Schedule of place names
S - Z

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

John Hobson Matthews (editor)

Year published

1905

Supporting documents

Pages

413-437

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'Schedule of place names: S - Z', Cardiff Records: volume 5 (1905), pp. 413-437. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=48206 Date accessed: 23 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

S - Z

SAINT DAVID STREET, or, commonly, David Street, constructed circa 1830, on the old southern outskirts of the town, bordering the Docks. So called from the Catholic church of Saint David, which, since the erection of its successor in Charles Street, has been converted into a hall.

SAINT FAGAN'S. Llansanffagan (the church of Saint Ffagan.) A village and parish four miles north-west from Cardiff, in the Hundred of Dinas-Powys. Its name is derived from an ancient oratory or chapel (the foundations whereof remain in the Castle grounds) dedicated in honour of this saint; who, according to the early Welsh traditions, was an Italian missionary sent by Pope Saint Eleutherius to preach the Gospel to the clansmen of Lleurwg, the British regulus of Gwent, in the year 140. (Vide Saint Mellon's.) The tradition receives confirmation from the Roman Liber Pontificalis. It is noteworthy that this venerable oratory is the only old church in the world dedicated to Saint Ffagan.

SAINT JOHN STREET. This name was formerly applied to what is now called Church Street; which anciently extended eastward to the north end of Working Street. This eastern portion was called sometimes Vicarage Street—now Saint John's Square, south side.

SAINT MARY STREET. This, in conjunction with High Street, is still, as it has been from time immemorial, the main street of Cardiff town; although of late years the tide of commerce has shifted some of its importance to Queen Street. It takes its name from the long-vanished premier parish church of Saint Mary, the site of which is on the west side of this street.

SAINT MARY STREET, Llandaff. One of the original streets of of the city. It leads from the Green westwards to the high road.

SAINT MELLON'S. In Welsh Llanlleurwg, "the church of Saint Lucius." A village and parish 4½ miles east from Cardiff, in the Hundred of Gwentllwg, Monmouthshire. The Welsh name of this place is derived from that of the native British under-king of Gwent who, according to the early Welsh traditions, induced Pope Saint Eleutherius, in the year 140, to send to his kingdom Christian missionaries; and who, having himself embraced the Faith, died a martyr in exile on the Continent. (His relics are venerated in the cathedral of Coire, Switzerland.) The missionaries sent in compliance with his request were Saints Ffagan, Dyfan, Elfan and Medwyn, each of whom has his one solitary dedication in the parish churches of Saint Fagan, Merthyr-Dyfan, Aberdare and Llanfedw, Glamorgan. When the Normans had achieved their conquest of Morganwg, they superseded the ancient dedication of this parish by that of their own Saint Melo, the apostle and first Bishop of Rouen. Curiously enough, (whether they knew it or not) they were choosing the name of a Briton of this locality—Saint Mellon having been born at the town of Cardiff, as the writer of his life and legends records. (fn. 1) Saint Mellon's is the head village of an interesting district; the dialect of Welsh spoken here is called Cerniwaeg ("Cornish"), and is closely allied to the extinct British tongue of Cornwall. (fn. 2)

SAINT'S WELL, "Saint Wall." In the parish of Caerau, southwest of the parish church.

ST-Y-NYLL. A little manor of the Mathew family, north-west of Saint Fagan's.

SAITH-ERW-CLAWR-Y-MORFA (the seven acres of the surface of the marsh.) A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.)

SAITH-ERW'R-GLWYD (the seven acres of the hurdle.) Land on the Splot (1764.) J.S.C.

SAITH-ERW-Y-DEON (the seven acres of the dean.) Land in the lordship of Roath-Keynsham, bordering on the south-west of Pengam, to which it belonged (1702.)

SALT MARSH, The. The land between the G.W.R. station and Penarth Road. On the other side of the road is the Dumballs (1818.) It was probably identical with the Salt Mead or "Saltmede" named in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, 1535, as situate near Canton, and marked by Mr. Corbett as on the south side of the South Wales main railway line, south of Taff Mead, in the curve of the branch line to Penarth.

"SAMMELISWERE." A weir which formed one of the boundaries of Cogan Moor (c. 1290.)

SARN-Y-CAUNANT (the causeway of the hollow brook.) A place on the highway leading from Lisvane to Machen (1735.)

SEA FURLONG, Great and Little. Two parcels of land measuring 36 acres and half an acre respectively, in the marshlands of the lordship of Roath (1492.)

SEA-LAND, "Selond." The name given to the flat land along the Severn shore in the lordship of Rumney, in a Minister's Account of 1402.

SENDALL HILL. A place in the lordship of Roath, referred to in a Minister's Account of 1542. John Shendyll's widow had a demise of a close near the Heath, in the same lordship, that year.

SENGHENYDD (Saint Cenydd.) A commote of Glamorgan, to the north of Cibwr. It is divided into two portions, Higher and Lower.

"SEVOURNEHYLL." A croft in the lordship of Roath (1492.) The Account of 1542 calls it "Sebronhyll, otherwise Thomas Thomas' Close," and states that it contained three acres. The name may mean Severn Hill or, more probably, Saffron Hill.

SHEPHERD'S HALL. A farm in the parish of Llanishen.

SHIREHALL, The. The lord's court of justice, in the outer bailey of Cardiff Castle. It is figured in Speed's map of 1610.

SHOTTESCROFT, Scottcroft. Two acres of meadow in the lordship of Roath (1492.) Mr. Corbett marks this as lying on the south side of Kechcroft, just east of Pengam farmhouse.

