Appendix
Charters (William I to John)

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

John Noorthouck

Year published

1773

Pages

773-779

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'Appendix: Charters (William I to John)', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 773-779. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46781 Date accessed: 24 November 2014.


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APPENDIX.

No. I. The first Charter of William the Conqueror. [See p. 24.]

[see page image 773]

In English thus:

William the king friendly salutes William the bishop, and Godfrey the portreve, and all the burgesses within London, both French and English. And I declare, that I grant you to be all law-worthy, as you were in the days of king Edward; and I grant that every child shall be his father's heir, after his father's days; and I will not suffer any person to do you wrong. God keep you.

No.II. Second Charter of William the Conqueror. [See p. 25.]

[see page image 773]

In English thus:

William the king friendly salutes William the bishop, and Swegn the sheriff, and all my thanes (or nobles) in East-Saxony; whom I hereby acquaint, that, pursuant to an agreement, I have granted to the people my servants the Hyde of land at Gyddesdune. And also, that I will not suffer either the French or the English to hurt them in any thing.

No. III. Charter of Henry I. [See p. 27.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, to the bishop of Canterbury, and to the bishops and abbots, earls and barons, justices and sheriffs, and to all his faithful subjects of England, French and English, greeting. Know ye, that I have granted to my citizens of London, to hold Middlesex to farm for three hundred pounds, upon accompt to them and their heirs; so that the said citizens shall place as sheriff whom they will of themselves; and shall place whomsoever, or such a one as they will of themselves, for keeping of the pleas of the crown, and of the pleadings of the same, and none other shall be justice over the same men of London; and the citizens of London shall not plead without the walls of London for any plea. And be they free from scot and lot and Danegelt, and of all murder, and none of them shall wage battle: And if any one of the citizens shall be impleaded concerning the pleas of the crown, the man of London shall discharge himself by his oath, which shall be adjudged within the city; and none shall lodge within the walls, neither of my houshold, nor any other, nor lodging delivered by force.

And all the men of London shall be quit and free, and all their goods, throughout England, and the ports of the sea, of and from all toll and passage and lestage, and all other customs; and the churches and barons and citizens shall and may peaceably and quietly have and hold their sokes with all their customs; so that the strangers that shall be lodged in the sokes shall give custom to none but to him to whom the soke appertains, or to his officer, whom he shall there put: And a man of London shall not be adjudged in amerciaments of money, but of one hundred shillings (I speak of the pleas which appertain to money); and further there shall be no more miskenning in the hustings, nor in the folkemote, nor in any other pleas within the city; and the hustings may sit once in a week, that is to say, on Monday: And I will cause my citizens to have their lands, promises, bonds and debts within the city and without; and I will do them right by the law of the city, of the lands of which they shall complain to me: And if any shall take toll or custom of any citizen of London, the citizens of London in the city shall take of the borough or town, where toll or custom was so taken, so much as the man of London gave for toll, and as he received damage thereby: And all debtors, which do owe debts to the citizens of London, shall pay them in London, or else discharge themselves in London, that they owe none; but, if they will not pay the same, neither come to clear themselves that they owe none, the citizens of London, to whom the debts shall be due, may take their goods in the city of London, of the borough or town, or of the county, wherein he remains, who shall owe the debt: And the citizens of London may have their chaces to hunt, as well and fully as their ancestors have had, that is to say, in the Chiltre, and in Middlesex and Surrey.

Witness the bishop of Winchester, and Robert son of Richard, and Hugh Piggot, and Almer of Totness, and William of Albs-prima, and Hubert Roger, Chamberlaine, and William de Mountfichett, and Hangul Taney, and John Ballet, and Robert son of Steward of West.

No. IV. Charter of Henry II. [See p. 31.]

Henry, king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; To all archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, ministers, and all his faithful subjects, French and English, of all England, greeting.

Know ye, that I have granted to my citizens of London, that none of them plead without the walls of the city of London, upon any pleas, except only pleas of foreign tenures (my moneyers and officers excepted.) Also I grant to them acquittal of murder (fn. 1) within the city and portsoken (fn. 2) thereof: And that none of them shall wage battle: And of the pleas of the crown they may discharge themselves, according to the old usage of the city. No man shall take lodging by force, or by delivery of the marshal.

And also I have granted to them, that all the citizens of London shall be quit from toll and lastage, throughout all England, and the ports of the sea; and that none shall be adjudged for amerciaments of money, but according to the law of the city, which they had in the time of king Henry my grandfather: And that there shall be no miskenning in any plea within the city: And that the hustings shall be kept once a week; and they justly have their lands and tenures and premises, and all their debts, whosoever do owe them: And that right be done to them, according to the custom of the city, of all their lands and tenures which be in the city, and of all their debts, which were lent at London.

