IX Fourtheenth Century Events.
At the outset of the 14th century the great disaster happened to
Skinburness. On Feb. 12, 1301, King Edward I granted a charter
making Skinburness a port and a borough (Register no. 267c.)
On August 8, 1301, Bishop John de Halton at Bridekirk authorized the abbey to build a chapel or church to serve their vill or
burgh near the port of Skinburnese, then extra-parochial, with a
cemetery as for a parish church. He allowed them all tithes and
obventions whatsoever, from the inhabitants and others visiting
the place, for [the purpose of] showing hospitality to guests and the
poor, and appropriated these revenues to the abbey for ever. He
desired that they and their successors should choose a secular
priest to serve the church, one who should be appointed and
removed at their will, and paid a suitable stipend. If the abbey
did not carry out this proposal, or delayed more than a month in
replacing the priest at a vacancy, the bishop should be free to
suspend the church and to sequestrate its revenues until a fresh
appointment was made—saving all privileges granted to the abbey
and Order by the Holy See (Halton Register, i, 161f). This entry
has been crossed out in the bishop's register; "For the same bishop
by his charter bearing date at Linstock the 11th of April 1303
[read 1304] … grants to them licence to build a chapel or church
within their territory of Arlosh, with all parochial rights, and all
the tithes within their territories to the use of their monastery,
with power to them to present a priest for institution upon a
vacancy allowing him 4l. a year, and room for an house and
curtilage. And in token of subjection, he to pay out of the
said 4l. half a mark yearly to the bishop in the name of a
cathedraticum, and 40d. to the archdeacon for procurations"
(Nicolson & Burn ii, 177; see this Register no. 267b).
The reason of this change of site is given (ibid.);—"For in 1305,
we find thus mentioned in the parliament records; 'At the petition
of the abbot requesting that whereas he had paid a fine of 100
marks to the king for a fair and market to be had in Skinburnese,
and now that town together with the way leading to it is carried
away by the sea, the king would grant that he may have such fair
and market at his town of Kirkeby Johan [i.e. near the new church
of St. John, Newton Arlosh] instead of the other place aforesaid,
and that his charter upon this may be renewed; it is answered,
Let the first charter be annulled, and then let him have a like
charter in the place as he desireth."
This fixes the disaster to Skinburness between August 1301 and
April 1304. The charter of Edward I just quoted was given on
March 28, 1305, and states that the abbot "has given us to understand that a grcater part of the said burgh and the way leading
unto the same by divers invasions and storms is made such a deep
haven that their men cannot come or inhabit there as they were
wont before." It has been already said (p.108) that the opinion of
geologists is against a catastrophic theory as to the cause of this
disaster; there is no reason to suppose an earthquake or a subsidence of the land though the erosion of the coast has been
enormous. In 1269 Stanlaw abbey, far up the Mersey, was
inundated; about 1328 is the traditional date for the great
drowning of the foreshore between Liverpool and Southport; but
quite recently we have seen similar floods, in 1901–1903 at Silloth,
still later at Blackpool and on Morecambe bay, and the surprising
inundation at Westminster occurred as late as 1927. In the case
of Skinburness, c. 1301–4, the ground lost was no doubt west of the
present shore-line, and the road named was one that skirted the
coast from the south, avoiding the marshes then undrained.
Traces exist of ploughing below the present raised ridge showing
that land now sand-covered was once cultivated.
A church of St. John the Baptist was built at Newton Arlosh in
accordance with the bishop's licence of 1304, but the date of its
erection—at any rate in the from of which we see its oldest traces
—is not necessarily that of the permission to build. Its fortified
pele-tower is the remarkable feature, and such towers were not
built under Edward I. The fortified tower of Burgh-by-Sands,
which most nearly resembles it, and was also built by Holm abbey,
can be dated by the notice of 1360, in Bishop Welton's register, of
a commission for enquiring into the fall of arches connected with
that tower, described as then new (V.C.H. Cumb. i, 257). Indeed
in 1304, when Edward I was taking the offensive against Scotland,
there was no need for such defences. It was only after the raids
culminating in 1322 with Bruce's great invasion that Cumberland
awoke to the necessity, and even then showed very tardy activity.
