Geographical and geological description

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Daniel and Samuel Lysons

Year published

1817

Pages

170-184

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'Geographical and geological description', Magna Britannia: volume 5: Derbyshire (1817), pp. CLXX-CLXXXIV. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50711 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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Geographical and geological description of the county.

Boundaries, Extent,&c. — Derbyshire is an inland county, lying nearly in the centre of England. It is bounded on the east by Nottinghamshire and part of Leicestershire; a part of which county forms also its southern boundary: on the west it is bounded by Staffordshire and Cheshire, and on the north by Yorkshire. Its greatest length from south-south-east to northnorth-west is about 56 miles and a half; from east-north-east to west south-west, 33 miles. It contains, according to Mr. Farey's estimation, 972 square English miles, and 622,080 statute acres. The southern and middle district is for the most part in culture. (fn. 1) In the hundreds of Scarsdale and the Peak is the great East Moor (fn. 2) , a considerable part of which remains waste. In the northern part of the Peak, bordering on Yorkshire, are most extensive sheepwalks, called the Woodlands, in the parishes of Hope and Glossop, without any walls or fences to divide the different manors, parishes, or counties (fn. 3)

Soils and Strata. — The soils of Derbyshire consist chiefly of clay, loam, sandt and peat, very irregularly intermixed: the southern part, which has been distinguished by the appellation of the fertile district, consists principally of a red loamon various subsoils, which approaches nearer to marl, clay, loam, sand, grit, or gravel, according to the nature of the substratum or its exposure to the atmosphere. Peat mosses are abundant in the northern part of the county, denominated the High-Peak. (fn. 4)

The substrata of the southern part of the county, comprised within a line drawn east and west, from Sandiacre to Ashborne, consists of gravel, intermixed with large portions of red marl, of very irregular forms; in several parts of which are beds of gypsum of considerable extent. (fn. 5) The gravel is said by Mr. Farey to occupy an extent of nearly 77,000 acres, and the red marl of 81,000.

The substrata of the other parts of Derbyshire consist of limestone of various kinds and toadstone; shale and gritstone; coal and indurated clay, resting on each other in the order here named; but all appearing on the surface in certain parts of the county in consequence of their dipping in various directions. The lowermost of these is a stratum, of limestone, the thickness of which has not been ascertained: it occupies a narrow space on the western side of the county, extending southerly from the moun tain called Mam-tor, to Hopton and Parwich, and nearly to Thorp; and contains 40,500 acres. (fn. 6) This stratum of limestone abounds in caverns, several of which are of great extent: the most remarkable are, the Devil's-hall, in Foreside-mine at Castleton, connected by a tunnel with Speedwell-mine; Pool's-hole, near Buxton; Reynard's hall and cave, in Dovedale; those of Elden-hole (fn. 7) ; and the great cavern at Castleton (fn. 8) ; many smaller caverns or shake-holes, as they are called, occur in this and the other strata of limestone in Derbyshire. Some of these are also called swallow-holes, from streams of water falling into, and being lost in them. The sides of many of the caverns are covered with stalactitical incrustations, and subterranean streams are found running through several of them.

Immediately over the stratum of limestone above-mentioned, are three others of limestone and three of toadstone, in alternate layers, occupying nearly 51,500 acres of the surface (fn. 9) , extending north and south from Castleton to Hopton; eastward to Matlock, Youlgrave, Bakewell, and Stony Middleton; and westward to Wormhill and Chelmortori.

The limestone is the true metalliferous rock of Derbyshire, and occupies, exclusively, the attention of the miner. There are few situations in the Peak, where this rock does not abound in veins of lead ore or calamine; these, which are here called rake-veins, have, for the most part, an easterly and westerly direction, although, in the wapentake of Wirksworth, they have as often a northerly and southerly one. They are intersected by other veins which do not contain lead ore, and are called cross-veins. Ores of lead too and calainine are found in what are here termed pipe-works and flat-works, which run horizontally, whereas the rake-veins are more or less perpendicular.

It has been already noticed, that strata of toadstone alternate with those of limestone, in many parts of the mineral district. It was long reported and believed, that the veins were wholly cut off by the former (although they were constantly found again in the limestone below); but this is erroneous, for although it be true, that the lead ore seldom continues through the toadstone, yet there is always a leader of spar which indicates the direction of the vein. When the miner says the vein is thus cut off; he means only that the lead ore no longer continues through the toadstone. The vein is not unfrequently started or thrown on one side by a subsidence of the strata, where the two rocks meet, in which case, however, it is found again to the right or the left, and invariably continues in the same direction as before. Besides these accidents, the veins are often borne away for the space of a few feet, by those which intersect them. The phenomena, therefore, of mineral veins in Derbyshire are much the same as those of other mining countries; but the pipe-works and flat-works are very rarely to be met with elsewhere.

