General history
Gentry

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Daniel and Samuel Lysons

Year published

1814

Pages

98-118

Citation Show another format:

'General history: Gentry', Magna Britannia: volume 3: Cornwall (1814), pp. XCVIII-CXVIII. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50617 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Cornish Gentry.

It has been very justly remarked by Mr. Tonkin, that the names of most of the Cornish gentry are local. Indeed there are scarcely any exceptions but those families which have removed from other counties into Cornwall. "The Cornish," says Carew, "entitle one another with his owne and his father's Christian name, and conclude with the place of his dwelling, as, John Thomas Pendarves; Richard, his younger brother, is named Richard Thomas Pendarves, &c. Through which means, divers gentlemen, and others, have changed their names by removing their dwellings, as Trengove to Nance, Bonithon to Carclew; two brethren of the Thomasses, the one to Carnsew, the other to Roscrowe, and many other." Tonkin says, that the custom of assuming the names of their habitation, and changing on the next removal, was quite left off (1736), though he could instance some who had done so within a hundred years. The practice of families taking their names from the place of their abode (fn. 1) , with the addition of de, was, at an early period, more or less prevalent throughout England.

"Most of the Cornish names," says Carew, "begin with Tre, Pol, or Pen; which signifie, a town, a top, and a head, whence grew the common bye-word:—
By Tre, Pol, and Pen,
You shall know the Cornish men."

In Camden's Remains, this saying is thus amplified:—
By Tre, Ros, Pol, Lan, Caer, and Pen,
You may know most Cornish men.

Tre is by far the most common beginning among the names of old Cornish families derived from their habitations. Tre, in the Cornish or British language, signifies a town, village, or dwelling, as —

Trevean—the Little town, village, or dwelling.
Trevear—the Great
Trewartha—the Higher
Trewolla—the Lower

Tre also signifies the numeral three, and this sense appears to have been adopted in the appropriation of family-arms (fn. 2) . It would be entering into a very wide field, to attempt to give the etymology of Cornish names; and, indeed, after all, it must be very unsatisfactory, for the Cornish etymologists are not at all agreed in their interpretation of them, as is evident from many instances (fn. 3) in the alphabetical list of parishes and villages, with their etymologies, annexed to Pryce's Archæologia Cornu-Britannica.

Archer, some time of Trelewick in St. Ewe, now of Trelaske in Lewannick, descended probably from a younger branch of the Archers of Lizard, who bore the same arms in the reign of Edward IV., when one of the coheiresses of the elder branch married Levelis. Archer of Trelaske married the heiress of Addis. The present representative of this family is Samuel Archer, Esq.

Arms:—Sable, a chevron engrailed Arg. between three Pheons Or.

Austen of Great Deviock in St. Germans, afterwards of Plymouth, now of Place in Fowey, married the coheiress of Treffry. The present representative of both families is J. T. Austen, Esq.

Arms of Austen:—Arg. on a fesse, between two chevrons Sable, three cross croslets Or.

Beauchamp of Binnerton, afterwards of Trefyn, now of Pengreep in Gwennap, bearing the same arms as the Beauchamps of Hacche, in Somersetshire, settled in Cornwall in the reign of Henry III., married heiresses of Kenegie, Trefyns or Trevince, and Bawden. The present representative of this family is Joseph Beauchamp, Esq.

Arms:—Vairé.

A younger branch of the Beauchamps, bearing the same arms, with a mullet for difference, married the heiress of Pender. This branch, which was for several descents of Chytane in St. Agnes, and afterwards of Trenethick, is supposed to have been many years extinct.

Billinge of Trevorder, afterwards of Hengar in St. Tudy. — The coheiresses of the elder branch married Viell and Kestell; the heiress of a younger branch married Trelawney of Coldrinnick, by whom she had no issue, and afterwards Dr. Lower, physician in ordinary to King Charles II., by whom she had three daughters. The heiress of another branch, settled at St. Mabyn, married Hamley of Treblethick, in St. Mabyn. There are still several male descendants from younger branches; the immediate male representative is said to be Mr. William Billinge of St. Teath.

Bond, of Earth, near Saltash, married the heiress of an ancient family, who took their name from that barton. Thomas Bond, Esq., town-clerk of East-Looe, is a descendant of this family, who had married also coheiresses of Maynard and Coryton.

Arms of Bond:—Arg. on a chevron Sable, three bezants.

Borlase, originally of Borlase, in the parish of St. Wenn, are said to be a Norman family, and to have borne the name of Taillefer or Talfer, from a castle in that country so called. The elder branch of this family became extinct in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the coheiresses married Tonkin and Bray. A younger son, about the beginning of the sixteenth century, married the heiress of Treluddra or Treludderow of Treluddra in Newlyn, where his family continued for five descents. Humphrey, the last survivor of the elder branch of this line (his son Nicholas having died before him without issue), was created a peer by James II., after his abdication; but he never enjoyed the title. He left his estate to the Borlases of Pendeen, in St. Just (Penwith), descended from Walter, a younger son of Walter Borlase, who married the heiress of Treluddra. The present representative of this family is John Borlase, Esq. (grandson of Dr. Borlase the historian of Cornwall), who succeeded to the family estates on the death of his father's first cousin, the Rev. Walter Borlase, late of Castle-Horneck, near Penzance, at which place the Borlases have resided about a century since their removal from Pendeen.

Before the branching off of the Treluddra family, the Borlases quartered the arms of Moyle, Trewinard, Kingdom, Boscawen, and Beare. Since that period, besides the match with Treluddra, they have married the heiresses of a younger branch of Pendarves and Smith.

The Borlases of Bockmer and Danvers in Little-Marlow, whose descendant was created a baronet in 1642, and was ancestor of Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, K.B., were descended from Edward, the second son of Walter Borlase, who married the heiress of Treluddra.

Arms of Borlase:—Erm. on a bend Sab., two arms armed issuing out of the clouds Arg., rending a horse-shoe Or.

