Geographical and geological description of the county.
Boundaries, Extent,&c. — Derbyshire is an inland county, lying nearly
in the centre of England. It is bounded on the east by Nottinghamshire
and part of Leicestershire; a part of which county forms also its southern
boundary: on the west it is bounded by Staffordshire and Cheshire, and on
the north by Yorkshire. Its greatest length from south-south-east to northnorth-west is about 56 miles and a half; from east-north-east to west
south-west, 33 miles. It contains, according to Mr. Farey's estimation, 972
square English miles, and 622,080 statute acres. The southern and middle
district is for the most part in culture. (fn. 1) In the hundreds of Scarsdale and
the Peak is the great East Moor (fn. 2) , a considerable part of which remains
waste. In the northern part of the Peak, bordering on Yorkshire, are most
extensive sheepwalks, called the Woodlands, in the parishes of Hope and
Glossop, without any walls or fences to divide the different manors, parishes,
or counties (fn. 3)
Soils and Strata. — The soils of Derbyshire consist chiefly of clay, loam,
sandt and peat, very irregularly intermixed: the southern part, which has
been distinguished by the appellation of the fertile district, consists principally of a red loamon various subsoils, which approaches nearer to marl,
clay, loam, sand, grit, or gravel, according to the nature of the substratum or
its exposure to the atmosphere. Peat mosses are abundant in the northern
part of the county, denominated the High-Peak. (fn. 4)
The substrata of the southern part of the county, comprised within a
line drawn east and west, from Sandiacre to Ashborne, consists of gravel,
intermixed with large portions of red marl, of very irregular forms; in
several parts of which are beds of gypsum of considerable extent. (fn. 5)
The gravel is said by Mr. Farey to occupy an extent of nearly 77,000 acres, and
the red marl of 81,000.
The substrata of the other parts of Derbyshire consist of limestone of
various kinds and toadstone; shale and gritstone; coal and indurated clay,
resting on each other in the order here named; but all appearing on the
surface in certain parts of the county in consequence of their dipping in
various directions. The lowermost of these is a stratum, of limestone, the
thickness of which has not been ascertained: it occupies a narrow space
on the western side of the county, extending southerly from the moun
tain called Mam-tor, to Hopton and Parwich, and nearly to Thorp;
and contains 40,500 acres. (fn. 6) This stratum of limestone abounds in caverns,
several of which are of great extent: the most remarkable are,
the Devil's-hall, in Foreside-mine at Castleton, connected by a tunnel
with Speedwell-mine; Pool's-hole, near Buxton; Reynard's hall and cave,
in Dovedale; those of Elden-hole (fn. 7) ; and the great cavern at Castleton (fn. 8) ;
many smaller caverns or shake-holes, as they are called, occur in this
and the other strata of limestone in Derbyshire. Some of these are also
called swallow-holes, from streams of water falling into, and being lost
in them. The sides of many of the caverns are covered with stalactitical
incrustations, and subterranean streams are found running through several
Immediately over the stratum of limestone above-mentioned, are three
others of limestone and three of toadstone, in alternate layers, occupying
nearly 51,500 acres of the surface (fn. 9) , extending north and south from Castleton to Hopton; eastward to Matlock, Youlgrave, Bakewell, and Stony
Middleton; and westward to Wormhill and Chelmortori.
The limestone is the true metalliferous rock of Derbyshire, and occupies,
exclusively, the attention of the miner. There are few situations in the Peak,
where this rock does not abound in veins of lead ore or calamine; these, which
are here called rake-veins, have, for the most part, an easterly and westerly
direction, although, in the wapentake of Wirksworth, they have as often a
northerly and southerly one. They are intersected by other veins which do
not contain lead ore, and are called cross-veins. Ores of lead too and calainine are found in what are here termed pipe-works and flat-works, which
run horizontally, whereas the rake-veins are more or less perpendicular.