The several strata of limestone are also very abundant in corrallines, shells, and various other organic remains. (fn. 10) In several parts of this district, the limestone is of so compact a quality as to be used as marble; particularly at Ashford, where it is black, and at Monyash, where it is of a mottled-grey colour; and abounding with entrochi and their fragments. The strata of toadstone vary considerably in thickness, and in some places in number, never exceeding three, and sometimes being only two, or a single stratum.

Mr. Whitehurst, in his " Inquiry into the original State and Formation of the Earth," has given the following as the thicknesses of the six alternate strata of limestone and toadstone, in a section between Grange-mill and Darley-moor: — The first or uppermost limestone, 50 yards; the first toadstone, 16 yards; the second limestone, 50 yards; the second toadstone, 46 yards; the third limestone, 60 yards; the third toadstone, 22 yards.

Between these six strata are six other very thin ones of clay, denominated 'way-boards. There are detached portions of the alternate strata of limestone and toadstone in several parts of the county (fn. 11) , but of no great extent.

The strata which come next in succession above those of limestone and toadstone are, millstone grit, and shale; the former being 120 yards thick (fn. 12) , and resting on the latter, which is of equal, if not greater thickness. The limestone district above-mentioned is surrounded by that of gritstone, as it is called; though in several parts the gritstone is wanting, the shale only appearing. There are many detached patches of this grit-rock, under which on all sides the shale is apparent, both in the gritstone district and also in that of limestone (fn. 13) ; and within this extensive stratum of shale are included several masses of dark blue or black limestone: one of them, immediately north of Fenny-Bentley, is of considerable extent, as is another south-west of Ashford and north-west of Bakewell. (fn. 14)

The gritstones are of various qualities (fn. 15) , in which the minute particles of quartz, mica, &c., are combined with clay in different proportions. One of these, very finely grained and hard, is called cank-stone; another, denominated crowstone, is also very hard, and of a compact composition: chert, or hornstone, frequently occurs in the strata of limestone.

That portion of Derbyshire in which the gritstone and shale strata appear, contains 160,500 acres. (fn. 16)

The coal strata, or coal-measures as they are usually termed, occupy a large portion of the county on the eastern side, bounded by a part of Yorkshire on the north; on the west they extend nearly to Chatsworth, Darley, Crich, and Duffield; on the south to Dale-Abbey, and nearly to Sandiacre.

The seams of coal are of various degrees of thickness, and are separated by numerous strata of gritstone and argillaceous strata, known by the names of bind, clunch, and shale. The immediate floor of each coal seam is clay, in some degree of induration, or the crow-stone above-mentioned. (fn. 17) Beds of iron-stone are found in several of the coal-shales; and a great abundance and variety of impressions of ferns and other vegetables.

Part of the coal-field, about the middle of which lies Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire, extends into the county of Derby, near its southern extremity, in the parishes of Hartshorn, Gresley, and Measham; surrounded by the stratum of red marl, to which it dips in every direction. (fn. 18) There is also a stratum of coal of small extent at Combe-moss, nearly north of Buxton, and at Chinley-hills, near Chapel-en-le-Frith. Mr, Farey computes the whole of the coal-measures of Derbyshire at 190,000 acres. (fn. 19)

On the eastern side of the county, above the coal-measures, is a stratum of yellow magnesian limestone, extending north and south, from Barlborough to Hardwick; and bounded on the west by Barlborough, Bolsover, and Hault-Hucknall; occupying about 21,600 acres. (fn. 20)

In several parts of Derbyshire, more especially in the coal district, the strata are broken and dislocated in various directions: these dislocations are by the miners denominated faults, some of which are of large extent. (fn. 21)

Surface and Scenery.– The surface of the southern part of Derbyshire is for the most part pretty level, containing nothing remarkable in its hills, and consequently little picturesque scenery: but in that part which lies north of the town of Derby, where the limestone and gritstone strata prevail, vail, as above noticed, the hills begin gradually to rise, and in the north-west part of the county some of them attain a considerable height; being the commencement of that mountainous ridge which from hence divides the island, extending northerly into Scotland. The three highest points in the mountainous tract of Derbyshire are, Ax-edge, about three miles south-west of Buxton; Lord's-Seat, near Castleton; arid Kinderscout, near the north-western extremity of the county. (fn. 22)