Also I do grant to them, that they may have their huntings wheresoever they had the same in the time of king Henry my grandfather. And if any in all England shall take any custom or toll of or from the men of London, after he shall fail of right, the sheriff of London may take goods thereof at London.

Furthermore also, for the advancement of the said city, I have granted to them, that they shall be free and quit of bridtoll, (fn. 3) childwite, (fn. 4) jeresgive (fn. 5) and scotale; (fn. 6) so as the sheriff of London, or any other bailiff, may take no scotale.

These aforesaid customs I do grant unto them, and all their liberties and free customs which they had in the time of Henry my grandfather, wheresoever they had them more better and free. Wherefore I will and stedfastly command that they and their heirs may have and hold all these things aforesaid, by inheritance, of me and my heirs.

Witness the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert bishop of London, Philip bishop of Bath, Edward bishop of Exon, Thomas chancellor, Rich. of Newbery, R. of Warren, Rich. of St. Wal. Mamot. Rich. of Lucy, Conor, son of Garold, Mannel Bisset, Loc. Baillolio, at Westm.

No. V. The first Charter of Richard I. [See p. 35.]

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy, and earl of Anjou; To his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, ministers, and all others his faithful (French and English) people, greeting.

Know ye, that we have granted to our citizens of London, that none of them may plead without the walls of the city of London, for any pleas, saving pleas of foreign tenures, (except our moneyers and ministers): Also we have granted to them acquittal of murder within the city, and in portsoken; and that none of them may wage battle; and that they may discharge themselves of pleas belonging to the crown, according to the antient custom of the city; and that none may take any lodgings within the walls of the city by force, or by delivery of the marshal.

This also we have granted to them, that all the citizens of London be free from toll and lestage, throughout all England, and the sea-ports; and that none be adjudged of amerciaments of money, but according to the law of the city, which they had in the Time of king Henry, grandfather to Henry our father; and that there be no miskenning in any place within the city; and that the hustings be kept only once a week; and they justly have all their lands and tenures and premises, and all other their debts, whosoever do owe them to them; and that right be done to them, according to the custom of the city, of all their lands and tenures, which they have within the city; and of all their debts which shall be lent at London, and of promises there made: The pleas shall be holden at London; and, if any in all England shall take toll or custom of the men of London, after he shall fail of right, the sheriff of London may take goods thereof at London.

Also we have granted to them, that they may have their huntings wheresoever they had the same in the time of king Henry, grandfather to Henry our father. Furthermore also, for the advancement of the city, we have granted to them, that they all be acquit of all bridtoll, childwite, jeresgive and scotale; so that no sheriff of London, or any other bailiff, shall make any scotale. The said customs we do grant to them, and all other liberties and free customs which they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather unto Henry our father, when as they more better and freely had the same. Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that they and their heirs have and hold all their things aforesaid of us and our heirs.

Witness Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury; R. bishop of Lincoln; Ralph, earl of Chester; R. earl of Clarence; Will. Marshall, Rog. Bigott, Jeophery, son of Peter; Hugh Bardolph, Will. Brewer, and Will. Warren. Given by the hand of William, bishop of Ely, our chancellor, at Winchester, the twenty-third of April, in the fifth year of our reign.

No. VI. Second Charter of Richard I. [See p. 36.]

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy, and earl of Anjou; To his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, stewards, castle-keepers, justices, constables, bailiffs, ministers, and all his faithful subjects, greeting. Know ye all, that we for the health of our soul, and for the soul's health of our father, and all our ancestors souls; and also for the commonweal of our city of London, and of all our realm, have granted and stedfastly commanded, that all wears that are in the Thames be removed, wheresoever they shall be within the Thames: Also we have quit-claimed all that which the keeper of our Tower of London was wont yearly to receive of the said wears. Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that no keeper of the said Tower, at any time hereafter, shall exact any thing of any one, neither molest or burden, or any demand make of any person, by reason of the said wears. For it is manifest to us, and by our right reverend father, Hubert archbishop of Canterbury, and other our faithful subjects, it is sufficiently given us to understand, that great detriment and discommodity hath grown to our said city of London, and also to the whole realm, by occasion of the said wears. Which thing, to the intent it may continue for ever firm and stable, we do fortify by the inscription of this present page, and the putting to of our seal: These being witnesses.

John of Worcester, Hugh of Coventry, bishops; John earl of Moreton, Ralph earl of Chester, Robert earl of Leicester, William earl of Arundel, William of St. Mary's church, Peter, son of Hereb, Matthew his brother, Simon of Ryma, Scherio de Quincerio. Given by the hand of Eustace dean of Salisbury, vice-chancellor, then agent at the isle of Audlyer, the fourteenth day of July, in the eighth year of our reign.

No. VII. King John's first Charter. [See p. 37.]