It has been already noticed, that strata of toadstone alternate with
those of limestone, in many parts of the mineral district. It was long
reported and believed, that the veins were wholly cut off by the former
(although they were constantly found again in the limestone below); but this
is erroneous, for although it be true, that the lead ore seldom continues
through the toadstone, yet there is always a leader of spar which indicates
the direction of the vein. When the miner says the vein is thus cut off; he
means only that the lead ore no longer continues through the toadstone.
The vein is not unfrequently started or thrown on one side by a subsidence
of the strata, where the two rocks meet, in which case, however, it is
found again to the right or the left, and invariably continues in the same
direction as before. Besides these accidents, the veins are often borne
away for the space of a few feet, by those which intersect them. The
phenomena, therefore, of mineral veins in Derbyshire are much the same
as those of other mining countries; but the pipe-works and flat-works are
very rarely to be met with elsewhere.
The several strata of limestone are also very abundant in corrallines, shells,
and various other organic remains. (fn. 10) In several parts of this district, the limestone is of so compact a quality as to be used as marble; particularly at
Ashford, where it is black, and at Monyash, where it is of a mottled-grey
colour; and abounding with entrochi and their fragments. The strata of
toadstone vary considerably in thickness, and in some places in number, never
exceeding three, and sometimes being only two, or a single stratum.
Mr. Whitehurst, in his " Inquiry into the original State and Formation
of the Earth," has given the following as the thicknesses of the six alternate strata of limestone and toadstone, in a section between Grange-mill
and Darley-moor: — The first or uppermost limestone, 50 yards; the first
toadstone, 16 yards; the second limestone, 50 yards; the second toadstone, 46 yards; the third limestone, 60 yards; the third toadstone, 22 yards.
Between these six strata are six other very thin ones of clay, denominated
'way-boards. There are detached portions of the alternate strata of limestone
and toadstone in several parts of the county (fn. 11) , but of no great extent.
The strata which come next in succession above those of limestone and
toadstone are, millstone grit, and shale; the former being 120 yards
thick (fn. 12) ,
and resting on the latter, which is of equal, if not greater thickness. The
limestone district above-mentioned is surrounded by that of gritstone, as
it is called; though in several parts the gritstone is wanting, the shale only
appearing. There are many detached patches of this grit-rock, under
which on all sides the shale is apparent, both in the gritstone district and
also in that of limestone (fn. 13) ; and within this extensive stratum of shale are
included several masses of dark blue or black limestone: one of them, immediately north of Fenny-Bentley, is of considerable extent, as is another
south-west of Ashford and north-west of Bakewell. (fn. 14)
The gritstones are of various qualities (fn. 15) , in which the minute particles
of quartz, mica, &c., are combined with clay in different proportions. One
of these, very finely grained and hard, is called cank-stone; another, denominated crowstone, is also very hard, and of a compact composition: chert,
or hornstone, frequently occurs in the strata of limestone.
That portion of Derbyshire in which the gritstone and shale strata appear, contains 160,500 acres. (fn. 16)
The coal strata, or coal-measures as they are usually termed, occupy a large
portion of the county on the eastern side, bounded by a part of Yorkshire
on the north; on the west they extend nearly to Chatsworth, Darley,
Crich, and Duffield; on the south to Dale-Abbey, and nearly to Sandiacre.
The seams of coal are of various degrees of thickness, and are separated
by numerous strata of gritstone and argillaceous strata, known by the
names of bind, clunch, and shale. The immediate floor of each coal
seam is clay, in some degree of induration, or the crow-stone above-mentioned. (fn. 17) Beds of iron-stone are found in several of the coal-shales; and
a great abundance and variety of impressions of ferns and other vegetables.