Braddon of Treworgye in St. Gennys, Treglith in Trenegloss, Shisdon in St. Kew, &c. — William Braddon, Esq. of Treglith, is the representative of the elder branch of this family.

Arms: — Sable, a bend lozengy Argent.

Buller of Shillingham and Morval. — This family is descended from Richard, a younger son of Alexander Buller of Lillesdon, in Somersetshire, whose ancestors were originally of Wood, in that county. This Richard married one of the coheiresses of Trethurfe of Trethurfe in Ladock, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: they first settled at Tregarrick in Pelynt, and afterwards at Shillingham, near Saltash, where they continued for some descents. On the death of James Buller, Esq., in 1710, Shillingham passed to a younger branch of the family which had settled at Morval, in consequence of a match with the heiress of Coode of that place. The immediate representative of the Morval branch is James Buller, Esq., M. P. for Exeter, still possessed of the Shillingham estate, but residing at Downes near Crediton, in Devonshire. Morval, under the will of James Buller, Esq., who died in 1765, is the property and residence of John Buller, Esq., his grandson, by the son of a second marriage. The Bullers have married heiresses of Beauchamp of Lillesdon, Chedington, and Trethurfe. (fn. 4)

Arms of Buller: — Sab. on a cross Arg. pierced of the field, four eagles displayed of the first.

Burell of Burell in Stephen, near Saltash. — The present representative of this ancient family, who have married coheiresses of Woodland (fn. 5) and Gifford, is Arthur Burell, Esq.

Arms of Burell: — Barruly Arg. and Sab. on a chief Gul. three leopards' faces, Or.

Carew of Anthony. (See p. xcv.)

Carlyon of Tregrehan, in St. Blazey, now represented by Thomas Carlyon, Esq. —This family has been settled at Tregrehan and at Menagwins in St. Austell, more than three centuries. There is no tradition or document extant to confirm the conjecture, but it is most probable that they were originally of the same stock as the Carlyons of Carlyon in Kea, which barton belonged at an early period to a family of that name. An heiress of Carlyon of Carlyon married Haweis about the middle of the seventeenth century. Another heiress of this family (daughter of Nicholas Carlyon) married Rosewarne. Carlyon or Carlion is supposed by Tomas, the ancient Rhymer, whose Romaunce was published in 1804 by Mr. Walter Scott, to have been the residence of his hero Sir Tristrem. It is worthy of remark, perhaps, that among the more remote ancestors of Mr. Carlyon of Tregrehan, Tristram occurs as a Christian name, in allusion, probably, to this celebrated hero of romance, whose name, by Carew's mention of it, appears to have been well known in Cornwall.

Arms of Carlyon: — Arg. a chevron, Gules, between two cross crosslets fitchée in chief, a castle in base Sable.

Chynoweth of Chynoweth in Cubert, a reduced family: the present representative is a blacksmith at Newlyn.

Coode of Morval, traced in their pedigree five generations above 1620, married the heiresses or coheiresses of Damarell, Durnford, and Glynn, by the latter of whom Morval came into the family. The heiress of the elder branch brought Morval to the Bullers of Shillingham. A younger branch, successively settled at Pensipple in Liskeard and Methleigh in Breage, is represented by Edward Coode, Esq., now of St. Austell.

Arms of Coode: — Arg. a chevron Gul. between three moor-cocks Sable, membered and wattled Gules.

Coryton. (See p. xcvii.)

Darell of Trewornan, in St. Minver, descended from a branch of the ancient family of Darell of Yorkshire (common ancestors of the Darells of Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Kent, &c. &c.). The Darells of Trewornan were of the Kentish family, and settled in Cornwall in consequence of a marriage with the heiress of Rowe of Trewornan, about or somewhat before the year 1600. This branch of the Darell family became extinct by the death of Henry St. George Darell, who had taken the additional name of Trelawney on inheriting the estates of Charles Trelawney, Esq., of Coldrinick. The present representative of this family by female descent is the Rev. Darell Stephens, of Trewornan.

Arms of Darell: — Az. a lion rampant Or, crowned Argent.

De Wenn or Dewen of Gwinnear, traced three generations before 1620, married a coheiress of Culland. — The present male representative of this family is Mr. James Dewen, surgeon and apothecary at Marazion. Mr. F. Cole, son of the late Captain F. Cole, of the Royal Navy, is the representative of the elder branch, by female descent.

Arms of Dewen: — Arg. on a chevron - - - - three trefoils - - - -.

Estcott. — The heiress of the elder branch of this ancient family, whose pedigree is traced one generation beyond the reign of King Stephen, after nine descents, married Pentier. A younger branch, which was of Tamerton, in the reign of Edward III., married an heiress of Manning, and coheiresses of Totworthy and Prust. The present representative of this family, afterwards settled at Launceston, is Captain Sanford Eastcott (so the name is now spelt), of the Cornwall militia.

Arms of Estcott: — Sab. six escallop shells, 3. 2. 1. Or.

Enys of Enys, traced to the reign of Edward I., married the heiress of Gregor of Truro, and coheiresses of Rise of Trewardenick, and Willys of Fenditton, in Cambridgeshire; the present representative of this family is Francis Enys, Esq.

Arms: — Quarterly; one and four, Arg. three water evets Vert, for Enys; two and three, Gules on a fesse embattled-counterbattled Arg. between three birds of the second, member'd and beaked Or, three cinquefoils Sab. the whole within a border compony of twelve parts, Or and Sable.

Flamank or Flamock of Bokarne in Bodmin. — This family is traced seven generations above Thomas Flamock, whom Holinshed calls a gentleman well learned in the law, well known in history as the leader of the Cornish rebellion in 1496. This Thomas left no male issue; his only daughter married Fantleroy. John, his second brother, was the immediate ancestor of William Flamank, D. D. the present proprietor of Bokarne. This family have married the heiresses of Treglownaw and Luccam or Lucomb.

Arms of Flamank: — Arg. a cross between four mullets, Gules.