SHRIMP HOUSE, The. A lonely hut on the shore near the Docks. Edward Stelfox, fisherman, was shot in this house in 1876.

SILENT POOL. A deep place in the river Rhymny, immediately north of Lanrumney Hall.

"SKALLEHOUSE," The (1618.) The Gallhouse (1715.)

SMALE CLOSE. A field belonging to the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff (1535.)

SMALLMEAD, "Smalemede." A meadow in the lordship of Leckwith (1456.)

SMALLWALL. A place in the lordship of Roath, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1492.

SMITH STREET. The main street in the eastern part of Cardiff town. It ran from the end of Duke Street eastward to the East Gate. The name was probably taken from a smith's forge near that gate. In the 18th century it was sometimes called East Street.

SOKESHAY, "Sokshey" (the enclosure of the manorial court.) A place in Cardiff burgh, named in a Minister's Account of 1492.

SOPHIA GARDENS, The. That portion of the grounds of Cardiff Castle lying on the west bank of the river Taff, north-west of Cardiff Bridge. In 1875 they were thrown open to the public, at the desire of Sophia, late Marchioness of Bute. The fields lying to the north of these gardens are known as the Sophia Gardens Fields, and are used for such public displays as the Horse Show.

SOUDREY, Sowdrie, Southrew. ("The South Town," or "Sutton.") The ancient southern suburb of Cardiff, just outside the South Gate. It extended from the Dumballs on the west, along Whitmoor Lane to Bute Street on the east (1600, 1862.) Many tenements here were accounted parcel of the manor of Llystalybont (1715.) It was at one time the fashion to spell the name Sawdry, probably because Thomas' saw-mills stood here.

SOURLAND, "Sourelond." Two quarters of land in the lordship of Roath, referred to in a Minister's Account of 1492.

SOUTHGATE FIELD. Another name for the Kennel.

SOUTH LAYLAND, "Southleylonde." Eight and a half acres in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

SPIREMEAD (the bull-rush meadow.) In the lordship of Roath (1492.) A document of 1542 refers to it as three acres lying in Rothesmoor.

SPITAL, Spittal, The. A hospital, largely endowed with surrounding lands and tenements, at the east end of Crockherbtown. It probably belonged to the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, or Knights Hospitallers, and, on the suppression of religious houses, was sold to a private individual. A thatched cottage here, called by the same name, occupied the original site until 1884, when it was replaced by a row of shops named Spital Buildings. A little to the east-north-east, on the opposite side of Newport Road, stood the Spital Barn.

SPITAL CLOSE. A field of 3½ acres near the Spital (1550.) Probably the land on which stood the Spital Barn.

SPITAL LANE or Court. A "passage" leading to the Spital, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1550.

SPLOT, The. A small tract of land on the moors by the Severn shore, between the mouths of the rivers Taff and Rhymny, in the parish of Roath. The name is derived from "splat," Welsh ysblad, a flat land. The Splot formed an outlying part of the Commote of Llandaff (Leland,) and of the Manor of Llandaff, to which it was a subsidiary Lordship. It was divided into two farms, the Upper and the Lower Splot, the buildings whereof are still standing. The Upper Splot is situate a little south-east of Longcross. In the sixties of the 19th century, this farm-house stood out in the country, all alone save for a barn opposite. The house became the Great Eastern Hotel, and the barn is now replaced by the Metal Street School. The Lower Splot is nearer the Severn, by Adamsdown and Portmanmoor. The Splot, from which these farms and the modern district of Splotlands take their names, is a strip of tidal marsh between Portmanmoor and the sea.

"SPODOMESLONDE." In the lordship of Roath. It consisted of 12 acres, half a rood, and 12 small pieces of land (1492.) In a Minister's Account of 1542 it is referred to as "16 acres of demesne land, one rood, with one ditch, formerly of Adam Spoudere." Perhaps it should read "Spodoureslonde."

SPRING COTTAGE. An old messuage, now divided into separate tenements, on the south side of Albany Road, a little east of Pen-y-lan Road.

SPRING GARDENS. A piece of land on the south side of Crockherbtown, adjoining the Spital land on the west (1740, 1804.) Spring Gardens Court perpetuates the name.

STAIRS, The. A sand-bank at Lower Penarth.

STEEP HOLM, The. A small uninhabited island in the Bristol Channel, midway between the shores of Somersetshire and Glamorgan, but counted as part of the former county.

STEPASIDE. A small house and two acres of land on the east side of Cathays Park, near the Dobbin Pits (1729, 1786, 1803, 1814.) I suppose this was the property consisting of "decayed dwellinghouses," near Biggs' Brewery in Salisbury Road, which Mr. L. C. Williams purchased from the Corporation some years ago.

STOCKLAND. A farm in the parish of Saint Fagan.

STOGESCROFT. A field in the lordship of Roath (1440.)

STONE BRIDGE, The Little. The small bridge of masonry by which West Street was carried across the Mill Leat, or Tan River, close to Cardiff Castle. This bridge is shewn in Speed's map, 1610, and in Buck's view, 1748. Until Cardiff Bridge was built of masonry, at the end of the 18th century, the other was known as "the Stone Bridge," simply to distinguish it from the wooden one which spanned the Taff (1671, 1715.)

SUDCROFT (South Croft.) Land held under the fee of Canton, c. 1290.

SUMMERHOUSE GARDEN. In Working Street (1793.)

SUNDERLAND BRIDGE. Over the Taff (1821.)