Part of the coal-field, about the middle of which lies Ashby-de-la-Zouch
in Leicestershire, extends into the county of Derby, near its southern extremity, in the parishes of Hartshorn, Gresley, and Measham; surrounded
by the stratum of red marl, to which it dips in every direction. (fn. 18) There is
also a stratum of coal of small extent at Combe-moss, nearly north of Buxton,
and at Chinley-hills, near Chapel-en-le-Frith. Mr, Farey computes the
whole of the coal-measures of Derbyshire at 190,000 acres. (fn. 19)
On the eastern side of the county, above the coal-measures, is a stratum
of yellow magnesian limestone, extending north and south, from Barlborough
to Hardwick; and bounded on the west by Barlborough, Bolsover, and
Hault-Hucknall; occupying about 21,600 acres. (fn. 20)
In several parts of Derbyshire, more especially in the coal district, the
strata are broken and dislocated in various directions: these dislocations
are by the miners denominated faults, some of which are of large
extent. (fn. 21)
Surface and Scenery.– The surface of the southern part of Derbyshire
is for the most part pretty level, containing nothing remarkable in its hills,
and consequently little picturesque scenery: but in that part which lies
north of the town of Derby, where the limestone and gritstone strata prevail,
vail, as above noticed, the hills begin gradually to rise, and in the north-west part of the county some of them attain a considerable height; being
the commencement of that mountainous ridge which from hence divides
the island, extending northerly into Scotland. The three highest points in
the mountainous tract of Derbyshire are, Ax-edge, about three miles south-west of Buxton; Lord's-Seat, near Castleton; arid Kinderscout, near the
north-western extremity of the county. (fn. 22)
Some of the valleys in the mountainous part of Derbyshire are very beautiful,
particularly those of Castleton and Glossop; but what constitutes the
most picturesque and singular scenery of this county, is the great number
and variety of smaller valleys, or dales, with which the limestone district
abounds. These may differ in extent, and some particular circumstances,
but the general characteristics of all of them are, precipitous rocks, of
very singular and picturesque forms, with mountain streams and rivulets
running through the lower parts of the dales, which.are frequently well
wooded. The most celebrated of them are, Matlock-Dale, on the river
Derwent; Monsal-Dale, the upper part of which is called Millers-Dale,
and through which the river Wye runs; Middleton-Dale, Eyam-Dale, and
Dove-Dale. The first of these is the most extensive, and has been much
celebrated for the beauty and variety of its scenery. The most striking
object of Matlock-Dale is the stupendous rock called the High-Tor, rising
almost perpendicularly from the river to the height of above 300 feet. (fn. 23)
The scenery of the gritstone district is by no means beautiful or agreeable,
able, except in the valleys above noticed; it consists chiefly of dreary moors,
on some parts of which large masses and groups of rock are seen projecting
on the surface, some of them in very grotesque forms. The most remarkable
of these groups of gritstone rock are, those on Stanton-Moor, called Robin,
hood's stride, or Mock-beggar hall, and llowtor rocks.
Rivers. — The chief rivers of Derbyshire are, the Trent, the Derwent,
the Wye, the Dove, the Erwash, and the Rother.
The Trent is one of the chief rivers of the kingdom; and though it does
not intersect the whole of it, is considered as the boundary of the two great
divisions of north and south. It first becomes a boundary between Derbyshire
and Staffordshire in the parish of Croxall, between that village and the
township of Catton, which is on its banks. It passes close to Drakelow,
Walton, Stapenhill, and Newton-Solney, a little beyond which village it
enters the county, which it separates from east to west in a course of about
24 miles, passing between Willington and Repton, by Twyford and Barrow,
between Swarkston and Stanton, by Weston, Shardlow, and Sawley. It
leaves the county about a mile and a half east from Long-Eaton, at its junction
with the Erwash. There arejbridges over the Trent at Burton (fn. 24) ,
Swarkston, Sawley, and near Wilne. The latter, called Cavendish-bridge, was
erected about the middle of the last century, by the Cavendish family; before
which time there was a ferry at that place. The bridge at Sawley, called Harrington-bridge,
was completed in 1790. There are ferries at Willington and
Twyford; the former for carriages. The river is fordable in two places at
Twyford. The river Trent was made navigable, pursuant to an act of parliament
procured in the year 1699, by the Earl of Uxbridge, up to Burtonbridge
(fn. 25) ; but in the year 1805 the navigation from that bridge to Shardlow
was given up by agreement with the proprietors of the Trent and Mersey
canal, which runs by its side; and it is navigable (as connected with Derbyshire) only from Shardlow to the mouth of the Erwash.