Most of the pele-towers date from the time when Edward III had
been some time on the throne, and English courage and resources
revived. And the confirmation in 1393 by the bishop of Carlisle
and by King Richard II of the licence to have a church at
Newton Arlosh, quoted below, looks as though it had not been
built even at that late date.
During the wars of Edward I in Scotland the Holm was the
scene of continued activities, especially for the collection of
supplies, although Carlisle was the base for troops.
1301. Whereas the abbot of Holm Coltram is indebted to the
king in 100 marks, by which he made fine to him for having a
charter for a fair and a market at Skynburnesse, co. Cumb. and
the king is indebted to the abbot in 107 marks and 7 shillings
for wool lately taken from him by Harsculph de Clesby for the
king's use at Carlisle … the abbot has besought the king to cause
the 100 marks to be allowed to him at the Exchequer in the aforesaid 107 marks 7s. The king orders them to inspect the tally and
allow the sum to the abbot (Cal. Close Rolls, 29 Ed. I, Berwick-onTweed).
1302, Aug. 10. To Robert de Clifford, justice of the Forest
beyond Trent; order to permit the abbey … of Holmcoltran
to have in peace common of pasture between the … Caldewe and
Alne, in accordance with the charter of King Richard, and to
remove any hindrance… By petition of the Convent. (Ibid.
30 Ed. I, Westminster.)
1302. Safe-conduct for one year, directed to Bailiffs and
others in Ireland, for the men whom the abbot of Holmcoltran
is sending with two ships to Ireland for corn and victuals for the
maintenance of the house. Similar safeconducts were granted,
May 6, 1303; March 10, 1305 and Feb. 12, 1306. (Cal. Pat. Rolls,
30 Ed. I, Havering atte Bower and later.)
1305, Ap. 15. To Robert de Tillol and James de Dalilegh, on
the complaint by collectors and receivers of victuals in the parts
of Carlisle that a ship laden in Ireland with wine, corn and other
goods in coming to Scotland for the maintenance of the king's
subjects in the war there, and for the munition of castles in those
parts, was wrecked at Shunburnesh and 30 tuns of wine and one of
wheat were cast upon the sea-coast between the abbey of Holmcoltran and the lands of Richard de Kirkbrid, and certain malefactors of those parts broke the tun of corn and carried away the
tuns of wine and consumed them (Cal. Pat. Rolls; 33 Ed. I,
1307, Feb. 26. To the Treasurer and barons of the Exchequer.
The abbot of Holmcoltran has besought the king to cause him to
be satisfied for £19 8s. 2d., in which the king is bound to him for
68½ quarters of wheat taken from him for the king's use at
Karnarvan in the 25th year by the hands of Hugh de Leominstre,
then the king's chamberlain there, whereof the abbot has a tally.
The king orders the barons to inspect the roll, etc. (Cal. Close
Rolls, 35 Ed. I, Lanercost.)
1307, July 6. Edward I was at the abbey. On the next day
he died at Burgh-by-Sands (Chron. Lanercost).
1307. Sweetheart Abbey petitions the king that, in redress
for £400 damages caused by the Welsh soldiers when last at
Dumfries, he would grant them Little Roseley in Englewood,
containing 400 acres, or Blackayll, worth 5 marks yearly; also
the value of 8½ sacks of good teased wool taken for the late king's
use by Hasculf de Cleasby and others out of the grange of Holme
[Kirkwinny?] where it had been stored for fear of the Scots
(Cal. Doc. Scot. iii).
1309, July 22. King Edward II, from Woburn, to the abbot
and convent of Holcoltram. He has caused Thomas de Ardern,
who served the king and his father, to be sent to them and requests
them to admit him to their house and to find him, and a yeoman
and two grooms serving him, food and clothing according to their
estates, and to find his horses reasonable sustenance for his lifetime; and to make him letters patent under their chapter seal.
They are speedily to write what they have caused to be done
herein. (Cal. Close Rolls, 3 Ed. II,)
[A John de Arderne was a monk of Holm, ordained deacon in
1319 and priest in 1320.]
1311, July 26. Protection until Christmas for the abbot going
to Ireland. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 5 Ed. II, Bamborough.)