Some of the valleys in the mountainous part of Derbyshire are very beautiful, particularly those of Castleton and Glossop; but what constitutes the most picturesque and singular scenery of this county, is the great number and variety of smaller valleys, or dales, with which the limestone district abounds. These may differ in extent, and some particular circumstances, but the general characteristics of all of them are, precipitous rocks, of very singular and picturesque forms, with mountain streams and rivulets running through the lower parts of the dales, which.are frequently well wooded. The most celebrated of them are, Matlock-Dale, on the river Derwent; Monsal-Dale, the upper part of which is called Millers-Dale, and through which the river Wye runs; Middleton-Dale, Eyam-Dale, and Dove-Dale. The first of these is the most extensive, and has been much celebrated for the beauty and variety of its scenery. The most striking object of Matlock-Dale is the stupendous rock called the High-Tor, rising almost perpendicularly from the river to the height of above 300 feet. (fn. 23)

The scenery of the gritstone district is by no means beautiful or agreeable, able, except in the valleys above noticed; it consists chiefly of dreary moors, on some parts of which large masses and groups of rock are seen projecting on the surface, some of them in very grotesque forms. The most remarkable of these groups of gritstone rock are, those on Stanton-Moor, called Robin, hood's stride, or Mock-beggar hall, and llowtor rocks.

Rivers. — The chief rivers of Derbyshire are, the Trent, the Derwent, the Wye, the Dove, the Erwash, and the Rother.

The Trent is one of the chief rivers of the kingdom; and though it does not intersect the whole of it, is considered as the boundary of the two great divisions of north and south. It first becomes a boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire in the parish of Croxall, between that village and the township of Catton, which is on its banks. It passes close to Drakelow, Walton, Stapenhill, and Newton-Solney, a little beyond which village it enters the county, which it separates from east to west in a course of about 24 miles, passing between Willington and Repton, by Twyford and Barrow, between Swarkston and Stanton, by Weston, Shardlow, and Sawley. It leaves the county about a mile and a half east from Long-Eaton, at its junction with the Erwash. There arejbridges over the Trent at Burton (fn. 24) , Swarkston, Sawley, and near Wilne. The latter, called Cavendish-bridge, was erected about the middle of the last century, by the Cavendish family; before which time there was a ferry at that place. The bridge at Sawley, called Harrington-bridge, was completed in 1790. There are ferries at Willington and Twyford; the former for carriages. The river is fordable in two places at Twyford. The river Trent was made navigable, pursuant to an act of parliament procured in the year 1699, by the Earl of Uxbridge, up to Burtonbridge (fn. 25) ; but in the year 1805 the navigation from that bridge to Shardlow was given up by agreement with the proprietors of the Trent and Mersey canal, which runs by its side; and it is navigable (as connected with Derbyshire) only from Shardlow to the mouth of the Erwash.

The Derwent which seems to take its name from a village in the HighPeak, rises on the moors at the northern extremity of the county, near the junction of Cheshire and Yorkshire. Before it reaches Derwent it is called the Wrongesley. For a few miles this stream forms the boundary of Derby shire and Yorkshire. Before it enters Derbyshire again it receives a small stream, which rises also on the Wolds, called the river Westend: after passing Derwent, it receives the river Ashop, which rises also on the Wolds. Between Brough and Hathersage it receives the river Now, which rising, on the hills above Edale, passes by Hope and Brough, and falls into the Derwent at Malham-bridge in Hathersage. The Derwent then passes through some beautiful valleys, between Learn and Over-Padley, to Grindleford bridge, by Stoke-hall and Froggatt, between Calver and Corbar, to Baslow; thence through ChatswOrth-park, near Beeley, to Rowsley; thence through Darley-dale, and near Darley village, to Matlock, where it contributes to the beauties of its romantic scenery; from Matlock, by Cromford, to Hotstandwell-bridge; thence, under Crich common, to Belper, Makeny, and Millford; between Holbrook and Duffield; between Alles trey and Breadsall, by Darley and Little-Chester, to Derby, where is a bridge over it. From Derby it pursues a winding course, passing near Ambaston and Draycote, between Great and Little-Wilne, to its conflux with the Trent, about a mile beyond the former. The whole of the Derwent is said to be about 46 miles. The Derwent was formerly navigable from Wilne-ferry up to Derby; but the navigation was given up when the Derby canals were completed in 1794.