Foote of Trelogosick in Veryan, afterwards of Lambesso in St. Clements, acquired by bequest in the reign of Charles II., and of Truro. — Samuel Foote, Esq., the celebrated comedian and dramatic writer, was of this family: the present representative of which is Henry Foote, Esq., now resident at Word, near Tavistock, in Devonshire.

Arms: — Vert a chevron between three doves Argent.

Giddy of Trelease in Kea, afterwards of Calenick. — The Rev. Edward Giddy, now of Tredrea, in St. Erth, married the heiress of Davies, representative of the Noys, and is father of Davies Giddy, Esq., M.P. for Bodmin.

Arms of Giddy: — Or, a fesse engrail'd Vert, between a lion passant in chief Gules, and three torteauxes in base.

Glanville of Catchfrench, where the family has resided about a century, descended from Julius, a younger son of Serjeant Glanville, who was son of Sir John Glanville, one of the justices of the Common Pleas, and a descendant of the ancient family of Glanville of Halwell, in the parish of Whitchurch, in Devonshire.

Arms: — Azure, three saltiers, Or.

Glynn of Glynn, in Cardinham. — An ancient family which became extinct in the elder branch in the early part of the fourteenth century, when the heiress married Sir John Carminow. A younger branch became afterwards possessed, by purchase, of the seat of their ancestors, and were the immediate ancestors of E.J. Glynn, Esq., now of Glynn. A younger branch of Glynn of Glynn was of Boyton at the time of the last Heralds' visitation in 1620. The Glynns have married a coheiress of Trecarne and the sole heiress of Dennis.

Arms of Glynn: — Arg. three salmon spears Sab.

The Heralds' visitation of 1531 gives the descent of Glynn of Lanhydrock, who married the heiresses of Clyker, and Arundell of Penbygoll.

There was a family of Glynn of Morval, extinct in the reign of Henry VIII., and another of Helston (fn. 6) , which bore the same arms as Glynn of Glynn, and most probably were of the same stock.

Gregor of Trewarthenick. — This family was of Tregew in Feock, as early as the reign of Edward III., afterwards of Truro. They settled at Trewarthenick, now the seat of Francis Gregor, Esq., some time M. P. for the county, in the reign of Charles II. This family has married a coheiress of Prideaux of Gurlyn.

Arms of Gregor: — Arg. a chevron Gules, between partridges, proper.

Grylls, a Devonshire family settled at Court in Lanreath, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, immediate ancestors of the Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, of Helston, and Thomas Grylls, Esq., of Bosahan. This family have married the heiresses of Gerveys (representative of the Bonallacks) and Glynn of Helston (representative of the Polkinhornes), and the coheiress of Beare.

Arms of Grylls: — Or, a bend and two bendlets enhanced Gules.

Hals, some time of Fentongollan in St. Michael-Penkevil, and of Tresawsen in Merther. — This family is supposed by Mr. William Hals, the historian of Cornwall, to have been descended from the family of De Als, who derived their origin from Alsa or Alse in Burian, and gave the manor of Lanestly, in 1266, to the priory of St. Germans. It is certain that they were descended from John Hals, who was appointed one of the justices of the Common Pleas in 1423, and built the ancient mansion now standing at Kenedon in Devonshire. His immediate descendant, Sir Nicholas Hals, purchased Fentongollan, the seat of the Carminows, in the year 1600, and several other manors (and among them Lanestly above-mentioned), most of which were sold by his elder son John. Mr. William Hals abovementioned was a grandson of a younger branch, the representative of which is James Hals, Esq. now of St. Ives. The elder branch of this family settled in Jamaica.

Arms of Hals: — Arg. a fesse between three alces' or griphons' heads erased, Sable.

Hamley of Halwyn in St. Issey, and Treblethick in St. Mabyn. — This family, who are traced to the thirteenth century, became extinct in the elder branch in the year 1427, when Halwyn passed, by a female heir, to the Champernons. A younger branch settled at Treblethick as early as the reign of Henry VII. The present representative of this ancient family is Mr. Richard Hamley of St. Columb. The Rev. Thomas Tregenna Hamley is of the same family, his father being first cousin of Mr. Richard Hamley's father, by whom Treblethick (fn. 7) was sold about the middle of the last century. This family have married the heiresses of Pipard, Idles, Talbot, and Hockin.

Arms of Hamley: — Arg. three talbots passant (two in chief and one in base), Az. langued Gules.

Harris of Kenegie in Gulvall, descended from a younger branch of Harris of Heyne in Devonshire, to which estate they succeeded on the death of Sir Arthur Harris, Bart., without issue, in 1673. On the death of Christopher Harris, Esq., the last heir-male of this family, in 1775, the Kenegie estate passed to the Arundells of Menadarva in Camborne, who took the name of Harris. The representative of both families is William Harris, Esq., of Pembroke College, in Oxford.

The Harrises of Mount-Radford in Devonshire, being the elder branch of the Heyne family, were some time resident in Cornwall, at Trecarrell in Lezant, which they acquired by marriage with the heiress of Trecarrell alias Esse. On the death of Sir Christopher Harris without male issue, in 1624, both Trecarrell and Mount-Radford passed to the Harrises of Lanrest, in the parish of Liskeard, who appear to have been of the Heyne family, and bore the same arms. John Harris, Esq. of Lanrest, who married Jane, only sister and heir of Sir Christopher above-mentioned, was immediate ancestor of John Harris, Esq., now of MountRadford. The family has not, for many years, had any residence in Cornwall.

Ancient arms of Harris of Mount-Radford:—Sab. three crescents Argent; those of Heyne and Lanrest, the same coat, within a border Argent.

Hawkey of Trevegoe in St. Winnow, now represented by John Hawkey, Esq. of Launcels.

