The name of this place seems to be derived from the Saxon
words wan and stede, signifying the white place, or mansion.
Quantity of land, and how occupied.
Wansted lies in the hundred of Becontree, at the distance of
about seven miles from Whitechapel church. The parish is bounded
by Barking and Ilford to the east, Walthamstow and Woodford to
the north, Leyton to the west, and Eastham to the south. It contains (exclusive of its share of the forest) about 600 acres of land;
about 100 of which are cultivated with corn; about 50 for potatoes;
the remainder is grass. The soil, in some parts of the parish, is
clay; in others, loam; but principally gravel. Wansted pays the
sum of 235l. 16s. to the land-tax; which, in the year 1795,
was at the rate of 3s. 6d. in the pound.
In the year 1715, some labourers, in digging holes to plant an
avenue of trees in the park at Wansted, (on the south side of the
gardens,) discovered a Mosaic pavement. Mr. Lethieullier describes
it as having a man on horseback in the centre, with several borders
of wreathed work and ornaments. He adds, that Wansted was
situated near a Roman road, which he calls the Southern Iceningstreet. It passed over the forest, and crossed the river Rodon at
Ilford (fn. 1) . About 300 yards south of the pavement were found,
ruins of brick foundations; and, some years afterwards, fragments
of urns, pateræ, Roman coins, &c.
The manor of Wansted was granted by Alfric to the church of
Westminster, and confirmed by Edward the Confessor (fn. 2) ; but, before
the end of that monarch's reign, it became (by exchange, it is
probable) the property of the church of St. Paul, and was afterwards appropriated to the Bishop of London; under whom it was
held (when the survey of Doomsday (fn. 3) was taken) by Ralph
Fitz Brien. In the thirteenth century it belonged to the family of
Hoding, or Hosdene (fn. 4) . William de Huntercombe, who married to
his second wife Alice, daughter and heir of Sir Hugh de Hoding,
died seised of it in 1271 (fn. 5) . In 1384, it was still in the family of
Huntercombe (fn. 6) . John Tatterfall of London, Gent. died seised of it
in 1446 (fn. 7) . Anne, his daughter and coheir, married Sir Ralph
Hastings, who died at Wansted in 1495, having bequeathed this
manor to his widow. Little more is known of its proprietors (fn. 8) till
the reign of Henry VIII. when it belonged to Sir John Heron (fn. 9) ;
whose son Sir Giles was attainted, and his estates became forfeited to
the crown. King Edward VI. granted it, in 1549, to Robert Lord
Rich (fn. 10) ; whose son sold it, in 1577, to Robert Earl of Leicester (fn. 11) .
The Earl devised it (with all his lands in Wansted, Woodford,
Walthamstow, Great Ilford, and Leyton) to his widow and her
heirs. The Countess of Leicester afterwards married Sir Christopher
Blount. By some family conveyances this manor became vested in
Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire (fn. 12) ; who dying without lawful
issue, in 1606, I suppose it escheated to the crown. It was afterwards
the property of George Marquis of Buckingham, who, in 1619,
sold it to Sir Henry Mildmay and Anne his wife. In 1673, it was
conveyed by Sir William Mildmay and others to Sir Josiah Child (fn. 13) ;
from him it descended to his son Richard, (created Viscount Castlemaine in 1718, and Earl Tylney in 1732,) and to his grandson the
late Earl Tylney, who died without issue in 1784; when this manor,
with other large estates, devolved upon Sir James Tylney Long,
Bart. of Draycot in Wilts, (son of Sir Robert Long, by Emma,
daughter of Richard Earl Tylney). Sir J. T. Long died in 1794,
and was succeeded in his title and estates by his only son James
Tylney, an infant.
Naked-hall-Hawe, or, old Wansted-house.
Queen Mary entertained there.
Marriage of the Earl of Leicester.
Inventory of the Earl of Leicester's goods.
On or near the site of Wansted-house stood an old mansion called
Naked-hall Hawe (fn. 14) , which seems to have been the manerial residence. It is probable that it was rebuilt by Lord Chancellor Rich,
who made it his country residence. Queen Mary was there for some
days, between her accession to the crown and her coronation (fn. 15) .