SUTTON ("the south town.") A homestead between Penarth and Lavernock. As early as 1698 it bore its present name, "Sutton's Farm."

SWELDON. An ancient manor-house, now a farm-house, in the parish of Caerau. In the reign of Henry VIII., and long after, it was held by a cadet branch of the family of Mathew of Llandaff. Sweldon was a sub-manor to Llandaff.

TADEMOR. Arable land in the lordship of Cardiff and Roath, referred to in a Minister's Account of 1392.

TAFF. Welsh Taf. One of the principal rivers of South Wales, which, rising amid the mountains of South Brecknockshire, flows through the county of Glamorgan and discharges into the Bristol Channel at Cardiff. The earliest known form is Tâm —a pre-Aryan word, like so many river-names, and akin to a host of others, such as Tamar and Thames (French Tamise, Italian Tamigia.) The river Taff seems to have also been known by a second pre-Aryan name Tib. (Vide Roath et Cardiff.) There is a river Taff in Pembrokeshire also. The characteristics of the chief river in Glamorgan are happily described by "Cadrawd" in the rhyme:—

Mae'r Taf yn afon rhwysgus,
Mae'r Taf yn dra pheryglus;
Taf a ddygodd fywyd cant,
Mae'n llifo pant ychrydus.

(The Taff is a restive river, the Taff is very perilous; Taff has taken away the life of a hundred, she saws a horrid chasm.)

TAFF MEAD. A piece of land, formerly pasture but recently built upon, lying in Saint Mary's parish, west of the Taff and bounded by Clare Road, Grangetown. (Minutes of Health Committee, 6 December 1898.) That it was land common to the burgesses seems likely from the fact that the parish church of Saint Mary owned a portion of it (6 acres) in 1550. It is named in a document of 1762. Mr. J. S. Corbett's map shows Taff Mead as lying immediately south of Cardiff Green, between that and the Great Western Railway.

TAFF'S WELL. A medicinal bathing-place in the bed of the river Taff, in the parish of Eglwysilan.

TAI-COCHION, "Red Houses." Latterly called rather by the English name. A rambling house divided into tenements and afterwards known as Roath Workhouse. It stood north of Albany Road, near the Pen-y-lan Road. Demolished 1899. (fn. 3)

TAI-MAWR (great houses.) A tenement in the parish of Lisvane.

TAI-TY-COCH (the houses by the red house.) A free tenement of lands in the parish of Llanedern, held of the lordship of RoathKeynsham (1702.)

TAIR-ERW-GEY. A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.) J.S.C.

TAIR-ERW-HEOL-Y-COED (the three acres of the lane in the wood.) Land in the hamlet of Ely (1719.)

TAIR-ERW-MELYN (the three yellow acres.) A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.) J.S.C.

TAIR-ERW-PENFAIN (?the three slender-ended acres.) Three acres on the shore of the East Moor (1764.) J.S.C.

TAIR ERW'R WALL. Three acres of customary lands in the manor and parish of Rumney (1703, 1775.)

TAIR-ERW-YSTOCYN (? the three acres of the stump.) Fields in the parish of Llantrisant (1655)

TAN RIVER, The; the Tanyard Brook. A stream which ran into the river Taff just below the Quay. So called from the tanyard which stood immediately west of the Castle (1715, 1766, 1858.) The Tan House, mentioned in 1714, was demolished 1861.

TEMPERANCE TOWN. The nearest south-western suburb of Cardiff, built in 1864, by Jacob Mathews, on land in the bend of the old river-course, after the river's diversion. The land was sold to Mr. Mathews by Colonel Wood. It lies west of Saint Mary Street, north of the G.W.R., south of Cardiff Arms Park, and east of the present course of the Taff. Wood Street bisects it. The site of Temperance Town was once a field on the west side of the Taff. The diversion of the river brought the field to the east side, and it was then built on.

TEN ACRES, The (Welsh, y deg erw.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn, part of Cefn-y-gwyndon (1666.) Also a piece of land at Adamsdown, near the Gaol (1863.)

TENANT'S MEAD. A field of 12 acres of pasture land, parcel of the West Moor in the lordship of Roath Dogfield (c. 1560.)

THORN HILL, Thorntree Hill. A prominence on the Cefn range, due north of Cardiff.

THREE QUARTERS, The. A small field (probably three quarters of an acre in extent) at the end of Love Lane (1818.)

"THYNOG FAWR, Y"; "yrythynog vawr." An acre of land in the parish of Lisvane and manor of Llystalybont (1653.)

TINKWOOD colliery, between Pentyrch and Llantrisant (1792.)

TIR-BACH (the little land.) At Penarth (1730.)

TIR-BERTH-Y-LAN, "Tireberthelane" (the land by the hedge on the hill.) Three acres of demesne land in the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

TIR-CALANMAI, "Tire Clanamit" (the Mayday land.) Nineteen acres of demesne land in the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

TIR-CALED (the hard land.) A free tenement in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.) A ruined house and land named in the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. In 1840 it was called Coed Tir Caled, hard-land wood.

TIR-CEFN-COLSTIN. A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-CEFN-Y-GELYNEN (the land on the ridge of the holly-tree.) A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-CRWN (the round land.) A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-DAIO-WIL (David William's land.) In Llanedern parish (1702.)

TIR-ELBOD (Elbod's land.) A free tenement in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.) Elbod, or Elfod, is the name of a saint of the British Church, the first Bishop of Bangor, in the 8th century.

TIR-GELYNOG (the holly land.) A tenement in the parish of Llantrisant and lordship of Pentyrch and Clun (c. 1670.)

