fortification called the Cornal Tower.

Mollensburn

MOLLENSBURN, a village, in that part of the parish of Cadder which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Chryston, Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 1½ mile (N. E. by E.) from the village of Chryston; containing 202 inhabitants. This place is in the extreme east of the parish, and on the high road from Perth to Glasgow; it is neatly built, and from its pleasant situation and many advantages is likely to increase in population and importance. The district abounds with wood and water; and excellent whinstone is prevalent in the neighbourhood, and is quarried for building and other purposes. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture and in the quarries.

Monan's, St.

MONAN'S, ST., a fishing-town, in the parish of Abercrombie, county of Fife, 1 mile (W. S. W.) from Pittenweem; containing 1029 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the Frith of Forth, seems to have owed its origin to the erection of a chapel by David II., in gratitude for the escape of himself and his queen from shipwreck on this part of the coast, and which, upon the annexation of the barony of Monan's to the lands of Abercrombie, became the church of that parish. The inhabitants are partly engaged in the herring-fishery, of which this is one of the most important stations on the eastern coast of Scotland. Herrings are taken in the autumn and winter within a moderate distance from the harbour; but the principal fishery is off Peterhead, where about sixty boats from St. Monan's, of fifteen tons' burthen each, are engaged, affording employment to about 300 persons. The codfishery is also carried on to a considerable extent, and many persons are occupied in curing and packing cod for exportation, chiefly to the London and Liverpool markets; turbot and haddock are likewise taken, and sent in large quantities to Edinburgh and places adjacent. Weaving, which once employed a limited number of persons, and the manufacture of kelp, formerly a very profitable trade, have been altogether discontinued. Many people are engaged in making nets for the fishermen; and there is a very extensive brewery and malting concern. The harbour, which is formed by the extension of two parallel ridges of rock, and by a strong pier carried out from the shore, is safe and commodious, affording good shelter for the fishing-boats and for vessels of larger dimensions; the depth at spring-tides is from eighteen to twenty feet, and at neap-tides from thirteen to fifteen feet. The principal exports are, cured cod, herrings, and potatoes; and the chief imports, coal and lime. In addition to the numerous herring-boats already referred to, there are several yawls, the crews of which, each six in number, are employed nearly throughout the entire year, and with considerable success, in the cod, haddock, and turbot fisheries mentioned above; and until recently there were two vessels belonging to the port, one of seventy-eight and the other of forty tons, employed in the coasting trade. The town received a charter of incorporation from Sir William Sandilands, dated 1622, by which it was erected into a burgh of barony, and the government vested in three bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen councillors. The bailies are chosen by the feuars and burgesses, and after their election appoint the council; and twelve constables are chosen annually by the corporation, for the preservation of the peace and the regulation of the town. The bailies are justices of the peace; but they exercise little jurisdiction except in cases of petty misdemeanors. The town-house, a plain building, once containing a prison for the temporary confinement of malefactors, consists of two apartments on the ground-floor and two immediately above them. Some further particulars respecting St. Monan's are given in the article on the parish of Abercrombie.


Burgh Seal.

Moneydie

MONEYDIE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 6 miles (N. W. by. N.) from Perth; containing 315 inhabitants. This parish consists of two portions, viz. the old parish of Moneydie and the district of Logiealmond, which latter, about eighty years ago, was separated from the neighbouring parish of Monzie, and annexed quoad sacra to Moneydie. Before the Reformation Moneydie Proper appears to have been a parsonage connected with the diocese of Dunkeld; and about the year 1480 the living was held by Alexander Myln, canon of Dunkeld, calling himself "prebendary of Moneydie." A large proportion of the land here seems to have been held by the bishops, one of whom had obtained it by purchase, and caused it to be united to the barony of Dunkeld, but upon condition that a layman was to hold of the church, and to perform the necessary services to the king. Other proprietors of lands in former times were, James, Master of Gowrie, Sir Patrick Crichton, and Sir Andrew Malcolm, who all had large estates in the parish; and the district of Logiealmond, which is more than double the size of the original parish of Moneydie, appears to have been once possessed by a family of the name of Logie. At present, Moneydie Proper is nearly equally divided between the Grahams, of Balgowan, and the Duke of Atholl; while Logiealmond belongs to Sir William Drummond Stewart, of Grandtully.

The parish is bounded on the north by the parishes of Auchtergaven and Little Dunkeld; on the west by Fowlis; on the south by Redgorton and Methven; on the east by Redgorton. The western, or Logiealmond, district, lies on the southern face of the first range of the Grampians, sloping towards the river Almond; the eastern extremity reaches almost to the river Tay, near Luncarty bleachfield. The surface is little diversified; and with the exception of the Logiealmond hills, which are about 1800 feet above the level of the sea, there is no material elevation. The Almond, which skirts the southern boundary of the parish for a number of miles, is the only river of importance; but there are the two small streams of Shochie and Ordie, which rise in the Grampian range, and fall into the Tay. The Almond abounds in salmon and trout, and the two streams are famed for trout-fishing. The soil is much varied in the lower district; near the Almond it is a light alluvial mould, changing occasionally into a rich loam resting upon a gravelly subsoil; while at some distance from the river it is a hard red earth, with a considerable proportion of black loam. On the higher grounds it consists of a cold wet till, with a little peat-moss. In Moneydie Proper 2718 acres are under cultivation, and 771 in pasture; and in Logiealmond 2237 are cultivated, and 4869 in pasture. About 800 acres are under wood, much of which is of some age, and consists of Scotch fir; the younger plantations are chiefly of larch, sprucefir, and oak, the last of which prevails to a great extent upon the Graham estate. All kinds of white and green crops are produced; of the latter, potatoes form the principal article. Cattle of every description are reared, from the bulky Teeswater to the diminutive West Highland; the sheep are chiefly of the Leicester breed, especially on the low lands, being preferred both on account of their readily fattening, and for the superior value of their fleeces. The best system of husbandry is followed; and the improvements which have been made in agriculture have trebled the rent of the parish within the last forty years. The draining, inclosing, and improving of waste land have advanced with great rapidity; but the most important change consists in the introduction of bone-manure for turnips, which are eaten off the land by sheep. By this method, independently of many other advantages, the whole farm-yard dung is reserved for the potatoes, large quantities of which are regularly sent to the London market. The rateable annual value of the parish now amounts to £3654. The rocks in the hills are chiefly blue slate; and in about the middle of the upper district is a quarry of grey freestone, of fine quality, and easily wrought. A flax spinning-mill has been recently established at Milnhaugh, driven by the river Almond, and employing about fifty persons. The village of Herriotfield, the only one in the parish, contains about a hundred inhabitants. Logiealmond House, a seat of Sir William D. Stewart, is partly an ancient mansion, romantically situated on the bank of the Almond. Peats and wood are used as fuel in the upper part of the parish; in the lower the people obtain English coal from Perth.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling; patrons, the family of Graham. The stipend of the minister is £216; and there is a small manse, with a glebe of nearly nine acres of good land. The church is a plain substantial structure, with a square tower, and accommodates 460 persons with sittings: it was built about the year 1817; but its situation is inconvenient for the population, being seven miles from the western extremity of the parish, where most of the inhabitants reside. At Chapelhill, in Logiealmond, four miles distant, an ancient chapel was fitted up and opened by subscription, in connexion with the Establishment, in 1834, at an expense of about £150: the allowance to the minister, which is small, arises from seat-rents and collections. There is also a chapel in the parish belonging to the United Secession; and the members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A parochial school is maintained in Moneydie; the master has a salary of £34, with about £10 fees, and a house and two acres of land. There is another school at Chapelhill, the master of which has a dwelling-house, with a salary from the heritors of 100 merks Scots, and about two acres of land; and a school is attached to the Secession meeting-house. The usual branches are taught in all these schools, with the addition of the classics and French, if required, in the parochial school. A small library belongs to the congregation of the Established Church, and another to the Seceders.

