Appendix
Charters (James I)

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

John Noorthouck

Year published

1773

Pages

811-819

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'Appendix: Charters (James I)', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 811-819. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46785 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


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No. XLII. The first Charter of King James I. [See p. 146.]

James, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, king, defender of the faith, &c. to all to whom our present letters shall come, greeting.

Whereas our beloved the mayor, and commonalty, and citizens of our city of London, time out of mind, have had, exercised, and ought, and have accustomed themselves to have and exercise the office of bailiff, and conservation of the water of Thames, to be exercised and occupied by the mayor of the same city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or by his sufficient deputies, in, upon, and about the water of Thames; (that is to say) from the bridge of the town of Staynes in the county of Middlesex, and toward the east, unto London-bridge, and from thence to a certain place called Kendall, otherwise Yenland, otherwise Yeenleet, towards the sea, and east, and in Medway, and in the port of London aforesaid, and upon whatsoever bank, and upon every shore, and upon every wharf of the same water of Thames, within the limits and bounds aforesaid, and in, upon, and about all and every of them: And also, for all the time aforesaid, have had and taken, and ought and have accustomed to have and take to their own proper use, by the mayor of the same city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or his sufficient deputies, all wages, reward, fees, and profits belonging to the same office of bailiff.

And whereas the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, from all the time aforesaid, have had and exercised the office of measurer, and measuring of all coals, and grain of whatsoever kind; and also of all kind of salt, and all kind of apples, pears, plumbs, and other fruit whatsoever, and also all kind of roots eatable of what kind soever, and of onions, and all other merchandizes, wares, and things whatsoever measurable, and the measuring of every of them, in, or unto the said port of London, coming, carried, or brought upon the said water, in whatsoever ship, boat, barge or vessel, floating, laden, and being on whatsoever part of the said water of Thames, or upon whatsoever bank, shore, or wharf of the same water of Thames, which shall come to, arrive, abide, be delivered or laid down, from the said bridge of the said town of Staynes westward, to the said bridge of London, and from thence to the said place called Yendale, otherwise Yeenleet, towards the sea, and east, and in Medway, and in the said port of the city of London aforesaid; to exercise and occupy the same office, by the mayor of the said city for the time, during the time of his mayoralty, or by his sufficient deputies; and also, for all the said time they have had and taken, and ought to have and take to their proper use, by the mayor of the said city for the time being, during his mayoralty, or by his sufficient deputies, all wages, rewards, fees, and profits to the same office belonging.

And, notwithstanding they the mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, of late times, thereof have been disquieted, and in some measuring aforesaid unjustly hindered, and especially in the said office of measuring coals, supposing that office to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens antiently not to appertain, neither by any lawful grant, or prescription, as yet to appertain or belong; whereas in truth it doth manifestly and plainly appear, that the same offices, and all other premises to them of old time appertaining, do now of right appertain, and that they lawfully received and enjoyed, and ought to have, take, and enjoy the wages and rewards, fees and perquisites thereof. We therefore, to take away all controversies, and remove all doubt in this behalf, and to the intent that the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, may securely, freely, and quietly use, have, exercise and enjoy the offices aforesaid, and every of them, and the measuring aforesaid, and the fees, wages, rewards and profits to the said office and measuring belonging, and all and singular other the premises, to them and their successors for ever, without the contradiction, molestation, or hindrance any way of us, our heirs or successors, admiral of England, justices, escheators, sheriffs, bailiffs, or other our officers or ministers whatsoever. And because it is well-pleasing to us to shew favour in this behalf to the same mayor, commonalty, and citizens, and rather encrease, strengthen, and enlarge, than diminish the liberties, franchises, jurisdictions, privileges, and free customs of the city of London aforesaid; of our special grace, and from our certain knowledge, and meer motion, we do by these presents approve, allow, ratify and confirm, for us, our heirs and successors, all and singular the offices and measuring aforesaid, and other recited premises, and the wages, rewards, fees, and profits belonging or appertaining thereto, and the uses and customs aforesaid, to the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens of the said city aforesaid, and their successors.

Granting the conservacy of the Thames to the mayor.