TIR-GOLEU (the land of light.) Ten acres at Canton belonging to the Chapter of Llandaff (1666.)

TIR-GRONO-Y-LLYGAD (the land of Grono at the spring.) In the parish of Llanfedw and lordship of Senghenydd, bordering on Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TIR-GRUFFYDD-GAM (the land of Griffith the one-eyed.) A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-GRUFFYDD-GIBWN (Griffith Gibbon's land.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666), named after a member of the ancient Norman-Welsh family which formerly possessed Saint Fagan's Castle.

TIR-HWNT (the yonder land.) A farm in the parish of Llanishen.

TIR-HYWEL, "Tir Howell" (the land of Hoel.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

TIR-IARLL (the earl's land.) Near Lisvane (1653.)

TIR-MEURIC-Y-BONAU (Meuric's land of the stumps.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

TIR-MORGAN-HEN (the land of Morgan the Elder.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan, manor of Pentyrch and Clun (c. 1670.) Morgan Hen is the name of one of the Kings of Glamorgan.

TIR-NEWYDD (the new land.) Seventy-three acres on the Splot (1764.) J.S.C.

TIR-PENLLYN, "Tyere Penellyne" (the land at the head of the lake.) Ten acres in the parish of Llandaff (c. 1560.)

TIR-PEN-Y-GARN (the land at the end of the mound.) A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-SUSAN (Susan's land.) Two acres and a rood on the shore of the East Moor (1764.) J.S.C.

TIR-WINCH. A tenement in the parish of Whitchurch, on the west side of the Caerphilly Road.

TIR-Y-BEILI, "Tirebailly" (the steward's land.) Twelve acres of demesne land in the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.) Also a farm in the parish of Lisvane.

TIR-Y-BLEWYN (the land of the blade of grass, or of the single hair.) A farm in the parish of Llanishen.

TIR-Y-CEILIOG (the cock's land.) Cock's Ground. A small messuage and tenement near Crwys-bychan, on the Heath, 1801; now taken into the Cardiff Cemetery.

TIR-Y-COED (the land of the trees.) Sixteen acres belonging to the Chapter of Llandaff (1747.)

TIR-Y-COES (the land of the leg.) Freehold in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TIR-Y-CUTLER (the cutler's land.) A free tenement in the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff (1535.)

TIR-Y-CWNINGEN, "Tireconynger" (the coney land.) Forty-one acres in the demesne land of the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

TIR-Y-FFORDD-LAS (the land of the green road.) In the parish of Radyr (1728.)

TIR-Y-MAERDY (the land of the steward's house.) A copyhold tenement in the manor of Llystalybont (1673.)

TIR-Y-MAES-MAWR (the land of the big field.) A tenement in the parish of Pentyrch and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

TIR-Y-MUD (the mute's land.) In the Parish of Llanishen (1702.)

TIR-Y-POLYN. A tenement in the manor of Pentyrch (c. 1670.)

TIR-Y-SAITH-ERW (the land of the seven acres.) In Whitchurch (1731.)

TIR-Y-TON-LLWYD (the land of the grey layland.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

TIR-Y-TY-GWYN (the land of the white house.) In the parish of Roath, near Pont-Lleici. A freehold tenement of the manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TIR-Y-WAUN-LLWYD (the land of the grey meadow.) Six acres in the parish of Llanishen (1704.)

TIR-Y-WHIT. Forty acres in the parish of Llanishen (1704.)

TIR-Y-WIL. A piece of land adjoining the northern boundary of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TIRECROFT. Five acres of demesne land in the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

"TIREVEYNE." Three acres in the demesne land of the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

TOM JOHN'S HOUSE. A rambling old thatched tenement in the parish of Whitchurch, on the west side of the Caerphilly Road.

TON-MAWR (the great layland.) A free tenement in the manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TON-GWYNLAS, "the green layland," i.e., grassy fallow land. A township six miles north of Cardiff, on the Merthyr road, in the chapelry of Whitchurch, parish of Llandaff.

TON-YR-YWEN (the yew-tree layland.) A farmhouse on the east side of the Llanishen Road, at the third milestone north from Cardiff, on the Heath.

"TORCOTEFELD." (fn. 4) A piece of land in the farm of the grange in the lordship of Leckwith (1492.)

"TORECOTESHOKES." Pasture land in the lordship of Leckwith (1456, 1492.)

TOWN HOUSE, The. A building which belonged to the burgesses. It stood near the High Cross, on the south side of the Guildhall, and figures in Speed's map of 1610.

TOWN MILLS, The. One of the two water grist-mills under the west wall of Cardiff Castle (1492.)

TOWNFIELD, The. A piece of common land, belonging to the burgesses in certain shares. One piece of it was the property of the parish church of Saint John (1550.) The Survey of 1666 speaks of the Town Land, in the West Ward, whereon a certain house was built. The burgage rent of this house was unknown.

"TRANE." A hamlet in the parish of Llantrisant (1799.)

TREASURER'S ACRES. Meadow land on Ely Moor, belonging to the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff, and divided into Treasurer's White Acre and Treasurer's Black Acre, in the parish of Llandaff (1649.)

TREDELERCH (the homestead of swans.) The Welsh name for the village and parish of Rhymny or Rumney. The d in this word possesses philological interest, being an intrusive consonant which appears also in late Cornish—a language to which Gwentian Welsh is closely akin. (fn. 5)

TREODA (the abode of Oda, or Odyn.) An ancient messuage in the village of Whitchurch, immediately north of the remains of Whitchurch Castle. In the Middle Ages it was the home of a Welsh chieftain and his descendants.