Monifieth

MONIFIETH, a parish, in the county of Forfar; including the hamlets of Barnhill and Drumsturdy-Muir, and containing 3471 inhabitants, of whom 308 are in the village of Monifieth, 6 miles (E. by N.) from Dundee. The name of this place, written in ancient records Moniefuith, Monefuit, and Monefut, is of Celtic origin, signifying "the moss of the stag," and is supposed to be descriptive of the state of a portion of the parish in former times, in connexion with the sport here carried on. A deep stratum of moss, now covered by the sandy links along the Frith of Tay, is the depositary of many stags' horns; and King David I., according to tradition, had a hunting-seat here. The Culdees were in ancient times settled at this place, and the remains of a religious edifice that belonged to them were discovered in 1812, at the time of digging the foundations of the present church. The parish at an early date consisted of the four chapelries of Monifieth, Broughty, Eglismonichty, and Kingennie, with some minor charges, all which were ultimately consolidated into one parochial benefice; and about the end of the 12th century, Gilbert, third earl of Angus, gave the church of Monifieth, with the churches of Murroes, Kirriemuir, and Strathdighty, to the abbey of Arbroath. His countess, Matilda, added the whole land on the south side of the church; and afterwards, Monifieth continued to be dependent on the abbey until the Reformation. The parish, which is of an oblong shape, is bounded on the south by the Frith of Tay, and is five miles long, and from one and a half to three and a half miles broad; comprising 6054 acres, of which 4574 are under cultivation, 926 in pasture, chiefly links, and 554 in plantations. The coast is about three and a half miles in length, and is low and sandy, without any harbour, though numerous small craft and boats run up the beech to land goods at different places, and are left dry upon the shore at the ebb of the tide. The surface gradually rises from the Tay towards the north; a ridge, partly cultivated, and partly planted, crosses it in the middle; and the lands attain at the northern extremity an elevation of 500 feet above the level of the sea. The climate is cold in the northern quarter, but mild and salubrious in the south, and the scenery is enlivened by the Dighty stream, emptying itself into the Tay, and on the banks of which are several mills and manufacturing works.

The soil in the north rests upon a cold tilly bed, but is gradually assuming an improved character, under the process of thorough-draining; and from the eminences intersecting the middle of the district, down to the shore of the Tay, the land is rich and fertile, producing excellent and very heavy crops. Every kind of grain and the usual green crops are raised, amounting in annual average value to £28,390, of which £2800 are for wheat. Large quantities of potatoes, especially, are grown, of superior quality, and principally for the Dundee market; and dairy-farming is carried on to a considerable extent for the supply of the same place. The farms let on leases of nineteen years vary in size from 100 to 300 acres; there are many farms of less extent, and a great number of allotments of not more than five, ten, and fifteen acres each. There is scarcely any land capable of improvement remaining waste; the rent of some tracts is only about £1, but that of the best about £4, per acre. The prevailing rock in the south is whinstone; that in the north is a superior kind of stone adapted for pavement, and of which a quarry has been in operation, it is supposed, for nearly 300 years. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,642. Grange, the ancient seat of the Durhams, has been replaced by a new mansion pleasantly situated about half a mile from the shore; the old edifice was rendered famous by the escape of Erskine of Dun, and for an attempt of the same kind, nearly successful, of the Marquess of Montrose, when on his way to Edinburgh after his capture at Assynt. Linlathen is a large structure on the banks of the Dighty; and at Laws a mansion has been recently built, in an ornamental style, commanding very fine views of the surrounding country.

Several villages formerly existed here, comprising two of considerable size, called Cadgerton and Fyntrack or Fintry, of which no vestiges now remain. The parish at present contains those of Monifieth, Broughty-Ferry, and Drumsturdy; and another populous village is springing up, similar to that of Broughty-Ferry, in consequence of Lord Panmure having begun to let ground on building-leases of ninety-nine years, on the links of Barnhill. A few of the inhabitants are employed in weaving: the yarn is generally brought from Dundee, by persons regularly employed for that purpose, who take it to the weavers around, and carry the work back to Dundee. A spinning-mill, situated at the mouth of the Dighty, and driven partly by water and partly by steam, constantly occupies about 120 or 130 hands; and a mile further up the stream are some bleaching-works, engaging above ninety persons. A foundry, and some works for making machinery, in the village of Monifieth, give occupation to about 100 hands, producing chiefly machinery for spinning-mills; and there is also an old established cart and plough manufactory. The salmon-fishery pursued along the coast, rented at £325, returns about £740 per annum; and the value of the white-fishing, carried on chiefly by the inhabitants of Broughty-Ferry, a populous watering-place, amounts to above £5000 per annum. Haddock, cod, ling, soles, whiting, and other fish, are sent to the Dundee market. There is an establishment for curing cod, at which a considerable quantity is prepared for exportation; and the village of Broughty-Ferry also contains two rope-works, a foundry, a brewery, and the other usual establishments necessary for a large population. The fuel in general use is coal from England; but brushwood is also consumed to some extent. The turnpike-road from Dundee to Arbroath passes through the parish on the south; a mail for the north and another for the south travel on it every day; and the public road from Dundee to Brechin skirts the north-western boundary of Monifieth. The railway, also, from Dundee to Arbroath passes along the coast for three miles. A sub-post-office is established in the village of Broughty-Ferry. The principal market for the sale of produce is Dundee. A fair used to be held every half-year for cattle, horses, &c., which was of some repute.

The parish is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of Lord Panmure: the minister's stipend is £255, with a manse, and a glebe of four and a half acres, valued at £12. 10. per annum. The church, built in 1813, is situated at the southern extremity of the parish, on the brink of the Tay, and contains sittings for 1100 persons. A chapel, with accommodation for 720 persons, was erected in 1826 at Broughty-Ferry, and the district attached to it was in 1834 formed into a quoad sacra parish: the minister, who has £120 per annum, derived from seat-rents and collections, is elected by the male communicants. There are also in the village places of worship for the United Associate Synod and the Free Church. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and about £35 fees. Two female schools, and a school for infants, are supported by Mr. Erskine, of Linlathen; and there are two schools partially endowed; also a good school in connexion with the church at Broughty-Ferry. The parish contains two public libraries and two savings' banks. There is a bequest of £100 Scots yearly, partly for poor scholars, and partly towards the poor's fund. Broughty Castle, now a ruin, situated on a rock jutting into the Tay, near the western limit of the parish, is a very ancient structure; it was garrisoned by the English after the victory at Musselburgh, 10th September, 1547, as the key commanding the river Tay, here about a mile broad. After repeated attempts to reduce it, without success, it was stormed and carried in 1550 by De Thermes, commander of the allied army of the Scots, French, and Germans, and was subsequently dismantled: all that now remains is a large square keep, used as a signal-tower by the coast-guard. Upon the hill of Laws, about the middle of the parish, are the remains of a vitrified fort; and not far from this spot is the Gallow-hill of Ethiebeaton. A little to the north of Linlathen is a large heap of stones called CairnGreg, where it is said a famous Scottish chieftain, whose name was Greg or Gregory, fell in battle. On the summit of a small knoll near Kingennie is a circle of large stones called St. Bride's ring, and supposed to have been a place of worship dedicated to St. Bride, from whom the neighbouring parish of Panbride took its name.—See Broughty-Ferry.