John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; To all archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, ministers, and all his majesty's faithful subjects, French and English, greeting:

Know ye, that we have granted to our citizens of London, that none of them shall plead without the walls of the city of London, of no pleas, saving the pleas of foreign tenures (our moneyers and ministers excepted): Also we have granted to them acquittal of murther, within the city and portsoken; and none of them shall wage battle; and of the pleas belonging to the crown they may discharge themselves, according to the antient custom of the city; and that within the walls of the city or portsoken, no man shall take lodging by force, or delivery of the marshal: And also we have granted to them, that all the citizens of London shall be quit from toll or lastage, and every other custom throughout all our lands, on this side and beyond the seas: And that none shall be adjudged for amerciaments of money, but according to the law of the city, which they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather to Henry our father: And that there shall be no miskenning in any plea in the city: And that the hustings shall be kept once in every week; and they justly have their lands, and tenures, and premises, and all other debts, whosoever owe them: And that right be holden to them of their lands and tenures, which be within the city, according to the custom of the said city; and all of their debts which shall be lent at London; and that pleas of all promises there made be holden at London; and if any, in any of our lands on this side or beyond the seas, shall take any toll or any other custom from the men of London, after that he shall fail of right, may take goods therefore at London.

And we do grant unto them, that they may have their huntings, wheresoever they had the same in time of king Henry, grandfather to our father. Furthermore, for the advancement of the said city, we have granted unto them, that they shall be free and quit of all bridtoll and childwite, and of jeresgive and scotale, so as the sheriff of London, nor any other bailiff, may make any scotale. These aforesaid customes we do grant; and all other liberties and free customes, which they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather of Henry our father, when as more freely and better they had the same. Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that they and their heirs may have and hold all these things aforesaid, hereditarily and wholly, of us and our heirs.

Witness Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, our chancellor; William of London, Eustace of Ely, G. of Glocester, Godfrey of Winchester, Bishops; Godfrey, son of Peter, earl of Essex; William Marshal, earl of Pembroke; Homel, earl of Warren; R. earl of Clarence; earl Roger; lord Bigot; William, earl of Arundel; William de Braos; Roger, son of Roger, Hugh Borg, William Bridg, Warren, William D. Warren, Stephen D. Truncham, Simon de Pattishell: Given by the hands of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, our chancellor, at Torham, the seventeenth day of June, in the first year of our reign.

No. VIII. Second Charter of King John. [See p. 37.]

John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, stewards, castle-keepers, constables, bailiffs, ministers, and all his faithful subjects, greeting:

Know ye all, that we for our soul's health, and for the soul's health of Henry our father, and all our predecessors; and also for the commonweal of our city of London, and all our realm; have granted and stedfastly commanded, that all the wares [or wears] which are in the Thames or in the Medway, be amoved, wheresoever they shall be within the Thames and the Medway; and that no wares from henceforth be put any where in the Thames or Medway, upon forsciture of ten pounds sterling; also we have clearly quit-claimed all that, which the keepers of the Tower of London, were wont yearly to receive of the said wares: wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that no keeper of the said Tower, at any time hereafter, exact any thing from any body, nor trouble or molest any person, by reason of the said wares; for it is sufficiently manifest to us, by the right reverend Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and other our faithful subjects, it is given us sufficiently to understand, that very great detriment and discommodity hath grown to our said city of London, and also to our realm, by occasion of these wares; which to the intent it may continue both firm and stable for ever, we do fortify the same by inscription of this present page, and putting to our seal:

These being witnesses, William of London, Eustace of Ely, Godfrey of Winchester, bishops; Jeffery, son of Peter, earl of Essex; William Marshall, earl of Pembroke; H. earl of Warren; earl Rogers Pigott; R. earl of Clare; earl de Braos; Robert, son of Roger, Hugh Bord, William Brewer, Stephen Turnham, William Warren, Simon of Pattishel: Given by the hands of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury our chancellor, at Shoreham, the seventeenth day of June, in the first year of our reign.

No. IX. Third Charter of King John. [See p. 37.]

John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, and to all his bailiffs and loving subjects:

Sheriffwicks of London and Middlesex granted.

Know ye, that we have granted, and by this our present writing confirmed, to our citizens of London, the sheriffwicks of London and Middlesex, with all the customs and things to the sheriffwick belonging, within the city and without, by land and by water, to have and to hold to them and their heirs, of us and our heirs, paying therefore three hundred pounds of blank sterling money, at two terms in the year; that is to say, at the Easter exchequer, one hundred and fifty pounds; and at Michaelmas exchequer, one hundred and fifty pounds; saving to the citizens of London all their liberties and free customs.