TREFEURIG (the habitation of Meuric.) An ancient mansion, long the seat of the Bevan family, in the parish of Llantrisant.

TREGOCHES. A free tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan (c. 1670.)

TREGYRNOG (the habitation of Curnock, or the horned habitation.) A farm in the parish of Saint Fagan.

TRERAIG. A farm in the parish of Llantrisant (1811.)

"TREVENNETH." A tenement in the parish of Llantrisant (1547.)

TREWERN (the habitation among the alder-trees.) A farm in the chapelry of Llanilltern.

TRI-CHWARTER-CAERDYDD (the Cardiff three-quarters of an acre.) A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.)

TRINITY BREWYN. The land between Saint John's Churchyard and the Hayes, belonging to the Guild of the Holy Trinity (1542.) Perhaps identical with the Trinity Ground named in the same document as the above.

TRINITY STREET. The thoroughfare which borders Saint John's churchyard on the west and leads from the east end of Church Street to the Hayes. It was sometimes styled Saint John Street, and Vicarage Street. The name of Trinity Street is derived from the Trinity Garden, which, occupied the north end of the Hayes (1821.)

TRISTYPE. A parcel of land in the lordship of Whitchurch, held with the fulling mill in 1492.

TROCKER'S ACRE. An acre of land near Adamsdown, in the lordship of Roath (1542.)

TROWBRIDGE BACH (Little Trowbridge.) A farm in the parish of Rumney.

TUCK'S LANDS. Held with the Wedal (1637.)

TUMBLING CLOSE, The. A field just outside the east wall of the town, by the canal and Hayes bridge. Bridge Street was made out of it in 1825.

TUMP, The. In Welsh, Y Twyn. A piece of rough grass-land at Penarth, on which football used to be played about the middle of the 19th century.

TUNNEL, The. Where the Glamorganshire Canal (formerly the town moat) passes under Queen Street, at the site of Crockherbtown Gate.

TWYN-Y-GLISON. A dwellinghouse in the parish of Llandaff.

TY-BAL (prominent house.) In the parish of Rumney, north of the village.

TY-CELYN-GENOL (the middle holly house.) A tenement in the parish of Llanishen.

TY-CLYD (sheltered house.) In the parish of Whitchurch, a little north of Velindre (1886.)

TY-COCH (red house.) A farm between Ely and Caerau. Also an ancient building opposite Cardiff Castle, later the Cardiff Arms inn.

TY-COLY (Culley's house.) A farm on the south-east slope of Pen-y-lan. The Heath Enclosure Award of 1809 incorrectly spells the name "Tir-y-Colly."

TY-CRWCA (crooked house.) In the parish of Llanedern, south of the village.

TY-CRWN (bent house), or Ty-crwn (round house), a farm in Roath and Llanedern. The Heath Enclosure Award of 1809 incorrectly spells the name "Tir-y-Crom."

TY-CRWM (the yonder house.) A thatched house in the parish of Roath, on the east side of Roath Park. Also a house in the hamlet of Fairwater (1710.)

TY-DU, "Tir y ddy" (black house.) In the parish of Rumney (c. 1708.)

TY-FRY (upper house.) A small messuage in the parish of Rumney, north-east of the village.

TY-GWYN (white house.) A house and land bounded east and north by the grounds of Pen-y-lan House, and south by Cefn-coed Lane (Heath Enclosure Award, 1809.) Also the original name of Pen-y-lan farm, now the Convent of the Good Shepherd, on the southern slope of Pen-y-lan (See also Whitehouse.)

TY-GWYRDD (green house) A small old house in the parish of Llanishen, near the north end of Roath Park.

TYLE-MORUS (Morris' loft, or acclivity.) A place in the parish of Pentyrch.

TYLLGOED (the holed trees.) The Welsh name for Fairwater hamlet, in the parish of Llandaff.

TY-LLWYD, "Tyrlloyed" (grey house.) In the parish of Rumney or Llanedern (1731.) A farm in Lisvane.

TY-MAWR (the great house) The name of one of the more important dwelling-houses in nearly every parish of Wales. It is an alternative name of Llys-du (q.v.), Roath. Ty-mawr, near Rumney church, is a large farmhouse of the 16th century, with mullioned windows. It was the manor-house.

TY-MELYN (yellow house.) A farm in the parish of Llanedern.

TY'N-Y-BERLLAN (the house in the orchard.) A tenement in the parish of Lisvane.

TY'N-Y-CAE (the house in the close.) A house halfway between Whitchurch village and Rhyd-waedlyd.

TY'N-Y-CAEAU (the house in the closes.) A farm in the chapelry of Whitchurch.

TY'N-Y-COED (house in the wood.) A farmhouse which stood a little north of Albany Road, in the parish of Roath. It was demolished 1895, but the name is preserved by Ty'n-y-coed Place, close to the site of the house.

TY'N-Y-FFYNON (the house by the well, or the tenement of the well.) A farm in the parish of Llanedern.

TY'N-Y-FRO (the house in the cultivated region.) A farm in the chapelry of Whitchurch

TY'N-Y-NANT (the house in the vale, or the tenement of the brook.) A farm in the parish of Pentyrch, towards Llantrisant (1792.)

TY'N-Y-WAUN (the house in the meadow.) In the parish of Pentyrch.

TY'N-Y-WERN (the house among the alder-trees, or the tenement of alder-trees.) A farm in the parish of Llanedern.

