CLAYDON, a chapelry, in the parish of Cropredy,
union and hundred of Banbury, county of Oxford,
6½ miles (N.) from Banbury; containing 337 inhabitants.
The chapel is dedicated to St. James, and is a small edifice, with a north aisle divided from the nave by four
arches of Norman character; the tower is of the 15th
century. The village is situated in the northern extremity of the county: a small spring which rises in it has
the peculiarity of emitting the largest quantity of water
in the driest weather. Here is found the pyrites aureus,
or golden firestone; also the asteria, or star-stone, called
by Gesner sigillum stellœ, from its use in sealing: in splitting some of these, the figure of a rose is plainly discernible.
Claydon (St. Peter)
CLAYDON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union
and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of
Suffolk, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Ipswich; containing
418 inhabitants. The Stow-Market and Ipswich navigation crosses the parish. The living is a rectory, with
that of Akenham united, valued in the king's books at
£10, and in the patronage of Miss Drury: the tithes of
the two parishes have been commuted for £510, and
there are 31 acres of glebe in Claydon, and 20 in Akenham. The church stands on a very high site, commanding an extensive prospect: the parsonage-house and
grounds, which adjoin the churchyard, are neatly arranged, and ornamented with fine timber.
Claydon, East (St. Mary)
CLAYDON, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the
union of Winslow, hundred of Ashendon, county of
Buckingham, 2¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Winslow;
containing 378 inhabitants. The living is a discharged
vicarage, annexed to that of Steeple-Claydon, and valued
in the king's books at £7. 17. The church was demolished during the civil war, by Cornelius Holland,
one of the judges who sat upon the trial of Charles I.
Claydon, Middle (All Saints)
CLAYDON, MIDDLE (All Saints), a parish, in
the hundred of Ashendon, union and county of Buckingham, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Winslow; containing
127 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the
king's books at £15; net income, £540; patron, Sir
Harry Verney. The church contains a monument to
the memory of Sir Edmund Verney, standard-bearer to
Charles I., who was killed at the battle of Edge-Hill, in
1642; and a monument, by Chantrey, to Gen. Sir Harry
Calvert, adjutant-general of the British army, and
father of Sir Harry Verney, the present baronet. Almshouses for six widows were built in 1694, by Sir Ralph
Verney, who endowed them with a rent-charge of
Claydon, Steeple (St. Michael)
CLAYDON, STEEPLE (St. Michael), a parish, in
the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 5½
miles (W.) from Winslow; containing 849 inhabitants.
At the period of the Conquest, this was the most populous place in the hundred; in an adjoining wood, an
earthen vessel filled with coins of Carausius and Alectus,
has been discovered. The living is a vicarage, with that
of East Claydon annexed, valued in the king's books at
£13. 3. 9.; net income, £300; patron, Sir Harry Verney, Bart. The tithes were commuted for land and a
corn-rent in 1795. Thomas Chaloner, in 1656, built a
school, and endowed it with £12 per annum; but the
gift has long been lost.
Clayhanger (St. Peter)
CLAYHANGER (St. Peter), a parish, in the union
of Tiverton, hundred of Bampton, Cullompton and
N. divisions of Devon, 4¾ miles (E. by N.) from Bampton; containing 294 inhabitants. This parish, which is
situated on the new road from Wiveliscombe to Barnstaple, comprises by measurement 2082 acres. The living
is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 7. 3½.;
net income, £273; patron, the Rev. W. M. Harrison.
The church contains a rood-loft and an ancient oak
screen elaborately carved; it belonged to the Knights
Templars, who had a preceptory here. There is a place
of worship for dissenters; and a school, founded in 1747,
has a small endowment.
Clayhedon (St. Andrew)
CLAYHEDON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union
of Wellington, hundred of Hemyock, Cullompton and
N. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Wellington; containing 849 inhabitants, and comprising 5089a.
2r. 35p., of which 100 acres are common or waste. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £38. 5.;
patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. Clarke, whose tithes
have been commuted for £600, and whose glebe consists
of 110 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a neat
CLAY-LANE, a township, in the parish of North
Wingfield, union of Chesterfield, hundred of
Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 5½
miles (S.) from Chesterfield; containing about 2000
inhabitants. This place was a few years ago but a small
village; at present, George Stephenson and Co. have
extensive collieries here, employing 600 persons, and
having a steam power of 140 horses. Three-quarters of
a mile to the north, is a station of the Midland railway.
A mechanics' institution was established in 1845, and
there is a place of worship for dissenters. The tithes
have been commuted for £198.
