Pancras

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

Daniel Lysons

Year published

1795

Pages

342-382

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'Pancras', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 342-382. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45443 Date accessed: 25 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

PANCRAS.

Name.

This place takes its name from the saint to whom the church is dedicated. It was called St. Pancras when the survey of Doomsday was taken.

Situation, extent, and boundaries.

The church is situated to the north of London a little more than a mile from Holborn-bars. The parish is of great extent. It is bounded on the north by Islington, Hornsey, and Finchley: the boundary towards Hornsey is in the hamlet of Highgate, one third of which is in this parish; it joins to Finchley in Lord Mansfield's woods. On the west it is bounded by Hampstead (including part of Haverstock-hill and Chalk-farm) and Marybone; on the south by St. Giles's in the Fields, St. George the Martyr, St. George-Bloomsbury, and St. Andrew's-Holborn (the parish of Pancras extending to the foot of Gray's Inn Lane, and including part of a house in Queen's Square); on the west it is bounded by St. James-Clerkenwell, the line of division being between the New River-head and Bagnigge Wells. Tottenham-court Road (fn. 1) , and all the streets to the west as far as Cleveland-street and Rathbone-place, are in the parish of Pancras.

Hamlets.

Emperor Sigismund entertained at Kentish-town.

The principal hamlets are Kentish-town (anciently Kentistonne), where William Bruges, Garter King at Arms in the reign of Henry V. had a country-house at which he entertained the Emperor Sigismund (fn. 2) ; part of Highgate; Battle-bridge, Camden-town, and Sommers-town.

Quantity of land.

Soil.

The parish of Pancras contains about 2700 acres of land, including the site of buildings. The proportion of arable land is very small, scarcely 50 acres. The soil is various, clay, gravel, and loam.

Land-tax.

This parish pays the sum of 1400l. (within a small fraction) to the land-tax, which is at the rate of about 3d. in the pound.

Dr. Stukeley's account of a Roman camp at the Brill.

At a place called the Brill in this parish were to be seen, a few years ago, some remains of what is supposed to have been a Roman camp (fn. 3) . A part of Sommers-town is now built upon the site. The celebrated and ingenious Dr. Stukeley, whose imagination in the pursuit of a favourite hypothesis would sometimes enable him to see more than other antiquaries, has written 16 pages in folio (fn. 4) upon this entrenchment, which he expressly affirms to have been the camp of Cæfar. He supposes it to have extended 500 paces by 400, including a small moated site to the south of the church, and another to the north (fn. 5) . Quitting the language of conjecture, the doctor points out the disposition of the troops, and the station of each general's tent, with as much confidence as if he had himself been in the camp. Here was Cæfar's prætorium; here was stationed Mandubrace, King of London; here were the quarters of M. Crassus, the Quæstor; here was Cominius; there the Gaulish princes, &c. &c. It is but justice to Dr. Stukeley's memory to mention, that this account of Cæfar's camp was not printed in his lifetime; as he withheld it from the public, it is probable he was convinced that his imagination had carried him too far on this subject. Dr. Stukeley remarks that the vallum thrown up in the civil war was in the fields next the Duke of Bedford's; he adds, that it was levelled after the Restoration, and that scarcely a trace of it was (when he wrote) visible, notwithstanding Cæfar's camp remained in so perfect a state after an interval of 1800 years. I do not suppose that the entrenchment at the Brill was thrown up by the Londoners in 1642 (since the name denotes something more ancient (fn. 6) ); but it certainly appears by the diurnals published at the time, that entrenchments and ramparts were thrown up in the fields near Pancras church during the civil war. I think it not improbable that the moated areas abovementioned near the church were the sites of the vicarage and rectory-house; which, in a survey of the parish of Pancras bearing date 1251 (fn. 7) , are described as two area, one prope ecclesiam; the other ad aquilonem ecclesiæ. The rectory-house at Newington-butts still exists in a moated state.

Prebendal manor of Kentish-town, or Cantelows.

In the survey of Doomsday two manors are described as being in the parish of Pancras, besides that of Totehele. The canons of St. Paul's, says that record, hold four hides at Pancras for a manor. The land is of two carucates. The villans employ only one plough, but might employ another. There is timber in the hedgerows; pasture for the cattle, and 20d. rents. Four villans hold this land under the canons, and there are seven cottars. In the whole, valued at 40s. in King Edward's time at 60s. I suppose this to have been the prebendal manor of Kentish-town, or Cantelows. The name of Kaunteloe, or de Kaunteloe, occurs in some of the most ancient court-rolls of the manor of Tottenhall (fn. 8) . The demesne lands consist of about 210 acres, according to the survey taken by order of parliament in 1649 (fn. 9) . The manor house was then sold to Richard Hill, merchant of London, and the manor (which had been demised to Philip King and George Duncomb for three lives, all then surviving) to Richard Utber, draper. After the Restoration, the lessees, or their representatives, were reinstated in their property. About the year 1670 the lease came into the possession of John Jeffreys, Esq. father of Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys of Roehampton, Alderman of London (fn. 10) . By the intermarriage of the late Earl Camden with Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq. grandson of Sir John, it became vested in him in right of his wife, and is now the property of the present Earl. This estate is held on lives subject to a reserved rent of 20l. 1s. 5d. per annum, paid to the prebendary, who keeps the manor in his own hands, and holds a court leet and court baron.

The present prebendary of Cantelows is Anthony Hamilton, D.D. Archdeacon of Colchester, and a Vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, who was collated in 1771.

Manor of Pancras.

Walter, a canon of St. Paul's, held, when the survey of Doomsday was taken, one hide at Pancras. The land, says that record, is of one carucate, and employs one plough. On this estate are 24 men, who pay a rent of 30s. per annum. In the year 1375, Joan, widow of Robert Lord Ferrers, of Chartley, died seised of an estate, called the manor of Pancras (fn. 11) (held under the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by a rent of 30s.) being the same, I suppose, which belonged to Walter the canon. Robert Lord Ferrers, of Groby, who inherited his mother's lands, sold this estate to Sir Robert Knolles, in 1378 (fn. 12) . In the year 1381, the reversion which belonged to the crown, was granted after the death of Sir Robert and his wife Custancia, to the prior and convent of the house of Carthusian monks, built in honour of the holy salutation (fn. 13) . I have not been able to find what became of this estate after the dissolution of monasteries. Perhaps it is Lord Somers's estate at the Brill, which is freehold, but the title deeds are not sufficiently ancient to ascertain it.

Prebendal manor of Tothele, Totenhall, or Totten-ham-court.

The manor of Totehele (now Tottenham court) contained five hides, and is thus described in the record of Doomsday. The land is of four carucates, but only seven parts in eight are cultivated. There are four villans and four bordars, wood for 150 hogs, and 40s. arising from the herbage. In the whole valued at 4l., in King Edward's time at 5 l. This manor was formerly kept by the prebendary of Totenhall in his own hands. In 1343, John de Carleton held a court baron as lessee, and the prebendary the same year held a view of frank-plege (fn. 14) . In the year 1560, the manor of Totenhall, or Tottenham, was demised to Queen Elizabeth for 99 years, in the name of Sir Robert Dudley (fn. 15) . In the year 1639, twenty years before the expiration of Queen Elizabeth's term, a lease was granted to Charles the First, in the name of Sir Henry Vane, for three lives (fn. 16) . In 1649, this manor, being seized as crown land, was sold to Ralph Harrison, Esq. of London, for the sum of 3318l. 3s. IId. (fn. 17) At the Restoration, it reverted to the crown; and in the year 1661, two of the lives in King Charles's lease being surviving, it was granted by Charles II. in payment of a debt to Sir Henry Wood, for the term of 41 years, if the said survivors should live so long (fn. 18) . The lease became the property of Isabella Countess of Arlington (fn. 19) , from whom it was inherited by her son Charles Duke of Grafton. In the year 1768, the lease being then vested in the Hon. Charles Fitzroy (now Lord Southampton), younger brother of the present Duke of Grafton, an act of parliament passed, by which the feesimple of this manor vests in Lord Southampton and his heirs, subject to the payment of 300l. per annum, to the prebendary of Tottenham, in lieu of the ancient reserved rent of 46l. and all fines for renewals. The demesne lands of this manor, according to the survey of 1649, are about 240 acres.

Prebendaries of Totenhall.

Among the eminent men who have held this prebend may be reckoned Ralph de Diceto, dean of St. Paul's, the English annalist; Lawrence Booth, Archbishop of York; Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, and John Overall, Bishop of Norwich (fn. 20) . The present prebendary is the Rev. Thomas Willis, LL. B. collated in 1790, on the death of the late Dr. Lort.

Prebend of Pancras.

The prebend of Pancras has for its corps an estate of about 70 acres in this parish. In very remote times, the rectory belonged to it. The appropriated rectory of Chigwell in Essex, formerly the endowment of a chantry founded by Bishop Kemp in St. Paul's cathedral, and annexed to the prebend of Pancras (fn. 21) , is still held under the prebendary. The mansion-house belonging to this prebend was leased in 1584, to George Benyon, Esq. for 21 years (fn. 22) . The prebendal estate was demised for the same term, to John King, Esq. in 1641, the reserved rent being 10l. (fn. 23) The present lessee is Henry Newcome, Esq. of Devonshire-place.

Prebendaries.

Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, and William Sherlock, are among the prebendaries who have filled this stall (fn. 24) . The present prebendary is the Rev. W. Paley, Archdeacon of Carlisle, well known by his admired work on the principles of moral philosophy. He was collated by the present Bishop of London in 1794.

Prebend of Rugmere.

The corps of the prebend of Rugmere was formerly in this parish. The capital messuage of Ruggemere is mentioned in the survey of Pancras, anno 1251 (fn. 25) . It is mentioned also by Norden (fn. 26) , as a seat belonging to one of the prebendaries of St. Paul's. Its site is not now known, nor any estate in Pancras held under this prebend, the corps of which consists, as I am informed, only of the parsonage and tithes of Throughley in Kent, of which Lord Sondes is the lessee (fn. 27) . The present prebendary of Rugmere is the Rev. Drake Hollingbery, M. A. Chancellor of Chichester, collated in 1780.

Cane-wood, or ken-wood.

Within this parish, in a singularly beautiful situation, is the Earl of Mansfield's seat, called Cane-wood, or Ken-wood. I think it not improbable that the wood near this mansion, and the neighbouring hamlet of Kentish-town, in old records written Kentesstonne, are both called after the name or title of some very remote possessor. One of the deans of St. Paul's was Reginald de Kentewode. Either he or some of his ancestors, in all probability, derived their name from living near a wood so called. The alteration from Kentwode to Ken-wood is by no means unlikely to happen. The estate and house at Ken-wood, in the year 1661, appear to have been the pro perty of John Bill, Esq. who married Lady Pelham (relict, as I suppose, of Sir Thomas Pelham, and daughter of Sir Henry Vane). I have not been able to procure any thing farther relating to its history, than that the late Earl of Mansfield (then Attorney General) purchased it, in 1755, of the Earl of Bute, and that it had previously been the property of the Duke of Argyle (fn. 29) .