The river Wye rises a little above Buxton, passing between Buxton and Fairfield, near King's-Sterndale, near Wormhill, through Mousall-dale and Millen-dale, near Little-Longsdon, through Ashford and Bakewell, and skirting Haddon-park, falls into the Derwent near Rowsley.

The Dove, which has its source in the High-Peak, a few miles south of Buxton, is for many miles the boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire, passing near Church-Sterndale, Hartington, Thorp, (near which it forms an interesting feature of the romantic valley called Dovedale,) Mappleton, Norbury, and Doveridge, Sudbury, Scropton, Marston-on-Dove, and Egginton,—it falls into the Derwent near Newton-Solney. None of the above-mentioned places are above a mile from the river, some of them on its banks.

The river Ratherwhich has its source near Padley, runs near North-Winfield church, to Chesterfield; thence between Brimington and Whittington, near Staveley and Jlenishaw. It leaves the county, and enters Yorkshire,' between Killamarsh and Beighton.

The Erwash, which is said by 'Pilkington to rise in the hundred of Scarsdale, but which appears by Burdett's map to rise on the skirts of Shirewood-forest in Nottinghamshire, is during the greater part of its course a boundary between Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Passing by Pinxton, near Codnor-park, Ilkeston,and Sandiacre, it falls into the trent about a mile and a half from Long-Eaton.

Besides those already mentioned, there are also m this county, or as boundaries to it, the following smaller rivers.

The Amber,, rising near Northedge, passes by Henmore to Ford, where it receives a stream from Ashover; near Toadhole it receives a stream which rises in the parish of Sutton-in-Ashfield, in Nottinghamshire, and passes not far from South-Normanton and Alfreton. The Amber then pursues its course near South-Winfield and Pentrich, and falls into the Derwent near Crich-chase.

The river Barbrook, which rises on the east moor, falls into the Derwent to the north of Chatsworth-park.

The river Burladge, which rises on the moors above Hathersage, on the borders of Yorkshire, fulls into the Derwent between over and Nether Padley.

The Ecclesburn rises a little to the south of Wirksworth, and passing near Iderich-hay, between Turndich and Cowhouse, through Duffield, falls into the Derwent about a mile from that village.

The river Goyte, which rises about four miles nearly west of Buxton, is for several miles the boundary between Derbyshire, and Cheshire, passing Shalcross, Bugworth, Jew-hole, Botham-hall in Mellor, to Marple-bridge, about a mile from which it joins the Ethroyp. The last-mentioned river, which rises in the north part of the county, near its junction with Cheshire and Yorkshire, is a boundary between Cheshire and Derbyshire throughout a great part of the extensive parish of Glossop.

The river Lathkill, or, as it is called in Burdett's map, Larkill, rises not far from Monyash, and passing by Over-Had don to Airport, unites with the Bradford from the neighbourhood of Ecclestor, and both together fall into the Wye about a mile from Rowsley.

The river Maese rises near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, passes Packington, near Measham, Stretton-in-the-Fields, Edtngale, and Croxall, about a mile and a half beyond which it falls into the Trent.

The Morkdgebrook, rising near Mansell-park, passes to Mercaston, and near Mugginton, through Kedleston-park, by Markeaton, and falls into the Derwent at Derby.

A nameless river, rising near Hulland, which is joined by a stream from Bradley, runs by Ednaston, through Longford, by Sutton-on-the-Hill, Hilton, and Egginton, and falls into the Dove not far from Monk's-bridge.

Navigable Canals (fn. 26) — It having been found of great importance to procure the convenience of water-carriage for the produce of the numerous mines and quarries of Derbyshire, and the goods of its manufactories, many canals have been projected, and several of them completed; some wholly within this county, and others either commencing or terminating in it.

The great undertaking of the Trent and Mersey, or Grand-Trunk canal, which forms part of the grand communication between Liverpool, Hull, Bristol, and London, was begun in 1766, by the celebrated Mr. Brindley, and conducted to its completion, in 1777, under his able successors Mr. Smeaton and Mr. Rennie. It passes through Derbyshire from Burton to its termination at Wilden-ferry, following the course of the Trent. Its chief use, as far as relates to the produce of Derbyshire, is for the conveyance of cheese, malt, and gypsum. There are wharfs at Aston, Cuttle bridge in Swarkston, Shardlow, and Twyford. At Shardlow are large warehouses, malthouse, &c. The gypsum is brought from the pits at Chellaston to the wharf at Cuttle-bridge.