The Earl of Leicester, soon after his purchase, considerably improved
and enlarged the house. In the month of May 1578, he entertained Queen Elizabeth there four or five days (fn. 16) . At this house was
solemnized his marriage with the Countess of Essex, in the presence
of the Earls of Pembroke and Warwick, and Sir Francis Knolles,
his chaplain Mr. Tindal performing the ceremony (fn. 17) . This marriage
took place on the 20th of September 1578, the Queen being then
on a visit to Mr. Stonard at Loughton in the forest (fn. 18) . This great
Earl died in the year 1588, much involved in debt. After his death
an inventory and estimate was taken of all his property, real and
personal, the original of which is now in the British Museum (fn. 19) . The
furniture, stock, &c. at Wansted was valued at 1119l. 6s. 6d. In
the gallery were three portraits of Henry VIII.; Queen Mary,
Queen Elizabeth, Lady "Casimeur," Lady Rich, and 36 others not
particularized. The pictures were valued all together at 11l. 13s. 4d.
Seven pieces of tapestry with the story of Alexander were valued at
20l. The library consisted only of an old Bible; the Acts and Monuments, old and torn; seven psalters; and a service-book: valued
all together at 13s. 8d. One of the rooms was called the Queen's;
another Lady Rich's chamber. The Earl's horses at Wansted were
valued at 316l. 0s. 8d. One horse called Bay Ley was valued at
26l. 13s. 4d.; Bald Dakers, an old horse, at 15l. (fn. 20) Among his
geldings were "Bay Tedburie, Bald Tedburie, Grey Tedburie, and
Bay Malmsburie." In the month of September 1607, Wansted
being then one of the royal palaces, King James spent some time
there, after his return from a western progress. Old Wansted-house
is introduced in the back ground of a picture of Queen Elizabeth at
Welbeck. There was a very small print of this house published by
Stent in 1649.
The present Wansted-house was built about the year 1715, by
the first Earl Tylney, then Sir Richard Child. It is one of the best
works of Colin Campbell, a medallion of whom is placed over the
door leading into the great hall. This magnificent structure is cased
with Portland stone; the front is 260 feet in length; in the centre
is a very handsome hexastyle, supported by columns of the Corinthian
order. The great hall is 51 feet by 36, the ball-room 75 feet by 27,
and the saloon 30 feet square. The other rooms, among which are
no less than four state bed-chambers, are spacious and well proportioned. There is a good collection of pictures by the old masters; and
a few portraits, among which are Lord Chief Justice Glynne and his
family by Lely, Kent the painter, and Sir Josiah Child. In the Vitruvius Britannicus there is an elevation of Wansted-house, with a
section, ground-plan, &c. (fn. 21)
The gardens and pleasure-grounds, which are very extensive,
were laid out by Sir Richard Child, before the house was built.
Manor of Canon-hall, or Can-hall.
The manor of Canon-hall, or Can-hall, belonged to the priory of
the Holy Trinity as early as the year 1207 (fn. 22) . After the suppression
of that monastery, it was granted, anno 1535, to Nicholas Sympson
and Joan his wife (fn. 23) . Having reverted to the crown, it was granted
by Queen Mary, anno 1553, to John Strelley and his heirs (fn. 24) .
Nicholas Strelley died seised of it in 1611; when, by intermarriage,
it became the joint property of Humphrey Cardinall of Lincolnshire,
and Thomas Woolhouse. Cardinall sold his share, in 1619, to
Thomas Boothby, Esq.; whose son Richard Boothby, in 1639,
purchased the other moiety, and, in 1662, sold the whole to
Mr. James Flesher. Mr. Flesher aliened it, on the 16th of Dec. 1670,
to Cornelius Bee and Thomas Carpenter; by whom it was conveyed,
on the 20th of February following, to William Colegrave, ancestor
of Robert Colegrave, Esq. of Isleworth in Middlesex, who is the
present proprietor (fn. 24) .
The nuns of Clerkenwell had some lands in this parish, given
them by Henry Foliot; and a mill and grove, given them by Abraham de Wansted (fn. 25) .
The seat of George Bowles, Esq. was built by Sir Francis
Dashwood, about the year 1690; from him it passed to his son-in-law
Sir Orlando Bridgman, who sold it to Mr. Gough. It was afterwards purchased by Matthew Wymondesold, Esq. who sold it to
Humphrey Bowles, Esq. father of the present proprietor (fn. 26) . The
gardens belonging to this house are very extensive.