The Derwent which seems to take its name from a village in the HighPeak, rises on the moors at the northern extremity of the county, near the
junction of Cheshire and Yorkshire. Before it reaches Derwent it is called
the Wrongesley. For a few miles this stream forms the boundary of Derby
shire and Yorkshire. Before it enters Derbyshire again it receives a small
stream, which rises also on the Wolds, called the river Westend: after passing
Derwent, it receives the river Ashop, which rises also on the Wolds.
Between Brough and Hathersage it receives the river Now, which rising, on
the hills above Edale, passes by Hope and Brough, and falls into the Derwent
at Malham-bridge in Hathersage. The Derwent then passes through
some beautiful valleys, between Learn and Over-Padley, to Grindleford
bridge, by Stoke-hall and Froggatt, between Calver and Corbar, to
Baslow; thence through ChatswOrth-park, near Beeley, to Rowsley;
thence through Darley-dale, and near Darley village, to Matlock, where it
contributes to the beauties of its romantic scenery; from Matlock, by
Cromford, to Hotstandwell-bridge; thence, under Crich common, to Belper,
Makeny, and Millford; between Holbrook and Duffield; between Alles
trey and Breadsall, by Darley and Little-Chester, to Derby, where is a
bridge over it. From Derby it pursues a winding course, passing near Ambaston
and Draycote, between Great and Little-Wilne, to its conflux with
the Trent, about a mile beyond the former. The whole of the Derwent is
said to be about 46 miles. The Derwent was formerly navigable from
Wilne-ferry up to Derby; but the navigation was given up when the Derby
canals were completed in 1794.
The river Wye rises a little above Buxton, passing between Buxton and
Fairfield, near King's-Sterndale, near Wormhill, through Mousall-dale and
Millen-dale, near Little-Longsdon, through Ashford and Bakewell, and
skirting Haddon-park, falls into the Derwent near Rowsley.
The Dove, which has its source in the High-Peak, a few miles south of
Buxton, is for many miles the boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire,
passing near Church-Sterndale, Hartington, Thorp, (near which it
forms an interesting feature of the romantic valley called Dovedale,) Mappleton,
Norbury, and Doveridge, Sudbury, Scropton, Marston-on-Dove, and
Egginton,—it falls into the Derwent near Newton-Solney. None of the
above-mentioned places are above a mile from the river, some of them on
The river Ratherwhich has its source near Padley, runs near North-Winfield church, to Chesterfield;
thence between Brimington and Whittington, near Staveley and Jlenishaw. It leaves the county, and enters
Yorkshire,' between Killamarsh and Beighton.
The Erwash, which is said by 'Pilkington to rise in the hundred of
Scarsdale, but which appears by Burdett's map to rise on the skirts of
Shirewood-forest in Nottinghamshire, is during the greater part of its
course a boundary between Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Passing by
Pinxton, near Codnor-park, Ilkeston,and Sandiacre, it falls into the trent
about a mile and a half from Long-Eaton.
Besides those already mentioned, there are also m this county, or as
boundaries to it, the following smaller rivers.
The Amber,, rising near Northedge, passes by Henmore to Ford, where
it receives a stream from Ashover; near Toadhole it receives a stream
which rises in the parish of Sutton-in-Ashfield, in Nottinghamshire, and
passes not far from South-Normanton and Alfreton. The Amber then pursues its course near South-Winfield and Pentrich, and falls into the Derwent
The river Barbrook, which rises on the east moor, falls into the Derwent
to the north of Chatsworth-park.
The river Burladge, which rises on the moors above Hathersage, on the
borders of Yorkshire, fulls into the Derwent between over and Nether
The Ecclesburn rises a little to the south of Wirksworth, and passing near
Iderich-hay, between Turndich and Cowhouse, through Duffield, falls into
the Derwent about a mile from that village.