The Chesterfield canal was begun in 1771. by Mr. J. Brindley, not long before his death, and completed by his brother-in-law, Mr. Henshall, in 1776.

It enters Derbyshire at Killamarsh, and has its line near Eckington and Staveley, between Whittington and Brimington, to Chesterfield, where it terminates. Its objects, as connected with Derbyshire, are the exportation of coals, lead, cast-iron, limestone, freestone, pottery-wares, &c., and the importation also of limestone, grain, deals, bar-iron, &c. There is a large wharf at Chesterfield, and another wharf at Killamarsh.

The Erwash canal, begun in or about 1777 (fn. 27) , has its line chiefly through Derbyshire, in the vale of the Erwash. It commences in the Trent navigation, and terminates at Langley-mill, where it joins the Cromford canal. Its chief objects are the exportation of coals, limestone, iron, lead, mill stones, grindstones, marble, freestone, chert, &c., and the importation of corn, malt, deals, &c. Mr. William Jessop was the engineer. The shares of this canal sold at one time for three times their original price.

The Cromford canal, was begun in or about the year 1789. (fn. 28) Its line is wholly in Derbyshire, commencing at Langley-mill, where the Erwash canal terminates, and terminating at Cromford. This canal was completed about 1793. Mr. William Jessop, sen., and others, were engineers. The chief objects of the Cromford canal are, the exportation of coals, limestone, iron lead, millstones, grindstones, freestone, marble, fluor, chert, &c., and the 'importation of corn, malt, and deals; coals also are imported at the north-east end. There is a wharf at Cromford, with large warehouses; wharfs also at Golden-Valley and at Pinxton. The iron-works at Butterley and Somercotes, and 'those in Codnor-park, are on this canal. At Butterley is a tunnel, about 57 yards below the Derwent ridge, 2978 yards in length, and nine feet wide. To the north-east of Wigwell, the canal is carried over the river Derwent, on a large aqueduct-bridge, 200 yards long and 30 feet high, built in 1792: the span of the arch over the river is 80 feet. Over the Amber, at Bull-bridge, is another aqueduct of the same length, 50 feet in height. The two aqueducts are said to have cost 6oool.

The river Derwent was many years ago made navigable from the Trent, at Wilden-ferry, to Derby; but when the Derby canal was completed, in 1794 (fn. 29) , the proprietors of that, canal having purchased the interest of those who were concerned in the Derwent navigation, it was from that time discontinued. The line of the Derby canal is wholly in this county, commencing in the Trent and Mersey canal, north of Swarkston, passing by Derby, with branches to Little-Eaton and the collieries in Bootle-vale and Denby; and terminating in the Erwash canal, half a mile south of Sandiacre. Its chief object is the supply of Derby with coals, building-stone, gypsum, and other articles, and the exportation of coals, manufactured goods, cheese, &c. There are wharfs at Breaston, Draycote, Burrow-ash, Spondon, Chaclclesden, and Derby, where are large warehouses in the parish of St. Alkmund's. There are several manufactories on its banks at Derby, and iron-mills at Burrow-ash. This canal is 44 feet wide. Mr. Benjamin Outram was the engineer.

The Nutbrook canal was made in or about 1793 (fn. 30) , for the exportation of coals and the importation of lime-stone; it commences in the Erwash canal and terminates at Shipley wharf. In this short canal, which is only four miles and a half in length, there are twelve locks.

The Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal, begun in or about the year 1794 (fn. 31) ; but not finished till 1805, is connected with the southern part of Derbyshire; its line passing by Willesley and Measham: it takes lime-stone from Tickeiihall and Cloudshill, and coals from the collieries south of the Trent.