Arms:— - - - - - a fesse, cottised between three falcons, close - - - -

Herle, or Hearle, originally of West-Herle in Northumberland, settled at Prideaux in Luxulion, in consequence of marrying the heiress of Arvas (who had married the heiress of Prideaux) about the year 1500. The elder branch, which was afterwards of Landew in Lezant, became extinct by the death of Northmore Herle, Esq., sine prole, in 1737. The Herles married heiresses of Arvas and Salter, and Fockeroy, Carminow, and Northmore; and the coheiress of Trefusis of Landew.

Arms of Herle: — Arg. a fesse Gul., between three sheldrakes, proper.

A younger branch of this family, writing their name Hearle, was some time of Penryn, and, by marriage with the heiress of Paynter, of Trelisick in St. Erth. The elder line of this branch became extinct in 1766, by the death of Thomas Hearle, Esq., whose aunts and coheiresses married the late Francis Rodd, Esq. of Trebartha-Hall, Captain Wallis the circumnavigator, and the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne. The present male representative of this branch, and of the Herle family, is John Hearle, Esq., now of Tregony.

Hext of Trenarran in St. Austell, where the family have been settled for several descents, of Trinity in Restormel-Park, and of Tredethy in St. Mabyn. — This family was of Kingston in the hundred of Haytor in Devon, where they are to be traced to the reign of Edward IV. They had married a coheiress of Tilly and the heiress of Colswell.

Arms:—Or, a castle between three battle-axes Sable.

Hoblyn of Bodrane in St. Pinnock, and of Nanswhyden.—This family, which was of Bodrane five generations before 1620, married the coheiresses of Dawe and Ronnell, and the heiress of King. The Hoblyns of Liskeard are said to have been descended from Thomas Hoblyn of Bodrane by his first wife: if they are not so descended, it is most probable that the elder branch is extinct. From John, elder son of Thomas Hoblyn, of Bodrane, by (his second wife) the heiress of King, descended the Hoblyns of Nanswhyden, who married the heiress of Trevascus and coheiresses of Pye and Apley. The elder branch of Hoblyn of Nanswhyden became extinct, in 1757, by the death of Robert Hoblyn, Esq. (who built Nanswhyden-house). The present representative is the Rev. Robert Hoblyn, of Bath, descended from Thomas, fourth son of Robert Hoblyn of Nanswhyden, by Grace, daughter of John Carew of Penwarne, who settled at Tresadern. The Rev. John Hoblyn, of Padstow, is the representative of another younger branch who settled at Trewhela in St. Enoder. The heiress of Hoblyn of Penwarne, which estate was inherited from the Carews, married Vyvyan of Trelowarren; the heiress of another branch, settled at Croan in Egloshayle, married Kirkham.

Arms of Hoblyn—Az. a fesse Or. between two flaunches, Ermine.

J'ans of Whitstone, descended from Robert J'ans (fn. 8) , Esq., Master of the Ordnance to Queen Elizabeth, and one of Her Majesty's Privy Council for the kingdom of Ireland. The father of Wrey J'ans, Esq., now of Whitstone, married the sister of the late Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bart., and settled at Whitstone.

Arms of J'ans: — Gules, on a bend Argent, three Cornish choughs, proper.

Jago or Jagoe, of St. Erme and Helston about the year 1500, a younger branch of the Trejago family, and common ancestors of Thomas Jago, Esq. of Launceston, Samuel Jagoe, Esq. of Ennis in St. Erme, and of the Jagoes of Warwickshire, ancestors of the poet, now extinct. The ancestor of Mr. Jago of Launceston married the heiress of the elder branch of Arundell of Tolverne, descended from one of the coheiresses of the Courtenays, Earls of Devon.

Arms of Jago:— Or, a chevron between three cross croslets Sable.

Keigwin of Moushole, traced to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. — The immediate representative is the Rev. James Jenkin Keigwin, who is representative also of the Hoblyns of Tresadern.

Arms: — Vert, a chevron between three grey-hounds current Argent.

Kekewich, originally of Lancashire, some time of Catchfrench in St. Germans, where they settled about the middle of the sixteenth century, in consequence of a match with the heiress of Talcarne, now represented by Samuel Kekewich, Esq. of Peamore, near Exeter, who, though he has no seat in Cornwall, has considerable property in the county. This family married also the heiresses of Bradfield and Essex.

Arms of Kekewich: — Arg. two lions passant in bend Sable, between two cottises Gules.

There were younger branches of the Kekewichs at Polmarkin and Trehawke.

Kempe of Levethan, in Blisland, Rosteage in Gerrans, &c. — This ancient family descended from a younger branch of the Kempes of Kent, settled at Levethan about the year 1500. One of the coheiresses of the elder branch married the grandfather of Dr. Taunton of Truro. A younger son of this family settled at Rosteage. This branch divided into two, settled at Rosteage, and at Crugsilick in Vevyan. These became again united, by the marriage of Kempe of Rosteage with the heiress of Kempe of Crugsilick. John Kempe, Esq., now of Crugsilick, is the elder son of this marriage, and representative of both branches.

Arms of Kempe: — Gules, three garbs Or.

Kendall, formerly of Treworgy in Duloe, now of Pelyn in Lanlivery. — The elder branch of this ancient family became extinct in the early part of the seventeenth century. A younger branch descended from Walter, third son of John Kendall of Treworgy, by Jane daughter and coheiress of Richard Holland, settled at Pelyn, and were the immediate ancestors of the Rev. Nicholas Kendall, now of that place. This family had married the heiresses of St. Piran, Wayte of Lostwithiel, and a coheiress of Glynn.

Arms of Kendall: — Arg. a chevron between three dolphins naiant, embowed Sable.