The late venerable owner, the celebrity of whose character is such as to need no farther mention here, made Ken-wood for many years his principal summer residence.

Lord Mansfield's seat.

Remarkable busts and portraits.

The most remarkable room at Ken-wood is the library, a very beautiful apartment (about 60 feet by 21), designed by Adam (fn. 30) , and ornamented with paintings by Zucchi. In this room is a whole length of the late Lord Mansfield by Martin, and a sine bust of him by Nollekens. There is another bust of his Lordship, when young, in the hall, one of Sir Isaac Newton, and the antique bust of Homer, in white marble, which was bequeathed to Lord Mansfield by Pope. The paintings in the hall are by Rebecca. In the breakfast parlour is a bust of Pope, and a portrait of Sir Christopher Hatton; in the other rooms are some portraits well deserving of notice, particularly those of Pope, Garrick, the Duchess of Queensbery, and a good head of Betterton, the celebrated tragedian, said to be by Pope, who had been instructed in the art of painting, by his friend Jarvis. The present noble owner is improving and enlarging the house very considerably. Saunders is employed as the architect.

Pleasure grounds.

The pleasure grounds, including the wood which gives name to the place, contain about 40 acres. Their situation is naturally very beautiful, and the hand of art has been successfully employed in making them still more picturesque. The cedars of Libanus, though young, are very fine, and are shot up to a great height with their leaders entire. One of them was planted by the late Lord Mansfield with his own hands. The inclosed fields, adjoining to the pleasure grounds, contain about 30 acres. Hornsey great woods, held by Lord Mansfield under the Bishop of London, join this estate on the north; they consist of about 100 acres, and have been lately added to the inclosures.

Reservoirs of the Hampstead water-works.

The reservoirs belonging to the Hampstead water-works (fn. 28) are a considerable ornament to Ken-wood.

Parish church.

"Pancras-church," says Norden, "standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and wether-beaten, which, for the antiquity there"of, it is thought not to yeeld to Paules in London. About this church have bin many buildings now decayed, leaving poor Pancras without companie or comfort, yet it is now and then visited with Kentishtowne and Highgate, which are members thereof; but they seldom come there, for they have chapels of ease within themselves; but when there is a corpse to be interred, they are forced to leave the same within this forsaken church or church-yard, where (no doubt) it resteth as secure against the day of resurrection, as if it laie in stately Paules (fn. 29) ." It is clear, that the stealing of dead bodies was not then practised. Newcourt, whose work was published in 1700, says, that houses had been built near the church. It is still, however, one of the least populous parts of the parish.

The church is of Gothic architecture, built of stones and flints, which are now covered with plaster. It is certainly not older than the 14th century, perhaps in Norden's time it had the appearance of great decay; the same building, nevertheless, repaired from time to time, still remains; and having lately undergone a complete repair, looks no longer "old and wether-beaten," and may exist perhaps to be spoken of by some antiquary of a future century. Its disproportion to the population of the parish is very striking. It is a very small structure, consisting only of a nave and chancel; at the west end is a low tower, with a kind of dome (fn. 30) .

Ancient monuments.

Weever speaks of a wondrous ancient monument in this church, by tradition said to belong to the family of Gray, of Gray's Inn. If it be that which now remains in the north wall of the chancel, I should suppose it not to be much older than the year 1500. It is of purbeck marble, and has an elliptical arch ornamented with quatrefoils. No inscription or arms remain. Weever mentions also the tomb of Robert Eve, and Laurentia his sister, daughter of Francis, son of Thomas Eve, clerk of the crown (fn. 31) . There is no date. The family of Eve, or Ive, were of great antiquity in this parish. In the year 1252, King Henry III. granted leave to Thomas Ive to inclose a portion of the highway adjoining to his mansion at Kentessetonne (fn. 32) . Richard Ive, about the middle of the last century, had the manor of Toppesfield in the parish of Hornsey, and died without male issue, leaving some daughters, coheirs.

Burial-place of Roman Catholics.

The church and church-yard of Pancras have been long noted (fn. 33) as the burial-place of such Roman Catholics as die in London and its vicinity. Many persons of that persuasion have been interred at Paddington, but their numbers are small when compared with what are to be found at Pancras, where almost every tomb exhibits a cross, and the initials R. I. P. (Requiescat in pace), which initials, or others analogous to them, are always used by the Catholics upon their sepulchral monuments. I have heard it assigned by some of that persuasion, as a reason for this preference to Pancras as a burial-place, that before the late convulsions in that country, masses were said in a church in the south of France, dedicated to the same saint, for the souls of the deceased interred at St. Pancras in England.

Monument of Cooper, the painter.

On the north of the chancel at Pancras are the monuments of John Offley (fn. 34) of London, merchant, 1667, and Thomas Doughty (fn. 35) , 1694. On the east wall are those of Daniel Clarke, Esq. (fn. 36) who had been master cook to Queen Elizabeth, 1626, and Richard Draper, Esq. (fn. 37) serjeant at law, 1756. On the south wall are those of Samuel Cooper, Esq. (fn. 38) 1672; Richard Fitzgerald, 1702; and Philadelphia, wife of Thomas Wollaston, Esq. (fn. 39) of London. The date of the latter is concealed. It is of the last century, a small monument of veined marble; the effigies of the deceased is represented reclining on a bed with an infant in her arms. Within the rails of the communiontable are the tombs of Richard Nicolls, Esq. of Kentishtown, 1612; and Frances, wife of Thomas Nevill, Esq. of Holt in Leicestershire (relict of Sir Charles Wintour, of Lidney in Gloucestershire), 1720. In the chancel are the tombs also of William Talbot, Gent. 1660; Captain Robert Harland, and Frances his wife (the dates concealed). On the south wall of the nave is the monument of the Hon. Rowland Belasyse (fn. 40) (uncle to the present Earl of Fauconberg), 1768; on the north wall, a small brass plate to the memory of Mary, wife of John Beresforde (fn. 41) , Gent. "ouster barester" of Gray's Inn, 1588; on the floor, flat stones in memory of Frances, wife of Anthony Monson, Esq. and daughter of Sir Philip Tirwhit, Bart. 1658; Isabel, wife of Sir Valentine Brown, of Lincolnshire, Knt. 1680; Mary Frances, wife of Henry Tasbourgh, Esq. 1706; Charles Somerset, Esq. 1724; Margaret, relict of Sir Charles Anderton, Bart. 1720; Hon. Anne Belasyse, 1731; Hon. Penelope Belasyse, 1750 (aunts of the present Earl of Fauconberg); and Mary Clare, Lady Gerard, daughter and heir of Henry Tasbourgh, and wife of Sir Thomas Gerard, Bart. of Bryn in Lancashire, 1749.

Monuments in the churchyard.

Against the north wall, on the outside, is the monument of Mr. John Horton, Gent. 1738; Catherine, his wife, 1748; Mr. Ignatius Cugnoni, who married her grand-daughter; and others of the family of Horton.

Edward Walpole, a poetical writer.

Leoni, the architect.

Lady Henrietta Beard.

Van Bleek the portraitpainter.

Abraham Langford, the auctioneer.

Count Haflang.

Paxton, the musician.

Baron de Wenzel.