And further, of our special grace and certain knowledge, and meer motion, we have granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, do grant to the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, that they may exercise and execute the said office of bailiff and conservation of the water of Thames, by the mayor of the same city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or his sufficient deputies, from time to time, for ever, in, upon, or about the same water of Thames; (that is to say) from the bridge of Staynes to the bridge of London, and from thence to a certain place called Yenland, otherwise Yeenleet, towards the sea, and towards the east and Medway, and in the port of the city of London aforesaid, and upon whatsoever bank, shore and wharf of the same water of Thames, within the limits and bounds aforesaid, in, upon, and about every one of the same, and to have, receive, and collect and enjoy all and singular wages, rewards, fees and profits to the same office of bailiff pertaining, to the proper use of the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, by the mayor of the same city, for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or by his sufficient deputies.

The office of measurer of coals, grain, salt, fruits.

And also, of our more ample grace, and from our certain knowledge and meer motion, we have given, and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, do grant to the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, that they may peaceably and quietly, from time to time, for ever, execute and exercise the aforesaid office of measurer of all and singular coals, and grain of what sort soever, and all kind of apples, pears, plumbs, and other fruit whatsoever, and all roots to be eaten of what sort soever: And also of onions, and other merchandizes, wares, and things measurable, and the measuring of them, whatsoever, in or to the port of the city of London, coming, carried, or brought, in whatsoever ship, boat, barge, or other vessel, floating, laden, remaining or being in any part of the same river of Thames, and upon any bank, or shore, or wharf of the same water of Thames, happening to unlade, stay, remain, be delivered, or laid down, from the said bridge of the town of Staynes in the county of Middlesex, and towards the east, unto London bridge aforesaid, and from thence to the said place called Yendale, alias Yeenfleet, towards the sea, and east, and in Medway, and in the said port of the city of London, by the mayor of the aforesaid city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or by his sufficient deputies. And to have, receive, collect, and enjoy all and singular the wages, rewards, fees and profits whatsoever, to the same office of measuring belonging or appertaining, to the use of the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, to be received and taken up by the mayor of the aforesaid city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or his sufficient deputies, without the hindrance of us, our heirs or successors, or any of our officers, bailiffs, or ministers, or of our admiral of England, or of our successors, or any others of our subjects, or of our heirs or successors to be made to the contrary: To have, hold, and enjoy the said office, and all and singular the premises, with all and singular wages, rewards, fees, profits and appurtenances whatsoever, to the said offices, and every or any of them, belonging or appertaining, to the aforesaid mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors for ever, by the mayor of the aforesaid city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or his sufficient deputies, to be exercised and executed without any account, or any other thing to be rendered, or made thereof to us, our heirs or successors; so as no other bailiff or conservator of the aforesaid water, or measurer of coals, grain, salt, apples, plumbs, roots to be eaten, onions, or other merchandizes, or commodities, or of any thing or things abovementioned, shall be, or shall in any ways intermeddle in the premises, or any of them.

And we, willing to shew our said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens more ample favour, of our special grace, and from our certain knowledge, and meer motion for us, our heirs and successors, grant, and by this our present charter confirm, that although the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, hitherto in some case happening, have not used, or peradventure have abused the offices aforesaid, or any or some of the offices or the measuring abovesaid, or any thing or things, to any or some of them appertaining or belonging: Notwithstanding they the mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, from henceforth freely and peaceably shall use and enjoy the said offices, so not without hindrance used or abused, and every of them, without the let or impediment of us, our heirs or successors, or of our justices, escheators, sheriffs, or other bailiffs, officers or ministers of us, our heirs or successors; any statute or ordinance made, or judgment rendered, or any charter of us, our progenitors or predecessors, in times past made or granted notwithstanding: Although there be no express mention in these presents of the true yearly value or certainty of the premises, or of any of them, or of other gifts or grants by us, or by any of our progenitors or predecessors to the said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens of the city of London aforesaid, before these times made, or any statute, act, ordinance, provision, proclamation or restraint to the contrary thereof therefore had, made, published, ordained or provided, or any other thing, cause or matter whatsoever notwithstanding.

In witness whereof, these our letters we have caused to be made patents: Witness myself, at Westminster, the twentieth day of August, in the third year of our reign of England, France and Ireland, and of Scotland the thirty-ninth.

No. XLIII. The second Charter of King James I. [See p. 147.]

James, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, king, defender of the faith, &c. To all to whom these present letters shall come, greeting.