Kestell of Kestell in Egloshayle. — The lineal male representative of this ancient family, who are traced as resident at Kestell in the reign of King John, is John Kestell, Esq. of Ottery-St. Mary, whose father removed into Devonshire about the year 1737. This family appears to have branched into two lines in the reign of Edward IV.; before this period, one of the family had married the heiress of Godolphin; afterwards, one of the Kestell branch married the heiress of Billinge. The younger branch married the heiresses of Lukie and Ford. It is probable that the two branches became again united on the extinction of the younger, Pendavy being described as the residence of that branch in 1620; which manor, together with Kestell, belonged afterwards to an elder branch. John Kestell, Esq., the present representative, whose grandmother was the heiress of Lower of Tremere in St. Tudy, has no son; his only daughter is married to Samuel Cornish, Esq. of Salcombe, near Sidmouth in Devonshire, and has issue.

Arms of Kestell in Egloshayle: — Arg. a chevron Sab., between three falcons rising, proper.

Kingdon of Trehunsey in Quithiock, and Trenowth in St. Cleer, an ancient family; the present representative of which is William Kingdon, Esq. of St. Cleer. There are several clergy in the north part of the county descended from a younger branch of this family, settled in Devonshire.

Arms of Kingdon: — Arg. a chevron Sable, between three magpies, proper.

Lanyon of Lanyon in Madron, and of Lanyon in Gwinnear. — The popular tradition of these families is, that they were descended from two brothers who came over from France with Isabel, consort of Richard II., and gave their names to the two bartons in which they fixed their residence; and as a confirmation of this tradition, it is said, that their arms were the same as those of the town of Lanion in Britanny. This tradition we know to be, in some respects, erroneous; but contrary as it is to the general practice, we have reason to believe, that the tenement of Lanyon, within the barton of Coswin in Gwinnear, was so called by the family on its becoming their residence; but so far from there being any truth in the story of the brothers being founders of the two families, it is certain that the Lanyons of Lanyon in Gwinnear are descended from Edward, a younger son of Richard Lanyon, who married Margaret Treskillard. This Edward is called by Leland, Lanyon of Coswin. That this statement is correct, is proved by the circumstance of Lanyon of Madron and Lanyon of Gwinnear being, at the time of the visitation of 1620, related so nearly as in the degree of cousin-germans. The elder branch of the Lanyons of Madron is extinct, but some of the family, descended from younger branches, are still remaining at Burian. Mr. Tobias Lanyon, now of Camborne, surgeon and apothecary, is the representative of the Lanyons of Lanyon in Madron and Gwinnear. Before the branching off of the families, there was a match with the heiress of Trelebicke; afterwards in the Madron branch, a match with a coheiress of Militon.

Arms of Lanyon: — Sable, a castle with four towers Arg., standing on the waves of the sea Az., over the same a falcon hovering, with bells, proper.

Manaton or Mannington of Manaton in Southill. — The descendants of this ancient family removed into Devonshire in the early part of the last century, and are said to be still remaining, but in a reduced condition.

Arms: — Argent, on a bend Sable, three mullets of the field.

Mayow of Bray in Morval, settled there before 1620; before which time, they were for three generations of Looe. Bray is now the property of Philip Wynell Mayow, Esq., who resides in London.

Arms: — Gules, a chevron Vairé between three ducal coronets Or.

Nicholls of Treriefe in Madron, settled at that place as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth, if not before. William Godolphin Nicholls, Esq., of Trereife, is the present representative of this family, and of the Godolphins of Trewarveneth, whose heiress his ancestor married.

Arms of Nicholls: — Argent, three pheons Sable.

Paynter of Boskenna in Burian, said to have been originally called De Camborne, and to have been settled at Deverell in Gwinnear, before they were of Boskenna and of Trelisick in St. Erth; the former branch is now represented by John Paynter, Esq. of Boskenna, and the other in the male line by Francis Paynter, Esq. of Trekenning in St. Columb. The heiress of the elder branch of Paynter of Trelisick brought that barton to the Hearles, from whom it passed by a coheiress to Mr. Rodd of Trebartha. An ancestor of the Paynters married the heiress of Antron.

Arms of Paynter: — Azure, three billets Argent, each charged with an annulet Sable.

Penfownd or Penfowne of Penfownd in Poundstock — traced eight generations before 1620, now existing in the male line in Devonshire.

Arms: — Arg. a chevron between three moor-cocks Sab., member'd and wattled Gules.

Penrose of Penrose in Sithney, traced eight generations before 1620. The elder branch of this family became extinct by the death of John Penrose, Esq., fellow of New College, in 1744. His only sister married William Pearce of Penryn, whose heiress married Alexander Cuming, Esq., of Altyr in Scotland, father of Sir Adam Cuming Gordon, who was created a baronet in 1804, and grandfather of Sir William Gordon Cuming Gordon, the present baronet. One of the Penrose family had married heiresses of Tredryne and Enys, and a coheiress of Laner. A younger brother of Penrose, who married Enys, married the heiress of Tregethow, and settled at Tregethow, alias Tregith, in Manaccan. This branch of the family afterwards married the heiress of Kestell of Kestell in Manaccan. Commodore Penrose, of the navy, who occupies Ethy in St. Winnow, is of this branch, as was the Rev. Thomas Penrose the poet, who lived at Newbury, in Berkshire, and was father to the Rev. Thomas Penrose, now fellow of New College in Oxford.

The ancient arms of the family of Penrose, as described in the visitation of 1531, are, — Erm. on a bend Az. three roses, Or. They afterwards bore Arg. three bends Sable, each charged with as many roses of the field.

Crest: — A Looe-trout naiant, Or.

Penwarne of Penwarne in Mawnan, an ancient family, who possessed by inheritance the bailiwick of the hundred of Kirrier, married the coheiress of Trencreek. The present representative of this ancient family is John Penwarne, Esq., of St. Pancras-Terrace, near London.

Arms: — Sab. a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis, Argent.

Peter of Harlyn in St. Merryn. — This family is descended from a younger branch of the Petres of Tor-Brian, in Devonshire (Lord Petre's ancestors), settled at Boway near Exeter. They removed into Cornwall about two centuries ago, and settled first at Trenarran or Trenearn, afterwards at Treator in Padstow. They acquired Harlyn, in marriage with the heiress of Mitchell, before the end of the seventeenth century. One of the family married a coheiress of Coryton (one of the daughters of Sir John, and sisters of Sir William Coryton, the last baronet). The present representative of this family is Henry Peter, Esq., of Harlyn, whose son and heir, William, is married to the only child of John Thomas, Esq., of Chiverton, vice-warden of the Stannaries.