In the church-yard are the tombs of Robert Davies, Gent. son of Robert Davies, Esq. of Guisancy in Flintshire, 1668; Dorothy, only daughter of John Eyton, of Leewood in Flintshire, by Dorothy, sister of Robert Davies, 1672; Abraham Woodhead (fn. 42) , 1678; Edward Boteler, Esq. 1681; Robert Pennant, second son of Piercy Pennant, Esq. (fn. 43) of Byghtan in Flintshire, by Katherine, sister of Robert Davies, 1689; Edward Betts, of the College of Physicians, son of the famous John Betts (fn. 44) , 1695; Obadiah Walker (fn. 45) , 1699; Catherine, widow of Thomas Brent, Esq. of Stoke in Gloucestershire, 1706; Gilbert Whitehall, Gent. 1709; Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Carlton, Esq. Knight-harbinger to Charles I. and Charles II. (by his second wife Mary, daughter of Richard and Barbara Boyle), 1709; Terence Macmahon, Gent. 1710; Andrew Giffard, 1714; Bonaventura Giffard, 1734; Thomas Dongan, Earl of Lymerick, 1715; Catherine, relict of Jonas Cudworth, and wife of Edward Fenwick, Esq. of Northumberland, 1715; William Sulyard, Gent. 1715; Mary, daughter of Charles Townley, Esq. (by Ursula Ferriour, of Tysmore in Oxfordshire), 1716; Philippa, wife of Sir Henry Bateman, Knt. 1718; Elizabeth, wife of John Beaumont, Gent. 1721; Charlotte, wife of Nicholas Stapleton, Esq. 1721; Mabel, his second wife, 1727; Mr. Martin Harrold, 1721; John Walpole, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1721; Edward Walpole, Esq. (fn. 46) of Dunston in Lincolnshire, 1740; Thomas Shuttleworth, Gent. 1724; George Erington, Esq. 1725; Thomas Gibson, Esq. of Northamptonshire, 1726; Dennis Molony, Esq. 1726; the Hon. Esme Howard, son of Henry Earl of Arundel, 1728; Daniel Macnamara, Esq. 1730; George Fuller, 1730; Adam White, Gent. 1730; Amy Constable, daughter of Hugh Lord Clifford, and wife of Cuthbert Constable, Esq. 1731; Sir John Butler, 1731; Richard Chapman, merchant, 1733; Mr. George Shadforth, 1734; Mr. Matthew King, 1734; Peter Sexton, 1734; Sir James Tobin, Bart. (fn. 47) 1735; William Gower, Esq. 1736; Captain William Drummond Pierpoint, 1737; Mary, widow of Francis Moore, Esq. 1737; Mrs. Margaret Dixon, 1738; Sir Joseph Richards, Bart. 1738; William Montague, merchant, 1740; Barbara, wife of Sir John Webb, Bart. daughter and heir of John Lord Bellasyse, 1740; William Walton, 1740; Ralph Clayton, Gent. 1742; the Right Hon. Elizabeth Countess of Castlehaven, relict of James Earl of Castlehaven, and daughter of Henry Lord Arundell, 1743; Elizabeth, widow of Charles Conquest, M. D. 1743; Sir Thomas Mackworth, Bart. 1744; William Kirwood, surgeon, 1744; the Hon. Mary Browne, sister of Lord Viscount Montague, 1745; John Dutry Cornelisz, Esq. 1745; Charles Vere, Esq. 1746; James Leoni, 1746 (fn. 48) ; Peter Christopher Balzlow, Esq. 1747; Igna tius Conran, merchant, 1748; Anthony Cousien, 1749; Charles Standford, M. D. 1750; James Allen, Gent. 1750; the Hon. Thomas Arundell, Count of the most sacred Roman empire (uncle to Lord Arundell of Wardour), 1752; Lady Henrietta, daughter of James Earl of Waldegrave, wife, first of Edward Lord Herbert; secondly, of John Beard (the celebrated vocal performer), ob. 1753, ætat. 36; Margaret Daly, widow, daughter of Robert Walsh, Esq. and coheirefs of Edmund Sheffield, the last Duke of Buckinghamshire, 1754; Thomas William Selbye, Esq. of Northumberland, 1755; Thomas Smyth, M. D. of Ireland, 1755; Mr. Thomas Berington, 1755; Thomas Wollascott, Esq. 1756; Charles Button, Gent. 1758; Mrs. Catherine Hall, 1758; Robert Allen, Esq. of Barbadoes, 1759; Brian Philpot, merchant, 1759; Arabella, wife of Thomas Bedingfield, Esq. 1762; Mr. Thomas Abbott, of Swaffham in Norfolk, attorney at law, 1762; Sir Thomas Webb, Bart. 1763; Peter Van-Bleeck (fn. 49) , Esq. 1764; Michael Connell, M. D. 1764; Mr. John Hankin, 1764; Mr. Anthony Fediere, 1764; Anne, relict of Ralph Widdrington, Esq. 1764; Walter Quin, Esq. merchant of London, 1764; Thomas Wadding, Esq. 1765; Thomas Basnett, Gent. 1765; Catherine Dignan, aged 90, 1765; Frances, relict of George Brownlowe Doughty, Esq. (daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Titchbourne, Bart.), 1765; James Doughty, Esq. 1778; Richard Cowley, Esq. 1766; Richard Taaffe, Esq. 1769; Henry Wybarne, Esq. 1769; Frances, Countess Dowager of Litchfield, 1769; Alexander Wood, Esq. 1769; John Power of London, merchant, 1770; John Power of Cadiz, merchant, 1788; Thadæus Fitzpatrick, Esq. 1771; Robert Skerret, Esq. 1771; Stephen Lynch, Esq. 1771; Mrs. Alice Dover, 1771; Mrs. Mary Tyte, sister of William Dover, Esq. of Kingston in Jamaica, 1772; Mrs. Anne Tyte, 1772; Mr. Henry Sidgier (on the same tomb), 1786; Mr. George Snowden, 1771; Nicholas Tuite, Esq. 1772; Rev. Francis Blyth, 1772; Rev. William Bower, 1773; Basil Forcer, Esq. 1774; Abraham Langford, Esq. 1774 (fn. 50) ; Henry Rackett, Esq. 1775; Robert Rackett, Esq. (fn. 51) 1779; Mr. James Underhill, 1775; Edmund Duany, Esq. 1776; George Wilmot, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, 1776; Mary, wife of Joseph Webb, Esq. 1776; Rev. James Nicholas, 1777; Rev. John Dunn, 1778; Jane, wife of Francis Risdon, Esq. 1778; Judith, widow of John Stockwell, Esq. 1778; Mrs. Anne Cooper (fn. 52) , 1779; John Bradshaw, Esq. 1779; Thomas Parkinson, Esq. 1779, &c.; Matthew O'Reilly, Esq. 1780; Manoel Roiz, of Lima, Gent. 1780; Thomas Hirst, Esq. of Yorkshire, 1780; Isaac Hitchcock, of Clifford's Inn (fn. 53) , 1781; Anthony Wright, Esq. 1782; Lucy, his wife, daughter of Edmund Plowden, Esq. of Shropshire, 1786; Francis Wright, Esq. 1786; Patrick Larkan, merchant, 1782; John Smyth, Esq. surgeon, 1782; John Newton, Esq. of Lincolnshire, 1783; Count Haslang (fn. 54) , 1783; Manoel Vieira, merchant, 1783; Mrs. Elizabeth Pereira, 1783; Catherine, daughter of William Haggerston Constable, Esq. and Lady Winifred, 1783; Edward Harlee, aged 91, 1784; Robert Bernard Grant (Principal of the Scotch College at Douay (fn. 55) ), 1784; Laurence Cotter, Esq. 1784; William Woollett (fn. 56) , 1785; John Garden, Esq. 1785; Philippa, Lady Fleetwood (fn. 57) , 1786; John Prendergast, Esq. 1786; Mr. John Anthony Tagle, of Lima in Peru, 1787; Anne, daughter of Francis Trapps, Esq. 1787; Mr. Stephen Paxton (fn. 58) , 1787; Rev. Geo. Kingsley, 1787; Victor Rependor, Esq. 1788; Miss Anne Dias Santos, 1788; James Macnamara, Esq. 1788; Jane, relict of Theobald Bourke, Esq. 1788; Michael Bourke, Esq. 1789; Mr. Robert Fleetwood (fn. 59) , 1789; Mary, daughter of John Kirwan, 1788; Timothy Cuningham, Esq. F. S. A. (fn. 60) 1789; M. I. B. Baron de Wenzel (fn. 61) , 1790; Thomas Langdale, Esq. (fn. 62) 1790; Wm. Howard, Esq. 1790; Miss Ruth Ellis, 1791; John Lawson, Esq. 1791; Thomas Bodkin, merchant, 1792; Thomas Kiernan, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1792; Matthew Plunket, Esq. 1792; Christopher Mac Evoy, Esq. of St. Croix, 1792; John Prou, Esq. 1793; Duncan Stewart, Esq. of North Britain, 1793; Elizabeth Everett, relict of the Hon. William Barnett, of Arcadia in Jamaica, 1793; his Excellency Count Philippo Nupumeceno Fontana (fn. 63) , 1793; Mary, daughter of Michael Bothomley, Esq. 1794; and Mrs. Candace Margaret Bartholomew, 1794.

In the circuit walk, annexed to Stow's Survey, are recorded tombs of the following persons (since removed, or become illegible): Tho mas Plot, of Spershott in Buckinghamshire, 1677; Randolph Yearwood, vicar, 1684; Richard Finchamp, son of John Finchamp, of Outwell in Norfolk, 1689; Susanna, wife of John Carlton (daughter of Sir Hugh Ackland, of Killerton in Devonshire, and relict of Edward Hassall, Esq. equerry to Queen Catherine), 1696; and Mrs. Mary Judd, 1699.

The church-yard was enlarged in the year 1793, by the addition of a large piece of ground to the south east.

Kentish-town chapel.

There was a chapel at Kentish-twon, as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth (fn. 63) . It stood on land which belonged, anno 1633, to the family of Hewitt. In that year, the parish having received a sum of money for renewing the lease of their church-lands, applied it to the rebuilding and enlarging this chapel. Randall Yearwood, vicar of Pancras, in a paper dated 1673, states, that the parish did not buy the site, nor take a lease of it, but that they paid a noble per annum to the Hewitts, to be permitted to have the use of the chapel (fn. 64) . The present chapel, which stands about a quarter of a mile to the north of the old building, and more in the centre of the hamlet, was erected, partly by a brief, and partly by savings out of the church lands, in the years 1783 and 1784 (fn. 65) . It is a neat brick structure. There is a vault beneath, in which a few bodies have been interred, but there are no monumental inscriptions in the chapel.

Percy, Fitzroy, and Bethel chapels.

Percy chapel, near Tottenham-court Road (fn. 66) (being private property), was built about the year 1769; Fitzroy chapel (fn. 67) , about the year 1778; Bethel chapel (fn. 68) , at Sommer's town, about the year 1787.

St. James's chapel.

St. James's chapel, built in 1792, on the east side of the road from Tottenham-court to Hampstead, and the adjoining cemetery, are made by act of parliament to belong to the parish of St. James Westminster, as are the cemeteries of St. Andrew Holbourn, St. George the Martyr, and St. George Bloomsbury, to those respective parishes, though locally situated in that of Pancras.

Whitefield's chapel.

Whitefield's monument.

Richard Elliott.

In Tottenham-court Road, within this parish, is a large chapel belonging to the Methodists of Mr. Whitefield's persuasion. It was built by subscription under the auspices of this celebrated man, who was founder of the community. The first stone was laid on the 10th of May 1756, and it was opened on the 7th of November following. Mr. Whitefield preached upon the occasion to a very crowded auditory. Over the door are the arms of Whitefield (fn. 68) . Mrs. Whitefield was buried in the chapel, where is a monument to her memory, and that of her husband, who died in New England (fn. 69) . On the walls of the chapel are monuments of the following persons: Elizabeth, wife of John Griffiths, Esq. 1770; John Griffiths, Esq. 1788; John Green, minister of the chapel, 1774; Mrs. Catherine Groves, 1781; Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, 1782; Christian, wife of William Morley, Esq. and daughter of George Hart, Esq. of Newington, 1785; and Edward Webster, Esq. (fn. 69) 1788. On the floor are the tombs of Mr. Mason Jenkin, limner, 1758; Mr. Matthew Pearce, builder of the chapel, 1775; Rev. A. M. Toplady (fn. 70) , aged 38, 1778; Charles Smyth, Esq. Captain in the second troop of Horse Guards, 1780; and Mercy, wife of Dr. James Illingworth, 1785. In the cemetery adjoining are the tombs of Mr. Bartholomew Goodson, who was struck dead with a flash of lightning, Mar. 22, 1772, as he was attending divine service in the chapel; Mr. William Burrell, attorney at law, 1774; William, son of Captain John Welsh, 1781; George Gauld, A. M. of King's College, Aberdeen (surveyor of the coasts of Florida), 1782; Mr. Benjamin Love, of Fulham, 1785; Major William Cawthorne, 1786; Sarah, wife of Captain Matthew Gage, 1786; Mrs. Susanna Lewis, of Bourn in Gloucestershire, 1787; Rev. Richard Elliott (fn. 71) , 1788; and Mr. Richard Smith, clerk of the chapel (of whom there is an engraved portrait), 1790.

In the year 1758, 12 alms-houses for poor widows were built by Mr. Whitefield near this chapel. It was proposed to allow them 2s. 6d. each weekly, out of the sacramental collections at the chapel (fn. 72) .

Rectory of Pancras.

William de Belmeis, nephew of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, being possessed of the prebend of Pancras, within which the church was situated, gave the tithes to the canons of St. Paul's (fn. 73) , which grant was confirmed by Bishop Gilbert (anno 1183) (fn. 74) , and by Belmeis's successor in the prebend, John de St. Lawrence (fn. 75) . Soon afterwards the dean and chapter granted the church of Pancras, with all tithes, &c. to the hospital within their cathedral, founded by Henry de Northampton, reserving to themselves an annual pension of one mark (fn. 76) . About the same time Ralph de Diceto, dean of St. Paul's, gave to that church the tithes of his prebend of Totenhale in this parish (fn. 77) , which grant was confirmed by Lucius Bishop of London (fn. 78) . Various ancient leases of the rectory (for the most part to canons of the church), are to be found among the Cartæ Antiquæ at St. Paul's (fn. 79) . After the suppression of chantries, guilds, &c. the rectory came again into the possession of the dean and chapter, and has since been leased in the usual manner of church property, subject to a reserved rent of 13l. 6s. 8d.

Lessees of the rectory.