Monikie

MONIKIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 3½ miles (W. by N.) from Muirdrum; containing, with the villages of Craigton, Guildie, and Guildiemuir, and the hamlet of Bankhead, 1317 inhabitants. This parish is supposed to have derived its name, of Gaelic origin, from the character of its surface, rising into an elevated tract of upland moss; and to have been the scene of the death of Camus, the Danish general, who, after the defeat of his army by Malcolm II., was slain here; in commemoration of which event, a stone pillar in the form of a cross was erected on one of the hills, thence called Camustane. The extreme length of the parish, from north-west to south-east, is about seven miles, and its greatest breadth rather more than five; comprising an area of nearly 6000 acres, of which 4450 are arable, 500 woodland, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface is broken by two ranges of hills, stretching from east to west in a nearly parallel direction, and dividing the parish into three several portions, which differ materially in climate and soil. Of these, the range lying to the south of the Downie hills, and sloping towards the mouth of the Tay, has a rich and fertile soil resting upon gravel, and producing abundant crops of grain of all kinds, and especially of wheat and barley of excellent quality. The soil in the central district, which is a valley between two ranges of hills rising to the height of 400 feet above the sea, is partly a thin black loam on a wet and tilly stratum, difficult to work, and producing only oats of any tolerable quality; and the third portion, which has an elevation in some parts of about 500 feet, is a swampy tract of moorland, extending along the northern boundary of the parish, and of which only very small portions are cultivated with any success. The Downie hills are chiefly of whinstone, of good quality for building and for roads, with sandstone, which latter is quarried to a considerable extent; and in the northern district is an extensive bed of slatestone, well adapted for pavements. Beautiful specimens of agate, spar, and jasper are found in the trap-rock of the Downie hills; and along the summit of the range is a great variety of plants.

The system of agriculture has been progressively improving for a considerable time, and is now in a very efficient state; the chief crops are, wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes, of which large quantities are sent to Dundee, whither, also, the produce of the dairy-farms is consigned. The farm houses and offices are substantial and commodiously arranged; some attention is paid to the breed of horses and cattle, under the auspices of the agricultural societies of the county; and all the modern improvements in implements of husbandry have been generally adopted. The plantations are chiefly of fir; but they are not in a very flourishing state, and there are still some large tracts of waste that might be planted with greater success. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3151. The principal villages are Craigton and Guildie, the former containing 162, and the latter 158 inhabitants, who are partly employed in the weaving of linen for the manufacturers in neighbouring towns. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Dundee to Arbroath, which intersects the parish, and by the Dundee and Arbroath railway, which passes through the southern portion of it; and at Denfiend, a strong massive bridge of one arch has been erected over a precipitous chasm fifty-five feet in depth. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns: the minister's stipend is £239. 16. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church is a substantial structure erected in 1812, and contains 900 sittings. There is a place of worship belonging to the United Associate Synod. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. Other schools are supported principally by the fees; and there is one of which the master has a house rent free, and a small annual gratuity from the Kirk Session. On the hill of Camustane, a handsome column 105 feet in height, rising from a rusticated pedestal containing a room for visiters and accommodations for the keeper, was erected in 1839 by the tenantry of Lord Panmure, the principal landed proprietor, as a testimonial of their attachment to a landlord who, during a long life, has made the interest and comfort of his tenants his peculiar care. From the visiters' room, in which is a bust of his lordship by Chantrey, a spiral staircase leads to the balustrade above the capital of the column, which is surmounted by an ornamental vase. Affleck Castle, though long uninhabited, is still entire, and forms an interesting memorial of baronial grandeur; and at Hynd Castle, on the northern boundary of the parish, is an ancient square tower, of smaller dimensions, situated on an artificial mound. There is also a tumulus near the western extremity of the parish, called Hare-Cairn, supposed to cover the remains of persons who fell in some hostile encounter near the spot.

Monimail

MONIMAIL, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; including the villages of Easter Fernie and Letham, and containing 1162 inhabitants, of whom 117 are in the village of Monimail, 5½ miles (W.) from Cupar. The name of this place is of uncertain derivation, but most probably of Celtic origin. The archbishops of St. Andrew's had a palace here, which was occasionally their summer residence; and there is still remaining an ancient tower, supposed to have been added to the original building by Cardinal Beaton, who resided at Monimail in 1562. The parish is of elliptical form, extending at its extreme length for about six miles, and in its greatest breadth to about five miles; and comprises 6000 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 2000 meadow and pasture, and 500 woodland and plantations. The surface is varied, rising in the northern part into a continuous range of hills, of which that called Mount Hill is the highest, and in the southern part forming a broad tract of nearly level ground, intersected by numerous streamlets which fall into the river Eden. The soil consists generally of decomposed rock and vegetable earth, interspersed with occasional beds of clay, but in some parts comprises sand and gravel. The system of agriculture is improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry prevails, with due regard to the quality of the soil; the crops are, barley, oats, wheat, turnips, and potatoes, of which last great quantities are raised, and shipped for the London market. The pastures are usually good, and great attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are of the Fifeshire, Ayrshire, and Teeswater breeds; the Fifeshire are preferred for breeding, and the Ayrshire for the dairy. Few sheep are reared; but considerable numbers of the Cheviot and black-faced breeds are bought in the autumn, and fed on turnips during the winter. The lands are well drained and fenced, and the farm houses and offices substantial and commodious. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9463.

The plantations, principally on the lands belonging to the gentlemen's seats, consist of Scotch fir, larch, beech, oak, ash, elm, and plane; they are well managed and generally thriving. The substratum in the north of the parish is mostly whinstone, and in the south, sandstone: there are strata of coal in several parts, but no works have been opened, and the principal fuel is therefore brought from Markinch and Dysart. Melville, the property of the Earl of Leven and Melville, is an elegant modern mansion, beautifully situated in a well-disposed demesne embellished with plantations. Fernie Castle is an ancient structure of great strength, and said to have been one of the castles of Macduff: not far distant is Mount Hill, on the summit of which is a lofty and stately column more than 100 feet in height, erected to the memory of the late Lord Hopetoun, and which forms a conspicuous and interesting object in the landscape. Cunoquhie is finely situated in a richly-planted demesne; and Balgarvie is also a handsome edifice with grounds tastefully embellished. The weaving of linen is carried on extensively at the village of Letham, affording employment to a great number of persons, who work with hand-looms in their own dwellings. Communication with the principal towns in the district is facilitated by good roads, of which three several branches pass through the parish. There are two parochial libraries, one containing a well-chosen collection of volumes on general literature, and the other exclusively appropriated to religious subjects. Monimail is within the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of the Earl of Leven: the minister's stipend is £272. 10. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, which is inconveniently situated near one extremity of the parish, is a handsome building with a tower; it was erected in 1796, and affords accommodation for a congregation of 600 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £24 fees, and a house and garden. There are four other schools, which are supported partly by private subscription, and partly by the fees.