And further, we have granted to the citizens of London, that they amongst themselves make sheriffs whom they will; and may amove them when they will; and those whom they make sheriffs, they shall present to our justices of our exchequer, of these things, which to the said sheriffwick appertain, whereof they ought to answer us; and unless they shall sufficiently answer and satisfy, the citizens may answer and satisfy us the amerciaments and farm, saving to the said citizens their liberties as is aforesaid; and saving to the said sheriffs the same liberties which other citizens have: so that, if they which shall be appointed sheriffs for the time being, shall commit any offence, whereby they ought to incur any amerciament of money, they shall not be condemned for any more than to the amerciament of twenty pounds, and that without the damage of other citizens, if the sheriffs be not sufficient for the payment of their amerciaments: but, if they do any offence, whereby they ought to incur the loss of their lives or members; they shall be adjudged, as they ought to be, according to the law of the city; and of these things, which to the said sheriffs belong, the sheriffs shall answer before our justices at our exchequer, saving to the said sheriffs the liberties which other citizens of London have.

Also this grant and confirmation we have made to the citizens of London for the amendment of the said city, and because it was in ancient times farmed for three hundred pounds; wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that the citizens of London and their heirs may have and hold the sheriffwick of London and Middlesex, with all things to the said sheriffwick belonging, of us and our heirs, to possess and enjoy hereditarily, freely and quietly, honourably and wholly, by fee-farm of three hundred pounds; and we forbid that none presume to do any damage, impediment or diminishment to the citizens of London of these things, which to the said sheriffwick do or were accustomed to appertain: Also we will and command, that if we or our heirs, or any of our justices, shall give or grant to any person any of those things which to the farm of the sheriffwick appertain, the same shall be accounted to the citizens of London, in the acquittal of the said farm at our exchequer.

Witness Edward of Ely, Savarick of Bath, bishops; William Marshal, earl of Pembroke; Ralph, earl of Chester; William, earl of Arundel; Robert, son of Walter; William, son of Albin. Given by the hands of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, our chancellor, at the good town upon Toke, the fifth day of July, in the first year of our reign.

No. X. Fourth Charter of King John. [See p. 37.]

John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; To his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, and to all his bailiffs and faithful subjects, greeting: Know ye, that we, at the request of our mayor and citizens of London, have granted, and by this our present writing confirmed, that the guild of weavers shall not from henceforth be in the city of London, neither shall be at all maintained: But, because we have been accustomed yearly to receive eighteen marks in money, every year, of the said guild; our said citizens shall pay unto us and our heirs twenty marks in money, for a gift, at the feast of St. Michael, at our exchequer.

Witness Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury; earl of Ely; William of Albemarle; bishop Hugh of Gornar; Robert of Harcourt; Thomas Basset; P. of Stoke; R. of Remars: Given by the hands of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, at Garme, the twentieth day of March, in the third year of our reign.

No. XI. Fifth Charter of King John. [See p. 39.]

John, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of Normandy, Aquitain, and Earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, and to all his faithful subjects, greeting:

Citizens may chuse theirmayor.

Know ye, that we have granted, and by this our present writing confirmed, to our barons of our city of London, that they may chuse to themselves every year a mayor, who to us may be faithful, discreet, and fit for government of the city, so as, when he shall be chosen, to be presented unto us, or our justice, (if we shall not be present); and he shall swear to be faithful to us; and that it shall be lawful to them, at the end of the year, to amove him, and substitute another, if they will, or the same to retain, so as he be presented unto us, or our justice, if we shall not be present. We have granted to the same our barons, and by this our present charter confirmed, that they well and in peace, freely, quietly, and wholly, have all their liberties, which hitherto they have used, as well in the city of London as without, and as well by water as by land, and in all other places, saving to us our chamberlainship: Wherefore we will and streightly command, that our aforesaid barons of our aforesaid city of London may chuse unto themselves a mayor of themselves, in manner and form aforesaid; and that they may have all the aforesaid liberties well and in peace, wholly and fully, with all things to the same liberties appertaining, as is aforesaid.

Witness, the Lords, P. of Winton, William of Worcester, William of Coventry, bishops; William Brigword; Peter, Son of Herbert; Godfrey de Lucy; and John, son of Hugh. Given by the hands of Mr. Richard Harrister, our chancellor, at the New Temple, London, the nineteenth day of May, in the sixteenth year of our reign.

Footnotes

1 By our old Saxon laws fines were imposed on the hundred, &c. for murders committed within the districts; of which there were established rates according to the rank or station of the person killed.
2 Portsoken generally implied the extent of the city jurisdiction without the gates; and not the ward in particular, now known by that name.
3 Bridtoll, was toll for passing bridges.
4 Childwite, was a fine for baitardy.
5 Jeresgive, was bribery taking by the king's officers for favour or connivance,
6 Scotale, was a fraudulent exaction of money by such of the king's officers who sold ale, as bailiffs still continue to do.