Claypole (St. Peter)
CLAYPOLE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of
Newark, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven,
county of Lincoln, 5 miles (S. E.) from Newark; containing 663 inhabitants. It is intersected by the river
Witham. A small portion of the population is employed
in weaving yarn. Oliver Cromwell is supposed to have
slept at this place on the night previous to the siege of
Newark, in an ancient house near the river, which still
remains. The living is a rectory in medieties, the north
mediety valued in the king's books at £16. 8. 4., and
the south at £15. 15.; net income of the north, £389,
and of the south, £348; patron, J. P. Plumptre, Esq.
The tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church
is an ancient structure, in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower surmounted
by a beautiful spire. There is a place of worship for
CLAYTHORPE, a chapelry, in the parish of Belleau, union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred
of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln,
4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Alford; containing 69 inhabitants. The tithes have been commuted for £165.
CLAYTHORPE, a hamlet, in the township and parish of Burton-in-Kendal, Lonsdale ward, county of
Westmorland, 1 mile (N. E. by N.) from Burton-inKendal. About a mile from the village is Farlton Knot,
a huge limestone mountain, resembling in form the
Rock of Gibraltar. On the edge of another mountain
is a natural curiosity called Claythorpe Clints, consisting of a limestone rock, forming an inclined plane to
the horizon, and deeply rent in many places by the
supposed ebbing of a great body of water, or the retiring
of the ocean, by which it is conjectured that this, with
some other plains in the neighbourhood, was once
Clayton, Lancaster.—See Droylsden.
CLAYTON, Lancaster.—See Droylsden.
CLAYTON, a township, in the parish and union
of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of
Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (S.
by E.) from Newcastle; containing 155 inhabitants.
The township comprises 734 acres, whereof about 50 are
woodland, and the remainder arable and pasture in nearly
equal portions: it is the property of J. Ayshford Wise,
Esq., in right of his lady, the heiress of the Lovatt family,
seated here since the reign of Henry VIII. The village
is composed of five farmhouses and a few scattered cottages, and is delightfully situated on a woody eminence
north of Trentham Park, over which is a fine view of
Stafford Castle, Cannock Chase, &c.
Clayton (St. John the Baptist)
CLAYTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the
union of Cuckfield, hundred of Buttinghill, rape of
Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 2¼ miles (S. S. E.) from
Hurst-Pierrepoint; containing 747 inhabitants. It is
situated on the road from London to Brighton, by way
of Cuckfield, and intersected by the London and Brighton railway, which proceeds for about a mile and a
quarter under Clayton Hill, through a tunnel that commences near the church. The area consists of 2353
acres, whereof 201 are common or waste. The southern
portion of the parish is fine down, and the northern
comprises some rich arable, pasture, and woodland; the
scenery is pleasing, and the views from Clayton Hill are
extensive. Fairs are held on St. John's Common, for
cattle and sheep, on the 6th of July, and the 26th of
September. The living is a rectory, with that of Keymer annexed, valued in the king's books at £21. 0. 10.,
and in the patronage of Brasenose College, Oxford: the
incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £400, and
the glebe comprises 25 acres; certain impropriate tithes
have been commuted for £39. The church is of the
early English style, with some Norman details, among
which is a fine arch separating the chancel from the
nave; it was repaired in 1838. The Roman road from
Portus Adriani passed over Clayton Hill to St. John's
Common; and on opening a barrow near Clayton windmill, in 1805, the remains of a camp-kitchen were found,
in which was a vessel of embaked clay, containing bones
of various animals. In the rectory grounds, some years
since, a Roman bath was discovered by the plough, with
a beautiful tessellated pavement; celts and various
Druidical relics have been found near Layton Mill, and
numerous fossils in the chalk-pits.
CLAYTON, a township, in the parish and union of
Bradford, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York,
3½ miles (W. by S.) from Bradford; containing 4347 inhabitants. This place, which is noticed in the Domesday survey, where it is written Claitons, as part of the
manor of Bolton, comprises by computation 1600 acres,
of which about 150 are arable, and the remainder high
land affording tolerable pasture, with four or five acres
of wood. It contains the straggling villages of Clayton
and Clayton-Heights, situated on the acclivities, and
part of Queen's-Head on the summit, of a bold eminence; and the population is chiefly employed in the
manufacture of worsted goods, and in hand-loom weaving. There are seven quarries of slate and flagstone, of
which two are worked underground; the stone is of
excellent quality, and is brought up through a shaft in
the same manner as coal. In the upper part of the
township, called the Mountain, is a valuable coal-mine.
The Leeds and Halifax old road passes through the
township. A living has been instituted, which is in the
gift of the Vicar of Bradford; and there are places of
worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.
Clayton, with Frickley.—See Frickley.
CLAYTON, with Frickley.—See Frickley.