Monivaird and Strowan

MONIVAIRD and STROWAN, a parish, in the county of Perth, 3 miles (N. W.) from Crieff; containing 853 inhabitants. The word Monivaird is a corruption of the Gaelic term Moivard, or Monvard, signifying "the hill of the bards." Strowan is corrupted from Rowen, Rowan, or Ronan, a saint who flourished about the middle of the 7th century, who was eminent for learning, and was in possession of the estate now called Strowan; he also gave name to a spring and a lake here, and to a festival held in the place. The two parishes are supposed to have been united for about 200 years; but the church of each was kept distinct, and used for public worship, till the year 1804, when a new church was built in a central part for the accommodation of the whole population. The church of St. Servanus, or Serf, at Monivaird, is thought to have been given by the Earl of Strathearn, at the beginning of the 13th century, to the monastery of Inchaffrey. In 1511, in the reign of James IV., the sacred edifice was the scene of a bloody strife between the clans of the Murrays and the Drummonds, the former of whom, being out-numbered and in great danger, fled thither and concealed themselves. But, their hiding-place being discovered by an accidental circumstance, and all the men refusing to surrender, the Drummonds set fire to the building, which was suddenly burnt to the ground, and the victims, amounting, according to the account of Sir Walter Scott, in his Legend of Montrose, to eight score men, with their wives and children, were consumed. The Master of Drummond, William, son of John, first lord Drummond, was immediately afterwards apprehended by order of the king, and conveyed to Stirling, where, with several of his followers, he was shortly executed. Upon digging the foundations for the mausoleum of the Murray family, in 1809, on the site of the old thatched church, some charred wood, and many human bones, were found, supposed to have been the result of the conflagration in 1511.

An old castle situated on the north of the loch of Monivaird is said to have belonged to Red Cumyn, the rival of Bruce; it is called Castle-Cluggy, is exceedingly strong, and was inhabited during the time of Cromwell by Sir William Murray, the first baronet of Ochtertyre. The residence of the Malises or Grahams, earls of Strathearn, was also in the parish of Monivaird, a castle on the summit of Tom-a-chastel; it was burnt down, according to tradition, while occupied by some ladies of note, who perished in the flames. One of them is conjectured to have been Joanna, daughter of Malise, Earl of Strathearn, and of the Princess of the Orkneys, and wife of the Earl de Warenne, who, in consequence of her treasonable practices against King Robert I., had been condemned to perpetual imprisonment in the keep of this castle by the Black parliament held at Scone in 1320. In the autumn of 1839, this locality was visited by some severe shocks of earth-quake, passing along from the north-west to the south-east, and which were partially felt as far as Inverness, Dunbar, Berwick, and the banks of Loch Awe. Shocks had been occasionally felt for the previous fifty years; but these were far more serious, and so much alarmed the inhabitants of the surrounding district, by shaking the houses from top to bottom, for several miles round, that most of the people residing at the adjacent village of Comrie spent the whole night in the streets or in the churches, which were opened for prayer. Similar shocks have occurred since, but much more slightly.

The parish is situated in the district of Strathearn, and is about nine miles long from north to south, and six miles broad. It approaches to an oval figure; but two tracts stretch into the contiguous parish of Comrie, and are annexed to it ecclesiastically, the one on the south-west, in the direction of Glenartney, and the other up Glenlednock, towards the north or north-west. The number of acres comprised in the whole is between 21,000 and 22,000; and of these 3000 are cultivated, 2000 under wood, and the remainder pasture. The surface is hilly and mountainous, but well watered and richly wooded, and partakes, to a considerable extent, of the milder and more picturesque features of Lowland, combined with the bolder and more romantic scenery of Highland, districts. A ridge of the Grampians runs along the northern boundary from east to west; and though bare and craggy at the summit, yet in their slope to the beautiful vale of the Earn they are clothed with large plantations of forest-trees, which form a striking and interesting feature in the scenery. The highest elevation in this chain is Benchonzie, or "the Mossy mountain," so called from an area of about forty acres on its top being covered with a light-coloured moss; it rises about 2922 feet above the level of the sea. At the south-eastern extremity of the parish is Turleum, a hill 1400 feet high, connected with the lower parts of the northern ridge by a series of conical hills partly clothed with copse, and crowned with lofty firs, and which cross the valley of the Earn, and consist of the eminences called Laggan, Drummachargan, and Tom-a-chastel. On the last, most beautifully and romantically situated, is the monument recently erected to the memory of General Sir David Baird, the hero of Seringapatam; it is an obelisk of fine Aberdeen granite, eighty-two feet high, and an exact resemblance of Cleopatra's needle.

The valley, separating Monivaird, on the north, from the district of Strowan, on the south, presents the most rich and diversified scenery, comprehending hill and dale, wood and water, finely contrasted with the adjacent mountains of various size and figure; while in the distance appear the stately Benchonzie, Benvoirlich, and Benmore. Most of the hills abound in all kinds of game; and on the celebrated cliffs of Glen-Turret the eagle annually builds her nest and rears her young, not unfrequently, in time of scarcity of game, making great depredations among the flocks by carrying off young lambs. This glen was formerly famed for its breed of falcons; and here was procured the pair presented to George III. at his coronation, by the Duke of Atholl, in token of the tenure by which he held the Isle of Man under the crown of England. The largest loch in the parish, embosomed in Glen-Turret, at the foot of Benchonzie, is called Loch Turret; it is about a mile long and a quarter of a mile broad, and well stocked with trout, pike, and perch. Loch Ouan, in the same glen, is remarkable for the number of trout taken in it; and among several small lakes in the lower part of the parish, prolific in tench, eel, and other kinds of fish, is Loch Monivaird, covering about forty acres, situated at the base of a wood, and which for many years yielded large quantities of shell-marl. The river Earn, rising in the loch of the same name, in the parish of Comrie, passes through this parish, and, after a winding course of about thirty-six miles, falls into the Tay at Rhynd; it is joined on the east, at Crieff, by a stream issuing from, and taking the name of, Loch Turret, and which, flowing with a precipitous course for about six miles, is marked by many powerful falls. One of these, called the falls of Ochtertyre, in the heart of a thickly-wooded dell, is exceedingly beautiful, the water descending with tumultuous uproar for thirty feet; and opposite to it, in a romantic spot, a grotto has been cut in the rock by the proprietor, for the accommodation of visiters; while a bridge has been thrown over the stream a little below. The Barvic, another rapid stream, running along the north-eastern boundary, separates Monivaird from Monzie; and after an impetuous course of four miles through a romantic ravine, displaying a number of beautiful cascades, it falls at last into the Turret.

The soil on the lower grounds is light and gravelly, and on the sides of the rivers, for the most part, alluvial, producing excellent crops, especially of barley, which, and oats, are the kinds of grain chiefly raised. Of the latter, the Flemish are sown on the best soils, and the Irish on the worst; those of the Angus-shire sort being reserved for clayey grounds. Turnips and potatoes, and various kinds of grasses, also form a considerable portion of the produce, and alternate with the white crops in the rotation system of husbandry, which, with the usual modern improvements, is successfully followed. The ordinary sheep are the black-faced, Leicesters, however, being seen on ornamental grounds; the cattle on the higher parts are the Highland breed, and on the lower, crosses with the Teeswater and Ayrshire. Draining has been carried on to some extent; and within the present century the inclosures and farm-buildings have received considerable attention. Much, also, connected with the principal departments of husbandry, has been effected by the premiums annually distributed by the Strathearn Agricultural Society, instituted in 1809, by the late Sir P. Murray, Bart.; and the Clydesdale horses have been brought into use. The breed previously raised, here called Garrons, though hardy, were very unsightly; they are supposed to have been a cross between the native Scotch pony and the Spanish jennet, many of the latter kind having been cast on the coast at the dispersion of the Spanish Armada. The rocks are in general covered with moss, turf, and peat, a supply of the last of which for fuel is obtained from Glen-Turret; but barked-oak is much used for fire-wood, and coal, also, is procured in considerable quantities from Bannockburn, twenty-five miles distant, though at much expense. The strata in the mountains consist chiefly of clay-slate and red sandstone; a slate-quarry has recently been opened, and several freestone quarries are in operation, one of them producing a material of excellent quality. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6000.