The Peak-forest canal was begun about the year 1794 (fn. 32) , its object, as far as connected with this county, being for the exportation of lime-stone, building and paving stones, and at its north-end, coals; and the importation of deals, pig-iron, and at its south end, coals: it enters Derbyshire at Marple-bridge, and terminates at Bugsworth, three Quarters of a mile from Whaley-bridge, where there is a wharf, as well as at Bugsworth; there is a railway wharf at Town-end, near Chapel-en-le-Frith. There are numerous lime-kilns on this canal; near Chapel-en-le-Frith, two iron-forges; and many other works between that town and Marple. At Marple is an aqueduct over the Mersey, near 100 feet in height, completed in 1797. It has three equal semi-circular arches of 60 feet span, the central one of which is 78 feet high. This aqueduct is about a quarter of a mile below the meeting of the Ethrow and the Goyt. The grand inclined plane on the railway connected with this canal about half a mile from Chapel-en-le-Frith, is 512 yards in length, in which is a rise of 192 feet. It is so constructed, that seven trams descend at once. Mr. Benjamin Outram was the original engineer of the Peak-forest canal, and afterwards Mr, T. Brown: it was finally completed in 1806.

Roads.— The great road from London to Manchester, having entered Derbyshire at Cavendish-bridge, passes through Shardlow, between Boulton and Alvaston, leaving Elvaston on the right and Osmaston on the left, to Derby; from thence to Ashborne, 13 miles, passing through Mackworth, Langley, Brailsford, and Osmaston: it enters Staffordshire at Hangerbridge, about a mile and three quarters beyond Ashborne; passing to Leake, &c. Another turnpike road to Manchester goes from Ashborne by way of Buxton (fn. 33) , passing through Mappleton and Thorp, or through Fenny-Bentley, leaving Tissington, Alsop, Monyash, and Chelmorton, on the right, and Hartington and Church-Sterndale on the left. About six miles beyond Buxton, it quits the county and enters Cheshire at Whaley-bridge.

There is still another road to Manchester, by way of Matlock. The old road from Derby to Matlock passes through Wirksworth, thirteen miles and a half, byway of Kedleston, Weston-Underwood, and Ireton-wood: thence through Cromford to Matlock-bath, three miles: another road from Derby to Wirksworth passes through All estrey, Duffield, Shottle, and Iderich-hay; and an act has been lately passed for making a new turnpike-road from Derby to Matlock, called the Derwent road, through Duffield and Belper, thence to Hotstand well-bridge, through Birchwood, leaving Alderwasley to the left, to Cromford.

From Matlock to Manchester, the road passes by way of Bakewell and Chapel-en-le-Frith: from Matlock to Bakewell, is about ten miles through Darley and Rowsley; from Bakewell to Chapel-en-le-Frith, is 14 miles, the road passing through Ashford, Wardlow, Peak-forest town, and Sparrowpit, leaving Great-Longsdon to the right and Tidesweli to the left. About four miles beyond Chapel-en-le-Frith, this road joins the Buxton and Man-Chester road at Whaley-bridge.

The turnpike road from Sheffield to Manchester enters Derbyshire four miles from Sheffield, passes through Hathersage, leaving Brough on the left to Hope and Castleton: it joins the last-mentioned road at Sparrow-pit, two miles from Chapel-en-le-Frith.

The turnpike road from Buxton to Sheffield passes through Fairfield, leaving Wormhill on the right to Tideswellj thence through Great-Hucklow (fn. 34) , leaving Totley and Dore on the right, to Ecclcshall in Yorkshire. There are two roads from Buxton to Bakewell, one passing through Taddington and Ashford, the other through Chelmorton, leaving Sheldon on the left. A turnpike road from Leek crosses the Buxton and Ashborne road, and passes through Monyash, beyond which there are branches to Ashford and Bake well. From Newhaven, on the Buxton and Ashborne road, a road to Bakewell branches off, which passes to the left of Youlgrave, and a little to the south of Newhaven, a road to Winster, whence there are turn pike roads to Darley, Matlock, Bakewell, Wirksworth, &c. From Tideswell, there are turnpike roads to Castleton and Chesterfield: the road to Chesterfield passes through Wardlow, Stony.Middleton, and Corbar. From Bakewell there are two roads, one through Hassop and the other through Baslow, to Hathersage on the Sheffield and Manchester road. A new road has been made from Sheffield through Abbey-Dale and Totley to Baslow. The roads which wind through the valleys in the Peak are very good, and the scenery picturesque.

From Chapel-en-le-Frith, a turnpike road extends northwards through Hayfield and Glossop to Huddersfield in Yorkshire: from Hayfield a road branches off to Mellor and Marple-bridge, in the direction of Stockport.

The turnpike road from Chesterfield to Sheffield passes through Whitting ton, Unston, Dronfield, and Little-Norton, (leaving Norton on the right): it quits the county and enters Yorkshire, ten miles from Chesterfield.