TY-PANT-YR-YWEN (the house in the yew-tree hollow.) A small house in Whitchurch, east of the village.

TY-PICA (the peaked house.) A house and garden in the parish of Llandaff, belonging to the Chapter (1692.)

TY-PROSSER (Prosser's house.) A cottage on the Heath (1886.)

TY-RHOS-LLWYN (the house of the rose-bush.) The Welsh name of 174 Newport Road, in the parish of Roath. This, which is the private residence of the Town Clerk, Mr. J. L. Wheatley, was built in 1877 on that part of the lands of the Island Farm which was occupied by the Roath village smithy.

TY-TO-MAEN (the house with the stone roof. (fn. 6) ) A farm in the parish of Llanedern. Also a large dwellinghouse standing in its own grounds in the parish of Saint Mellon.

TY-TO-MAWR (the house with the big roof.) A farm in the parish of Rumney.

TY-Y-CAPEL (the chapel house), also called Tir Capel, Chapel Land. An ancient chapel transformed into a cottage, at Coed-y-gores in the parish of Llanedern. It is probably the Llanforda ("Lambordan") of ancient records. A burial-ground annexed to the chapel is now the orchard of the cottage.

TY-Y-CWN (the dogs' house.) Also, but incorrectly, called Ty-yn-ycwm, the house in the valley, though the valley is non-existent. The real name probably indicates that the lord's hounds were kept here. Cf. Ty-y-cyw. Ty-y-cwn was a small but solidlybuilt cottage, having a thatched roof and a mullioned window with stone frame, joist and hood-moulding—apparently dating from the 16th century. (fn. 7) It was situate on the the north side of Albany Road, a little east from the end of Pen-y-lan Road. It was demolished 1898.

TY-Y-CYW, "Tyr Cue." A small farm-house on the south-eastern side of Pen-y-lan, in the parish of Roath. The name means "the chicks' house," but perhaps originally signified "the whelps' house" (1731.) Not far south is Ty-y-cwn (q.v.)

TY-YN-Y-PARC (the house in the park.) A farm in Whitchurch (1810.) On the south side of the road from Whitchurch village to Ton-yr-ywen.

TY-YN-Y-PWLL (the house in the pool.) A farm in Whitchurch, on the east side of the Merthyr Road.

TY-YN-YR-ARDD (the house in the garden.) In Crockherbtown, at the north-east corner of Charles Street. There is a rather large garden at the back, on the east side of Charles Street, but the house was long since made into a shop. The hounds used to meet in front of this house sixty years ago.

TY'R-BONT (the house by the bridge.) An old tenement on the west bank of the Nant-waedlyd, Whitchurch village, where that brook is crossed by a low stone bridge and a plank-and-rail footbridge.

"TYR COIDEGAN" (? Tir Cadwgan, Cadogan's land.) On the south side of Cefn-Mabli park, parcel of the manor of RoathKeynsham (1702.)

"TYR CWMBERCH." Lands in the lordship of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

TY-YR-YNYS (the house on the marsh-island.) On the east bank of the Dulas brook, in the parish of Llanedern, south of the village.

UNION BUILDINGS. A row of tenements, with a court, off the north side of Barry Lane, parallel with Baker's Row. Demolished circa 1899.

VELINDRE, Y Felindre (the mill hamlet), often inaccurately spelt "Velindra." A copyhold tenement consisting of a house and garden in the manor of Llystalybont and parish of Llanishen. In 1700 it was devised by Gabriel Lewis. In 1902 it was purchased from the Booker family by the Corporation, for the purposes of an Asylum.

VIA JULIA MARITllMA (The Julian Maritime Way.) This is the Latin name given to the military road constructed c. A.D. 75 by the Roman general, Julius Frontinus, from Gloucester to Neath, for the purpose of facilitating operations against the Silures and other tribes of South Wales. This Roman road still exists. In some places it retains its ancient character, the modern road deviating from the old course in order to avoid a steep hill. At other parts of the route the present highway covers the ancient road. In relation to Cardiff, the Via Julia is represented by the Newport Road, Crockherbtown, Queen Street, Duke Street, Castle Street, Cardiff Bridge, and the Cowbridge Road. The original course, however, enters the Borough further north than the Newport Road, traces of it being discernible between Pen-y-lan and Llanedern. In the Middle Ages the Via Julia was known as the Portway, because it connected the burghs. In Welsh this word became Pwrtwe—in composition "Y Bwrtwe."

VICARAGE GARDEN, The. A Town Plan of 1850 shews this as occupying the northern and wider end of the now open space at the Hayes, just opposite the south front of the Library. It seems to be identical with the Trinity Garden.

VICARAGE STREET. The name given to the eastern portion of Saint John Street, or Church Street, previous to about 1850, when the middle row in what is now Saint John Square existed. It was so called from the old Vicarage, which adjoined the north-east corner of the church and was demolished 1873.

VICTORIA PLACE. The southward continuation of Trinity Street to the Hayes. The name fell into disuse when the block of houses which stood on the site of the Trinity Garden was demolished, circa 1890.

"WALSCHMENHULL" (Welshmen's hill.) In the lordship of Roath. Named in a Minister's Account of 1392. It is perhaps to be identified with Pen-y-lan.

WARDROBE LEAS, "Wardropelees." Meadows "at the forks" in the lordship of Roath, occupied in 1492 by the Gatekeeper of Cardiff Castle.

WARTH, The. A name, recorded as early as 1314, for the flat lands along the Severn shore, in the lordship of Gwentllwg, between Cardiff and Newport. The word may be either of British or Saxon derivation.