Much of the natural wood once formed, as is thought, a part of the ancient Caledonian forest. The trees in the parish comprise, oak, ash, elm, pine, birch, plane, and laburnum, ornamentally laid out, and displaying, in different directions, a profusion of ever-varying and beautifully-tinted foliage. Within the last thirty years, large tracts, belts, and clumps of hard and other kinds of wood have been planted, especially on the estate of Ochtertyre, on which stands the mansion of the principal heritor, Sir Wm. Keith Murray, Bart., whose family is the oldest in the parish, having been founded by Patrick, third son of Sir David Murray, sixth baron of Tullibardine, ancestor of the Atholl family, who died in 1476. The residence, surrounded by fine old oaks, is a modern structure, beautifully situated on a richly-wooded slope, commanding fine views, and is ornamented with superior gardens. The park, comprehending part of the plain of Monivaird, was the spot, according to Chalmers, on which Kenneth IV., king of Scotland, was slain in battle in the year 1003; and the highest mountain overlooking the plain is still called Cairn-chainachan, or "Kenneth's cairn." The parish also contains the mansion of Lawers, a tasteful Ionic building quite embosomed in wood; and Strowan and Clathick, two modern convenient residences. Two turnpike-roads run between Crieff and Comrie, the one on the north side of the Earn, through Monivaird, and the other on the south, through Strowan; and there are several good stone bridges over the rivers. The chief communication is with Crieff and Comrie, the former half a mile distant from the parish boundary on the east, and the latter somewhat nearer on the western side. The parish is in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the gift of the Earl of Kinnoull: the minister's stipend is £261, with a manse, and a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church was built in 1804, and contains 600 sittings, all of which are free. The members of the Free Church are exceedingly few. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £15 fees. There is a parochial library of about 250 volumes, chiefly religious. Many Roman antiquities have been found in the neighbourhood; and a cross, with the initials J. N. R. J. (Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judæorum) is still standing near the mansion house of Strowan, where the market of that place was once held.

Monkeigie and Kinkell

MONKEIGIE and KINKELL, county of Aberdeen.—See Keith-Hall.

Monkland, New or East

MONKLAND, NEW or EAST, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Glasgow; containing, with the market-town of Airdrie, the late quoad sacra parish of Clarkston, and the villages of Arden, Ballochney, Greengairs, Riggend, and Wattstown, 20,511 inhabitants, of whom 3567 are in the rural portions of the parish. This place originally formed part of an extensive district which, in the middle of the 12th century, was granted by Malcolm IV. to the abbey of Newbottle, and thence obtained the appellation of Monkland. The abbots held their courts for the barony in a chapel at Kipps, which was destroyed at the time of the Reformation, but of which there were some remains till the close of the last century, when they were obliterated by the plough. Towards the middle of the 17th century, the barony of Monkland was divided into two portions, of which that to the east was erected into a separate parish, and called New Monkland, to distinguish it from the western portion, which has the appellation of Old Monkland. New Monkland is bounded on the north by the river Luggie, and on the south by the Calder water; and is nearly ten miles in length and seven miles in extreme breadth; comprising about 35,000 acres, of which the greater portion is arable and in good cultivation, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface, though not diversified with hills of any remarkable height, rises gradually from the shores of the Luggie and the Calder to an elevation of almost 700 feet above the level of the sea, forming a central ridge that extends throughout the whole length of the parish from east to west. The only rivers are, the Luggie, which has its source in Dumbartonshire, and, flowing westward along the boundary of the parish, falls into the Kelvin at Kirkintilloch; and the Calder, which, issuing from the Black loch, on the eastern border of the parish, forms its southern boundary, as already stated, and flows into the Clyde near Daldowie House, in the parish of Old Monkland. The spacious reservoir of the Monkland and the Forth and Clyde canals, is situated partly in this parish, and partly in the adjoining parish of Shotts; it is a large sheet of water, of very irregular form, and about 300 acres in extent. The Monkland canal, also, begun in 1770, and since greatly extended and improved, runs near the border of this parish. This canal, which is about twelve miles in length, thirty-five feet wide at the surface, but diminishing to twenty-six feet at the bottom, and six feet in depth, receives a considerable part of its supply from the river Calder, and, by means of two locks near Airdrie, and eight near Glasgow, is raised 113 feet above the level of the Forth and Clyde canal. Terminating at Glasgow, where it communicates by a cut with the Forth and Clyde line, it affords ample facilities of conveyance for the mineral and agricultural produce of the parish.

The soil in the north and west is a strong rich clay, alternated with portions of lighter and drier quality, and in the central and eastern portions mossy, but not unfertile; the chief crops are, grain of all kinds, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. Flax was formerly raised in great abundance, but for some years has been little grown. The system of husbandry has been gradually advancing, and several tracts of waste land have been brought into profitable cultivation; ploughing matches take place annually, at which prizes are awarded to the successful competitors; and most of the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. The cattle, of which considerable numbers are reared in the pastures, are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and great attention is paid to their improvement; but the principal source of prosperity to the parish is its mineral produce. There are scarcely any plantations, except around the houses of the landed proprietors; and the want of timber, both for ornament and shelter, is severely felt. Among the principal substrata are whinstone and sandstone, which are largely quarried for the roads and for building purposes; and limestone is also found in several places, but is not much wrought, lime from Cumbernauld, and dung from Airdrie, being almost exclusively used for manure. Coal and ironstone of excellent quality prevail almost in every part in great abundance, and are in most extensive operation. The seams of coal range from three to nine feet in thickness; the principal varieties are the Ell, the Pyotshaw, the Humph, the Main coal, and the splint; and smithy-coal and blind-coal are wrought in various parts. There are not less than forty different collieries at present in operation, the produce of which is conveyed partly by the Monkland canal or by railway to Glasgow, and thence to the Highlands and the coasts of Ireland; and partly by the Kirkintilloch railway to Kirkintilloch, and thence by the Forth and Clyde canal to Edinburgh. The ironstone, of very rich quality, occurs partly in balls, and partly in seams, of which the most usual are the muscle and the black-band; the black-band is by far the most valuable, and is generally found at fourteen fathoms below the seam of splint-coal. There are as many as ninety iron-mines in operation; the produce is sent to the works of the Carron Company, the Clyde, the Calder, the Gartsherrie, Chapel-Hall, and other foundries. The working of these mines and collieries affords constant employment to thousands of the industrious classes, and has contributed greatly to the increase of the population, and to the growing prosperity of the adjoining districts. To the mineral wealth of this parish may, indeed, be attributed the existence of the flourishing town of Airdrie, and of the numerous thriving villages that have recently sprung up within its limits, and of which all the inhabitants are more or less occupied either in the mines and collieries, or in the various works to which they have given rise. The rateable annual value of New Monkland now amounts to £35,967.