The river Goyte, which rises about four miles nearly west of Buxton, is
for several miles the boundary between Derbyshire, and Cheshire, passing
Shalcross, Bugworth, Jew-hole, Botham-hall in Mellor, to Marple-bridge,
about a mile from which it joins the Ethroyp. The last-mentioned river,
which rises in the north part of the county, near its junction with Cheshire
and Yorkshire, is a boundary between Cheshire and Derbyshire throughout a great part of the extensive parish of Glossop.
The river Lathkill, or, as it is called in Burdett's map, Larkill, rises not
far from Monyash, and passing by Over-Had don to Airport, unites with the
Bradford from the neighbourhood of Ecclestor, and both together fall into
the Wye about a mile from Rowsley.
The river Maese rises near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, passes Packington, near
Measham, Stretton-in-the-Fields, Edtngale, and Croxall, about a mile and
a half beyond which it falls into the Trent.
The Morkdgebrook, rising near Mansell-park, passes to Mercaston, and
near Mugginton, through Kedleston-park, by Markeaton, and falls into the
Derwent at Derby.
A nameless river, rising near Hulland, which is joined by a stream from
Bradley, runs by Ednaston, through Longford, by Sutton-on-the-Hill, Hilton, and Egginton, and falls into the Dove not far from Monk's-bridge.
(fn. 26) — It having been found of great importance to procure
the convenience of water-carriage for the produce of the numerous mines
and quarries of Derbyshire, and the goods of its manufactories, many canals
have been projected, and several of them completed; some wholly within
this county, and others either commencing or terminating in it.
The great undertaking of the Trent and Mersey, or Grand-Trunk canal,
which forms part of the grand communication between Liverpool, Hull,
Bristol, and London, was begun in 1766, by the celebrated Mr. Brindley,
and conducted to its completion, in 1777, under his able successors Mr.
Smeaton and Mr. Rennie. It passes through Derbyshire from Burton to
its termination at Wilden-ferry, following the course of the Trent. Its
chief use, as far as relates to the produce of Derbyshire, is for the conveyance of cheese, malt, and gypsum. There are wharfs at Aston, Cuttle
bridge in Swarkston, Shardlow, and Twyford. At Shardlow are large
warehouses, malthouse, &c. The gypsum is brought from the pits at
Chellaston to the wharf at Cuttle-bridge.
The Chesterfield canal was begun in 1771. by Mr. J. Brindley, not long
before his death, and completed by his brother-in-law, Mr. Henshall, in 1776.
It enters Derbyshire at Killamarsh, and has its line near Eckington and
Staveley, between Whittington and Brimington, to Chesterfield, where it
terminates. Its objects, as connected with Derbyshire, are the exportation
of coals, lead, cast-iron, limestone, freestone, pottery-wares, &c., and the
importation also of limestone, grain, deals, bar-iron, &c. There is a large
wharf at Chesterfield, and another wharf at Killamarsh.
The Erwash canal, begun in or about 1777 (fn. 27) , has its line chiefly through
Derbyshire, in the vale of the Erwash. It commences in the Trent navigation, and terminates at Langley-mill, where it joins the Cromford canal.
Its chief objects are the exportation of coals, limestone, iron, lead, mill
stones, grindstones, marble, freestone, chert, &c., and the importation of
corn, malt, deals, &c. Mr. William Jessop was the engineer. The shares
of this canal sold at one time for three times their original price.