WASTE LANE. The name formerly given to the northern portion of Working Street (1794.)

WATERHALL. A farm-house on the west side of the highway from Fairwater to Radyr (1886)

WATERLANE. A place on the demesne of the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

WATERLEADER'S CROFT or Mead. A meadow in the lordship of Roath (1492.) It was destroyed by a flood in that year. There was a family surnamed Waterleader, in whom that office was hereditary.

WATTRELL, The. A homestead in the parish of Radyr (1702.)

WAUN-FAWR, Y (the great meadow.) In the parishes of Roath and Llanedern, holden of the manor of Roath-Keynsham at a chief rent (1702.)

WAUN-GRON, Y (the round meadow.) A piece of waste land, measuring 2a. 2r. 7p., in the manor of Llandaff.

WAUN-WYLLT, Y (the wild meadow.) In the parish of Llandaff, belonging to the Chapter (1721.)

WEAVER'S COT, The. In Roath village; bounded on the north by the Newport Road (1809.)

WEBCROFT. A close of pasture in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

WEDAL, The. A brook which rises on Cardiff Heath and flows into the Nant-mawr near Fairoak. The name is perhaps the local form of waedol, "bloody," in allusion to the battle of Cardiff Heath, fought near its source, between the Welsh and the Anglo-Normans.

WEDAL-ISAF, Y (the Lower Wedal.) A farm on the Wedal brook, a little south of Wedal Uchaf, and just within the northern boundary of Cardiff Borough. It has lately been taken in to enlarge the Cemetery, but was formerly part of the KemeysTynte estate.

WEDAL-UCHAF, Y (The Upper Wedal.) A farm on the Wedal brook, at the north end of Cardiff Cemetery and east of the new road to Llanishen. It is in the parish of Llandaff and manor of Roath-Keynsham, and is bounded north and west by the Great Heath (1637.)

WEIGH HOUSE, The. An ancient messuage on the south side of Queen Street, immediately west of the site of the East Gate. It is built on part of the Town Wall, and in a late Rental of the Corporation is termed "The Old Queen Street Weighbridge Office." Here, until of late years, waggons of coal, hay, &c., were weighed in the street.

WEIR COTTAGES. An old thatched tenement at Llandaff Weir, on the east bank of the Taff, near Cyfarchfa.

WERN-GOCH (the red alders.) A wood in the parish of Llanedern, south of the village and north-west of Coed-y-gores.

"WERNE GROVE," probably either Wern-y-groes (the alder-trees by the cross,) or Y Waun Gron (the round meadow.) Also called the Treasurer's Close. A field in the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff (1649.)

"WERYNGTROWES." A place in the lordship of Roath (1440.)

WEST MOOR, The. A farm of pasture containing 2000 acres, in the lordship of Roath-Dogfield (c. 1560.) Mr. Corbett's annotated map shews it as being the site of the Bute Docks.

WEST STREET. The principal westward thoroughfare, continuing from Angel Street to the West Gate, between the Castle and the river Taff. It was taken into the Castle Grounds in 1805, and its houses demolished.

WEST WHARF. The land along the west side of the Glamorganshire Canal, south of Saint Mary Street. The old houses here were reckoned in Soudrey; and at this place were the wharves and sheds of the old ironmasters, which still remain, though dismantled and ruinous.

WESTERWEIR, Westweir, The. A weir near the sea-shore in the lordship of Roath (1542.)

"WESTEWHITNOKE." Meadow land in the lordship of Leckwith (1456.)

WESTFURLONG. Certain land in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

WESTGATE STREET. The thoroughfare leading from Wood Street, parallel with and immediately west of Saint Mary Street, to Castle Street and Cardiff Bridge. It was constructed in the old diverted bed of the river Taff, in 1860.

WESTHAWE. A bailiwick in the lordship of Cardiff Castle (1492.)

WHARTON STREET was originally a long thoroughfare from Saint Mary Street eastward to the Hayes, and thence curving northward around the east side of Little Troy and St. John's churchyard, as far as King Street. This thoroughfare was then known as Worten Street (in 1492 as Wotton Street), probably from the worts or roots formerly grown or sold there—whence also the names Heol-y-cawl (1768), Broth Lane and Porridge Lane. Speed's map of 1610 calls it "Porrag Lane." The fact that the name Crockherbtown (q.v.) has a similar significance seems to point to the latter's having originally formed one thoroughfare with Worten Street. At a later period the northward turning of Worten Street had its name corrupted to Working Street (the eastern part of which was at one time called Waste Lane), and Worten Street became known as Wharton Street. Wharton House, the old home of the Vachell family, was on the south side of this street, with one side of it on a lane called Wharton Place, which runs north and south between the Hayes and Baker's Row.

WHITCHURCH. Welsh Eglwys-newydd, "Newchurch." A village, manor and chapelry in the parish of Llandaff and Hundred of Kibbor, 3½ miles north from Cardiff. The Latin name, Album Monasterium (Whitminster), points to an early monastic foundation, probably identical with Mynachdy.

WHIT-CLOSE. A field in the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff (1535.)

WHITE FARM. In the parish of Leckwith, near the borders of Michaelston-le-pit.

WHITE FRIARS. The convent of Carmelites, or heremitical friars. It was situate north of the Grey Friars, in Cathays Park. It became the property of the Herbert family, who rebuilt it in the 18th century for their residence, but soon demolished it completely.

WHITEHALL. A farm in the parish of Rumney.