The principal mansion-houses are, Airdrie House, the seat of Sir William Alexander, superior of the town of Airdrie; Monkland House, the property of the Hon. William Elphinstone; Rochsoles; the house of Auchingray; and Easter and Wester Moffat. The town of Airdrie, the village of Clarkston, and the villages of Greengairs, Riggend, Wattstown, and others, are all described under their respective heads. In addition to the great numbers of persons engaged in the collieries and mines, many of the inhabitants are employed in various branches of trade and manufacture; the principal is that of cotton, for which there are extensive mills at Airdrie and Clarkston. A considerable number of people are occupied in hand-loom weaving at their own dwellings, for the manufacturers of Glasgow; and there are also a brewery and a distillery, both conducted on a very extensive scale. There is a post-office at Airdrie, which has three deliveries daily; and two fairs, numerously attended, and amply supplied with cattle and with different kinds of merchandise, are held there annually, in May and November. Facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, which intersects the southern part of the parish from east to west; by the recently formed road from Stirling to Carlisle, which crosses it from north to south; by the Monkland canal; and by the Ballochney, the Garnkirk, Kirkintilloch, and Slamannan railways. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £265. 7. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £11. 10. per annum; patrons, the heritors and elders. The church, situated on an eminence in the western district of the parish, was built in 1777, and substantially repaired in 1817, and is a neat plain structure containing 1200 sittings. Several additional churches have been erected within the last few years, in the burgh of Airdrie and at Clarkston; and to all of them quoad sacra districts were till lately annexed by act of the General Assembly. The members of the Free Church have places of worship; and there are some for members of the United Secession, a Relief congregation, Cameronians, Independents, Baptists, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. The parochial school is attended by about fifty children; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. Schoolrooms have been built by subscription at Airdrie, Clarkston, Greengairs, Coathill, &c.; but they have no endowment, and the masters only of Clarkston and Greengairs have dwelling-houses rent free. The New Monkland Orphan Society is supported by subscription, and affords clothing and instruction to eighty children. Near Airdrie is a mineral well, of which the water is strongly impregnated with iron and sulphur; it was once in high repute, but is at present little used.

Monkland, Old

MONKLAND, OLD, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Airdrie; containing, with the late quoad sacra parishes of Crosshill and Gartsherrie, and numerous populous villages, 19,709 inhabitants, of whom 4022 are in the rural districts. This place was included in the district granted by charter of Malcolm IV. to the monks of Newbottle Abbey, and thence called Monkland, of which the greater portion, soon after the Reformation, became the property of Sir Thomas Hamilton, who was created Earl of Melrose, and subsequently Earl of Haddington. The lands passed from the Haddington family to the Clellands, from whom they were purchased in 1639 by James, Marquess of Hamilton; and in the reign of Charles II. they were sold by Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, to the college of Glasgow. Monkland was divided about the year 1650 into two distinct parishes,called respectively Old and New Monkland; the former comprehends the western, and the latter the eastern portion of the district. Old Monkland is bounded on the west by the river Clyde, and is about ten miles in length and four miles and a half in extreme breadth; but the number of acres has not been ascertained. The surface is generally level, in few parts attaining any considerable elevation; on the west it slopes gently towards the Clyde. There are several tracts of moss, in the aggregate nearly 1500 acres; and about 1200 acres in plantations. The principal rivers are, the Clyde, which forms the western boundary of the parish, but is not here navigable for vessels; and the North Calder, which rises in the adjoining parish of Shotts, and, bounding this parish on the south, flows between banks richly wooded into the Clyde at Daldowie. There are several burns that intersect the parish in various directions, forming tributaries to the Clyde; and also some lakes, of which Bishop loch, covering about eighty, Woodend loch fifty, and, Lochend forty acres of ground, are the most considerable. They all abound with pike, of which some are of very large size. The ancient bishops of Glasgow are supposed to have had their summer residence on the side of Bishop Loch, whence the name.

The soil along the banks of the Clyde and Calder is a strong clay, by good management resembling loam, and producing luxuriant crops of wheat; towards the centre is a light sand, well adapted to oats and potatoes; and to the north the soil is mossy, though in some parts, greatly improved. The crops are, wheat, oats, potatoes, peas, beans, turnips, and flax, which last was formerly raised in much greater quantities than at present. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved under the auspices of the New Farming Society, established here about the year 1830; the farm houses and buildings are in general substantial and commodious, and the lands are well inclosed with fences of thorn. The cattle are of the Ayrshire, and the horses of the Clydesdale breed, and very great attention is paid to their improvement: numerous prizes have been awarded at the Highland Society's cattle-shows for specimens of live-stock reared in the parish. The substrata are, coal, ironstone, and various other minerals, of which there are extensive beds also in the adjoining parish of New Monkland; and the working of the several mines, and the establishment of iron-works, have led to the erection of numerous villages. Among the principal of these in this parish, are, Calderbank, containing 1064, Carmyle 238, Causeyside 367, Dundyvan 1298, New Dundyvan 2202, Faskine 408, Greenend 502, and Langloan, containing 1111 inhabitants. The late quoad sacra parishes of Crossbill and Gartsherrie contained, the former the villages of Baillieston, Barachnie, Craigend, West Merrystone, and Swinton; and the latter, Coatbridge, Coatdyke, Gartcloss, Gartsherrie, East Merrystone, and Summerlee. Some of the principal coal-works are at Gartsherrie, where five seams of coal are found, in beds varying from two to four feet in thickness. At Gartcloss are three seams, of which the lowest is thirty fathoms in depth; at Gartgill, three seams, at forty fathoms lowest depth; at Gunnie, seams of every kind, at depths varying from twenty-seven to fifty fathoms; and at Drumpellier, four seams, at nearly similar depths with the preceding. At the Calder iron-works are two mines, one forty and the other 100 fathoms deep, containing all the varieties. At Palace-Craig ironstone is found alternating with the coal, in seams from twelve to eighteen inches thick; at Faskine, where the first mine was opened, splint-coal was found in 1791, at a depth of seventy-five fathoms; and at Whiteflat, where are two pits at the depth of forty fathoms, black-band ironstone occurs in seams of eighteen inches. There are also coal-works at Netherhouse, Easterhouse, Mount Vernon, and Rosehall.

The ironstone occurs in various parts of the parish, in seams of different thickness and quality. The black-band ironstone is found in the lands of Monkland House, and also at Faskine, Garturk, Lower Coates, and Dundyvan, in seams from fourteen to eighteen inches thick, yielding from thirty to forty per cent. of iron; these seams occupy an area of nearly ten square miles. At Palace-Craig, the upper black-band occurs in seams of eighteen inches, at sixteen fathoms below the splint-coal, and is of rather inferior quality. At Airdrie, in the parish of New Monkland, the seams of ironstone vary from two to four feet in thickness; the produce is chiefly wrought in the iron-works in this parish. Red freestone is quarried at Langloan; white freestone of very fine texture is wrought at Souterhouse, Garturk, Summerlee, Coatdyke, and other places, and is used chiefly in the manufacture of iron; and whinstone is quarried at Rawmone and Easterhill. There are considerable remains of ancient wood; and the numerous plantations, which are in a thriving condition, add much beauty to the scenery of the parish, and, combining with the high state of cultivation and the luxuriance of the meadows and pastures, give to it the appearance of an extensive garden. There are many handsome houses belonging to the proprietors, and to others connected with the mines and works in the parish and its immediate vicinity.