1312. Bishop Halton to R[obert de Keldesik], abbot of Holm,
communicating a letter from Arnald, cardinal of St. Prisca, at
Paris [?], brought by Thomas Bonioni, a layman of the Carlisle
diocese, who had been excommunicated for wounding Alan de
Ireby, priest, in the arm with a sword, but has received absolution;
and now the bishop is to enjoin upon him a salutory penance. As
the bishop, writing from Meldreth in Cambridgeshire, does not
know whether full satisfaction has been given, he passes the
matter on to the abbot (Bp. Halton's register, ii, 56).
1313, July 10. King Edward II orders William, rector of
Louther, to render account of the fifth, of which he had been
collector together with the abbot of Holm and others (Ibid. ii, 78).
1314, August 12. To the abbot of Holmcoltran, request that
he will bind himself, together with Andrew de Harcla, Robert de
Leyburn, the bishop and the prior of Carlisle, for the repayment to
them at the feast of All Saints of the money they shall deliver to
the king's clerk, Gilbert de Bromlegh, of the tenth of the clergy
for six years, unless the king in the meantime satisfy them from an
aid to be granted by the clergy, etc.; the king having required the
bishop and the prior to deliver him the said money upon the said
security, as the prelates of the province of Canterbury lent him
the money of the said tenth in aid of the war in Scotland for
repayment found by John de Sandale and others. (Cal. Close
Rolls, 8 Ed. II, York.)
1315, Jan. 29. The king to the bishop of Carlisle, pressing him,
'as often before,' to distrain William de la Chapele, rector of
Louthr', collector of fifths with the abbot of Holm and others
(Bp. Halton's register, ii, 101).
1315, Feb. 14. The king to the bishop of Carlisle, pressing 'as
often before' that he would distrain Thomas de Kirkoswald,
vicar of Penrith, and Henry de Overton, chaplain, executors of
Richard, late archdeacon of Carlisle, collector of fifths in 25 and
26 Edward I with the abbot of Holm and others (Ibid., ii, 100).
1315–6. Petition of the abbot and convent of Holm Cultram,
showing how they had been plundered and spoiled in the wars by
the Scots, who of late had burned and wasted their goods and
driven away oxen, horses and corn to the value of £500, and they
themselves were so impoverished that they could not serve God
without help; they beg for the advowson of the church of Broughunder-Staynmore in Westmorland, in his patronage. "The king
understands that Sir Robert de Clifford claims it, and his heir
being a minor and in the king's ward nothing can be done until
after he comes of age." (V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 166, where the church
is given as Kirkby Thore.)
1318. Petition to the king for a safe-conduct for the abbot of
Melrose (p. 134; V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 164).
1318–9, Jan. 16 and March 4. The abbot of Holm is one of
those summoned to a convocation at York to discuss a royal
subsidy, on Monday after the Sunday in the middle of Lent (Bp.
Halton's register, ii, 180ff.)
1319. Taxation of the diocese of Carlisle. Temporals of the
abbot of Holmcoltram, value £40, tithe £4; the church of Burgh
[-by-Sands, value] 50s., tithe 5s.; "its vicarage is not taxed
because it does not suffice for the stipend of a chaplain "(Ibid., ii,
184, 189). [St. John's, Newton Arlosh, is not taxed; probably it
was not yet built. Note that the total value then was less than
one-fifth of what it was in 1291, before the war.]
1319, Aug. 18. King Edward II requests the abbey of Tintern
to admit to the Collegium William de Bromfeld, a monk of Holcoltram, whom the king is sending them that they may minister
to his necessities as one of their own brothers until he shall cause
ordinance to be made concerning his estate, or until the house of
Holcoltram, which is of the same Order as they are, be released
from its oppressions, as the king wishes for assistance for the
monks of that house or other houses of the same order, because
the possessions and goods of the abbey have been so wasted by
the invasions of the Scotch rebels that they are now insufficient
for the maintenance of the abbot and convent. (Cal. Close Rolls,
13 Ed. II, Amble.)
1321, Aug. 18. An order to the keeper of the port of Dover
to permit the abbot of Holmcoltran … who is going to the
chapter-general at Citeaux by the king's licence, to cross from
that port and to have £10 for the expenses of himself and his train,
provided he make no apportum contrary to the statute. (Ibid.