The Cromford canal, was begun in or about the year 1789. (fn. 28) Its line is
wholly in Derbyshire, commencing at Langley-mill, where the Erwash canal
terminates, and terminating at Cromford. This canal was completed about
1793. Mr. William Jessop, sen., and others, were engineers. The chief
objects of the Cromford canal are, the exportation of coals, limestone,
iron lead, millstones, grindstones, freestone, marble, fluor, chert, &c., and
the 'importation of corn, malt, and deals; coals also are imported at the
north-east end. There is a wharf at Cromford, with large warehouses;
wharfs also at Golden-Valley and at Pinxton. The iron-works at Butterley
and Somercotes, and 'those in Codnor-park, are on this canal. At Butterley
is a tunnel, about 57 yards below the Derwent ridge, 2978 yards
in length, and nine feet wide. To the north-east of Wigwell, the canal is
carried over the river Derwent, on a large aqueduct-bridge, 200 yards long
and 30 feet high, built in 1792: the span of the arch over the river is 80
feet. Over the Amber, at Bull-bridge, is another aqueduct of the same
length, 50 feet in height. The two aqueducts are said to have cost 6oool.
The river Derwent was many years ago made navigable from the Trent,
at Wilden-ferry, to Derby; but when the Derby canal was completed, in
1794 (fn. 29) , the proprietors of that, canal having purchased the interest of those
who were concerned in the Derwent navigation, it was from that time discontinued. The line of the Derby canal
is wholly in this county, commencing in the Trent and Mersey canal, north of Swarkston, passing by
Derby, with branches to Little-Eaton and the collieries in Bootle-vale and
Denby; and terminating in the Erwash canal, half a mile south of Sandiacre. Its chief object is the supply of Derby with coals, building-stone,
gypsum, and other articles, and the exportation of coals, manufactured
goods, cheese, &c. There are wharfs at Breaston, Draycote, Burrow-ash,
Spondon, Chaclclesden, and Derby, where are large warehouses in the parish
of St. Alkmund's. There are several manufactories on its banks at
Derby, and iron-mills at Burrow-ash. This canal is 44 feet wide. Mr.
Benjamin Outram was the engineer.
The Nutbrook canal was made in or about 1793 (fn. 30) , for the exportation
of coals and the importation of lime-stone; it commences in the Erwash
canal and terminates at Shipley wharf. In this short canal, which is only
four miles and a half in length, there are twelve locks.
The Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal, begun in or about the year 1794 (fn. 31) ; but not
finished till 1805, is connected with the southern part of Derbyshire; its line
passing by Willesley and Measham: it takes lime-stone from Tickeiihall and
Cloudshill, and coals from the collieries south of the Trent.
The Peak-forest canal was begun about the year 1794 (fn. 32) , its object, as far
as connected with this county, being for the exportation of lime-stone,
building and paving stones, and at its north-end, coals; and the importation
of deals, pig-iron, and at its south end, coals: it enters Derbyshire at
Marple-bridge, and terminates at Bugsworth, three Quarters of a mile from
Whaley-bridge, where there is a wharf, as well as at Bugsworth; there is a
railway wharf at Town-end, near Chapel-en-le-Frith. There are numerous
lime-kilns on this canal; near Chapel-en-le-Frith, two iron-forges; and many
other works between that town and Marple. At Marple is an aqueduct
over the Mersey, near 100 feet in height, completed in 1797. It has three
equal semi-circular arches of 60 feet span, the central one of which is 78
feet high. This aqueduct is about a quarter of a mile below the meeting
of the Ethrow and the Goyt. The grand inclined plane on the railway
connected with this canal about half a mile from Chapel-en-le-Frith, is 512
yards in length, in which is a rise of 192 feet. It is so constructed, that
seven trams descend at once. Mr. Benjamin Outram was the original
engineer of the Peak-forest canal, and afterwards Mr, T. Brown: it was
finally completed in 1806.
Roads.— The great road from London to Manchester, having entered
Derbyshire at Cavendish-bridge, passes through Shardlow, between Boulton
and Alvaston, leaving Elvaston on the right and Osmaston on the left, to
Derby; from thence to Ashborne, 13 miles, passing through Mackworth,
Langley, Brailsford, and Osmaston: it enters Staffordshire at Hangerbridge, about a mile and three quarters beyond Ashborne; passing to Leake,
&c. Another turnpike road to Manchester goes from Ashborne by way of
Buxton (fn. 33) , passing through Mappleton and Thorp, or through Fenny-Bentley,
leaving Tissington, Alsop, Monyash, and Chelmorton, on the right, and
Hartington and Church-Sterndale on the left. About six miles beyond
Buxton, it quits the county and enters Cheshire at Whaley-bridge.