Wansted church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was repaired and
enlarged (fn. 27) in the early part of the present century, principally at the
expence of the first Earl Tylney; but being still found small and
incommodious, it was resolved, a few years ago, at the instance of
the present rector, to pull it down, and build a new church on a
larger scale, nearly adjoining to the old site. The first stone of the
present structure was laid on the 13th of July 1787. It was finished
in 1790 (fn. 28) , and consecrated on the 24th of June that year. The
building is of brick, cased with Portland stone; the portico is of the
Doric order; at the west end is a cupola, supported by eight Ionic
columns. The inside is extremely neat and elegant, without any
unnecessary embellishment. It consists of a chancel, nave, and two
aisles, separated by columns of the Corinthian order. The pavement is stone brought from Painswick in Gloucestershire. In the
chancel is a beautiful window of stained glass, representing our
Saviour bearing the cross, (from the picture at Magdalen College,
Oxford,) by Egington of Birmingham. In the east window of the
north aisle are the Royal arms; in the south aisle those of the late
Sir J. T. Long, Bart. (fn. 29)
Monument of Sir Josiah Child.
In the chancel is a superb monument, with the effigies of the
deceased in white marble, to the memory of Sir Josiah Child, Bart. (fn. 30) ,
who died in 1699. At the west end of the church are the
monuments of Capt. John Morice, 1638; Mary, daughter of
Robert Williamson, Esq. (fn. 31) , 1683; David Petty, Esq. (fn. 32) (fifth son
of George Petty, Esq. of Kent. by Anne, daughter of David Polhill,
Esq.) 1745; Samuel Barlow, Esq. 1746; and Anne and Elizabeth,
wives of Benjamin Barlow, 1765, and 1770.
In the old church were brass plates in memory of Sir John
Huntercombe, (lord of the manor,) who died in 1368; Nicholas,
son of Sir William Carew, Knt. 1500; and Peter Lawrence, rector,
Tombs in the churchyard.
In the churchyard are the tombs of the following persons
(several of which were in the old church): Francis Morice, Esq.
clerk of the Ordnance, 1636; Alice, daughter of Jerom Heydon,
(married, first, to John Morice, Esq. afterwards to Thomas Smith,
Esq.) 1679; Henry Hankey, rector, 1706; Edward Farmer, Esq.
(son of Sir Edward Farmer of Canons,) 1709; Edward Cooke, Gent.
1718; John Clarke, Gent. 1719; James Pound, rector, 1724;
Mary, wife of David Petty, Esq. 1726; Samuel Short, Gent.
1728; Margaret, wife of Robert Gay, and daughter of Sir Edward
Farmer, 1728; Robert Gay, Esq. 1738; William Henworth, Esq.
1733; James Curtis, citizen and biscuit baker, 1734; Joseph
Curtis, his son, 1771; Anna Delicia, wife of Capt. George Curtis,
1795; Arthur Acland, merchant, (brother of Sir Hugh Acland,
Bart.) 1740; Elizabeth, his relict, only daughter of Thomas Gilbert of Exeter, (remarried to Charles Browne, Gent.) 1754; Mrs.
Anne Gilbert, 1746; Ann Sampson, widow, 1743; William Colegrave, Esq. of Canon-hall, 1749; Thomas Juson, rector, 1749;
Daniel Waldo, Esq. 1749; John Swete, Esq. 1752; Henry Vanderstegen, Esq. 1754; Elizabeth, daughter of Matthews Beachcroft, 1764; Robert Porten Beachcroft, Esq. 1781; Marmaduke
Westwood, apothecary, 1768; Richard Goodere, B. A. rector,
1769; Charles Scott, Esq. 1771; Edward Pavett, "whose death
was occasioned (after a long and painful illness) by swallowing a
prune stone," 1773; John Anna, wife of Sir Harry Goring of
Highden, Sussex, 1774; Walter Fletcher, Esq. of Cumberland,
1775; Capt. John Crighton, 1776; William Hopkins, Gent.
1777; Thomas Colby, Esq. Commissioner of the Victualling-office,
1780; Rev. Parker Rowlands, 1780; Anne his wife, daughter of
Charles Scott, Esq. 1792; Humphrey Bowles, Esq. 1784; Jeremiah Royds, Esq. 1786; Rev. Dr. Horne, rector, 1786; Sarah,
wife of Capt. George Burton, 1787; Robert Butcher, Esq. 1788;
Thomas Butcher, Esq. (fn. 33) , 1794; Alice, wife of —— Foster, Esq.