CLAYTON-GRIFFITH, a township, in the parish
of Trentham, union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford;
containing 56 inhabitants. This township adjoins the
south-western suburbs of Newcastle-under-Lyme, and
has a few scattered houses in the vicinity of the canal.
CLAYTON-LE-DALE, a township, in the parish,
union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4¼
miles (N. by W.) from Blackburn; containing 511 inhabitants. In the reign of Henry VIII. John Talbot, of
Salesbury, was the proprietor of this estate, which is
now held by the noble family of Warren. Showley
Hall, here, was once the seat of the Walmesley family.
The township lies on the road from Preston to Clitheroe,
and the river Ribble passes through it on the northwest, in which part there is much elevated land.
CLAYTON-LE-MOORS, a township, in the parish
of Whalley, union, and Lower division of the hundred,
of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster,
5½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Blackburn; containing 2602
inhabitants. Clayton-le-Moors, "the clayey district
among the Moors," gave the name of Clayton to a family,
who resided here as early as the reign of Henry II.
From this family the manor came by female heirs to the
Grimshaws and de Rishtons, and from them it descended
in moieties to the Lomaxes and Walmesleys: by the
marriage of Catherine Walmesley, who died in 1785,
with the seventh lord Petre, a moiety passed to his
lordship and devolved to his descendants. The township
lies on the road from Blackburn to Burnley, and the
village is distant about a mile and a half north-by-west
from the town of Accrington. The river Henbury passes
on the west side of the township. A district church,
All Saints', was erected in 1839: the living is in the gift
of Trustees. The Wesleyans have a place of worship;
and at Enfield is a Roman Catholic chapel. The Baptist
congregation originally at Oakenshaw, in Clayton-leMoors, removed to Accrington in 1735. Three schools
are supported by subscription.
CLAYTON-LE-WOODS, a township, in the parish
and hundred of Leyland, union of Chorley, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (N. by W.)
from Chorley, on the road to Preston; containing 795
inhabitants. This place was possessed by the Clayton
family as early as the 11th century: a moiety passed by
marriage to the Lees, and from them to the Hoghtons;
and the second moiety has been held by various families,
among whom have been the Orrells and Andertons.
The township comprises 1450a. 1r. 21p., mostly pasture
and meadow; about 24 acres are wood: the land is
elevated, the soil various, and the views pleasing. The
river Lostock flows through. Clayton Villa, with 40
acres around it, is the seat of Francis Anderton, Esq.;
and at Clayton Green is the neat residence of Thomas
Dewhurst, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for
£100 payable to Lord Skelmersdale, and £82 to the
vicar. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and
there is a Roman Catholic chapel, built in the year
1824. A school has the aid of an endowment of £9. 6.
CLAYTON, WEST, a township, in the parish of
High Hoyland, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding
of York, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1440 inhabitants. The township is situated on
the Wakefield and Denby-Dale road, and comprises by
computation 1080 acres, belonging to various proprietors. Several coal-mines are in operation. The
manufacture of fancy silk and worsted goods, for waistcoats, trowsers, and ladies' dresses, is carried on to a
considerable extent, and large mills have been erected
for these branches of industry, in which the greater part
of the population is employed: there is an extensive
worsted spinning-mill; and clogs are also manufactured.
The village is situated on a declivity, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. There are places of
worship for Independents, Baptists, Wesleyans, and
Methodists of the New Connexion.
Clayworth (St. Peter)
CLAYWORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of
East Retford, North-Clay division of the wapentake of
Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham,
6 miles (N. N. E.) from East Retford; containing 627 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the west by
the river Idle, and intersected by the Chesterfield canal,
comprises the townships of Clayworth and Wiseton,
the former containing 2076, and the latter 930, acres of
fertile land; the soil of Clayworth being a rich clay, and
that of Wiseton a fine red sandy mould. The living is
a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 10. 10.;
net income, £604, with a house; patron, the Bishop of
Lincoln. The tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £3. 5. only, the greater part of the parish being
tithe-free under an inclosure act passed at the close of
the last century, when 281 acres were allotted to the incumbent, now called Clayworth-highfield, or the Tithefarm. The church contains many ancient monumental
inscriptions. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
The Rev. William Sampson, in 1700, bequeathed land
now producing £57 per annum, as an endowment for a
CLEADON, a township, in the parish of Whitburn, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester
ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3½ miles
(N. by W.) from Sunderland; containing 257 inhabitants. Cleadon, or, as anciently written, Clivedon, Tower,
which was taken down at the close of the last century,
is mentioned so early as 1587, and was a square
building of two stages, leaded, and with a spiral stone
staircase to the top; it was attached to the east end
of the present old mansion, and commanded a very
extensive prospect. Limestone is obtained; and near
Marston rock is found a species of indurated marl, in
thin laminæ, very pliant, and hence termed flexible