It appears by an old rent-book at St. Paul's, that Margaret Bust was lessee of the rectory in 1630: in 1650, John Elborow, clerk, was in possession of the lease as her heir (fn. 80) ; in 1694 Jacob Joyner (fn. 81) was the lessee; in 1701 Mr. Brown, in 1704 Francis Collins. Richard Draper, Esq. serjeant at law, was lessee at the time of his death, in 1756. The lease is now vested in Mr. Swinnerton, of the White Hart Inn, at Colebrook.

Vicarage.

The rectory of Pancras was valued at 13 marks per annum, in 1327 (fn. 82) . It appears by a visitation of the church, anno 1251, that the vicar had all the small tithes, a pension of 5l. per annum, out of the great tithes, four acres of glebe, and a vicarage house near the church (fn. 83) . The vicarage is rated in the King's books at 9l. per annum; in 1650 it was valued at 28l.; an augmentation of 50l. per annum was at that time voted by the committees (fn. 84) .

It has been usual to perform divine service at this church only on the first Sunday in each month, at other times in Kentish-town chapel to the same congregation. This arrangement was sufficiently convenient before the great increase of buildings on the south side of the parish. About the year 1787, the Rev. Mr. Mead having been chosen preacher by consent of the vicar, service was performed at Pancras every Sunday for some years, but it is now only monthly as before.

The present vicar is Benjamin Mence, M. A. collated in 1749 by the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, who are patrons and ordinaries.

Parish register.

The earliest date of the register of baptisms and marriages is 1660, that of burials 1688. The registers are now kept with great regularity. That of baptisms has an index, which forms itself as the names are entered, by means of a marginal alphabet at the beginning. It is to be feared, that for several years past the registers, particularly those of baptisms, are incomplete. The great increase of population in the more distant parts of the parish, induced the vicar to permit baptism to be performed in those districts. This circumstance, though attended with convenience in other respects, caused many omissions in the registers, and the average number of baptisms, of late years, will be found very inadequate to what might be expected in a parish supposed (by a calculation in which I think the number is under-rated) to contain 4000 houses. The number of burials also is extremely disproportionate to the population of the parish, but it is probable that the parishioners of the distant hamlets have interred their friends in more convenient cemeteries.

Comparative state of population.

Average of baptisms. Average of burials.
1660–1668 13 7/9 ——
N.B. From 1668 there is a chasm till 1677.
1677–1686 13 9/10 ——
1689–1697 25 4/9 61⅓
1698–1707 29 9/10 77½
1708–1717 24 1/10 79 1/10
1718–1727 473/5 136 1/10
1728–1737 614/5 220 9/10
1738–1747 411/5 2792/5
1780–1784 2451/5 3181/5
1784–1789 2714/5 3192/5
1790–1794 343 3893/5

Number of houses anno 1251.

Increase of buildings within the last 40 years.

It appears by a visitation of the church of Pancras, in the year 1251, that there were then 40 houses in the parish, including the capital messuages of Tothale, Rugmere, Northbi, and Alkichesbri. A very great increase of buildings has taken place in this parish within the last 40 years, the proportion is calculated at 20 to one. The first increase of much consequence was in the neighbourhood of Tottenham-court Road. The streets near Percy chapel were built about the year 1765 (fn. 82) . Those more to the north are of later date, some of them very recent. The magnificent square, called Fitzroysquare, was begun in 1793, and is as yet unfinished. The hamlet of Kentish-town has been increased more than one half within the last 20 years. Sommers-town was begun about 1786; Camdentown, in 1791; a considerable number of houses have been built of late near Battle-bridge.

Extracts from the Register.

"Sir Thomas Gardiner (fn. 83) and Mrs Jane Brookes, were married May 28, 1661."

"Diana, daughter of John Bill, Esq. and Lady Pelham (fn. 84) , baptized at Caen-wood, June 13, 1661."

"Sir Robert Shaftoe and Mrs Catherine Witherington, married July 18, 1661."

"John Rowe, aged above 88, and Frances Oxley, married Aug. 20, 1668."

Lady Slingsby.

"Dame Mary Slingsby, widow, from St. James's, buried March 1, 1693–4." It is most probable that this was the actress whose name occurs as Lady Slingsby in the Dramatis Personæof Dryden's and Lee's plays, between the years 1681 and 1689. In 1680, she appears as Mrs. Mary Lee. Her name was originally Aldridge (fn. 85) . Who her husband was is not known. He certainly was not one of the present Baronet's immediate ancestors; nor was he of Sir Robert Slingsby's family, who was created a Baronet in 1660. Sir Arthur Slingsby's of Bisrons in Kent, who was created a Baronet by King Charles II. at Brussels in 1657, left a son, Charles, who succeeded to the title in 1671. Perhaps he might be the husband of this lady. Both his family and that of the Hertfordshire Baronet, Sir Robert, have been long extinct. Lady Slingsby appears to have been an actress of eminence, and to have played the principal characters in tragedy.

Obadiah Walker.

"Obadiah Walker, clerk, buried Feb. 2, 1699." Obadiah Walker was born at Wosperdale in Yorkshire, and received his education at University College in Oxford, of which he afterwards became master. In the year 1687, by virtue of letters patent from King James, he set up a press, for the avowed purpose of printing books against the reformed religion. The patent specifies the names of the books (many of which were written by his deceased friend Abraham Woodhead), and exempts him from any penalties to which he might be subject by the statutes against Popery. The number of copies to be published of each work, is limited to 20,000 within the year (fn. 84) . He procured also other letters patent, by which he and some fellows of his college were excused from attending the public service of the church (fn. 85) . Under the sanction of this authority he opened a chapel for mass within the walls of the college. Upon the arrival of William the Third, following the example of his Royal patron, he abdicated his headship, and went to London, where he passed the remainder of his days, and died in the month of January 1699, aged 86. He translated a life of King Alfred, which he published, with plates and notes; he was author also of a treatise on education; instructions in the art of oratory and grammer; a description of Greenland, the Northern Islands, Muscovy, and Russia; a life of Christ, and a Greek and Roman history, illustrated by coins and medals, a work in good esteem (fn. 86) . He was buried in the church-yard at Pancras, near the grave of his friend Abraham Woodhead, where is a monument to his memory, with this short inscription:
"Per bonam famam, et infamiam.
"Ob. Jan. 31. A. D. 1699. Æt. 86.

"The Right Hon. Mary Lady Dowager Abergavenny (fn. 87) , buried Nov. 14, 1699."

"Gray James Grove and Penelope, daughter of Ld Jermyn, married June 8, 1700."

Dr. Grabe.

"John Ernest Grabe, D. D. buried Nov. 9, 1711." A learned divine, born at Koninsberg in Prussia, in the year 1666. He received his education at the university of that place, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was professor of divinity and history. Having determined to quit the Lutheran religion on account of some points of conscience, he hesitated for some time in his choice, and at length determined to embrace that of the church of England; for which purpose he came to this country in 1695, bringing with him very strong recommendations to the King, who assigned him a pension of 100l. per annum, to enable him to pursue his studies. He soon afterwards entered into priest's orders in our church. His edition of the Septuiaginst from the Alexandrian MS. is well known. He published also Spicilegium S. S. Patrum, or the lesser works of the Fathers and Heretics of the three first centuries; an edition of Justin Martyr's first Apology; the works of Irenæus; Bishop Bull's works; and a tract against Whiston's doctrine of the Apostolical constitutions, written in English. Grabe resided much at Oxford, both for the convenience of the Bodleian library, and for the society of learned men which he found there. The university gave him the degree of D. D. to which he was presented by Dr. Smalridge, who made a speech upon the occasion, containing a very handsome and just eulogium upon his merits. There is a monument to this eminent divine in Westminster Abbey (fn. 88) , which has occasioned it to be said that he was buried there (fn. 89) . Dr. Smalridge published a life of Dr. Grabe, and an account of his MSS. prefixed to a tract against Whiston. Two others of his posthumous works were afterwards printed; a Greek liturgy, and a treatise on the Eucharist.

"Dame Bridget Clifton, buried Nov. 11, 1711."

"Charles Calvert, Baron of Baltimore in Ireland, buried Feb. 26, 1720; the Lady Baltimore, July 26, 1731."

Jeremy Collier.

"Jeremiah Collier, clerk, buried April 29, 1726." This celebrated writer was son of a clergyman, and born at Stow Qui, in the county of Cambridge, in the year 1650. He received his education at Caius College. Having entered into holy orders, in the early part of his life, he had the small living of Ampton in Suffolk. In 1685 he came to London, and was soon afterwards appointed lecturer at Gray's Inn. On the eve of the Revolution, though a member of the church of England, he strenuously attached himself to King James's interest, and wrote the first pamphlet which appeared against the Prince of Orange. When that Prince was settled on the throne of these kingdoms, Collier published several tracts, written with much force and spirit against the government. His conduct in other respects was at the same time so imprudent as to subject him to very unpleasant consequences. He was twice imprisoned, and upon refusing to comply with some legal forms, subjected himself to an outlawry, under which he continued to the day of his death. After his second imprisonment, he seems wholly to have directed his talents to more beneficial objects. He first published a collection of essays upon various subjects, which were very favourably received. Soon afterwards he attacked the stage for its immorality. This engaged him in a controversy with some of the most distinguished wits of the age. He came off victorious in the contest, and was the means of checking the progress of that licentious style of writing, which threatened to banish every friend to virtue and decorum from the theatres. Mr. Collier published also a translation of Moreri's great dictionary, a translation of Marcus Antoninus, a collection of sermons, and an ecclesiastical history of Great Britain. At Queen Anne's accession, he was earnestly solicited to conform to the establishment, and was promised considerable preferment. It is to the credit of his consistency that he refused, and shows at least, that his former conduct, however erroneous, originated from motives of conscience. In 1713, he was consecrated a Bishop by the nonjurors (fn. 99) . He died on the 26th of April 1726, and was buried at Pancras. There is no memorial to him.

"My Lady Eleanor Fleming, buried Jan. 14, 1726–7."

"Sir Henry Bateman, buried Sep. 14, 1727."

Edward Ward.

"Edward Ward, buried June 27, 1731." A writer of low humour, generally known by the familiar appellation of Ned Ward. He was a native of Oxfordshire, of humble extraction; for many years he kept a coffeehouse in Moorfields, and afterwards, a punchhouse in Fulwood's rents, near Gray's Inn, where he died on the 20th of June 1731. His funeral was directed by a poetical will written by himself in 1725. His most noted work is the London Spy, being a description of the manners of the town at the beginning of the present century. His poems, abounding with humour of the lowest kind, are numerous; and he published one dramatic piece, called the Humours of a Coffeehouse (fn. 91) .

Family of Mackworth.

"Thomas, son of Sir Thomas and Sarah Mackworth, baptized May 15, 1732, buried Aug. 16; Jane, baptized July 13, 1734 (fn. 93) . Sir Thomas Mackworth, buried Feb. 10, 1745; the Rt Hon. Lady Anne Mackworth, Dec. 21, 1792."

"Bevil Higgons, buried March 6, 1735." Author of a book against Bishop Burnet's History, and a tragedy called the Generous Conqueror, or the Timely Discovery. He was a younger son of Sir Thomas Higgons. Being devoted to the interest of James II. he was one of those who accompanied that monarch in his exile (fn. 94) .