WHITEHOUSE, The. Welsh Ty Gwyn. A farmhouse which stood near the right bank of the river Taff, on the south side of Cowbridge Road, a little west of Lower Cathedral Road. The Whitehouse Brook took its name from this house, near which it flowed into the Taff after pursuing its course along the west side of Cathedral Road. The brook was condemned as a nuisance and filled in, 1874. "Whitehouse Ditch" was the later name which marked its degradation. In Welsh the brook was called Nant-y-ty-gwyn. Some traces of it remained until 1895. It was the boundary between the parishes of Cardiff and Llandaff. A stone across this brook, opposite Pontcanna Cottages, was dignified with the title of Whitehouse Bridge (1862.) Brook Street, Canton, is near the confluence of this stream with the river.

WHITE MOOR, The; "Whitmore." The flat lands on the Severn shore to the east of Cardiff (1593.)

WHITLA COURT. A modern mansion in the parish of Rumney, on the south side of the high-road to Newport; the residence of Henry Heywood, esq., J.P.

WHITLE BATCH. A dwellinghouse in the parish of Llandaff.

WHITMOOR LANE, or Whitmore Lane. The ancient name of what is now called Custom House Street. It forms the continuation from the end of Penarth Road, over the Canal, eastward across Bute Street to the west end of Adamsdown (1818.) It was so called because it led on to the Whitmoor, or White Moor. About the middle of the 19th century the name fell greatly into disrepute, owing to the undesirable class of persons who inhabited many houses in this street. The name was altered to Custom House Street in 1872. Since the Custom House has been removed from this part of the town, it seems a pity not to so far restore the old name as to call it Whitmoor Street. Whitmore Lane extended as far east as Longcross Common (1840.)

WILDERNESS WELL, The. At the hamlet of Gabalfa. It stands in the fields, and is a pool in a deep hollow surrounded by a grove. A flight of steps leads down to the water. (fn. 8)

WOLVES, The. A rock between the Flat Holm and Lavernock Point.

WOMANBY. An ancient street leading from the bottom of Quay Street northward to Castle Street. The name is early Teutonic, and signifies "the abode of the foreigners." It was probably the "strangers' quarter," the place where Welsh and outlandish settlers in the Anglo-Norman burgh were permitted to live together under the shadow of the Castle. It is referred to under the forms "Hunmanby," c. 1550; "Home & by," 1715; Homandby, 1731.

WOODLANDS. A homestead in the parish of Leckwith, north of the village.

WOODVILLE. That portion of the Little Heath on which, c. 1860, Colonel Wood constructed various streets of small dwellinghouses and shops. The chief of these thoroughfares is Woodville Road.

WORDSWORTH AVENUE, formerly called Wordsworth Street. A blind road planted with trees, leading northwards off the Newport Road at the first milestone. It was constructed 1850.

WORKING STREET. The thoroughfare continued from the Hayes northward to Saint John Square. Its name is a corruption of Worten Street (See Wharton Street.) The northern portion used to be called Waste Lane (1792.)

WYNNEWAY, "Wynnyweye." A place in the lordship of Leckwith, mentioned in Accounts of 1456 and 1492.

WYSAM. A tenement held in conjunction with Llystalybont and Maelog's Fee by Sir William Maelog, temp. Hen. III. (1216-72.)

YELLOW WELLS. A farm in the parish of Lisvane.

YNYS-CEDWYN (Cedwyn's marsh-island.) A dwellinghouse on an old site, on the north side of the Ely Road, Canton (1890.)

YNYS-GAU (the enclosed marsh-island.) A farm in the parish of Pentyrch.

YNYS-WYLLYS. Arable land in the manor of Llystalybont, near Llanishen (1653.)

YNYS-YR-YSGALLEN-FRAITH (the marsh-island of the milkthistle.) A house in the chapelry of Whitchurch.

YNYS-Y-WERN (the island of the alder-trees.) A place in the parish of Llantrisant where there was a water-mill (1547.) It was a tenement in the lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

YSGUBOR-FACH (little barn.) A tenement on the lands of Pen-ywaun. J.S.C.

YSGUBOR-FAWR (big barn.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan.

YSGUBOR-Y-BWRTWE, "Skybbor y Bwrtway" (the Portway barn.) In the parish of Saint Nicholas (1763.)

YSTAFELL-Y-CWN (the dogs' chamber.) Called in another record "Stabell-y-cwm." A field at Cefn-coed in the parish of Llanedern and manor of Roath-Keynsham; mentioned in the Surveys of 1650 and 1702. Cf. Ty-y-cwn and Ty-y-cyw.

ZEAL. Freehold land in the parish of Roath and manor of RoathKeynsham (1702.)

Footnotes

1 Petits Bollandistes. Guerin. Paris. 1882. Vol. 12, p. 526. It is curious that the Latin name for Rouen is Rothomagos, from the idol called Roth, which Saint Mellou destroyed. (ib.)
2 I am prepared to maintain that the "Penrhyn Awst Yng Ghernyw" of the Triads, &c., is Rumney Hill. Eastern Gwent, from Rumney to Abergavenny, was inhabited by a "Cornish" people.
3 There was a right of way through the garden and yard of these tenements, forming a short cut south-eastward from Pen-y-lan Road to Albany Road.
4 Torcote, later Thurgate &c., is an English patronymic; French Turgot.
5 Tredelerch is also the name of a modern house on Rumney Hill.
6 This name was doubtless given when the roofs of the neighbouring houses were of thatch.
7 See the tail-piece ante, p. 45.
8 See the tail-piece, Vol. IV., p. 549.