The turnpike road from Chesterfield to Worksop passes through Brimington, Staveley, Barlborough, and Whitwell, two miles beyond which, and thirteen from Chesterfield, it enters Nottinghamshire.

Near Barlborough is a road branching off to Clown, near which it divides; one road going through Elmton to Cuckney and Ollerton in Nottinghamshire, and the other near Bolsover, through Scarcliffe and Pleasley, to Mansfield.

A turnpike road from Chesterfield passes through Brampton over the moors to Baslow, continuing through Hassop and Great and Little-Longsdon it joins the Matlock and Manchester road at Wardlow mines, about four miles from Bakewell.

The road from Derby to Chesterfield, about 24 miles, passes near Darley-Abbey, through Allestrey, Duffield, Millford, Belper, through Heage, leaving Pentrich to the right, and through Oakerthorp, leaving South-Winfield on the left, to the Peacock Inn in that parish, thence leaving Shirland and Morton on the right, through Higham, Stretton, Clay-cross, and Tupton, leaving Winger worth on the left, to Chesterfield. There is another turnpike road from Derby to Chesterfield, about the same distance, through or near Breadsall, Little-Eaton, Horsley, Denby, Ripley, Butterley, and Swanwick, toAlfreton, 14 miles, thence through Shirland to Higham, where it joins the other road.

The road from Chesterfield to Mansfield passes through Hasland, Normanton, Heath, and Glapwell, to Pleasley, near which village it enters Nottinghamshire, nine miles from Chesterfield.

The road from Chesterfield to Matlock-bath and Ashborne passes through Walton and Kelstedge, leaving Ashover about a mile to the left, over the most southerly part of the east moor, to Matlock-bank and Matlock-bridge, leaving Matlock-town on the left, to Matlock-bath; thence through Cromford to Middleton, leaving Wirksworth on the left; through Hopton (fn. 35) , Carsington and Kniveton, leaving Hognaston on the left, to Ashborne, the distance from Chesterfield being about 24 miles.

A turnpike road from Chesterfield, branching off on the moors, passes through Darleybridge town, Wensley, and Winster, continuing thence to Newhaven as before-mentioned.

The turnpike road from Matlock to Mansfield, about 16 miles, passes through Tansley, Wolley-moor, Morton, and Tibshelf, about a mile beyond which, and 11 from Matlock, it enters Nottinghamshire.

The turnpike road from Wirksworth to Mansfield passes through Wigwell over Hotstandwell-bridge, through Crich and South-Wmfield to Alfreton; thence leaving South-Normanton on the left, it quits the county about a mile to the east of that village.

The turnpike road from Matlock-bath to Nottingham, passes through Cromford Crich, and South-Winfield, to Alfreton; thence through Somer cotes about a mile beyond which it enters Nottinghamshire. The turnpike road from Matlock-town to Alfreton branches off beyond Tansley and passes through Wessington, leaving South-Winfield on the right The turnpike road from Derby to Mansfield passes by Breadsall, through Morley and Smalley to Heanor, a mile beyond which it enters Nottinghamshire. There is a turnpike road from Ilkeston to Heanor, and from Ilkeston to the Derby and Mansfield road, south of Smalley.

The turnpike road from Derby to Nottingham leaves Chaddesden, Spondon, and Ockbrook, on the left, passing through Burrow-ash, and Shackle cross, Risley, and Sandiacre, a little beyond which, and a little more than nine miles from Derby it enters Nottinghamshire.

The turnpike road from Derby to Uttoxeter, passes through Mickle Over, Etwall, Hilton, (leaving Marston-on-Dove to the left,) Hatton, Foston, (leaving Scropton to the left,) Aston, Sudbury, and Doveridge, nearly a mile beyond which, it crosses the Dove and quits the county. The turnpike road from Derby to Burton passes near Little-Over, leaving Finderne on the left and Egginton on the right: it crosses the Dove, and quits the county at Monks-bridge, eight miles from Derby.

The turnpike road from Ashby-de-la-Zouch to Burton enters Derbyshire about a mile from Ashby, leaves Smithsby and Hartshorn on the right, and Gresley, at some distance, on the left, passing near Bretby-park to Burtonbridge. The road from Nottingham to Ashby goes through a small part of Derbyshire passing through Long-Eaton and Sawley, and over Harringtonr bridge. The old road from Ashby to Derby passed through Tickenhall and Stanton, over Swarkston-bridge, and near or through Osmaston. The turnpike road from Measham to Burton-on-Trent, passes through Over-Seal in an insulated part of Leicestershire, Castle-Gresley, Stanton. Ward and Staplehill.