There is still another road to Manchester, by way of Matlock. The old
road from Derby to Matlock passes through Wirksworth, thirteen miles and
a half, byway of Kedleston, Weston-Underwood, and Ireton-wood: thence
through Cromford to Matlock-bath, three miles: another road from Derby
to Wirksworth passes through All estrey, Duffield, Shottle, and Iderich-hay;
and an act has been lately passed for making a new turnpike-road from
Derby to Matlock, called the Derwent road, through Duffield and Belper,
thence to Hotstand well-bridge, through Birchwood, leaving Alderwasley
to the left, to Cromford.
From Matlock to Manchester, the road passes by way of Bakewell and
Chapel-en-le-Frith: from Matlock to Bakewell, is about ten miles through
Darley and Rowsley; from Bakewell to Chapel-en-le-Frith, is 14 miles, the
road passing through Ashford, Wardlow, Peak-forest town, and Sparrowpit,
leaving Great-Longsdon to the right and Tidesweli to the left. About
four miles beyond Chapel-en-le-Frith, this road joins the Buxton and
Man-Chester road at Whaley-bridge.
The turnpike road from Sheffield to Manchester enters Derbyshire four
miles from Sheffield, passes through Hathersage, leaving Brough on the left
to Hope and Castleton: it joins the last-mentioned road at Sparrow-pit, two
miles from Chapel-en-le-Frith.
The turnpike road from Buxton to Sheffield passes through Fairfield,
leaving Wormhill on the right to Tideswellj thence through Great-Hucklow
(fn. 34) ,
leaving Totley and Dore on the right, to Ecclcshall in Yorkshire. There
are two roads from Buxton to Bakewell, one passing through Taddington
and Ashford, the other through Chelmorton, leaving Sheldon on the left. A
turnpike road from Leek crosses the Buxton and Ashborne road, and passes
through Monyash, beyond which there are branches to Ashford and Bake
well. From Newhaven, on the Buxton and Ashborne road, a road
to Bakewell branches off, which passes to the left of Youlgrave, and a
little to the south of Newhaven, a road to Winster, whence there are turn
pike roads to Darley, Matlock, Bakewell, Wirksworth, &c. From Tideswell,
there are turnpike roads to Castleton and Chesterfield: the road to
Chesterfield passes through Wardlow, Stony.Middleton, and Corbar. From
Bakewell there are two roads, one through Hassop and the other through
Baslow, to Hathersage on the Sheffield and Manchester road. A new road
has been made from Sheffield through Abbey-Dale and Totley to Baslow.
The roads which wind through the valleys in the Peak are very good, and
the scenery picturesque.
From Chapel-en-le-Frith, a turnpike road extends northwards through
Hayfield and Glossop to Huddersfield in Yorkshire: from Hayfield a road
branches off to Mellor and Marple-bridge, in the direction of Stockport.
The turnpike road from Chesterfield to Sheffield passes through Whitting
ton, Unston, Dronfield, and Little-Norton, (leaving Norton on the right):
it quits the county and enters Yorkshire, ten miles from Chesterfield.
The turnpike road from Chesterfield to Worksop passes through Brimington,
Staveley, Barlborough, and Whitwell, two miles beyond which, and
thirteen from Chesterfield, it enters Nottinghamshire.
Near Barlborough is a road branching off to Clown, near which it divides;
one road going through Elmton to Cuckney and Ollerton in Nottinghamshire,
and the other near Bolsover, through Scarcliffe and Pleasley, to
A turnpike road from Chesterfield passes through Brampton over the
moors to Baslow, continuing through Hassop and Great and Little-Longsdon
it joins the Matlock and Manchester road at Wardlow mines, about four
miles from Bakewell.