Whereas very many of our progenitors, some times kings of England, of their special grace, and for free, laudable, multiplied and continued service done and expended in times past by the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, and their predecessors; and also for divers other urgent causes and considerations, them thereunto especially moving, have given, granted, and confirmed to the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, divers liberties, jurisdictions, privileges, franchises, immunities, authorities, ordinances, customs, and quittances, as by the several letters patents of our progenitors and predecessors, some times kings of England, more fully and manifestly is and appeareth.

Confirms all former charters and customs; Stiles of incorporation.

We also, for and in consideration of the high fidelity, constancy, and ready and laudable service, by the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of our said city of London, to us in the beginning of our reign, and continually ever since manifested, faithfully done, and expended, we have ratified and allowed, and for us, our heirs and successors, as much as in us is, do accept of and approve all and singular the letters patents, charters, and confirmations of our most famous progenitors and ancestors, to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their pre decessors, by whatsoever name of incorporation before these times made, granted, or confirmed; and all and singular gifts, grants, confirmations, restitutions, customs, ordinances, explanations, and all other things whatsoever, in whatsoever letters patents, or charters of our predecessors, progenitors or ancestors, kings of England; and also all and singular things in the said letters patents, charters, grants, confirmations, or any of them, contained, recited, confirmed, or explained; and all and singular jurisdictions, authorities, privileges, acquittances, and free customs and hereditaments whatsoever, which the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, or their predecessors, by the name of the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, or by the name of the mayor and aldermen of the city of London, or by the name of the mayor, citizens, and commonalty of the city of London, or by the name of the mayor and commonalty of the city of London, or by the name of the citizens of the city of London, or by the name of the barons of London, or by the name of the barons of the city of London, or by any other name whatsoever, by reason or force of any letters patents, charters, or confirmations of any of our progenitors, kings of England, which in any time or times they had reasonably used or exercised, and them all and singular, to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, do ratify and confirm, to have and hold, enjoy and exercise, all and singular the premises to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors for ever, so fully, clearly, and entirely, and in as ample manner and form, as if they were, or had been severally, particularly, and by name in these presents expressed and declared.

And further, we will, and of our special grace, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant, that the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, be restored to all and singular their authorities, jurisdictions, liberties, franchises, privileges, acquittances, immunities, and free customs; and we do restore the same to them and their successors by these presents, as fully, and freely, and entirely, as they or their predecessors, in any time of our progenitors or predecessors, kings of England, used or enjoyed, or ought to have, use, and enjoy the same.

By the like services, &c. as formerly.

And we will also, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, of our special grace, do grant, that although the same mayor and commonalty of the citizens of the city aforesaid, in some case happening, have not hitherto used, or peradventure have abused the same, or any authorities, jurisdictions, liberties, privileges, franchises, immunities, quittances, and free customs, in the letters patents and charters aforesaid, or any of them contained, and other their customs; they notwithstanding, the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, from henceforth, fully may enjoy and use the same authorities, liberties, privileges, franchises, and immunities, quittances, and free customs whatsoever, totally not used or abused, and every of them, without let or hindrance of us, our heirs or successors, the justices, sheriffs, coroners, escheators, or any other bailiffs or ministers of us, our heirs or successors whatsoever, any cause, matter or thing whatsoever in times past to the contrary thereof notwithstanding; to hold all and singular the premises of us, our heirs and successors, by the same and such-like services, fee-farm rents, sums of money, and demands whatsoever, by which, and as the same of us, and our progenitors or predecessors, before this time were holden.

The search and survey of oyl, hops, sope, salt, butter, cheese, &c.; The measuring of corn, seacoal, fish, and fruits.

And whereas within the said city of London, the liberties and suburbs, and port of the same, we are informed the search and surveying of oyl, hops, sope, salt, butter, cheese, and such other like things coming or brought to the port of the same city, to the intent to be sold or exposed to sale by way of merchandize, and also the measuring of all corn whatsoever, of any kind, onions, salt, sea-coals, and fruit of all kinds, fish called shell-fish, measurable and used to be measured, which are coming or brought to the said city of London, to the intent to be sold by way of merchandize, hitherto have pertained to the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, and their predecessors, to be exercised and executed by the mayor of the same city for the time being, according to the laws, ordinances, and statutes made concerning the same, and the custom of the same city; we of our certain knowledge and mere motion, for us and our successors, do ratify the same search, surveying, and measuring abovesaid, in and by all things as the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, or their successors, lawfully had or enjoyed before this time, and to the said now mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, confirm by these presents.