"Lady Mary Parsons, buried Ap. 26, 1735."

"Sir John Sidley (fn. 95) , buried May 3, 1737."

"Francis Annesley, Esq. (fn. 96) and Lady Sarah Fowler (fn. 97) , married Sep. 3, 1737."

"Thomas (fn. 98) , son of Sir Robert and Diana Adams, baptized Feb. 17, 1738."

Family of Dillon.

"Ld Charles Dillon (fn. 99) , buried Oct. 27, 1741; Lady Dillon (fn. 100) , Nov. 23, 1751; the Honble Miss Anne Dillon, Ap. 19, 1763; the Rt Hon. Viscount Dillon (fn. 101) , Sep. 25, 1787." Others of the family of Dillon have been interred here.

"Sir John Wittewrong (fn. 102) , buried Ap. 1, 1743."

"Lady Osbalson Sophia More (fn. 103) , buried Ap. 29, 1750."

"Lady Elizabeth Bishop (fn. 104) , buried Mar. 18, 1751."

"Lady Sarah Lad, buried Sep. 10, 1751."

Family of Arundell.

"Count of the holy Roman empire (fn. 107) , buried July 29, 1781."

"Sir Robert Burdett, Bart. and the Right Hon. Lady Caroline "Honble Thomas Arundell (fn. 105) , buried Apr. 13, 1752; the Honble Anne Arundell (fn. 106) , Oct. 11, 1778; the Honble Thomas Arundell, Harpur (fn. 108) , married July 17, 1753."

"Sir Henry Tempest, Bart. buried Nov. 15, 1753."

"Alice Lady Brian, buried Dec. 19, 1753."

"The Rt Hon. Barbara Barnewall (fn. 109) , buried Oct. 29, 1761."

"The Honble Mrs Cary, buried Ap. 6, 1762."

Ravenet, the engraver.

"Simon Francis Ravenet, buried April 6, 1764." An eminent engraver.

"Peter Pasqualino, buried Feb. 20, 1766." An eminent performer on the violoncello, and the first who brought that instrument into fashion, about the year 1740 (fn. 110) .

"The Hon. Henry Francis Widdrington, buried Sep. 3, 1774."

P. H. T. de Vergy.

"Peter Henry Treyssac de Vergy, buried March 3, 1775." A portrait in mezzotinto of this person was published in February 1775, with a short printed account of him, in which he is styled advocate in the parliament of Bourdeaux, author of several literary performances in England, and famous for his concern in the memorable quarrel between the Count de Guerchy, ambassador extraordinary from the court of France, and the Chevalier D'Eon, minister plenipotentiary from the same court to the court of Great "Britain in 1763." There is a copy also of his last will, in which he confesses his concern in a plot against D'Eon; and intimates that he withdrew his assistance upon finding that it was intended to affect the Chevalier's life. De Vergy died on the 1st of October 1774, aged 42, and remained unburied till March, his executor waiting for directions from his family. He had desired in his will that his relations would remove his body to Bourdeaux. It appears by his will that he published some pamphlets or papers against the Chevalier D'Eon. He was author also of some novels in English, which are said to have little other merit than that they are remarkably well written for a foreigner.

"Maria Teresa, Duchess of Wharton (fn. 111) , buried Feb. 20, 1777."

"Anne Lady Webb (fn. 112) , buried Oct. 14, 1777."

"Baron Gustavus Adam Nolcken (fn. 113) and Mary Lemaistre, married June 30, 1779."

"Hon. Anne Dormer, buried July 13, 1782."

"Dame Isabella Chalmers, buried April 16, 1784; Sir George Chalmers, Nov. 15, 1791."

"Hon. Mary Teresa Eyre, buried April 2, 1785."

"John Count O Rourke, buried April 2, 1785." A well-known character in the fashionable world, descended from the O Rourkes, ancient sovereigns of O Rourkes county, now Leitrim, in Ireland. He had been in the Imperial and French service, and wore the order of St. Louis.

The Countess Potoka.

"Madam Charlotte Potoka, aged 82, buried Aug. 1, 1785." A native of Poland. She died in the Fleet prison, where she had been confined for debt.

Count Lucchese.

"Count Ferdinand Lucchese, buried June 18, 1790." He died at his house in Portman-square, having been Envoy from Naples several years. His funeral was attended by the whole corps diplomatique.

"The Hon. Winifred Mary Drummond, buried Ap. 9, 1791."

"Alexander Cesar D'Anterroches, Bishop of Condom, Count de Brisade, buried Jan. 31, 1793."

"The Neapolitan Ambasador (fn. 114) , buried June 3, 1793."

"Eleanor Bonner, from the work-house, aged 91, buried Ap. 26, 1794."

"Antoine Francois Comte de Gramont, son of Antoine Adrien Charles, and grandson of Louis Antione Duc de Gramont, (leaving behind him three children, Antoine Louis Raymond Genevieve, and two daughters, Antoninette Cornelie Sainte Eugenie, and Antoinette Marie Jeanne de Gramont, by Dame Gabrielle Charlotte Marie Eugenie de Boisgelin his wife,) buried Feb. 12, 1795, aged 37."

Families connected with the peerage.

Children of the following persons connected with the peerage have been baptized in this parish: Thomas Somers Cocks, Esq. (fn. 115) , and Anne (1769); James Walker, Esq. and Lady Mary (fn. 116) (1771, &c.); Lord William Campbell (fn. 117) , and Sarah (1774); Henry James Jessup, and Lady Anna Maria (fn. 118) (1794).

Morant's benefaction for an obit.

John Morant gave four acres of land, valued in 1547 at 16s. per annum, for an obit, at which the whole rent was to be given to the poor in recreation (fn. 119) .

Anonymous benefaction.

Churchands.

A benefactor, now unknown, gave a third part of the profits of three acres of land, near the Fortress in the manor of Cantelows, to the poor, which third, in 1696, produced 21. 10s. per annum (fn. 120) , now 14l. There are 23 acres of land belonging to the church, given also by persons now unknown. These lands were leased for a term of years by Sir Robert Payne and others, then fessees; and it is stated in a survey, bearing date 1650 (fn. 121) , that when the lease was expired, they would be worth four nobles per annum. In 1696 they were let at 361. 10s., now at about 1201 (fn. 122) .

William Heron, in 1580, gave the sum of 81. every third year, to mend the highways in this parish.

Money.

John Miller, in 1583, gave a rent-charge of I l. 6s. 8d. on lands at Pancras, to poor impotent people. Sir Edward Stanhope, LL.D. anno 1603, gave the sum of 20l. to the poor. William platt, Esq. in 1637, gave 10l. per annum to the poor of Highgate, and 4l. to the poor of Kentife-town.

Bread.

Thomas Charles, in 1617, gave a rent of I l. 4s. to buy bread for the poor. Thomas Cleeve, in 1634, gave (for the same purpose) the sum of 50l., with which was purchased a rent-charge of 21. 16s. He gave the like sum to parishioners of Pancras living in Highgate, to be distributed in Highgate chapel.

Large temporary benefaction.

The late John Craven, Esq. of Gray's Inn, left the sum of 20001. to be distributed among 100 poor housekeepers of this parish, who had been rated in the poor's books. The distribution was made on the 14th of March 1786.

Girl's Charity-school.

A charity-school, for "instructing, clothing, qualisying for useful servants, and putting out to service the female children of the industrious poor of this parish," was instituted by subscription in the year 1776, at first in a rented house, and with only six children. The next year they were increased to 24, and afterwards, for a time, reduced to 18; but the subscription having been since enlarged, a school-house was built in the year 1790, on a piece of ground given by Lord Southampton, and 30 children are now wholly maintained, clothed, and educated. A benefaction of 200l. has been given to this charity by Mrs. Culling (fn. 123) .

Foundling-hospital.

Handel's performance of the Messiah there.

Pictures.

Pictures.

The Foundling-hospital, which stands within this parish (at the end of Lamb's Conduit-street), was instituted in the year 1739. The building was not inhabited till the year 1745, and it was not completed till some years afterwards. It is intended for the maintenance and education of foundlings, and other poor children, who are admitted in their infancy, and remain in the hospital till the age of fourteen, when they are apprenticed either to trade of service. Some time ago a large sum was voted annually by parliament for the use of this institution, when all children that offered were admitted, and brought up either here or in hospitals established in various parts of the kingdom for that purpose. For several years past it has depended solely upon its own funds (the interest of benefactions and annual subscription), which are sufficient for the maintenance and education of 450 children, but there are not at present so many in the hospital (fn. 124) . None are admitted now without a recommendation. Among the principal benefactors may be reckoned G. F. Handel, who for several years performed his oratorio of the Messiah at the chapel, which is extremely well calculated for the purpose. When that great master presided there at his own Oratorio, it was generally crowded; and as he engaged most of the performers to contributed their assistance gratis, the profits to the charity were very considerable, and in some instances approached nearly to 1000l. After Handel's death, Smith continued these perfomances; but not with equal success; and they became at length so little productive, that they were discontinued. There are some valuable pictures in the hospital, particularly the original of Hogarth's march to Finchley; Moses presented to Pharaoh's daughter, by the same artist; Ishmael and Hagar, by Highmore; a sea-piece, by Brooking; a sketch of the Charter-house, by Gainsborough, being one of his earliest productions; and several portraits of benefactors and other persons connected with the hospital. Among these are Captain Coram, a very active promoter of the institution; Dr. Mead; the Earls of Dartmouth and Macclesfield, &c. Over the altar in the chapel is the wife men's offering, by Cazali; in the windows are the arms of benefactors in stained glass (fn. 123) . The low buildings which occupy the fides of the area before the hospital, are the schools. The King is patron of this institution, the Duke of Portland president.

Small-pox Hospital, and Hospital for Inoculation.

The hospital for inoculation, generally called the Small-pox hospital, was removed from another site about the year 1765, to a field near Battlebridge-turnpike, where it now stands. The hospital for the reception of patients with the natural small-pox was removed to its present situation, contiguous to the other building, in 1793. These excellent institutions were established in the year 1746, from which time to the first of January 1795, 19,004 patients with the natural small-pox have been received, and 29,260 have been inoculated (fn. 124) . The King is patron: the names of the president and other persons belonging to the establishment, are printed annually in the Court Calendar.

Welsh charity-school.