15 Ed. II, Westminster.)
1321, April 29. Confirmation to the bishop, prior and convent
of Carlisle of an ordinance made by Cardinal Gualo and supplemented by Pandulph, papal legate, and his commissioners, the
abbot of Holm Cultram and the prior of Hexham (Augusteldesham) concerning the division of their possessions and that made
by Dean T. a canon and A[dam de Appleby] official of Carlisle,
master G[ervase] de Loudre and T. sheriff of Carlisle (Papal
Letters, i, 81 and 91, 112 and 256).
1321, Nov. 16. Power to the bishop of Carlisle, the abbot of
Holmcoltran, Andrew de Hartcla and others to treat of a final
peace with Robert de Brus and his adherents. The like to them
or any four of them to extend the existing truce, which should expire at Christmas. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 15 Ed. II, Westminster.)
1322, June 17. King Robert Bruce invaded Cumberland, burned
Rose Castle and plundered Holm Cultram, desecrating the place
in which his father was buried (Chron. Lanercost).
1324, May 10. To the bailiff of Holmcoltram. Order to cause
all the ships of that port, capable of carrying 40 tuns and upwards
of wine and grain, to be prepared and found without delay, so
that they shall be ready to set out on the king's service at three
days' summons, and not to permit such ships to go to parts
beyond the seas. (Cal. Close Rolls, 17 Ed. II, Westminster.)
1325, March 15. To R., bishop of Coventry and Lichfield,
to order John de Louthre, keeper of the King's victuals, to have
an allowance for 140 quarters of wheat at 8s., 90 quarters of
barley at 6s. 8d. a quarter, 40 quarters of beans and peas at
6s. 8d., which the said John caused to be placed in the abbey
of Holmcoltran, in order to carry to Carlisle, which according to
an inquisition by Sir Anthony de Lucy, constable of Carlisle
Castle, was taken and burned and carried away by the Scots
rebels against the will of the said John. (Cal. Close Rolls, 18
Ed. II, The Tower.)
1325, Nov. 30. Order to cause Robert de Barton, sometime
receiver of the king's victuals at Carlisle, to have allowance for
divers of the king's victuals which the king caused to come to
Skymburnes for the maintenance of the garrison of Carlisle, which
Robert caused to be deposited in the abbey of Holcoltram
which was carried away by the Scottish rebels; and that on Oct.
3 in the second year of his reign the Scots carried away at Holcoltram 193 salted fish at 30s. a hundred and 19 quarters of salt
at 6s. a quarter, at the grange of Harclau in Robert's custody.
"Andrew de Harcla, the king's traitor, ten days after he adhered
to the Scots likewise took and carried away at Carlisle 10 quarters
of salt, and that the said fish and salt was not carried away by the
negligence of Robert or any one else." (fn. 1) (Cal. Close Rolls, 19
Ed. II, Westminster.)
1327, Feb. 2. Order to permit Gilbert de Walton, abbot of
Gray Abbey, to go to Holmcoltram with Thomas de Talkan,
monk of Holm, from King's Beaulieu, as a prisoner bailed out by
Robert de Barton and Robert Parnyng (sic, for Parvyng. Cal.
Close Rolls, 1 Ed. III).
1327, Feb. 13. Licence to the abbot of Holmcoltran and any
of his monks to go to Scotland during the truce and to survey his
grange in Galloway, and treat with the abbot of Melrose, his
superior, touching the condition of his house. The rule of his
Order provided that neither he nor any of his monks should carry
any letter prejudicial to the king, etc. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1 Ed. III.)
1329–30. The abbot of Holm Cultram and others appointed
to settle disputes between the archbishop of York and the bishop
of Durham. They asked to be excused, as there were no lawyers
at hand and the distance was great (Cal. Papal Letters, ii, 320;
V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 168).
1330, Dec. 10. Petition from the abbot of Holmcoltran that
the king owes him 100 marks which John de Louthre received as
a loan from the abbot … and the abbot owes the king £280 for
victuals bought by him in the late king's [Edward II] time, which
sum is to be paid at the rate of 40 marks yearly at the exchequer;
and he has prayed the king to have 100 marks allowed him in the
£280. The king therefore to order, etc. (Cal. Close Rolls, 4
1330, Dec. 15. Henry III had granted 10 acres of land,
formerly held of the king by Holm Cultram, to the church of
Caldbeck. Master Adam de Appelby, parson of Caldbeck, now
complains that the king's keeper has taken the said 10 acres into
the king's hands. The keeper explains that he has done so
because the abbot and parson have taken more than they were
entitled to (viz. 11 acres and 2 acres respectively, instead of 10
acres in all) and also because they were using the land for other
purposes than grazing. The keeper was acting under orders
from the prior of Carlisle, to whom the king had granted the
Park of Caldbeck. On the production of Henry III's charter,
the king orders that Adam should not be further molested.