Extends the city liberties through the parish of Trinity near Aldgate, or Duke's-Place, Great St. Bartholomew's Little St. Bartholomew's near Smithfield, Black-Friars, White-Friars, and Cold Harbour.

And further, we will, and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, do ordain and grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, that the said city of London, and the circuit, bounds, liberties, franchises, and jurisdictions of the same, do extend and stretch forth, and may and can extend and stretch forth, as well in and through all and singular the several circuits, bounds, limits, franchises, and jurisdictions of the late dissolved priory of the church of Trinity near Aldgate, London, commonly called Creed-church-street, or the Duke's-place; and the late dissolved priory of St. Bartholomew, London, near Smithfield; and the late dissolved hospital of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield, without Newgate, London, commonly called Great St. Bartholomew and Little St. Bartholomew; and also the late dissolved house or priory of Preaching Friars within and at Ludgate, London, commonly called Black-Friars; and also the late dissolved house or priory of friars of the order of the blessed virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, called White-Friars; and also the inn or liberty of Cold Herberge, otherwise Cold Harburgh, and Cold Herburg-Lane, within the liberty of London aforesaid; so as from henceforth for ever all and singular the circuits and franchises aforesaid of the late dissolved priory church of St. Trinity, and the said dissolved priory or house of St. Bartholomew; and the said late dissolved hospital of St. Bartholomew; and also the late dissolved house or priory of Preaching Friars; and also the said late dissolved house or priory of Friars of the blessed Virgin Mary; and also the said inn and liberty of Cold Harbour, be, and every one of them is, and for all times to come shall be and remain within the circuits, precincts, liberties, franchises and jurisdictions of the same our city of London.

Provided the inhabitants of Black Friars and White Friars be exempt from certain taxes and offices..

And that all and singular the inhabitants and dwellers within the same, or any of them, shall be, and every of them is, and for all time to come shall be, and remain under the rule, government, jurisdiction, oversight, search, correction, punishment, precepts and arrests of the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of our city of London aforesaid, and their successors, and the sheriffs of our city of London for the time being, and their officers and ministers for ever, any liberties, franchises, privileges, exemption or authority whatsoever to the contrary thereof notwithstanding: Provided nevertheless, and we will and ordain, that all persons now inhabitants, or who shall inhabit in time to come within the liberties and franchises aforesaid of the said late dissolved priory called the Black-Friars, and the late dissolved priory called the White-Friars, and the whole precinct, circuit, and compass of them, and all buildings therein built, and to be built from henceforth for ever, shall be quit and exonerated of and from all taxes, fifteenths, and other burthens of scot, and of watch and ward, through or within the city of London, to be paid, made, sustained, or contributed; except the charges and expences due and reasonable for setting out of soldiers, and for the defence of our realm, and such-like special services concerning us, our heirs and successors; and except the charges for pavements, and cleansing the lanes, ditches, ways, water-courses, and sewers within the circuits, precincts, liberties, and jurisdictions of the same late houses or priories, called Black-Friars and White-Friars aforesaid, respectively to be paid.

But shall be eligible into city and ward offices.

And that the inhabitants shall be quit and exonerated of and from the office of constable, scavenger, and such offices of charge within the city aforesaid, without the circuits and limits of the said late house or priory called the Black-Friars and the White-Friars, respectively executed and exercised. Nevertheless, we will, that all freemen of the city aforesaid, for the time being, inhabiting, or who shall inhabit within the said liberties and franchises of the said late house or priory of Black-Friars and White-Friars, shall be chargeable and eligible unto all offices and charges, as well mayor, as sheriffs and aldermen of the said city, as of the company within the said city of London, of which they are or shall be free, as other freemen of the said city are.

Non freemen within the city to be taxed equally with the citizens in all aids, &c. except the inhabitants of Black Friars and White-Friars.

And furthermore, for the better and common profit of our city of London, and for the accommodation and supportation of the charges and expences of the said city, for us, our heirs and successors, we will and grant to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and to their successors, that from henceforth all and singular persons, though they be not free of the same city, who now are, or hereafter shall be dwelling within the said city, the liberties or precincts of the same (except the inhabitants within the liberties and franchises of the aforesaid several late houses or priories of the late Friars, called the Black-Friars and the White-Friars) in whatsoever aids, tallages, grants, and other contributions whatsoever, to the use and service of us, our heirs and successors, or to the use of the said city, for maintaining the state, good, or benefit of the said city, howsoever to be assessed, shall reasonably be taxed and contribute.