Within this parish also, near Gray's Inn lane, is the Welsh charityschool, built about the year 1771. The institution is of a much earlier period. About the year 1718, some gentlemen of the principality of Wales began a subscription for the purpose of instructing, clothing, maintaining, and apprenticing poor boys, born of Welsh parents in or near London, having no parochial settlement at the place of their birth. At first a small number were educated in a room near Hatton-garden. In the year 1737, a school-house was erected on Clerkenwell-green. In 1769, the society enlarged their plan, and extended it to the education and maintenance of girls. The patronage afforded to the charity by the Prince of Wales encouraged them to build the present school-house at the end of Gray's Inn lane. The whole expence of the building and furniture, purchasing the ground, &c. amounted to 3695l. At present there are about 50 boys in the school, and 20 girls, who are wholly maintained, clothed, and educated. From the first establishment to the year 1793, 493 boys were put out apprentices, 112 went out to service, and 120 into the navy. From the time that the plan has been extended to the education of girls to the year 1794, sixteen were put out apprentices, and 34 went out to service (fn. 125) . The collections at the anniversary meeting of ancient Britons on the first of March, go in aid of this charity. Several benefactions have been left to it, among which should be particularly noticed the sum of 1951l. 16s. being the residue of his fortune (after the payment of other legacies) bequeathed as a grateful remembrance by Mr. Edward Williams, who had received his education from this charity. It should be mentioned also, that Mr. Pennant intended the profits of his great work on British Zoology for the benefit of this school, but the great expences attendant on the undertaking frustrated his benevolent design. He afterwards gave to the school the sum of 100l. which he received from Mr. White for the octavo edition of the work.

Bagnigge wells.

Pancras wells.

St. Chad's well.

The noted place of public entertainment, called Bagnigge-wells (much resorted to by the lower sort of tradesmen), is situated in this parish, in the valley between the New-river head and the Foundling hospital. It was first opened about the year 1767, in consequence of the discovery of two springs of mineral water. A treatise upon these waters, bearing the above date, was published by John Bevis, M. D. One of the springs is chalybeate, the other cathartic. Near the church-yard, in a house now occupied by Mr. Reading, is a spring, formerly called Pancras-wells; the water of which was in much esteem some years ago. Dr. Russel, in his treatise on mineral waters, speaks of this spring as impregnated with calcareous nitre, considerably diuretic, and somewhat cathartic (fn. 126) . Near Battlebridge is a spring, called St. Chad's-well, of nearly the same quality, which is still in use.

Veterinary College, and Infirmary for Horses.

At Camden-town, in this parish, is a large building, called the Veterinary College, consisting of an infirmary for horses, and an academy for studying the diseases of cattle, particularly of that useful animal the horse. Proposals for such an institution were first published in the newspapers in the year 1784. This college was established in 1791. The theatre is completed, and an infirmary capable of containing 50 horses; but it is intended to enlarge it so as to contain 300. There is a house for the Professor, who reads lectures on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays, from 11 to 12, on the structure, œconomy, and diseases of the horse, and other domestic animals. Seven pupils have already passed their examination before the medical committee (which consists of some of the most eminent physicians and surgeons in London), and are settled in various parts of the kingdom. Seventeen are now attending. The subscription to the infirmary is 20 guineas for life, or two guineas per annum, either of which entitles the subscriber to send any number of horses, if there is room for them in the infirmary; otherwife they have advice gratis, and medicines at a cheap rate from the college (fn. 127) . Application is now making to parliament for incorporating the Veterinary college.