The chief trade is the iron manufacture, for which several very extensive works have been established here, of which the number is progressively increasing, the abundant supply of coal and other facilities for the purpose having long since rendered this place the principal seat. The Gartsherrie works, belonging to Messrs. W. Baird and Co., till lately employed not more than eight blast furnaces for smelting ore; but that number is now doubled. The Dundyvan works, the property of Mr. J. Wilson, have seven furnaces; the works belonging to the Monkland Iron Company have five furnaces in operation; and the Clyde iron-works, the property of James Dunlop, Esq., have five furnaces, of which at present four are in operation. The Summerlee works, belonging to Messrs. Wilson and Co., employ five furnaces, to which two are about to be added. The Langloan works, the property of Messrs. Miller and Co., have five furnaces in operation throughout the whole year; and the Calder works, belonging to Messrs. W. Dixon and Co., situated on the border of Bothwell parish, have six furnaces in operation. The quantity of pig-iron manufactured annually in these several establishments is in the aggregate 270,000 tons, in the production of which nearly 800,000 tons of coal are consumed. The Monkland Iron Company are erecting mills and forges for the manufacture of bar-iron, on a scale sufficient for the making of 230 tons of malleable iron weekly; and the Dundyvan Company are carrying out similar arrangements on a still more extensive scale. The steam-engines used in these works are of very great power; and the introduction of the hot-blast instead of the cold-air in the management of the furnaces, by which the consumption of fuel is greatly diminished, is now generally adopted in the works. This important discovery, first made by Mr. Sadler, in 1798, was carried into partial effect by the Rev. Mr. Stirling, of Kilmarnock, who obtained a patent in 1816. Improvements were made in the process by J. B. Neilson, Esq., of Glasgow, in 1828. Mr. Dixon, of the Calder iron-works, subsequently discovered that, by the adoption of the hot-air blast, common pit-coal might be substituted for coke, previously used; and the Messrs. Baird, of Gartsherrie, by some improvements on Mr. Neilson's process, ultimately brought the invention into its present practical efficiency.

The nearest market-town is Airdrie, on the confines of the parish; and facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads, of which the turnpike-road from Edinburgh, by Airdrie, to Glasgow, passes through the parish. There are also four railways for the conveyance of goods and passengers, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch, the Ballochney, the Garnkirk and Glasgow, and the Wishaw and Coltness. The Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway connects the rich coal districts in this parish and New Monkland, within ten miles of the city of Glasgow, with the Forth and Clyde canal near the town of Kirkintilloch: the act was obtained in 1824; and the original capital, £32,000, was increased by £20,000 under an act in 1833. In 1839, the capital of the company was further increased to £124,000, for the purpose of re-laying the line with heavy rails, and otherwise providing for the augmented traffic: the undertaking is now in full operation. By an act passed in July, 1843, additional lines are authorized to be completed, and the company empowered again to enlarge their capital to £210,000. The Wishaw and Coltness railway extends from the termination in this parish of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway, southward, to the estates of Wishaw, Coltness, and Allanton. The Monkland canal to Glasgow passes nearly through the whole length of the parish. This canal was begun in 1770, and since 1792 has undergone various improvements; its length, from Woodhall, about two miles south-east of Airdrie, to the basin at Glasgow, is twelve miles; and it communicates by a lateral cut with the Forth and Clyde canal at Port-Dundas. By means of eight double locks at Blackhill, near Glasgow, and two single locks, of eleven and a half feet each, near Airdrie, the canal is raised 113 feet above that of the Forth and Clyde, and 273 above the level of the sea; it is thirty-five feet wide at the surface, twenty-six at the bottom, and has six feet water. An extensive basin was lately formed at Dundyvan, for the shipment of coal and iron by the canal from the Wishaw and Coltness and the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railways; and boats to Glasgow take goods and passengers twice every day. The Garnkirk Railway Company, also, run trains of steam-carriages many times daily, affording conveyance for a part of the produce of the mines and iron-works; and at Coatbridge, within a mile and a half from the parish church, is a post-office. The revenue of the canal is estimated at £15,000, and that of the railways at £20,000 per annum.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is about £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patrons, the heritors and Kirk Session. The parish church, erected in 1790, is a plain substantial structure, containing 902 sittings. Churches, to which quoad sacra parishes were till lately annexed, have been erected at Crosshill and Gartsherrie; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church and Relief. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £31, with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. Connected with the parochial school are three branch schools, of which the masters have each a salary of £6.15.11. per annum, with moderate fees; there are also schools supported exclusively by the fees. At Coatbridge is a very flourishing academy; and in the village of Langloan is a library of about 500 volumes. In digging the foundation for the buildings of the Clyde iron-works, great numbers of human bones were found covered with slabs of stone, and some earthen urns containing bones and ashes. Urns perfectly smooth, and of a red colour, were found in 1834, in a plantation near Blair-Tummock.—See the articles on the several villages.

Monkston

MONKSTON, a village, in the parish of Collesie, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 102 inhabitants. This place appears to have arisen upon the decline of the village of Kinloch, which formerly contained 191 inhabitants, but at present has only 58, the greater number having removed to Monkston. The village is handsomely built, consisting of six detached ranges of four houses each, between which are intervals of a few yards; it is pleasantly situated, forms an agreeable place of residence, and promises rapidly to increase. A school has been opened, and is attended by about thirty scholars; the master is wholly supported by the fees. There is also a Sabbath school.

Monkton and Prestwick

MONKTON and PRESTWICK, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of AYR, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Ayr; containing 1933 inhabitants, of whom 1152 are in the ancient burgh of barony of Prestwick. Monkton and Prestwick formerly consisted of one district under the name of Prestwick, which, on the institution of the abbey of Paisley, was granted to that establishment by its founder, Walter, son of Alan, the High Steward of Scotland, in 1163; and the two churches here, of which one was dedicated to St. Nicholas and the other to St. Cuthbert, are in the chartulary of the abbey both styled churches of Prestwick, though subsequently the parishes assigned to each respectively occur under the designations of Prestwick de Burgo and Prestwick Monachorum. The inhabitants of the former had a charter of incorporation at a very early period, conferring all the privileges of a burgh, which were ratified by a charter of James VI. setting forth that Prestwick had been a free burgh of barony for more than 600 years prior to the date of this second charter, which gives the inhabitants power to elect a provost, bailie, and other officers, and to hold a weekly market, and assigns to the freemen a participation of the lands in equal portions. The records of the abbey of Paisley describe the church of Monkton as a rectory, and it continued to be so till the time of the Reformation; that of Prestwick eventually became a chapel. The precise time of the union of the parishes does not appear.