May appeal in case of grievance to the lord chancellor.

And the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city aforesaid, may and can levy the said aids, tallages, grants, and other contributions (except before excepted) by their own officers and ministers, by distress of the goods and chattels of such persons, who, from time to time, shall be charged with the payment of such aids, tallages, grants, and other contributions, or any of them; and so levied, they can and may have, hold, and enjoy, to the use and behoof aforesaid: Provided always, nevertheless, that such residents and dwellers in any houses within the aforesaid city, who are not, nor shall be freemen of the aforesaid city, shall be taxed to such aids, tallages, grants, and other contributions, from time to time, only for the houses in which they shall inhabit or reside, or are dwelling within the same city of London, liberties, or precincts of the same, according to the customs of the said city, shall be assessed and taxed, and not otherwise: Provided also, that if any one, or any of the said inhabitants, residents, or dwellers, who are not, or shall not be a freeman, or freemen of the said city, shall think himself, by reason of the said aids, tallages, grants, or contributions, unjustly grieved, that then, and in such case, the chancellor of England, of us, our heirs and successors, for the time being, upon the complaint of any person or persons so grieved, shall moderate and quality such aids, tallages, grants, and contributions, as to him in that behalf shall be thought fit; which moderation shall stand, and be of force.

Mayor, recorder, and aldermen past the chair to be justices of Cyer and Terminer; With power to take security for the peace, and to commit to prison.

And furthermore we will, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant to the aforesaid mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, that the mayor and recorder of the said city, which now are, and every mayor and recorder of the same city, who hereafter for the time being shall be, as well those aldermen of the said city, as those aldermen who shall for the time to come bear the charge of mayoralty of the same city, after that they have ceased, or be moved from the office of mayoralty of the same city, and so long as they shall continue aldermen of our city of London aforesaid, for ever be, and shall be our justices, and of our heirs and successors, and every one of them be, and shall be justices and keepers of us, our heirs and successors, to keep and make to be kept the peace of us, our heirs and successors, in and through all and singular circuits, precincts, liberties, franchises, and places aforesaid, commonly called the Black-Friars, the White-Friars, the Duke's Place, otherwise Creed-Church-Street, Great St. Bartholomew's, Little St. Bartholomew's, and Cold Harborough aforesaid, and every of them, and to keep, or cause to be kept and executed, all ordinances and statutes of this our realm, made for the good of our peace, and the quiet rule and government of our people, in all their articles, according to the force, form, and effect of the same; and to chastise and punish those, who, contrary to the form and effect of those ordinances or statutes, or any of them, within the limits, franchises, and places aforesaid, are found to offend, as ought to be done, according to the form of the said ordinances and statutes; and to make to come before them all those who threaten any of the people of us, our heirs or successors, concerning their bodies, or burning their houses, to find sufficient security of the peace or good behaviour towards us, our heirs or successors; and, if they refuse to find security, them to cause to be safely kept in prison, until they shall find such security.

The mayor and recorder to be of the Quorum; No other justices of the peace to intermeddle

And further, we will and grant for us, our heirs and successors, to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, that the mayor of the said city for the time being, and the recorder of the same now being, and who for the time to come shall be, and every alderman as aforesaid, who has been or hereafter shall be mayor of the said city, after they shall cease or be amoved from the office of mayoralty of the said city, and so long as the aldermen of the said city shall continue, or any four or more of the same, mayor, recorder, and aldermen (whereof the mayor and recorder of the same city for the time being we will to be two) from henceforth for ever, may be justices of us, our heirs and successors; to enquire of all and all manner of felonies, witchcrafts, inchantments, forceries, magick art, trespasses, forestallers, regraters, ingrossers, and extortions whatsoever, and of all and singular other misdeeds and offences, of which our justices of the peace may and ought lawfully to enquire, howsoever and wheresoever done or committed, or which hereafter shall be done or attempted in the liberties, franchises, and places aforesaid; and also, of all other who within the same franchises, liberties, and places, go or ride in assemblies, or with armed force against our peace, and to the disturbance of our people; and also of those who lie in wait to kill our people, or hereafter shall presume to lie in wait; and also of hostlers, and all and singular other persons who have offended or attempted, or hereafter shall presume to offend or attempt in abuse of weights and measures, and in selling victuals against the form of the ordinances and statutes, or any of them, made for the common profit of our kingdom and people; and also to hear and determine all and singular the same felonies and misdeeds, according to the laws and statutes of our realm of England: And also, to hear and determine, do and execute all and singular other thing or things, which pertain, have pertained, or in time to come may pertain to justices of the peace within the said city of London; so always that the said mayor, commonalty and citizens, and their successors, may have and hold all and singular their antient privileges, free, whole, and unhurt; and that no other keeper of the peace, or justice, or other officers or ministers of us, our heirs or successors whatsoever, shall intermeddle in the same, or any of them.