(Cal. Close Rolls, 4 Ed. III.)
1331, Jan. 27; Waltham. Pardon to the abbot and convent of
Holmcoltram, in consideration of their Josses by frequent forays
of the Scots, of £113 6s. 8d. out of £213 6s. 8d. due by them for
victuals purchased from the late king. They may pay the balance
by half-yearly instalments of 100s. from Easter next. (Cal. Pat.
Rolls, 5 Ed. III.)
1332, Mar. 29. John Gernoun and Margaret his wife gave the
church of Wigton in consideration of losses by invasion of the
Scots. The abbey to furnish four monks of their order to celebrate divine offices daily in the abbey church, and to found a
chantry of two secular chaplains to do the same at Wigton (Cal.
Pat. Rolls, 6 Ed. III.)
1332, Jan. 26. Subsidy in aid of the marriage of the king's sister
Eleanor to Reginald, count of Gueldres. The abbot of Holm
Cultram to be collector. (Cal. Close Rolls, 6 Ed. III).
1334, Aug. 6. Order to William de Clynton, constable of Dover,
to allow the abbot of Holmcoltran to cross the sea, with £20 for
his use. (Cal. Close Rolls, 8 Ed. III.)
1334, Mar. 4. The abbot and convent to have respite, until
Michaelmas next, for 20 marks owed to the king for victuals
bought of him at Carlisle, in consideration of damage sustained
by frequent Scottish raids. (Cal. Close Rolls, 8 Ed. III.)
1340, Ap. 20. The abbot of Holm Cultram was one of the
collectors of ninths for the French war; and again in 1341 (V.C.H.
Cumb. ii, 168).
1352. During the vacancy of the see of Carlisle the abbot of
Holm Cultram acted as vicar-general. He was re-appointed on
the accession of Bishop Welton, 1353 (Ibid.).
1352, 15 Kal. Jul.; Avignon. To Simon de Sudbury, canon of
Lincoln, mandate with regard to John de Foriton, monk of Holm
Cultram, "who has left his monastery and sometimes also his
habit, and desires to be reconciled to his order" (Papal Letters iii,
1353. Bishop Welton's mandate to the abbot, recently made
Official, and to John de Welton, learned in the law, to summon
together the ecclesiastics of the diocese and to expound to them
the business of the synod (V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 37).
1354–5, 2 Id. Mar. Mandate with regard to William de Levington, monk of Holm Cultram, who quitted the monastery by night
and left his habit, and now desires to be reconciled (Papal Letters
1355. April 14. The same on behalf of John de Monte, priest
and monk of Holm Cultram, who came to Rome without the
consent of his superior and now desires to be reconciled (Ibid. 572).
1357. Hugo Pelegrini, papal nuncio, requested bishop Welton
of Carlisle to report on monasteries exempt from his jurisdiction.
The answer was that in the diocese of Carlisle there were only
Holm Cultram and Shap (V.C.H. Cumb. ii. 164).
1360, July 15. Bishop Welton, in a commission of enquiry as
to the fall of arches in the church of Burgh-by-Sands, mentions
an arch "adhering to the work of the new tower in the said
church" (V.C.H. Cumb. i, 257).
1374, May 4. To William de la Vale, escheator for Cumberland,
concerning the grange or manor of Hildekirk of the abbot of
Holmcoltran. The escheator found that Thomas de Lascelles
granted to the said abbot land in Bolton in Allerdale called
Hildekirk grange, to find one chaplain to celebrate for ever at
Hildkirk chapel; that no chaplain had celebrated there, nor had
any done so for ten years; that the said chantry was altogether
withdrawn and brought to nought, and for that cause he took the
premises into the king's hand. The king reckons that cause
insufficient. At the same time the king orders the same
escheator to withdraw his hand from a close of the abbot of
Holmcoltran called Warnhill in the forest of Inglewood. (Cal.