The parish is about three miles and a half in length and the same in breadth; it is bounded on the west by the Frith of Clyde, and comprises 3052 acres, of which 2270 are arable, sixty-three woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture. The surface is generally level, with a gentle rise towards the north-east, and the coast is also flat with the exception of occasional sand hills. There are two small streamlets, of which the larger, called the Pow burn, rises in the parish of Craigie, and, flowing through the lands, and turning two mills in its course, falls into the sea near the parish of Dundonald. The scenery is not much varied, and but little enriched with wood. The soil along the coast is light and sandy; in other parts, of richer quality, consisting of deep loam; and in some, a stiff tenacious clay. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and beans. The system of husbandry is greatly improved; furrow-draining has been extensively practised, and much unproductive land has been rendered fertile; the farm-buildings are of a very superior order, and all the more recent improvements in agricultural implements have been adopted. Coal, green whinstone, and freestone are the principal substrata. The coal occurs in two seams, the upper of which lies at a depth of about six fathoms from the surface, and, having been wrought for more than thirty years, is now exhausted: the other, at a depth of forty fathoms, has also been worked for more than twenty years; it is of harder and better quality, but the works are at present discontinued. The freestone, which is found both of a white and a red colour, is of excellent quality. The rateable annual value of Monkton and Prestwick is £4942. The seats are, Adamtown, erected in the 13th century by the family of Blair; Orangefield; Fairfield, formerly Monkton-Mains; and Ladykirk. The village of Monkton, anciently Villa Monachorum, is entirely rural; but a few of the inhabitants are employed in hand-loom weaving. The Glasgow railway has a station here. The parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £203. 16. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £35 per annum. The two old churches, which are of great antiquity, are still remaining, but are no longer used for the performance of divine service. A new church, in a centrical situation, has been erected at an expense of more than £2500, and completed and opened for public worship in 1837; it is a substantial and handsome edifice in the later English style, and is adapted for a congregation of 825 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school, situated in the village of Monkton, affords education to about 130 scholars; the master has a salary of £34, with £33 fees, and a house and garden. There is a school in the village of Prestwick, which gives instruction to about fifty children; the master has the use of the old town-house for a schoolroom, and receives a gratuity annually, in lieu of a dwelling-house, in addition to the fees. On the lands of Ladykirk are the remains of a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which in ancient documents is styled the chapel of "Ladykirk in Kyle;" the building was quadrilateral, with angular turrets, of which one is remaining. Between the villages of Prestwick and Prestwick-Toll are the ruins of an old hospital called Kingcase, traditionally said to have been founded by Robert Bruce for lepers, in consequence of his having, when affected with the disease, received considerable benefit from drinking the water of a spring at that place.

Monktonhall

MONKTONHALL, a village, in the parish of Inveresk, county of Edinburgh; 1 mile (S. S. W.) from Musselburgh; containing 117 inhabitants. This place lies nearly in the heart of the parish, a little to the south of the Esk river; it is the seat of one of the principal collieries in the parish, and its inhabitants are almost exclusively workers in the mines. About a mile above the village, on the Dalkeith road, stands Monkton House, said to have been built by the famous General Monk, and to have been his favourite Scottish residence. This venerable structure, now used as farm-offices, stands in the court of the present mansion-house, the property of Sir John Hope, Bart. The gardens of Monktonhall, and those of Stoneyhill, in the vicinity, appear to have been among the earliest in Scotland.

Monquhitter

MONQUHITTER, a parish, in the district of Turriff, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (E.) from Turriff; containing, with the villages of Cuminestown and Garmond, 2074 inhabitants. The farm on which the church was originally built was termed Montquhitter, or Monquhitter, a word signifying "the place for ensnaring the deer;" and from this the district, which was disjoined from the parish of Turriff in 1649, took its name. The parish is about ten miles in length from north to south, and seven or eight in breadth; and comprises 20,000 acres, of which two-thirds are in tillage, 300 in plantations, and the remainder partly swampy ground and moss, the latter, however, supplying abundance of very superior peat for fuel. The surface presents, to a great extent, a series of undulations; but the scenery is in general rather uninviting, the hills being bleak and barren, with but very little wood, and a part of the lower grounds undrained. The small stream of Asleed, running towards the south, separates this parish from those of New Deer and Methlick, and falls into the river Ythan; and another stream, called the Water of Idoch, giving its name to a valley, flows by the church and near the village of Cuminestown, and, passing westerly to the parish of Turriff, where it takes the name of Turriff, falls into the Doveran. Both these streams are augmented in their course by numerous tributary rivulets, and are well stocked with small fine-flavoured trout. The soil on the cultivated grounds consists of two distinct kinds, the one a reddish loam, and the other a black mould of considerable depth, and both incumbent on a clayey subsoil interspersed with pebbles. Among other crops, oats of excellent quality are produced; and the newly-ploughed lands, after being well limed, bear ryegrass and clover in perfection: but the richer description of grass-pasture is not to be found here, the disposition of the land to return to a state of heath, with which the parish was formerly covered, rendering it impossible to keep it long exempt from tillage. The breeds of sheep, which, however, are not much attended to, are mostly the black-faced; and of cattle, a cross between the Buchan and Teeswater is preferred, the Teeswater and Galloway, which have been frequently tried, not having succeeded so well on account of the nature of the climate, the want of shelter, and the inferiority of the pasture. The cropping-system and the best farming are practised; and the reclaiming of waste land has been much furthered by the introduction of guano manure, which is extensively used on all the grounds. The facility, also, of exporting cattle to London by steam navigation has given a powerful impulse to the efforts of those employed in breeding and fattening beasts for the market, where they usually obtain a superior price. The farm-houses, which are thatched in general with straw or heather, are small, but adapted to the size of the farms. The substratum of the parish is formed of a soft kind of red sandstone, much mixed with iron-ore: the stone is raised in large blocks, and used for building; but on account of its friable character when exposed to the weather, it is not in much esteem. The rateable annual value of Monquhitter is £5419.

The only mansion is Auchry, a plain edifice, purchased in 1830, with the estates, by the present proprietor from the family of Joseph Cumine, Esq., who, in 1739, commenced extensive improvements in this district in every branch of husbandry, and was distinguished for the impulse which he gave to agricultural pursuits throughout the whole of the north of Scotland. He also founded the village of Cuminestown, where, with some other gentlemen, he established a linen manufacture, now extinct. Many females, a few years since, were employed in flax-spinning and the knitting of stockings; but the former of these branches has been nearly suspended in consequence of the cheapness of spun flax imported from Germany and Holland. Besides the village of Cuminestown, the parish contains that of Garmond; and a daily post has been established by the influence of the present proprietor of Auchry, who, in conjunction with others, has projected a turnpike-road through Cuminestown, which is expected to prove of great benefit, the whole of the roads in the district being in very bad condition. The grain raised here is forwarded for sale to the sea-ports of Banff and Macduff, both about fourteen miles distant, whence lime and coal are brought in return. The cattle are sold at the markets of Turriff, New Deer, and other places; and the dairy produce is disposed of to general dealers resident here, who send it to Aberdeen and Leith. An annual fair is held at Cuminestown, for cattle and horses, on the last Thursday in April or the first in May; and the proprietor has established several other markets. The parish is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Fife: the minister's stipend is £191, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres, valued at £18 per annum. The church, situated conveniently near the villages, is an unadorned and uncomfortable edifice, accommodating 1000 persons, built in 1764, and increased by the addition of an aisle in 1792. A chapel of ease was erected in 1833, in Fyvie, for the benefit of the remote parts of that parish and Monquhitter, a district of the latter, containing 195 persons, having been ecclesiastically annexed to it. There is a small episcopal chapel, and the members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master receives a salary of £34, and £23. 10. fees, and also shares in the Dick bequest. The minister of the parish has the patronage of a bursary at King's College, Aberdeen, founded by the late Mr. James Cruickshank. There is a subscription library; and poor householders who are not paupers have the benefit of a charitable bequest of £200 by Mr. Grieve, the proceeds of which are annually distributed. A savings' bank, instituted a few years since, is in a flourishing condition, with a stock of about £2000.

Monrieth

MONRIETH, a village, in the parish of Glasserton, county of Wigton, 6 miles (W.) from Whithorn; containing 94 inhabitants. This is a small village situated near a creek or bay of the same name, on the west coast of the parish, and opening into the bay of Luce. The road from Whithorn passes through the village to Port-William, about two miles north-westward of it. At a short distance, near the sea-shore, are some remains of the ancient church of Kirkmaiden; they consist of the walls, which are still pretty entire.

Monteith, Port of.

MONTEITH, PORT OF.—See Port of Monteith.