Sheriffs to aid, &c. the said mayor, &c.

We will also, and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, charge and command the sheriffs of the said city of London for the time being, that from time to time they be assisting, aiding, attending, and devising, as it behoveth, to the said mayor, recorder, and aldermen, and every or any of them, in execution of the premises, and according to our true meaning herein expressed.

City to enjoy all treasure found with in the aforesaid liberties. And all waifs, &c.

And furthermore, we do hereby give and grant for us, our heirs and successors, to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, that the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, for the time being, may have and enjoy to their own proper use, without any account thereof to be rendered to us, our heirs or successors, all treasure found, or to be found in the said franchises and places called Black-friars, White-friars, Duke's place, Great St. Bartholomew's, Little St. Bartholomew's, and Cold Harbour abovesaid, and waifed goods and chattels, and estrays, goods and chattels of felons, and fugitives, for whatsoever felony done or to be done by them, within any the said franchises or places, adjudged, or to be adjudged before us, our heirs or successors, or any the justices aforesaid; and that it shall be lawful for the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, by their deputy or minister, deputies or ministers of the said city, liberties or suburbs of the same, to put themselves in seizen and possession of, and in all manner of treasure found, goods, chattels, waifed and estrayed, goods, chattels of felons and fugitives, from time to time, when they shall happen, by vertue of these our letters patents, without any further warrant whatsoever.

To have these patents under seal, without fine or fees.

We will also, and by these presents grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, that they shall have these our letters patents under our great seal of England, in due manner made and sealed, without fine or fee, great or little, to be rendered, paid, or made, to us in our hamper, or otherwise to us in any wise for the same; for that express mention is made of the time, yearly value, or certainty of the premises, or any of them, or of any other gifts or grants made by us or by our progenitors, or predecessors, to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of London, before their time, or any statute, ordinance, provision, proclamation, or restriction to the contrary thereof heretofore made or ordained, set forth or provided, or any other thing, cause, or matter whatsoever. Whereof these our letters we have caused to be made patents.

Witness ourself at our honour of Hampton-Court, the 20th day of September, in the year of our reign of England, France, and Ireland, the sixth, and of Scotland the forty-second.

No. XLIV. The third Charter of James I. [See p. 150.]

James, by the grace of God, king of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. to all to whom these our present letters shall come, greeting.

Preamble.

So great is the force of our love towards our city of London, our royal chamber, as whatsoever is in us, that we shall see necessary or profitable to the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the same our city, that we have been ready freely to give from our soul to the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens of our said city; and it pleases us well, that all grants made by our predecessors in times past to our city of London be not only confirmed, but also enlarged. Therefore, whereas, amongst other things, it appears, that the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of London, from all time whereof the memory of man is not to the contrary, have had and lawfully exercised the office of measuring all coals, of what kind or sort soever, in any port of the same city, coming, brought, or carried upon the water of Thames, in any ship, boat, barge, or other vessel whatsoever, floating or being upon what part soever of the said water of Thames, or on what bank, shore, or wharf soever, of the same water of Thames, from the bridge in the town of Staynes in the county of Middlesex, and to the bridge of London: and from thence to a certain place called Yendole, or Yenland, or Yenleet, toward the sea, and east, also in Medway, and in the port of London. Nevertheless a question is risen, whether the weighing of coals brought within the limits aforesaid, together with the measuring of coals, doth belong to the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city.

Grants the measuring and weighing of coals in the port of London from Yenleet to Staynes bridge.