Governor of Bengal, daughter of —— Gray, 1791; and John
Lagier Lamotte, Esq. 1792.
The church of Wansted is a rectory in the diocese of London,
and in the deanery of Barking. It is rated, in the King's books,
at 6l. 13s. 9d. In 1650, it was valued at 72l. (the glebe at 47l.
the tithes at 25l.) (fn. 34) . The patronage has been always vested in the
lord of the manor. The prior and convent of the Holy Trinity
enjoyed the tithes of their manor of Can-hall, in this parish, paying
to the rector a quarter of pulse, and a quarter of oats, according to
an agreement made in the year 1207 (fn. 35) .
Mrs. Frances Harrison, widow, who died in 1690, bequeathed
the house she lived in at Wansted (in default of heirs from her son
and daughter) as a residence for the widow of a rector of that parish,
whenever there should be any such, who would accept of it; when
not so occupied, the rent to be given to the poor. No benefit has
ever accrued, either to the rectors' widows, or to the parish, from
James Pound, rector.
James Pound, who was instituted to this rectory in 1707, on the
death of Mr. Hankey, distinguished himself as a naturalist and
astronomer. He went out to the East Indies, as chaplain and
physician to the English Factory in the island of Pulo Condore in
Cochin-China, where he narrowly escaped the dreadful massacre in
1705. An account of this horrid transaction, with a journal of other
incidents attending his voyage, was among the papers of his nephew
Dr. Bradley, the late Astronomer-royal, and is now in the possession
of Dr. Bradley's son-in-law the Rev. Samuel Peach of East Sheen.
Several papers upon astronomical subjects by Mr. Pound are printed
in the Philosophical Transactions. His collection of subjects in
natural history was deposited in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.
The present rector of Wansted is Samuel Glasse, D. D. who
succeeded Dr. Horne in 1786.
The earliest date of the register of baptisms and burials in this
parish is 1640.
Comparative state of population.
||Average of Baptisms,
||Average of Burials.
|1740–9 (fn. 36)
The report of the King's surveyor of houses and windows, in 1762,
states, that there were then 112 houses in this parish; of which 70
were mansions, 42 cottages. The present number of houses is
Extracts from the Register.
"Mr. Saltmarsh was buried Dec. 15, 1647." This was John Saltmarsh, a celebrated puritan divine, who was a native of Yorkshire,
and educated at Magdalen College in Cambridge. A pamphlet was
published in 1648, giving a remarkable account of his death.
It states, that on the 4th of December he left his house at Ilford,
saying he had a command from God to prophesy to the army; and
that he went, and prophesied their division and ruin, and his own
death. On the 9th he returned (according to the narrative) in
perfect health, the next day said he had finished his course, and on
the 11th died. This narrative is accompanied with several prophecies, which he is said to have uttered in his last moments.
Fuller tells us what is much more probable, that he died of a
burning fever in a state of delirium, and venting strange expressions
called prophetical raptures. He adds that he was a good preacher,
and no contemptible poet (fn. 37) . Mr. Saltmarsh published controversial
and other tracts; some of which, if one may judge from their
titles (fn. 38) , were written when he was bordering on insanity.
"The marriage of these to Hon. parsones, comesare generall of
Irland Mr John Reynolds, and Mrs Susana Milldmy, daftar to the
Hon. Sr Henery Milldmy, was solemnysed the 14th day of
Family of Child.
Josiah, son of Josiah Child, Esq. born Dec. 20, 1668 (baptized
at Hackney); Mary, born May 20, 1672; Barnard, son of
Josiah Child and Emma, baptized June 11, 1677 (buried June 6,
1698); Richard, baptized Feb. 5, 1679–80. Sr Josiah Child,
buried June 27, 1699."