Close Rolls, 48 Ed. III.)
1374, March 18. Order to remove the king's hand and not to
meddle with the church of Wygton and the fruits and profits
thereof, delivering it without delay to the abbot of Holmcoltram
and any issues and profits thereof taken, as lately the king
ordered the escheator to certify in Chancery under his seal
touching the annual value of the said fruits and profits, desiring
to know the cause whereof the escheator took the same into
his hand: and he certified that he found by inquisition that
without the king's licence parcel of the said church had been
crenellated for defence; that the church pertains to the said
abbot, etc. and that the fruits are worth 100 marks a year. For
that cause the church, etc. is in the king's hands. The king
reckons the cause insufficient (Cal. Close Rolls, 48 Ed. III.)
1379. The abbot and fourteen monks contributed to the royal
subsidy (V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 127).
1385. The abbey paid £200 to the earl of Douglas to ransom
the church and lands (Cal. Doc. Scot. iv, 78).
1386, Nov. 6. Pardon to the abbot and convent for paying
£200 English money to the Scots, to ransom the abbey for one
year (Pat. Rolls, 9 Ric. II).
1391, June 17. The abbot petitions the Pope [Clement VII]
to commit the church of Kirkgunnyne, dioc. Glasgow, to Thomas
de Glenlus, etc., as on p. 89.
1393. Confirmation by the bishop of Carlisle at Linstock, 3 Id.
Apr., and by Richard II, May 7, at Westminster, of Bishop
Halton's licence to have a church at Newton Arlosh.
1395. William de McMorin, B.C.L., etc., as on p. 89.
1396, 3 Id. Nov. Indulgence to the undermentioned that the
confessor of their choice may grant them, being penitent, in some
cases plenary remission at the hour of death and in some cases
plenary remission as often as they please … Dec. 18 (14 Kal.
Jan.). Richard Gray, Cistercian monk of St. Mary, Holm
Cultram. [He was made a papal chaplain in 1402 and again
granted an indulgence in Sept. 1403. Cal. Papal Letters, iv, 316;
V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 167.]
The abbots during the fourteenth century were:—
Robert de Keldesik, of whom account has been given.
After his death in 1318 there is a gap which we cannot fill. We
only know that in 1318 the abbey asked for a safe conduct in view
of the new election (p. 134) and that in 1319 William, prior of
Holm, went to Scotland to treat for the liberation of the bishop of
Ely's men, captured at the battle of Myton (near Boroughbridge,
Yorks.) This and some other notices of the period we owe to
Canon James Wilson (V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 172f).
Thomas de Talkan was a monk of Holm, ordained deacon in
1319 and priest in 1320 (Bishop Halton's register). In February
1327 he was still described as monk of the abbey (p. 142) but he
was the abbot in 1330 (p. 105) and in 1332 received from
Margaret de Wigton the church of Wigton; a gift which Dr. J. R.
Magrath, following John Denton, regards as a reward for assistance
in the great lawsuit by which she recovered her inheritance (C. &
W. Trans. N.S. xix, 53). In 1336 Thomas as abbot made presentation to the church of Dronnok (Dornock near Annan) granted to
the abbey by King Edward Balliol, and to Wigton church. A
cast of a seal attributed to him is in the British Museum (Seals
3290), representing the abbot under a canopy, holding a pastoral
staff and a book, with legend SIGILLUM ABBA[tis de] HOLMCOLTRAM.
Robert de Southaik (Sothayk or Sitthayk) must have been of
the family de Southaik, originally of Southwick in Galloway
(Register nos. 131, 132). A namesake was ordained acolite at
Carlisle in 1317, but certainly earlier was the man who was
Official of Carlisle in 1303 (Bishop Halton's reg.) and about 1335
and 1341, and Vicar General in 1353 (C. & W. Trans. N.S. xi, III,
113). He was presented by Carlisle priory to the rectory of
Bewcastle in 1306, ordained deacon in 1310, and acted as proctor
at York for the bishop of Carlisle in 1314 (Bp. Halton's Reg.). In
this Register he is named (no. 115b) as rector of Bewcastle and
arbitrator in company with Richard de Resindon at a date not
stated but probably 1334–50. The abbot is named on July 5,
1351, when the Pope at Avignon granted him leave to eat flesh on
lawful days in consideration of his weakness through labour and
sickness (Papal petitions i, 215). If the abbot was Official in
1303, he was then seventy or older, but he seems to have
lived on for another ten years or more. In 1362 he occurs in a
dispute with William, vicar of Wigton, about the will of William
de Bromfield (V.C.H. as above, quoting Bp. Welton's register).