We therefore, to take away all controversies in this part, as well for the present as for the time to come, and to remove all doubt, and to the intent the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, may use, have, and enjoy, as well the weighing as measuring, and each, as the wages, rewards, fees, and profits used for the same, of our special grace, have given, granted, and confirmed, and by these presents, for us, and our heirs and successors, do give, grant, and confirm to our beloved the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of our said city of London, and to their successors, the weighing of all coals called stone-coals, pit-coals, earth-coals, and all other coals weighable, of what kind or sort soever, in or at the said port of London, coming or brought up the said water of Thames, in any ship, boat, or barge, or other vessel whatsoever, floating, or being in any port of the same water of Thames, and upon whatsoever bank, shore, or wharf of the same water of Thames, from the said bridge of Staynes to the said bridge of London, and from thence to the said place called Yendal towards the sea; and also in Medway, and in the port of London aforesaid, to be sold or put to sale; and also all fees, wages, rewards, profits, and advantages used, or to that time belonging, or any wise appertaining, to be exercised by the mayor of the said city, for the time being, and by the deputies, officers and ministers of the said mayor.

And further, we do hereby, for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant and confirm to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, that they for ever have and enjoy the office of weighing all coals, called stone-coals, pit-coals, earth-coals, and all other coals weighable, of what kind or sort soever, at the port of the said city of London, coming or brought upon the said water of Thames, in any ship, boat, barge or other vessel whatsoever, floating or being in any part of the said water of Thames, or upon any bank, shore or wharf of the same, from the said bridge of Staynes to the said bridge of London, from thence to the said place called Yendal towards the sea, and also in Medway, and in the port of London aforesaid, to be sold or set to sale; and also all fees, wages, profits, rewards and advantages whatsoever used, or to the same office belonging, or any way appertaining, to be exercised by the mayor of the same city for the time being, and by the deputies, officers, and ministers of the same mayor.

And we have also constituted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do constitute, ordain, create, and make the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, by the mayor of the same city for the time being, during the time of his mayoralty, or by his deputies, officers or ministers, to be weigher of all and singular coals, called stonecoals, pit-coals, earth-coals, and all other coals weighable, of what kind soever, in or at the port of the said city of London, coming, carried or brought upon the same water of Thames, in any ship, boat or barge, or any other vessel whatsoever, floating or being in any part of the same water of Thames, and upon any bank, shore or wharf of the same water of Thames, which shall happen to stay, be delivered, or laid down from the said bridge of Staynes, to the aforesaid place called Yendale towards the sea; and also in Medway, and in the port of London aforesaid, to be sold or put to sale.

And whereas there is a question risen of the quantity of the fee demanded and received by the mayor of the said city for the time being, and by their deputies, ministers and officers, for the weighing of every tun weight of coals, containing five score and twelve pounds to every tun weight (should be a hundred weight) brought within the limits aforesaid.

And to receive a fee of 8d per tun, for the use of the city.

We, wholly to take away every the said question, and the like question, do declare, establish, and for us, our heirs and successors, do grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, that it shall be lawful for the mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, for the time being, by the mayor of the same city, and by the deputy, minister and officers of such mayor for the time being, to ask, demand, take and receive a fee of eight pence of lawful money of England, to the use of the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, for the weighing of every such-like tun of coals aforesaid, and all other coals weighable, of what kind soever; and so, according to the same rate, for a smaller or greater quantity, of the person bringing such-like coals, for and in respect of the charge and costs of them, the said mayor, commonalty and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, in the beam and weights, and for and in respect of their attendance, labour, and necessary costs and expences, to be had and expended in and about the premises; which fee of eight pence aforesaid the said mayor and commonalty and citizens of the said city had and received formerly.

Forbids the unloading of coals till the mayor have notice thereof; The reason why.