John Howland, Esq. of Stretham, and Elizabeth, daughter of
Sr Josiah Child, Bart, married Aug. 4, 1681. Charles Ld Herbert, eldest son to the Marquis of Worcester, and Rebecca, second
daughter of the Rt Worshipful Sr Josiah Child, were married the
5th day of June 1682, in the chapel belonging to the manorhouse at Wansted, by Henry Barrington, chaplain." This
marriage was celebrated with great magnificence; among the company assembled upon the occasion were the Bantam ambassador and
his train (fn. 39) . "The Rt Hon. Lady Elizabeth Somerset, daughter
of Charles Marquis of Worcester, and Rebecca, born Mar. 7,
1687." "Mr Richard Child and Mrs Dorothy Glynne, married
Apl 22, 1703; Emma (fn. 40) and Elizabeth, twins of Sr Richd Child,
Bart, and Dorothy, born Dec. 10, 1707; Frederic, Feb. 13,
1709–10; Richard, July 24, 1711; John (fn. 41) , Oct. 22, 1712;
Dorothy, July 6, 1717; Dorothy Countess Tylney, buried
Mar. 3, 1743–4; Richard Earl Tylney, May 29, 1750; the
Hon. Josiah Child, May 19, 1760; John Earl Tylney, Dec. 16,
Robert, son of Sr Robert Long, Bart, and Emma, (daughter
of Richard Child, Earl Tylney,) born Sep. 26, 1738, buried
Mar. 5, 1739–40; Richard, born Sep. 20, 1742; buried
Mar. 29, 1746."
The Worshipful Sr Henry Barnard, buried April 27, 1680."
Sr John Narborough, Knt, commissioner of the navy, and
Elizabeth, daughter of Capt John Hill, married June 20,
Francis, son of Sr Orlando Bridgman, Bart, and Susan, baptized July 20, 1704; Mary, Aug. 26, 1705; Orlando, Sep. 16,
Sr Robert Williamson, buried May 25, 1707."
John Rushout, Esq. (now Sr John Rushout, Bart,) and Rebecca
Bowles, married June 3, 1766."
Gabriel Forio, aged 93, buried July 20, 1782."
Sr James Rich, Bart, buried Sep. 29, 1783."
In the oldest register-book is the following protestation, signed by
the principal inhabitants of Wansted, in 1641:
Protestation in 1641.
I A. B. doe, in the presence of Almighty God, promise, vowe,
and proteste, to maynteyne and defend, as farre as lawfully I may,
with my life, power, and estate, the true reformed protestant
religion, expressed in the doctrine of the church of England,
against all popery and popishe inovacions within this realme,
contrary to the same doctrine, and according to the duty of my
allegiance to his Majesty's royall persone, honor, and estate; as
also the power and privileges of parliament, the lawful rights and
libertyes of the subject; and every persone that makes this protestacion, in whatsoever he shall do in the lawful pursuance of the
same; and to my power, as farre as lawfully I may, I will oppose,
and by all good wayes and meanes, endevoure to bring to condign
punishment, all such as shall ether by force, practice, counsell,
plots, conspiracyes, or otherwise, doe any thing to the contrary of
any thing in this present protestacion conteyned. And further,
that I shall, in all just and honorable ways, endevoure to preserve
the union and peace betweene the three kingdoms of England,
Scotland, and Ireland; and nether for hope, feare, nor other
respecte, shall relynquishe this promise, vowe, and protestacion.—Wee, whose names hereafter followe, doe freely and unanimously
make this protestacion afore written; and, in testimonye thereof,
have subscribed our names this 27th day of June 1641." Signed,
Humphrey Maddison, minister, William Brereton (fn. 42) , Henry Herbert, Thomas Mildmay, Henry Mildmay, Richard Boothby, William Boothby, James Cambell, and 40 others.
Sir William Penn.
Sir William Penn (father of the founder of Pennsylvania) was an
inhabitant of Wansted, and died there in 1670. He was High
Admiral of England during Cromwell's usurpation, and afterwards
performed many signal services for Charles the Second (fn. 43) .
Admiral Buckle, a brave officer, who distinguished himself by
taking the Glorioso man of war in 1741, resided at Wansted, where
he died, in the month of July 1784.
There are two charity-schools in this parish, the one for boys, and
the other for girls; at which nearly all the children of the poor are
educated (fn. 44) . These schools were established in the year 1786, some
after the institution of the present rector. They are supported by
Robert Rampston, who died in 1585, gave 20s. per annum to the
poor of this parish. The late Earl Tylney, anno 1784, bequeathed
100l. in the 4 per cents. to the poor; and Robert Mangles, Esq. in
1791, the sum of 50l. laid out in the purchase of 69l. 1s. 8d. 3 per
cent. consol. Bank annuities.