Arms of Peter of Harlyn: — Gules, on a bend between two escallop-shells Arg., two Cornish choughs, proper.

Samuel Peter, Esq., of a younger branch of this family, resides at Percothan in St. Ervan.

Polwhele of Polwhele in St. Clements. — This ancient family, of which the Rev. Richard Polwhele of Polwhele, the historian of Devonshire and Cornwall, is the immediate representative, traces its origin to Drogo or Drew de Polwhele, chamberlain to the Empress Maud. This family have married heiresses of Lukie, Killigrew, and Tresawell, or Tresoye, and a coheiress of Trencreek.

Arms of Polwhele: — Sab. a saltier engrailed, Ermine.

Prideaux, formerly of Prideaux Castle in Luxulion, now of Place, in Padstow. — This ancient family trace their pedigree to Paganus, Lord of Prideaux, in the reign of William the Conqueror. The last heir-male of the elder branch died some time in the latter part of the fourteenth century; his heiress married Arvas, whose heiress brought Prideaux to the Herles of West Herle in Northumberland. A younger branch of the Prideaux family, at a very early period, settled at Orcharton in Devonshire (fn. 9) , and a younger branch of Prideaux of Orcharton, at Adeston, and afterwards at Thuborough in the same county, having married the heiresses of those estates. The elder branch of Prideaux of Thuborough had, in Norden's time (in the reign of Queen Elizabeth), a seat at Resprin in St. Winnow, in consequence of a match with the heiress of Carminow of Resprin: his grandson, William, died without issue. A younger branch of the Prideauxes of Thuborough settled at Padstow in the reign of Henry VIII., and were the immediate ancestors of the Rev. Charles Prideaux Brune, now of Place, who, in 1797, obtained the King's sign-manual for taking the additional name of Brune, pursuant to the will of his great-uncle Charles Brune, Esq., of Plumber in Dorsetshire, the last heir-male of an ancient baronial family. The Prideauxes of Netherton in Devonshire, baronets, are also descended from a younger branch of Prideaux of Thuborough. Before the branching off of the Thuborough branch, the Prideauxes had married the heiresses of Treverbin, Adeston, Gavestone, and Bromford. The Padstow branch have married the heiress of Heuscott and coheiresses of Vyell (fn. 10) and Chudleigh.

Arms of Prideaux: — Argent, a chevron Sable. — Arms of Brune: — Azure, a cross cercelé Or.

Pye of Nansarth, afterwards of Bodinneck in St. Stephen's-Brannell. — The representative of this family is the Rev. Mr. Pye, rector of Blisland.

Arms: — Arg. on a fesse Azure, three escallop-shells of the field.

Pyne or Pine of Ham in Morwinstow. — Oliver Pyne of Ham, who was living in 1296, married the heiress of Downe of Downe in Devonshire, whither the family removed; but they did not wholly quit Ham till about a century later. The present male descendant of this ancient family is the Rev. John Pine Coffin, of Camden-Place, Bath, who took the name of Coffin in 1797, on succeeding to the Portledge estate. One of his sons resides at Portledge, and another at Downe. This family have married the heiresses of Downe and Ilcombe; and coheiresses of Sall and Pensownd.

Arms of Pine: — Gules, a chevron Erm. between three pine cones Or.

Rashleigh of Fowey, now of Menabilly, descended from a younger branch of the ancient family of Rashlegh of Rashlegh (fn. 11) , near South-Molton in Devonshire, which settled at Fowey about the middle of the sixteenth century. The present representative of this family is William Rashleigh, Esq. of Menabilly, M. P.

Arms of Rashleigh: — Sable, a cross Or, between; in the first quarter, a Cornish chough Arg. beaked and legg'd Gules; in the second, a text T; in the third and fourth, a crescent, all Argent.—The arms of the elder branch were, Arg. a cross Sable, in chief two text T's of the second. It appears that the younger branches of Rashleigh and Petre, on removing into Cornwall, both adopted the Cornish chough in their arms, as a difference.

Rawle of Hennet in St. Juliott, settled at that barton as early as the reign of Edward IV.—Their representative, and its present proprietor, William Rawle, Esq., resides at Liskeard.

Arms: — Sable, three swords in pale, the middle-most pointed in chief Argent.

Rescorla of Rescorla in St. Austell. — George Rescorla, the representative of this reduced family, is a day-labourer at Roche.

Robinson of Cadgwith in Ruan-Minor, afterwards of Bochym in Cury. — The representative of this family is the Rev. William Robinson, of Nansloe in Wendron.

Arms: — Vert, three bucks in full course Or.

Rodd of Trebartha-Hall in Northill, settled in Cornwall about the year 1700, descended from the ancient family of Rodd of Herefordshire, married the coheiress of Hearle of Trelisick in St. Erth and of Penryn.

Arms of Rodd: — Argent, two trefoils and a chief Sable.

Rogers of Penrose, supposed to be descended from a younger branch of Rogers of Lank; the elder branch of which became extinct about 1620. The Rogers's of Lank had married the heiress of Haydon of Jacobstow. The immediate ancestors of Mr. Rogers of Penrose have married the heiresses of Bawden and Bishop.

Arms of Rogers of Lank, and of Penrose: — Arg. a chevron between three stags trippant Sable.

Rosecreeg of Rosecreeg in St. Anthony (Meneage) married the heiress of Masler. The descendants of this family are of the rank of respectable yeomen in the above-parish. Rosecreeg was sold by their ancestor, Anthony Rosecreeg, Esq., in 1680.

Arms: — Arg. on a mount Vert., three rose sprigs, the roses Gules, the leaves and stalks proper.

