General history
Deer-parks

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Daniel and Samuel Lysons

Year published

1814

Pages

179-180

Citation Show another format:

'General history: Deer-parks', Magna Britannia: volume 3: Cornwall (1814), pp. CLXXIX-CLXXX. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50620 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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Deer-Parks.

Among the most ancient deer-parks in the county, were the duchy parks of Launceston, Hellesbury; Lantegloss, in the hundred of Lesnewth; Carybullock, Liskeard, and Restormel: Trelawney-Park, belonging to the family of that name, in the hundred of Lesnewth; Pawton, the Bishop of Exeter's park, in the hundred of Pyder; Bodrugan-Park, belonging to the family of that name, in the hundred of Powder; and Lansladron-Park, in the same hundred, belonging to the Arundells, which, as Norden says, was "the most stateliest park in the shire."

"Cornwall was stored, not long since," says Carew (1602.) "with many parks of fallow deere, but King Henrie the Eight being persuaded (it is said by Sir Richard Pollard) that those belonging to the Duke could steed him with little pleasure in so remote a part, and would yield him good profit if they were leased out on an improved rent, did condiscend to their disparking; so foure of them tooke a fall together, to wit, Carrybullock, Liskerd, Restormell, and Lanteglos. Howbeit this good husbandry came short of the deviser's promise and the King's expectations, wherethrough the one was shent for the attempt, the other discontented with the effect. Notwithstanding, as Princes' examples are ever taken for warrantable precedents to the subject, so most of the Cornish gentlemen, preferring gain to delight, shortly after followed the like practice, and made their deere leap over the pale to give the bullocks place. Parkes yet remaining are, in East hundred, Poole, Sir Jonathan Trelawney's, newly revived; Halton, M. Rouses, lately impaled; and Newton, Mr. Corington's, almost decayed. In West hundred, Boconnock, Sir Reginald Mohun's. In Powder hundred, Carhayes, Mr. Trevanion's. In Stratton, Launcels, Mr. Chamond's. In Kirrier hundred, Mr. Vivian's, and Merther, Mr. Reskymer's." Norden describes Mr. Trevanion's park as being at Trevanion, the ancient residence of the family, not at Carhayes. His map describes a park at Mr. Edgcumbe's at Cothele, but it is not mentioned in his Survey. Mr. Tonkin, writing about the year 1730, says, that the parks at Poole, Lawncels, Halton, Trelowarren, and Merther, had been disparked; the deer-parks then in the county were, in the hundred of East, Bradrige, Mr. Coster's; and Newton, Sir Joseph Coryton's. In the hundred of West, Boconnoc, Mr. Pitt's; and Pinchley, Lord Radnor's. In the hundred of Powder, Carhayes, Mr. Trevanion's; and Tregothnan, Lord Falmouth's. In the hundred of Pyder, Lanhidrock, Lord Radnor's; and Trevaunance, Mr. Tonkin's; Treluddra in this hundred, although a park by royal patent, as Mr. Tonkin observes, had been disparked. In Kirrier hundred, Godolphin, Lord Godolphin's; and Tremogh, Mr. Worth's (then lately imparked). Of these parks Mr. Tonkin observes, Godolphin, Carhayes, and Boconnock, were most esteemed for their venison.

Of the parks enumerated by Mr. Tonkin, there remained, about the year 1760, as Dr. Borlase observes in his MS. notes on Carew, Godolphin, Tregothnan, Lanhidrock, Pinchley, Boconnoc, and Carhayes. In addition to these, he mentions, Pencarrow, Sir John Molesworth's; Tehidy, Mr. Bassett's; Trevethow, Mr. Praed's; and Werrington, a great part of which is in Cornwall, Mr. Morice's. Since Borlase's time, the parks of Lanhidrock, Pinchley, Pencarrow, Tehidy, and Trevethow, have been disparked. Trenant, late Sir John Morshead's, in the hundred of Kirrier, has been impaled and since disparked. There are now in the hundred of East, the parks of Werrington and Mount-Edgcumbe, a great part of both being in the county of Cornwall. In the hundred of West, Boconnoc, now Lord Grenville's. In the hundred of Powder, Tregothnan, Lord Falmouth's; Carhayes, Mr. Trevannion's; Penrice, Mr. Grave's; and a paddock of Sir Christopher Hawkins's at Trewithen. In the hundred of Pyder, a small park at Padstow, Mr. Prideaux Brune's. In the hundred of Kirrier, Godolphin, now belonging to the Duke of Leeds; Carclew, Sir William Lemon's; and a small paddock belonging to Mr. Rogers, at Penrose. "Red deere this shire breedeth none," says Carew, "but only receiveth such as in the summer-season range thither out of Devon: to whom the gentlemen bordering on their haunts afford so coarse entertainment, that without better pleading their heeles, they are faire to deliver up their carcases for a pledge to answer their trespasses." Norden mentions the hundreds of East and Stratton as the only parts of the county where they were found straggling as estrays from Dartmoor and other parts of Devonshire. In King John's time, as he observes, the whole county was a forest, and he disforested it. Borlase says, that red deer were found also sometimes on the downs about Bodmin, but more frequently in the north of the county, between Launceston and Stratton. They are said to be found occasionally in the neighbourhood of Bodmin, and more frequently in the north-east part of the county. In the north-west of Devon, on the borders of Exmoor forest, they are more abundant.

Footnotes

a In the extent of the Duchy of Cornwall, 11 Edw. III., Launceston park is described as containing, in circuit, one league, and having then in it fifteen deer, but capable of sustaining forty. In Restormel park were 300 deer: in Liskeard park, 200: in the park of Kerybollok (containing, in circuit, three leagues), 150 deer; and in Trematon park, on the north side of the Castle, forty-two deer.