The road from Derby to Chesterfield, about 24 miles, passes near Darley-Abbey,
through Allestrey, Duffield, Millford, Belper, through Heage,
leaving Pentrich to the right, and through Oakerthorp, leaving South-Winfield
on the left, to the Peacock Inn in that parish, thence leaving Shirland
and Morton on the right, through Higham, Stretton, Clay-cross, and Tupton,
leaving Winger worth on the left, to Chesterfield. There is another
turnpike road from Derby to Chesterfield, about the same distance, through
or near Breadsall, Little-Eaton, Horsley, Denby, Ripley, Butterley, and
Swanwick, toAlfreton, 14 miles, thence through Shirland to Higham, where
it joins the other road.
The road from Chesterfield to Mansfield passes through Hasland, Normanton,
Heath, and Glapwell, to Pleasley, near which village it enters
Nottinghamshire, nine miles from Chesterfield.
The road from Chesterfield to Matlock-bath and Ashborne passes through
Walton and Kelstedge, leaving Ashover about a mile to the left, over the
most southerly part of the east moor, to Matlock-bank and Matlock-bridge,
leaving Matlock-town on the left, to Matlock-bath; thence through
Cromford to Middleton, leaving Wirksworth on the left; through Hopton (fn. 35) ,
Carsington and Kniveton, leaving Hognaston on the left, to Ashborne, the
distance from Chesterfield being about 24 miles.
A turnpike road from Chesterfield, branching off on the moors, passes
through Darleybridge town, Wensley, and Winster, continuing thence to
Newhaven as before-mentioned.
The turnpike road from Matlock to Mansfield, about 16 miles, passes
through Tansley, Wolley-moor, Morton, and Tibshelf, about a mile beyond
which, and 11 from Matlock, it enters Nottinghamshire.
The turnpike road from Wirksworth to Mansfield passes through Wigwell
over Hotstandwell-bridge, through Crich and South-Wmfield to Alfreton;
thence leaving South-Normanton on the left, it quits the county about a
mile to the east of that village.
The turnpike road from Matlock-bath to Nottingham, passes through
Cromford Crich, and South-Winfield, to Alfreton; thence through Somer
cotes about a mile beyond which it enters Nottinghamshire. The turnpike
road from Matlock-town to Alfreton branches off beyond Tansley and
passes through Wessington, leaving South-Winfield on the right
The turnpike road from Derby to Mansfield passes by Breadsall, through
Morley and Smalley to Heanor, a mile beyond which it enters Nottinghamshire.
There is a turnpike road from Ilkeston to Heanor, and from
Ilkeston to the Derby and Mansfield road, south of Smalley.
The turnpike road from Derby to Nottingham leaves Chaddesden, Spondon,
and Ockbrook, on the left, passing through Burrow-ash, and Shackle
cross, Risley, and Sandiacre, a little beyond which, and a little more than
nine miles from Derby it enters Nottinghamshire.
The turnpike road from Derby to Uttoxeter, passes through Mickle
Over, Etwall, Hilton, (leaving Marston-on-Dove to the left,) Hatton,
Foston, (leaving Scropton to the left,) Aston, Sudbury, and Doveridge,
nearly a mile beyond which, it crosses the Dove and quits the county.
The turnpike road from Derby to Burton passes near Little-Over, leaving
Finderne on the left and Egginton on the right: it crosses the Dove, and
quits the county at Monks-bridge, eight miles from Derby.
The turnpike road from Ashby-de-la-Zouch to Burton enters Derbyshire
about a mile from Ashby, leaves Smithsby and Hartshorn on the right, and
Gresley, at some distance, on the left, passing near Bretby-park to Burtonbridge.
The road from Nottingham to Ashby goes through a small part of
Derbyshire passing through Long-Eaton and Sawley, and over Harringtonr
bridge. The old road from Ashby to Derby passed through Tickenhall
and Stanton, over Swarkston-bridge, and near or through Osmaston.
The turnpike road from Measham to Burton-on-Trent, passes through
Over-Seal in an insulated part of Leicestershire, Castle-Gresley, Stanton.
Ward and Staplehill.