And also we command, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, firmly enjoin and charge all merchants, and other persons whatsoever, who shall bring coals called sea-coals, pit-coals, and earth-coals, of what kind soever the same shall be, within the limits aforesaid, upon the water of Thames aforesaid, in any ship, boat or vessel whatsoever, that none of them henceforth shall unlade, deliver, or lay down, nor cause or permit such-like coals to be unladen, delivered or laid down, out of such ships, boats or other vessels, being within the limits and bounds aforesaid, upon any wharf, bank or shore, upon either part of the same water of Thames, or to be discharged or laid down, before the mayor of our said city for the time being shall take certain notice of the quantity of such coals, and shall give direction for the unlading of the same, and for the weighing and measuring of such coals; to the intent that the same mayor of the said city for the time being may be able to render a better and more ready reason and accompt to us, our heirs and successors, what quantity of coals, of what sort soever, from time to time, have been brought within the port of our said city, and limits aforesaid, and how the said city, and the parts and places next adjoining, are from time to time provided, and when we, our heirs or successors, shall require the same from the mayor of our said city for the time being; and also, to the intent that the sums and other profits due to us, our heirs and successors, for such coals, so to be brought within the limits aforesaid (if there shall be any due) may be better answered and paid unto the officers and ministers of us, our heirs and successors, to the use of us, our heirs and successors, under pain of contempt of our royal mandate, and incurring all such pains and punishments, which by the laws and statutes of this realm of England may be inflicted upon such neglecters and contemners.

And whereas it is notoriously known, that the river of Thames is so necessary, commodious and profitable to the said city of London, and without the said river our said city would not long subsist, flourish and continue; and for that by forestalling, ingrossing and regrating of coals in and at the port of the said city brought from the water of Thames aforesaid, such coals are made more dear, to the great loss and prejudice as well of us as of our subjects:

And whereas divers ill-disposed persons, more affecting their own private gain and profit, than the general and publick good and benefit of our said city, little weighing the conservation of the said river, of late and at the present do daily and usually sell coals and other things by retail, in less quantity, in boats commonly called lightens, and other vessels, floating and being on the water of Thames aforesaid, after such coals have been unladen from the ships and other vessels which first brought them within the limits aforesaid, which persons make the same boats or lighters as their common shops and warehouses, and in them do daily hold upon the said water of Thames a common market for selling such coals, and other things, having one, two, three, and sometimes more boats or lighters lying together, and fastened one to the other in the river of Thames aforesaid, by which, forestalling, ingrossing and regrating aforesaid, to the great cozenage, damage and oppression, as well of the poor as the rich, daily increases and augments, and the price of coals and other things is made dearer:

And for that by the frequent importation, unlading and measuring of such coals, and such-like things, in and from the said boats or lighters, very many of the same coals and other dirt often fall and are cast into the river of Thames, to the great harm and choaking up the stream of the same river, and the said boats so placed do greatly hinder the stream of the said river, and the passage of passengers upon the water of the said river:

Prohibits the sale of coals by retail in lighters. Exceptions.

We therefore, thinking it fit that such an evil ought not to be permitted to continue, do command, and for us, our heirs and successors prohibit all persons whatsoever, that they, nor any of them, from henceforth, sell or presume to sell any coals, of what kind soever, upon the water of Thames, in any boat, lighter or other vessel whatsoever, except only in such ships or other vessels which at first brought the same coals within the port of the said city, and the limits abovesaid, unless upon some port, key or wharf, near the said river; upon pain of contempt of our royal mandate, and incurring such pains and punishments, which may be inflicted by the laws and statutes of this our kingdom upon such contemners and neglecters.

Covenants that the city may enjoy the premises.

And because it is our intent, that the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city aforesaid, and their successors, shall fully enjoy the premises; we therefore by these presents declare and signify, and for us, our heirs and successors, do grant and covenant to and with the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, that they may safely, freely and quietly have, use and enjoy, all and singular the premises for ever, without the hindrance of us, our heirs or successors, or any officers or ministers of us, our heirs or successors.

And to grant other letters patents if any doubt should arise concerning these.

And if any doubt in time to come shall be found in these presents, or any default, scruple or question concerning the premises shall happen to arise, we, our heirs and successors shall vouchsafe to make and grant other letters patents under the great seal of England, of our heirs or successors, to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, for the better giving, granting and confirming, and for the safer enjoying of the premises, when it shall be desired by the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, and their successors, for that the express mention of the true yearly value, or of the certainty of the premises or of other gifts and grants by us, or by any of our ancestors made in times past to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, is not made, or being in these presents, or any other statute, act, ordinance, proclamation or restriction to the contrary heretofore made, ordained or published, or any other matter or thing whatsoever in any wise notwithstanding.

In witness whereof, we have caused these our letters to be made patents. Witness myself at Westminster, the fifteenth of September, in the twelfth year of our reign of England, France and Ireland, and of Scotland the forty-eighth.