Footnotes

1 In Farcy's Agricultural Survey, vol. i. is an account of about 22,500 acres of common, inclosed since about the middle of the last century.
2 It extends northward from Ashover and Darley, through the parish of Bakewell and its chapelries, almost to the boundaries of the county.
3 To obviate the inconveniences arising from the mixture of flocks, a shepherds' society has boen established at Hayfield; the orders of which have been printed, with the marks of the several sheep-owners accurately described.
4 Detailed accounts of the soil and strata of Derbyshire, may be found in Pilkington's Derbyshire, vol. i., White Watson's Delineation of the Strata of Derbyshire, Mavve's Mi-neralogy and Geology of Derbyshire, and in Farey's General View of the Agriculture and Minerals of Derbyshire, vol. i.
5 The beds of gypsum are from two to four yards in thickness; the most considerable are at Chellaston, Aston, and Elvaston.— Pilkington, vol. i. p. 94.
6 Farcy's View, vol. i. p. 299.
7 Elden-hole, which lies about two miles and a half south-west of Castleton, one of the seven wonders of the Peak, and formerly supposed to be of unfathomable depth, was ascertained by the late John Lloyd, Esq., F.R.S., who descended into it in the year 1770, to be a shaft of about 62 yards in depth, at the bottom of which are two caverns; one of them being small, the other about 50 yards in diameter and of great height, (being a vast dome of the form of the inside of a glass-house,) communicating with each other. In the jireater cavern' it is said that there was formerly another shaft, having at the bottom of it a stream of water; supposed to communicate with that running through the great cavern at Castleton. A particular account of Elden-hole, and these caverns, was communicated by Mr. Lloyd to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixi. p. 250.
8 list of them is given in Farcy'. View, vol. i. p.292, and of the swallow-holes, p.295.
9 Farey'sView, p. 280.
10 See the head of Fossils, p. clxxxv.
11 A list of these is given in Farcy's View, vol. i. p. 241.
12 Whitehurst makes it 120 yards thick; Farey from 150 to 170 yards. Vol.i. p. 228,
13 See a list of them in Farey's View, vol. i, p. 225.
14 Ibid, vol. i. p. 229.
15 A particular account of them is given in Mr. W. Watson's delineation of the strata of Derbyshire.
16 Farey'sView, p. 237,
17 Mr. Whiteharst says, that "the upper stratum of argillaceous stone is excellent for the use of cutlers' grinding-stones, and carpenters' whetstones; it is of a brownish colour. The lower strata are much harder, will strike fire with steel, and are more durable, and fit for roads; these beds are whiter, and are commonly called crow-stone."— Whitehurst's Inquiry, p. 203., second edit.
18 Farcy's View, vol. i. p. 174.
19 Ibib,p.220.
20 Ibib,p.161.
21 Detailed accounts of them are given by Mr.Farey in his View of the Agriculture, &c. of Derbyshire, vol. i. p. 165, 281, &c.
22 The following are given as the heights of the principal eminences in Derbyshire, in the list of' "Altitudes of the Stations and other remarkable Hills," computed from the observations made in the course of the' Trigonometrical Survey: —
Holme-Moss, on Kinderscout 1859 feet.
Ax-edge 1751
Lord's-Seat 1751
Hathersage 1377
Alport-Heights 980
23 Pilkington's Derbyshire, vol. i. p. 14. '
24 Originally built in the twelfth century.
25 At the time of the Domesday Survey no passage over the Trent is motioned except at Weston.
26 This brief mention of the Derbyshire canals is taken from a more detailed account in Mr. Farey's Agricultural Report of Derbyshire, vol. iii.
27 The act was passed 17 Geo. III.
28 The act was passed 29 Geo. III.
29 The act for this canal was passed 33 Geo. III.
30 The act was passed 33 Geo. III.
31 The act was passed 33 Geo. III.
32 The first act was passed 34 Geo.III.
33 The old turnpike road, and the nearest line from Derby to Buxton, is by Hulland-ward, Allow, Brassiugton, &c.
34 Another road goes through Foxlow and Eyam.
35 A private road, which has acquired the name of the Via Gellia, was made through a beautiful wooded valley from Hopton to Cromford and Matlock-bath, by the late Philip Gell, Esq.