Footnotes

1 In Tottenham-court Road was formerly an amphitheatre for boxing, kept by Smallwood and the celebrated George Taylor. A fair was annually kept in the month of August at Tottenham-court, at which some of the actors from the Theatres Royal, most celebrated for comic humour, entertained the town with drolls and interludes; but they were suppressed by the justices in 1744. In 1748, one Daniel French opened an amphitheatre in Tottenham-court Road; at which, during that year, he exhibited an entertainment called the Country Wake, consisting of cudgel-playing, boxing, wrestling, &c. The only place of public amusement now in Tottenham-court Road is of a very different nature—the concert of ancient music, first suggested by the late Earl of Sandwich in the year 1776 (fn. *) , and, in 1785, honoured with the patronage of his Majesty, who generally attends the performance with the Royal Family.
2 Dallaway's Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of Heraldry, p. 149.
3 It has been the custom among some antiquaries to magnify every entrenchment, though only a dry moat of 40 paces square, into a Roman camp. In various parts of the kingdom we have many undoubted and very perfect remains of Roman and other camps, of sufficient extent to have been the station of numerous armies; but I have not observed any entrenchments near London which could have been capable of containing more than a very small body of men, except that on Wimbledon Common.
4 Prefixed to his Iter Boreale.
5 In the print of Cæfar's camp annexed to Dr. Stukeley's account, the traces of an entrenchment at the Brill appear to have been but flight. The intermediate lines between that and the moated site near the church seem to have been filled up by conjecture.
6 Dr. Stukeley with great probability supposes Brill to be a contraction of Bury-hill. He mentions other places bearing the same name; one of which was known to have been a vill of Edward the Confessor's. In Manning's edition of Lye's Saxon Dictionary, Byrigis translated—urbs, oppidum, collis; and burgh—castrum, palatium, domus, &c. Thus the name of Bury might denote either a military station or a palace. It frequently happened that ancient Roman stations were afterwards fixed upon by the Saxon princes and nobles for their residence.
7 Among the records belonging to the church of St. Paul's Lib. L.
8 About the beginning of the 14th century. In the Muniment-room at St. Paul's.
9 In the Muniment-room.
10 From the information of Jos. Ward, Esq.
11 Esch. 49 Edw. III. pt. 1. No. 56.
12 Cl. 1 Ric. II. m. 21. d. cal., p.100; of p. 480
13 Pat. 4 Ric. II. pt. 1. m. 15.
14 Court Rolls at St. Paul's.
15 Parliamentary Surveys, ibid.
16 Parliamemary Surveys at St. Paul's.
17 Ibid.
18 Pat. 13 Car. II. pt. 14. No. 7.
19 From the information of W. Birch, Esq.
20 Newcourt.
21 Ibid.
22 Cart. Ant. pen. Dec. & Cap. St. Paul.
23 Parliamentary Surveys, ibid.
24 Newcourt.
25 Records belonging to the Dean and Chapter, Lib. L.
26 A copy with MSS. notes in the British Museum.
27 From the information of Mr. Hollingbery.
29 From the information of John Way, Esq.
30 One of the numbers of Adam's Architecture consists of ground-plans, elevations, and sections of the house and principal apartments at Ken-wood.
28 The company to whom these water-works belong was incorporated in 1692. The springs are held by lease under the city of London; they supply some parts of the town in the neighbourhood of Tottenham-court Road with water.
29 Spec. Brit. p. 38.
30 A visitation of this church, anno 1251, mentions a very small tower, a good stone font, and a small marble stone ornamented with copper to carry the Pax. Records belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, Lib. L.
31 Funeral Monuments, p. 539.
32 Esch. 36 Hen. III. No 46.
33 Strype, in his additions to Stow, says, the Roman Catholics have of late affected to be buried at this place.
34 Arms—On a cross patée flory between four Cornish choughs, a lion passant, quartering a chevron between three fl. de lis.
35 Arms—Or, on a cross patonce Gules, a besant.
36 Arms—Per chevron Az. & Arg. in chief three leopards' faces, and in base an eagle displayed, counterchanged, impaling Az. a wolf rampant Argent.
37 Arms—Gules, four bendlets Or; a chief party per fesse Arg. & Erm. charged in chief with three fl. de lis Sable.
38 Inscription— "H. S. E. Samuel Cooper, Armiger, Angliæ Apelles, seculi sui et artis decus, in quâ excolendâ sicut neminem, quem sequeretur, invenit; ita nec, qui eum assequatur est habiturus. Supra omne exemplum simul ac omne exemplar Minio-Graphices Artisex summus, summis Europæ Principibus notus, et in pretio habitus; cujus porró egregias animi dotes, ingenium expolitissimum, linguarum plurimarum peritiam, mores suavissimos, ut tam brevis tabella rite complecti posset, ipsius unice manu delineanda suit. Sed modestior ille dum per ora oculosque omnium fama volat cineres hìc potius suos optavit delitiscere ipse in ecclesiæ pace feliciter requiescens una cum charissimâ conjuge Christinâ (et obiit quinto die Maii anno 1672, ætatis suæ 63), quæ ob. 24 Aug. 1693, ætatis suæ 70. C. A. P. D."—Arms—Ermines, on a cross square, pierced Argent, four millrinds Sable—the coat of Sir Edw. Turner, Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Charles II. at whose expence, it is probable, the monument was erected.—Samuel Cooper was born in London in the year 1609, and bred up by his uncle Hoskins, a miniature painter, of great eminence. He soon excelled his master; and, having commenced business for himself, came into very great employ. His pencil has transmitted to us likenesses of the most celebrated statesmen, wits, and beauties of his age. A picture of Cromwell is esteemed his chef d'æuvre. He seldom drew more than the head; when he attempted more he was not equally successful. His manner approached so near to that of Vandyke that he has been called Vandyke in miniature. His works are in great esteem all over Europe, and sell for great prices. Cooper was intimate with the author of Hudibras, and taught him to paint. His own genius was not confined to that art, he was a proficient in music also, and excelled on the lute, an instrument then in fashion. Cooper's wife was sister to Pope's mother. It appears by the above epitaph that she survived him one and twenty years. See a farther account of this artist in the Anecdotes of Painting, and in the Biographia Britannica (new edition).
39 Arms—Arg. a chevron G. between three quatrefoils slipped.
40 Arms—Arg. a chevron G. between three fl. de lis Azure, quartering, Arg. a pale engrailed between two pallets, Sable.
41 Arms—A bear rampant chained and muzzled, quartering, Per chevron, three pheons—Hassal.
42 Inscription—" Hic jacet qui elegit abjectus esse in domo Dei & manfit in solitudine, non quærens quod sibi utile esset sed quod multis, Abraham Woodhead, maximum collegii universitatis Oxonii ut et totius fæ culi ornamentum, vivumque virtutum om nium exemplar: Vir versus Deum arden tissimâ pietate, versum ecclesiam catholicam humillimo obsequio, studiorum indesessâ assiduitate, mirabilis. Honoribus, divitiis, seculique voluptatibus omnibus, vitam humilem obscuram & laboriosam prætulit, neque libris quos permultos et utilissimos & piissimos doctissimosque edidit, nomen suum inscribi passus. Obiit ferè septuagenarius Maii 4to, an. Dom. 1678. P. V. Cuthbertus Constable." This epitaph was originally much shorter, and had only the initials of the deceased.
Woodhead was a native of Yorkshire. He was in his day the great champion of the Roman Catholic religion; in defence of which he wrote a great number of tracts, most of which were printed after his death at the private press of his friend Obadiah Walker, master of the college of which he himself had been a fellow. Anthony Wood speaks in very high terms of Woodhead's character and abilities; and says that he was reputed by some to have been the author of "the Whole Duty of Man." He died at Hoxton, where he had for some years led a very retired life, instructing children in the Roman Catholic religion.
43 He died at the age of 24. Among the MSS. of Thomas Pennant, Esq. is an account of his funeral, which was attended by the two bishops of North Wales, and a great number of the Welsh gentry both of Flintshire and the neighbouring counties.
44 John Betts was physician in ordinary to Charles II. and was very eminent in his profession. He published a treatise on the blood, and the anatomy of old Thomas Parr, with Dr. Harvey's observations. Dr. Betts was a Roman Catholic. Ant. Wood's Athen. Oxon.
45 See an account of him among the extracts from the parish register.
46 Author of an imitation of the 6th satire of the first book of Horace, inscribed to Sir Richard Ellis, Bart.; a translation of Sannazarius; and some other pieces.
47 I find no traces of any baronet of this family in either of the three kingdoms. Perhaps it is a mistake for Knt.
48 Inscription—" James Leoni, architect, ob. June 8, 1746, aged 60. R. I. P."
Leoni was a Venetian, and had been architect to the Elector Palatine. He afterwards settled in this country, and met with considerable employment. (Anecdotes of Painting, vol. iv. p. 105.) In 1740 he published a fine edition of Palladio, and an edition of Alberti's Architecture, to which were annexed several of his own designs.
49 Inscription—Here lie the remains of Peter Van Bleeck, Esq. worthy son of Richard Van Bleeck, Esq. a gentleman of distinguished merit in every light, whether of husband, friend, citizen, or Christian. Having married, in 1746, Alicia, youngest daughter of William Cony, Esq. of Walpole in Norfolk, whom he left without issue, he died on the 21 of July 1764, aged 67. Meritissimo conjugi mœstissima conjux H. C. P. C.—R. Q. I. P." Van Bleeck was a portrait painter of some eminence. His father (of whom there is an engraved portrait) was of the same profession. There is a fine mezzotinto of Johnson and Griffin the actors, from a painting of Van Bleeck's. Anecdotes of Painting, vol. iv. p. 33.
50 Epitaph:
"His spring of life was such as should have been
"Adroit and gay, unvex'd by care or spleen;
His summer's manhood open, fresh, and fair;
"His virtue strict, his manners debonnarie;
"His autumn rich with wisdom's goodly fruit,
"Which every varied appetite might suit.
"In polish'd circles dignified with ease,
"And less desirous to be pleas'd than please.
"Grave with the serious; with the comic gay;
"Warm to advise, yet willing to obey.
"True to the fond affections of the heart,
"He play'd the friend, the husband, parent's part.
"What needs there more to eternize his same,
"What monument more lasting than his name?"
This epitaph is inscribed on both sides the tomb. Mr. Langford was a very celebrated auctioneer, and successor to the great Mr. Cock. It is not so well known perhaps that he was a dramatic writer. He wrote two pieces for the stage, which were not very successful. See Biographia Dramatica.
51 Henry and Robert Rackett were Pope's nephews, and are both mentioned in his will.
52 The following epitaph, written by her daughter, contains some good lines:
"Ah! shade revered, this srail memorial take,
Tis all, alas! thy sorrowing child can make,
On this saint stone, to mark thy parent worth,
And claim the spot that holds thy sainted earth.
This clay-cold shrine, the corpse enshrouded here,
This holy hillock bath'd with many a tear;
These kindred slow'rs that o'er thy bosom grow,
Fed by the precious dust that lies below;
E'en these rude branches that embrace thy head,
And the green sod that forms thy sacred bed,
Are richer, dearer to this silial heart,
Than all the monuments of proudest art.
Yet, yet a little, and thy child shall come
To join a mother in this decent tomb.
This only spot of all the world is mine,
And soon my dust, sweet shade! shall mix with thine."
53 "A man of singular honesty and fidelity; who, after a very busy life, of which the last 22 years were employed in one office, on the 28th of May (the end of Easter term) 1781, in the 51st year of his age, laid down his pen and died."
54 Inscription—" Hic conditur illustrissimus et nobilissimus Dominus Josephus Franciscus Xaverius de Haslang, Comes Sancti Romani Imperii, &c. Ejus memoria omnibus Catholicis percara esse debet. Obiit 29 Maii 1783, anno ætatis 83, legationis 42. R. I. P." Here lie deposited the remains of his late Excellency J. F. X. de Haslang, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Lord of the Manors of Hochen, Kamer, Giebling, Hasreuth, Langreuth, &c. Hereditary Grand Master of Upper and Lower Bavaria, Chamberlain and Privy Counsellor, also Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of London from his Serene Highness Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, Duke of Bavaria, and Grand Commander of the illustrious order of St. George. Having lived in the practice of every social virtue, after a christian preparation he resigned his soul into the hands of his Creator, regretted by an amiable sovereign, and lamented by all that knew him.—May he rest in peace." Count Haslang came to England in the year 1739. He was a great favourite with the late king. His funeral was attended by the whole corps diplomatique.
55 Inscription—" Hic jacet Robertus Bernardus Grant, gente Scotus, genere honestus, ecclesiæ Catholicæ presbyter, per septemdecim fer` annos apud suos missionarius Apostolicus, et per octodecim collegii Scotorum Duaceni dignus et perdiligens primarius. Obiit Londini, 29 Mart. A. C. 1784. Æt. 64."
56 Inscription—" William Woollett, engraver to his Majesty, was born at Maidstone in Kent upon the 15th of August 1735. He died the 23rd, and was interred in this place on the 28th day of May 1785." Woollett and Anthony Walker were fellow-pupils to Mr. Timney. Woollett's works are numerous, and in very high esteem. A monument has been erected to his memory in the cloisters of Westminster-abbey.
57 Sir John Fleetwood, who died in 1741, left a widow, Philippa, daughter of William Berrington, Esq. of Shrewsbury.
58 Inscription—" Sacred to the memory of Mr. Stephen Paxton, professor of music, who departed this life Aug. 18, 1787, aged 52 years. R.I.P." Mr. Paxton was a performer on the violoncello, and author of several compositions, vocal and instrumental.
59 Arms—Fleetwood, as in vol. ii. p. 200. impaling, G. on a bend O. 3 martlets Sable.
60 Author of several law publications:—A Law Dictionary, in 2 vols. folio; The Law of Bills of Exchange, &c.; The Merchant's Lawyer, or the Laws of Trade; Introduction to Law; Reports; A Treatise on Tithes; Ward's Justice of Peace; and an edition of Sir Robert Heath's Maxims of Pleading.
61 Inscription—" Hic jacet Michael Joannes Baptista de Wenzel, sancti Imperii liber Baro, Magnæ Britanniæ Regis Necnor Reginæ Hungariæ celeberrimus opthalmiator. E terrestri in æternam transivit vitam quarto die Octobris 1790, ætatis suæ 66." Baron de Wenzel obtained great reputation as an oculist, by his successful method of couching the cataract; an account of which has been published since his death by his son.
62 The great distiller who suffered so severely by the riots of 1780.
63 Some time ambassador from the Court of Sardinia to that of Spain.
63 See Norden, p. 38.
64 Bishop Tanner's MSS. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, No 142, p. 35. Randall Yearwood, who had supplied the cure of Kentish-town chapel during Cromwell's time, was, after the Restoration, for many years vicar of Pancras. He died in 1684, being then under a sentence of suspension for divers crimes against the canons of St. Paul's. Harl. MSS. No 6839—1.