Towards the end of his life he received moneys from the creditors
of Thomas Bridkirk, formerly rector of 'Stanhoe' and prebendary of Bishop Auckland, (fn. 2) who had been outlawed; and when
his successor was appointed, question arose about these moneys
(Cal. Doc. Scot. iv, 210, quoted by Rev. G. E. Gilbanks).
Robert de Rawbanks or Rabankes made his profession of
canonical obedience, 'salvo ordine meo,' to the bishop on August
24, 1365, and is named in 1379 (Bp. Appleby's register quoted in
V.C.H. Cumb. ii, 173; Cal. Doc. Scot. iv, 47). In Hilary term
1373–4 the question arose about the money of Thomas Bridekirk,
as above. In the church of Holm Cultram is part of this abbot's
grave-cover inscribed … DE RAWBANKYS ABBAS … .
Gregory (?) is known only from a case for counsel's opinion
in 1722 (see chapter XV) from which it appears that he was
believed to have petitioned Richard II to grant him a parish
church " whereby he might erect a parson, and the said parson
might call for tithes… The parish church of Newton Arlosh,"
it is stated, " was never made use of by the abbot nor by any since,
but only for a show to deceive the people with, that they might
have corn and hay." (Rev. G. E. Gilbanks, op. cit. 80f.) If this
transaction is that of 1411 (see p. 148) it may give a date for
From Bishop Halton's register (vol. II of this Record Series) we
gather names of monks in the abbey during the first quarter of
the fourteenth century. There were ordained:—
1302, Dec. 22; as subdeacons, brothers Stephen de Grinnisdal,
John de Hoton, William de Levington, Robert de Corkeby, John
de Werdal; as deacons, Henry de Alverton, Richard de Raby;
as priests, Thomas de Aspatrik, John de Raynington.
1303, March 2; as subdeacons, Nicholas de Pikering, Peter de
Ribbeton, Robert de Cuniton (later spelt Cumpton), Thomas de
1303, June 1; as deacons, John de Werdal, John de Hoton,
Robert de Corkeby, William de Levington, Stephen de Grinnisdal.
1305, Dec. 13; as acolites, Thomas de Wyrkinton, Gilbert de
Haverinton; as subdeacons, William de Keldesik, Thomas del
Gyl, Henry de Karleolo, Thomas de Wyrkinton, Gilbert de
1306, Feb. 26; as deacons, Peter de Ribbeton, Robert de
Cumpton, Thomas de Ribbeton; as priest, Nicholas de Pikering.
1307, Sept. 23; as deacons, William de Keldesik, Thomas del
Gyle, Henry de Karleolo, Thomas de Wyrkinton, Gilbert de
1309, March 15; as priests, William de Keldesyk, Thomas del
Gyl, Henry de Karleolo, Thomas de Wyrkinton.
1312, Dec. 23; as subdeacons, John de Crosseby, William del
Gil, William de Levington, John de Derwentwater; as deacon,
David de Denton.
1314, March 23; as subdeacons, William de Byris, Henry de
Tymperon, John de Crayssothen; as deacons, John de Crosseby,
William de Gyle, William de Levington, John de Derwentwater;
as priest, William de Denton.
1317, March 19; as subdeacons, John de Billington, Thomas
Neuton, John de Cotinham, John Hert, Robert de Linstok, Adam
de Graisothene; as priests, William de Biris, Henry de Timpauron,
John de Graisothen.
1319, Sept. 22; as deacons, John de Arderm [Arderne], Thomas
de Talkan, John de Hert, Robert de Linstok, Adam de Coupeland,
Adam de Neuby.
1320, Sept. 20; as priests, John de Arderne, Thomas de Talkan.
1324, June 9; as subdeacons, Henry de Neuton, Walter de