Rous of Halton, descended from the ancient family of Rous of Little Modbury in Devon, settled at Halton in St. Dominic in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Francis Rous of Halton was provost of Eton and one of Cromwell's peers. Halton passed by marriage to Clark above a century ago, and the male heirs of the family, of which Thomas Bates Rous, Esq., of Courtyralla in Glamorganshire, is the present representative, removed from Cornwall.

Arms: — Or, an eagle displayed, pruning her wing Azure, beak and legs G.

The Rous family had married an heiress of Edmerston and a coheiress of Hill of Penquite and Fleet, in Cornwall.

Sandys of Lanarth in St. Keverne. — The present representative is Colonel William Sandys, of that place, whose ancestor settled there in the reign of Charles I.

Arms: — Or, a fesse indented between three cross crosslets fitchée Gules.

Spiller of Penventon in Broadoak. — The present representative of this family is Mr. — Spiller of Bodmin.

Arms: — Per pale Sab. and Argent, a horse current, counterchanged.

Spry of Cutcrew in St. Germans, married a coheiress of Trenowth. The elder branch of this family has long ago removed into Devonshire. A younger branch, settled for several descents at Place in Anthony in Roseland, became extinct by the death of Amiral Spry.

The son of his sister (who married Thomas) took the name of Spry, now Thomas Spry, Esq., Admiral of the Blue.

Arms of Spry: — Az. two bars and in chief a chevron Or.

Stackhouse of Trehane and Pendarves, descended from the county of Durham, married the heiress of Williams of Trehane.

Arms of Stackhouse: — Arg. three etoiles pierced, within a border Sable.

Stephens of Tregenna in St. Ives — traced to the early part of the seventeenth century, when Mr. — Stephens was feodary of the hundred of Penwith. The present representative is the Rev. John Stephens, rector of Ludgvan: his younger brother, Samuel Stephens, Esq., now of Tregenna, some time M. P. for St. Ives, married the heiress of Captain Wallis, the circum-navigator.

Arms of Stephens: — Per pale, Gules and Vert, a fesse Arg. guttée de Sang, between three eagles displayed Or.

Stone of Trevegoe, and Trevelver in St. Minver, and of Bodmin. — This family, descended from John Stephen atte Stone, whose son, Roger, married the heiress of Whitling about the middle of the fifteenth century, had a residence at Bodmin for several generations before 1603, when John Stone, Esq. was M. P. for that borough. The present representative of this family is Samuel Stone, Esq., who resides in London; a younger brother is a mercer in Bodmin.

Arms: — Per pale, Or and Vert, a chevron engrailed between three Cornish choughs counterchanged.

Thomas of Chiverton. — A Glamorganshire family, settled in Cornwall, about the year 1645, at Kea, and afterwards successively of Penkarenow, and Chiverton in Perran-Zabuloe. The present representative is John Thomas, Esq., Vicewarden of the Stannaries, whose only daughter and heir is married to William Peter, Esq.

Arms of Thomas: — Gules, a chevron and canton, Ermine.

Tremayne of Helligan in St. Ewe, supposed to be descended from the family of Peres, who, settling at Tremayne (fn. 12) in St. Martin's, took the name of that barton in the reign of Edward III. A grandson of the first Tremayne married the heiress of Collacombe, in Devonshire, and removed thither. A younger branch of the Tremaynes of Collacombe purchased Helligan in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It is now the seat of their representative, the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne, whose son, John Hearle Tremayne, Esq., is one of the members for the county. The Tremaynes of Helligan have married the heiresses of Clotworthy and Hawkins.

Arms of Tremayne: — Gules, three dexter arms, conjoined at the shoulders, and flexed in triangle, Or, fists proper.

Crest: — Two arms embowed, holding between their hands a man's head, proper, on the head a high-crowned hat Sable.

Tremenhere. — This family derived their name probably from the barton of Tremenhere, near Penzance. The first mentioned in the pedigree is described as of Helston, about the year 1600, but they were before that period of Penzance. The present representative is John Tremenhere, Esq. of Rosecadghill, in the parish of Madron.

Arms: —Sable, three Doric columns, pale-wise, Argent.

Trevanion of Carhayes. — Their pedigree is traced to Sir John Trevanion, who was of Trevanion in Carhayes, six generations before the reign of Edward IV. This family, who acquired the manor and barton of Carhayes by marriage with an heiress of Arundell, became extinct in the male line by the death of William Trevanion, Esq., M. P. for Tregony in 1767. His two sisters and coheiresses married John Bettesworth, LL.D., and Admiral Byron, grandfather of the present Lord Byron. The grandson of Dr. Bettesworth and Frances Trevanion, the elder sister, John Trevanion Purnel Bettesworth, took the name and arms of Trevanion by His Majesty's sign-manual in 1801, and is the present immediate representative of this ancient family, and the possessor of Carhayes.

This family have married the heiresses of Beaupré or Belloprato, Archdekne, Carminow, Arundell, Witchalse, and the coheiresses of Petit and Drummond. A younger branch of the Trevanions, seated at Trevalster, became extinct after three generations: the coheiresses married Trefusis, Bligh, and Boscawen. Another younger branch was settled at Trelugan in Gerrans. Hugh Trevanion, the last of this branch of the family, which had continued above two centuries, who married one of the coheiresses of Chamond (fn. 13) , and the heiress of Mayow alias Hellier of Lostwithiel, died, one of the poor knights of Windsor, in 1730. There was also another branch of the Trevanions settled for many years at Trevascus in Gorran, which became extinct by the death of Charles Trevanion, Esq., in 1767.

Arms of Trevanion: — Arg. on a fesse Az. between two chevrons Gules, three escallop shells Or.

Trewinnard of Trewinnard in St. Erth. — An ancient family, one of whom represented the county in the reign of Edward III. The present representative of this family, one of whom married a coheiress of Day, is Mr. Joshua Trewinnard, watchmaker, &c. of Rotherhithe, near London. They removed from the barton of Trewinnard in the reign of Henry VIII.