65 From the information of J. Moore, Esq.
66 The present preacher at this chapel is the Rev. Stephen Matthew.
67 Present Preacher, the Rev. Robert Anthony Bromley.
68 Preacher, the Rev. Henry Mead.
68 Arg. on a bend plain between 2 cottises engrailed Sable, an etoile of the field.
69 Inscription—" In memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Whitefield (fn. *) , aged 62; who, after upwards of thirty years strong and frequent manifestations of a Saviour's love, and as strong and frequent strugglings with the buffetings of Satan, bodily sicknesses, and the remains of indwelling sin, finished her course with joy, Aug. 9, anno Domini 1768: Also, to the memory of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, A. M. late chaplain to the Right Hon. the Countess of Huntingdon; whose soul, made meet for glory, was taken to Immanuel's bosom the 30th of Sept. 1770, and whose body now lies in the silent grave at Newbury Port near Boston in New England, there deposited in sure and certain hope of a joyful resurrection to eternal life and glory. He was a man eminent in piety; of an humane, benevolent, and charitable disposition: his zeal in the cause of God was singular; his labours indefatigable, and his success in preaching the gospel remarkable and astonishing. He departed this life in the 56th year of his age.
"And, like his Master, was by some despis'd;
Like him by many others lov'd and priz'd.
But their's shall be the everlastin crown,
Not whom the world—but Jesus Christ shall own."
Mr. Whitefield was born in the year 1714 at Gloucester, where his father kept the Bell-Inn. His grandfather and great-grandfather were clergymen, and both beneficed at Rockhampton in Gloucestershire. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford; and ordained deacon and priest by Bishop Benson at Gloucester. At Oxford he associated with the methodists, And formed an intimacy with the Wesleys. When the methodists were denied access to the regular pulpits, Mr. Whitefield took the resolution of commencing field-preacher, and persevered in what he thought the true way of preaching the gospel, with astonishing resolution, in spite of the greatest difficulties and satigues. His congregations were uncommonly numerous, as he chose the most populous scenes, preaching in manufacturing countries, among the Kingswood colliers, and even venturing to hold forth in Moorfields during the holiday times. He was frequently insulted by the mob, but in general they were attentive; and the number of his proselytes was, according to the accounts published at the time, almost incredible. In the year 1741, a difference in opinion between Mr. Whitefield and Mr. John Wesley occasioned a schism among the methodists, which has ever since divided them into two sects. Notwithstanding this difference the two founders continued their esteem for each other; and Wesley, being the survivor, preached his friend's funeral sermon. In the prosecution of his ministry Mr. Whitefield made seven voyages to America (fn. *) . During his last visit to that continent he died, as mentioned in his epitaph. On receiving the news of his death, the chapel in Tottenham-court Road was hung with mourning for six weeks, the pulpit being decorated with escutcheons. A life of Mr. Whitefield was published by John Gillies, D. D. in 1772. His printed works consist of—an account of the early part of his own life; journals; letters, and sermons.
69 Arms—Az. five swans close, in cross, Argent, between four annulets Or, impaling, Per chevron Az. & Arg. in chief two eagles rising Or.
70 Mr. Toplady, who was vicar of Broad Hembury in Devonshire, published several controversial works, principally directed against John Wesley and his doctrines—" Historic Proofs of the Doctrinal Clavinism of the Church of England; The Scheme of Christian Necessity," &c. Toplady was one of the most zealous advocates for Calvinism, and his writings are very severe against those who differed from him in opinion. He published also "Free Thoughts on the Abolition of Ecclesiastical Subscriptions," and several sermons on doctrinal subjects. His posthumous works consist of passages from the works of the most eminent divines (Clavinists and Antinomians), with sayings of his friends, and observations of his own; short memorials of God's gracious dealings with his soul; letters to Dr. Priestley, Mrs. Macaulay, &c. &c.; and a short history of England, from Egbert to Henry VIII.
71 A native of Devonshire, and a member of Bennet college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. He published a sermon intituled "Encouragement for Sinners, or Righteousness attainable without Works," which was answered in a pamphlet, to which he replied by another, under the title of "Sin destroyed, and the Sinner saved." He published another pamphlet called "St. Paul no "Antinomian," in a letter to the late Dr. Dodd; and some single sermons. Mr. Elliott dropped down dead as he was preaching at the meetinghouse in Glashouse-yard, Goswell-street.
72 Gillies's Life of Whitefield.
73 Cart. Antiq. No 1142.
74 Ibid. No 1143.
75 Ibid. No 1455.
76 Newcourt, vol. i. p. 705.
77 Records belonging to the Dean and Chapter, Lib. Pil. f. 27.
78 Ibid. f. 23.
79 No 1144–1147. and 1456–1460.
80 Parliamentary Surveys, Lamb. MS. Lib.
81 Rent-book at St. Paul's.
82 Harl. MSS. No 60.
83 Records of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, Liber L.
84 Parliamentary Surveys.
82 From the information of James Moore, Esq.
83 Sir William Gardiner, who was created a baronet in 1660, married Jane, daughter of Robert Brocas, Esq. Kimber.
84 Relict, as I suppose, of Sir Thomas Pelham, who died in 1654; having married, to his third wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Vane.
85 Downes's Roscius Anglicanus, 8vo, 1708, p. 31.
84 Pat. 2 Jac. II. pt. 7. No 23.
85 Pat. 2 Jac. II. pt. 6. No 2.
86 Ant. Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. ii.
87 Daughter of Thomas Giffard, Esq. and relict of George Lord Abergavenny.
88 Inscription—" In ecclesia parochialis Sti Pancratii prope Londinum jacet Joh. Ernestus Grabius, S. T. P. gente Borussus; affectu nostras; eruditionis famà, illustratisque antiquæ ecclesiæ monumentis per universum orbem Christianum celeberrimus. Quicum in deterioris sæculi sæcem incidisset, ut a depravato ecclesiæ statu animum aver"teret, in auream illam ætatem frequenti cogitatione remeavit, et cum priscis patribus familiaritatem coluit jucudissimam. Horum exemplis accensus, eâ Christianarum omnium virtutum præcellentiâ enituit, ut etiam inter splendidissima primorum sæculorum lumina eluxisse potuisset. Ecclesiam primævam Apostolicam summâ veneratione prosecutus "est; Anglicanæ utpote quæ ab eâ minimùm decesserat proximos honores detulit. Hanc domo, hanc patriâ, quas mortalium nemo magis dilexit, chariorem habuit; in hujus gremium se recipi vehementer gestiit; ab hujus sinu ad ecclesiam primitivorum qui conscripti funt in cœlis lætus emigravit tertio die Nov. 1711, ætatis 46. Ne publicum deesset testimonum eximii illius honoris quo "hospitem adeo illustrem coluit Britannia, Robertus Comes de Oxon et Comes Mortimer pro spectato suo in literas et literatos amore cœnotaphium hoc posuit." Over the inscription is a whole length of Dr. Grabe, in the clerical habit, sitting upon a farcophagus, with a book open in one hand and a pen in the other.
89 Biographical Dictionary, edit. 1784.
90 The above account of Jeremy Collier is taken from the Biog. Brit.
91 Biog. Dramat.
93 I suppose these to have been children of Sir Thomas Mackworth buried at Pancras in 1745, though Kimber speaks of him as dying unmarried.
94 Biog. Dram.
95 Created a baronet in 1702. The title is extinct.
96 Grandson of Francis Viscount Valentia.
97 Daughter of William Sloane, Esq. (brother of Sir Hans), and relict of Sir Richard Fowler, Bart.
98 He succeeded his father in the title of baronet. Sir Thomas was bred to the navy, and was made a post-captain in 1760. He is dead, and the title extinct.
99 Charles Viscount Dillon, a colonel in the French service.
100 Daughter of the preceding Viscount.
101 Father of the present Viscount. He was some time an officer in the French service.
102 He died unmarried, and was succeeded in the title by his brother William, who was governor of the poor knights at Windsor.
103 Wife, it is probable, of a baronet of the Osbaldeston family, whose maiden name was Sophia More;—the Baronetages give a very imperfect account of that family.
104 Sir Cecil Bishopp, who died in 1721, married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Dunch, Esq. of Newington in Oxfordshire.
105 Son of Henry, the fifth Lord Arundell of Wardour. He was of Stanley-house in the parish of Chelsea, where he died.
106 Daughter of —— Mitchell, Esq. and relict of the Hon. Henry Arundell.
107 Brother of the present Lord Arundell.
108 Daughter of John Duke of Rutland, and relict of Sir John Harpur, Bart.
109 Sister of the present Earl of Fauconberg, and mother of George Barnewall, Viscount Kingsland.
110 Burney's Hist. of Music, vol. iv. 660. 663.
111 Daughter of Major General Holmes, and relict of the celebrated Philip Duke of Wharton, who died in Spain anno 1731.
112 Daughter and coheir of Thomas Gybson, Esq. of Hampshire.
113 Late Envoy from Sweden.
114 The Duke de Sicigniano, who had lately arrived from Italy. He destroyed himself in a temporary sit of insanity, at Grenier's Hotel, on the 31st of May. He was not 30 years of age. Gent. Mag.
115 Brother of Lord Somers.
116 Daughter of Alexander Earl of Leven.
117 Brother of the Duke of Argyle.
118 Sister of the present Earl of Strathmore.
119 Chantry Roll in the Augmentation-office.
120 Table of benefactions, in the church. The other shares belong to the parish of Barnett.
121 Parliamentary Surveys, Lamb. MS. Lib.
122 From the information of James Moore, Esq.
123 From the information of Samuel Foyster, Esq. the treasurer.
124 From the information of the Reverend Dr. White, the treasurer.
123 In the north windows—the coat of Lord Le Despencer (Arg. on a sesse double-cottised G. three griffins' heads erased Or, Dashwood, quartering Fane, Nevill, and Quarterly Arg. & G. in the second and third a fret Or, over all a bend Sable—Spancer, or Despencer; on an escutcheon of pretence, Per saltier Az. & O. a lion rampant, counterchanged), and that of the late Earl of Guildford (as Lord North), Az. a lion pass. between three fl. de lis Arg. on an escutcheon of pretence Arg. two bars Az. over all an eagle displayed with two necks Gules.—Speke. In the east window (towards the north)—the arms of the late Earl of Northumberland (Quarterly, Percy and Lucy), with those of Baroness Percy, on an escutcheon of pretence (Quarterly of 8:–1. Percy. 2. Lucy. 3. Barry of six, O. & V. a bendlet Gules.—Poynings. 4. G. three lions passant A. a bendlet Azure.—Fitzpain. 5. O. three piles meeting in base, Az.—Bryan. 6. G. a saltier Arg. an annulet in centre.—Latimer); and the following coats: Lord John Cavendish—S. 3 stags' heads caboshed A. attired O. Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart.—Erm. on a cross G. five bezants with the arms of Ulster. Sir George Armytage, Bart.—G. a lion's head erased, between three crosslets Arg. Edwin Lascelles, Esq.—S. a cross patonce O. Charles Turner, Esq.—S. on a cross Arg. five ser de moulins of the field, quartering G. a bend between six unicorns' heads erased Arg.—Wombwell. William Watson, M.D.—A. on a chevron Az. between three martlets S. as many crescents O. Richard Neate, LL.B.—A. a chevron between two trefoils slipped in chief V. and in base a bull's head couped at the neck G. horned and crined O. Richard Kaye, LL.D.—A. two bends S. quartering Arg. on a bend Sab. three owls of the field.—Savile. Stephen Beckingham, Esq.—A. a fesse embattled in chief, between three escallops S. quartering A. a chevron G. between three stages' attires S. Alex. Scot, Esq.—O. on a bend Az. and etoile between two crescents of the field. Henry Dagge, Esq.—A. a chevron S. between five nuns, 3 in chief and 2 in base, proper. Taylor White, Esq.—G. a chevron vaire between 3 lions ramp. O.—White, quartering, Arg. a chevron G. between three anchors Azure.—Taylor. Charles Morton, M.D.—Erm. a chief G. on an escutcheon of pretence, O. on a chevron S. between three pellets, each charged with a martlet of the field, as many mascles of the same. Benjamin Hoadley, M.D.—Quarterly Az. and O. in the first Quarter a pelican vulning herself of the second; on an escutcheon of pretence, G. three dexter arms vambraced and embowed proper, garnished O. E.Eyre, D.D.—A. on a chevron S. 3 quartrefoils O. Charles Child, Esq.—(arms the same as in vol. ii. p.374.) Rev. Charles Plumtree, D.D.—A. a chevron between two mullets in chief, and an annulet in base S. Rich. Morhall, Esq.—A. on a fesse embattled in chief, G. between 6 Cornish choughs proper, 3 tusts of grass Arg. Bacon Frank, Esq.—V.a saltier engrailed O. on an escutcheon of pretence, S. a spread eagle with two necks and a border engrailed Arg. Sir Charles Whitworth—A. a bend S. in the finister chief a garb, G. quartering Az. a chevron between three lion' heads erased Or, on an escutcheon of pretence S. a fesse engrailed between three whelks O—(the coat of Shelley). In the east window (towards the south) are the following coats: — Lascelles, Esq. (arms as before).— Lee, Esq.—Az. three crowns Or.—Boynton, Bart.—O. a fesse between 3 crescents G. impaling A. two pales Az. on a canton O. a mullet. Sir Joseph Aylosse, Bart.—S. a lion rampant between three crosses patee Or. William Webber, Esq. F.R.S.—G. on a chevron engrailed O. between three plates, as many annulets Az. Stanhope Harvery, Esq.—O. a chevron engrailed between three leopard's heads G. quartering, Quarterly Erm. and G. John Currer, Esq.—Erm. three bars gemelles S. on a chief Az. a lion pass. guard. Arg. John Smith, Esq.—Arms of Smith as in p. 141. on an escutcheon of pretence G. two bars Az. Robert Nettleton, Esq.—A. two adders combatant and twisted in pale, proper. Henry Raper, Esq.—Per fesse Az. & Arg. a pale counterchanged, three, antelopes' heads erased O. Robert Hucks, Esq.—A. a chevron Az. between three owls Proper.—Cholmonley, Esq.—G. two helmets in chief, Proper, and in base a garb Or. B. Littlehales, Esq.—G. three arrows in pale O. the feathers Arg. on an escutcheon of pretence, Arg. on a bend Sab. cottised Ermines, three cinquefoils Or, Peter Burrell, Esq.—V. three plain shields Arg. each having a border engrailed Or, quartering, I. Arg. three bars Sab.—Raymond; 2. Argent, a chevron G. between three birds Sable; on an escutcheon of pretence, V. a chevron G. between three arrows in pale.—William Crowle, Esq. V. an unicorn Arg. between three mascles. O.—St. Quintin, Bart. O. a chevron G. and a chief vaire. In a window on the north side are the arms of the Hospital—V. a naked insant, Proper, on a chief Az. a crescent O. between two bezants.
124 From the information of Anthony Highmore, Esq. the secretary.
125 From a printed account communicated by Hugh Owen, Esq. the secretary.
126 Russell on Sea Water, &c. p. 230.
127 From the information of Edward Colman, Esq. the professor.
* Burney's History of Music, vol. iv. p. 683.
* Her maiden name was Burnell. She was widow of Mr. James of Abergavenny.
* During his visits to America he established the Orphan College in Georgia.


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