Arms of Trewinnard: — Arg. a fesse Az. between three Cornish choughs, two in chief pecking, and one in base rising, proper.

Trewren, originally of Driff in Sancreed as early as the year 1340, removed to Trevardevra in Constantine, now the seat of their descendant, Thomas Trewren, Esq., in consequence of a marriage with the elder coheiress of Rise, of that place. This family has married also the heiress of Tresowis, and coheiresses of the families of Roscarrock, Archer, Trevroneck, Chiverton, and Priske.

Arms of Trewren: — Azure, three bezants.

Ustick of Betallack, now represented by Stephen Ustick, Esq., of Penwarne in Mawnan, inherited from his maternal uncle, Sir Michael Noel, Knt. The Usticks of Leah are extinct.

Wadge of Upton in Lewannick, a reduced family; the representative of which is now a parish pauper.

Arms:— Arg. on a chevron between three wedges Sable, five mullets of the field.

Webber of Middle-Amble in St. Kew. — Some of the descendants of this family are still remaining in the parish of St. Kew.

Arms: — Gules, a cross flurté Or, in chief a griffin proper, segreant.

Williams of Treverne in Probus, whose ancestor settled at that place, by marriage with the sole heiress of Treverne, five generations before 1620: a younger branch of the Williams's of Herringston in Dorsetshire. This family was afterwards successively of Cuby and Helston: their descendant, the Rev. Anthony Williams, is now of Treneere, near Penzance.

Arms: — Arg. a grey-hound current between three daws, two and one, Sable; a border engrailed Gules, charged with bezants and crosses patee Or, placed alternately.

Wills of Landrake, now of Saltash, whose family, in the visitation of 1620, are traced five generations before that period, married the heiress of the ancient family of Wyvel or Wyvells of Wivelscomb in St. Stephen's, near Saltash. The present representative of both families is Francis Wills, Esq. of Saltash.

Arms of Wills: — Arg. three Wyverns passant in pale Sab., a border engrailed of the second, bezanty.—There was a family of Wills of Botesfleming and Saltash, who bore for their arms, Gules, two chevrons; that in chief Or, that in base Argent.

Willyams of Roseworthy, now of Carnanton, settled at Roseworthy in the reign of Henry VIII., married the heiresses of Addington of Leigh in Devonshire, Noy (by whom there was no issue), Day, and Oliver. The present representative of this family is James Willyams, Esq., now of Carnanton. The Rev. Cooper Willyams, author of an account of the campaign in the West Indies in the year 1794; and a voyage to the Mediterranean in the Swiftsure, with an account of the battle of the Nile, is of this family.

Arms: — Argent a fesse checky Gules and Vert, between three griffins' heads erased of the third, each gorged with a ducal crown Or.

Woolridge of Garlenick in Creed, descended from a younger branch of an ancient family of that name at Dudmaston in Shropshire. The present representative of this branch is Captain James Woolridge of the Royal Navy, who received a gold medal for his extraordinary gallantry in the attack in Basque Roads. He now resides at Trevayler, near Penzance.

Arms: — Gules, a chevron Arg. between three wild ducks, volant proper.

Footnotes

1 It is a very prevalent, but a very mistaken notion, that families generally gave name to the places they inhabited. It is, on the contrary, a practice, which has very rarely, if ever, occurred, unless where the family-name has been given as an adjunct, as Newton-Ferrers, in Cornwall, and many others in various parts of the kingdom. It has in some few instances happened, that the original name has, in progress of time, been dropped, and the distinctive name only retained in general use, as in Buckinghamshire, Isenhampsted-Cheneys, and Isenhampsted-Latimers, formerly seats of the ancient families of Cheney and Latimer, are now called Cheneys and Latimers.
2 Either in allusion to the Cornish derivation, as three frogs in the arms of Tre-vroneck, three blackbirds in those of Tre-woof, three owls in those of Tre-wolla, and three stone pillars in those of Tre-men-heere; or expressive of the component parts of the names in other languages, as three stone pillars in the coat of Tre-steane; three spindles in that of Trefusis, and three bears'-feet in that of Tre-barfoot. The goldfinches in the coat of Molenick, the goat in that of Gaverigan, and the partridges in that of Gregor, allude to the Cornish names of those families.
3 Such as "Tresilian, the place for eels, or in open view;" Treluddra, the bushy town, or the heifers or calves place;" and "Trekinninge, the town of rabbits, or leeks, or strife." Mr. Whitaker supposes the latter to be expressive of a royal residence.
4 Margaret Trethurfe was one of the cousins and coheirs of Edward Courtenay, the last Earl of Devon, and relict of Edward Courtenay of Landrake.
5 Sermonda, coheiress of Sir Walter Woodland of Woodland, in Devonshire, in the reign of Edw. II., in consequence of which match the family resided for several descents at Woodland.
6 See the account of Extinct Families.
7 Treblethick is, by a late purchase, become the property of Mr. Abraham Hambly, not supposed to be at all connected by descent with the family of Hamley.
8 Edward J'ans, Esq., grandson of this Robert, had a patent to be Lord Mayor of Dublin, in 1640; and would have been the first Lord Mayor, but the civil war breaking out, there was no Lord Mayor till 1666.
9 One of the Prideauxes of Orcharton married a daughter of Mortimer, Earl of March; his son, a daughter of Montagu, Earl of Salisbury.
10 Mr. Brune is not descended from the coheiress of Vyell, who was the second wife of his ancestor, Nicholas Prideaux, whose first wife was heiress of Heuscott.
11 The elder branch is extinct: the heiress married Clotworthy.
12 This Tremayne passed, by marriage, to the Trethurses and Reskymers.
13 William Trevanion, son of Richard, by the coheiress of Chamond, to whom his mother gave the manor of Tregadder in Mawgan in Meneage, left an only daughter and heir, married to Gerveys; of which family, the Rev. R. G. Grylls, of Helston, is the representative.