Kirkby-Hall - Kirkby-Wharfe


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Samuel Lewis (editor)

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'Kirkby-Hall - Kirkby-Wharfe', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 692-697. URL: Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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KIRKBY-HALL, a township, in the parish of Little Ouseburn, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. E.) from Boroughbridge, and 13 (N. W.) from York; containing 54 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation more than 400 acres: the Hall is a handsome mansion, situated in a well-wooded park.

Kirkby-in-Ashfield (St. Wilfrid)

KIRKBY-IN-ASHFIELD (St. Wilfrid), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Broxstow and of the county of Nottingham, 5¼ miles (S. W.) from Mansfield; containing 2143 inhabitants. This parish, which extends along the border of the county of Derby, comprises by computation 5690 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture. The soil of the western portion is a light mould, resting on limestone, and of the eastern or forest portion, sandy; the surface is hilly, and the scenery agreeably diversified. In the northern part are five coal-mines in operation, and some quarries of excellent limestone, for the conveyance of which, and of the produce of the mines, facilities are afforded by the Mansfield railway to Pinxton, in the county of Derby, which passes through the parish. The small rivers Leen, Maun, and Erewash have their sources here, and afford an abundant supply of water. The village is large, and chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in frame-work knitting and the making of bobbin-net, which afford employment to about 500 persons. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 1. 8.; gross income, £730; patron, the Duke of Portland. The tithes were commuted for land under acts of inclosure in 1795 and 1804. The church is an ancient structure, in the earlier and later Norman styles, with a lofty tower; the nave is separated from the aisles on one side by a range of circular, and on the other by a series of pointed, arches. The hamlet of Kirkby-Woodhouse contains a chapel. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A school, erected by subscription in 1826, is maintained by the Duke of Portland, the rector, and the parish; another is supported by the Butterley Company, the duke, and rector; and a third by the duke and rector only.

Kirkby-in-Cleveland, or Kirkby-cum-Broughton (St. Augustine)

KIRKBY-IN-CLEVELAND, or Kirkby-cumBroughton (St. Augustine), a parish, in the union of Stokesley, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Great and Little Broughton, 712 inhabitants, of whom 201 are in the township of Kirkby, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Stokesley. The Balliols were anciently proprietors here, as were also the families of Kirkby and Eure; and much of the land appears to have been granted at an early period to religious houses, including those of Guisborough and Rivaulx. In the hamlet of Dromanby, in the parish, the monks of Fountains had some possessions by grants of different benefactors; and among other landowners have been the families of Stormey and Constable. The township of Kirkby and hamlet of Dromanby comprise 1680 acres, chiefly arable land, with some meadow and pasture; and the soil throughout the whole parish is a strong clay. The village, which is small, is at the foot of a range of the Cleveland hills. At Broughton, a part of the population is engaged in hand-loom weaving. The living comprises a discharged vicarage, and a sinecure rectory, the former valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 3., and the latter at £21. 8. 6½.; the Archbishop of York appoints to the rectory, and the Rector to the vicarage. The tithes of the former have been commuted for above £600, and of the latter for £155. The church, which has a square tower, was erected in 1815, upon the site of a smaller cruciform structure, which belonged to the monastery of Whitby and at the Dissolution came to the king, by whom it was granted to the archbishop, in exchange for other possessions. A free grammar school was founded in 1708, by Henry Edmunds, Esq., who endowed it with an estate producing £60 per annum.

Kirkby-in-Malham-Dale (St. James)

KIRKBY-IN-MALHAM-DALE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Settle, wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Settle; containing, with the townships of Airton, Calton, Hanlith, Malham, Malham-Moor, Otterburn, and Scosthorpe, 947 inhabitants, of whom 195 are in the township of Kirkby. The parish comprises by computation 22,130 acres, whereof 1590 are in this township; the land, for the greater part, is laid out for grazing, producing herbage of very fine quality, and a considerable portion is high moor. The village is situated in a deep valley, sheltered by the indigenous ash, and watered by the river Aire. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £89; patron, the Duke of Devonshire. The church is a large and handsome building, of the style that prevailed in the reign of Henry VII., and is the burial-place of the Lambert family, of whom General Lambert was distinguished, on the side of Cromwell, in the civil war: in the parish register is the signature of Cromwell, as having witnessed a marriage; and one of the bells was presented by Lambert. The free grammar school was founded in 1606, by John Topham, who endowed it with some land which, with £10 per annum given by Mr. B. Lambert, and £200 three per cent. consols. by Ann Nelson, and subsequent bequests, yields an income of £22.

Kirkby-Ireleth (St. Cuthbert)

KIRKBY-IRELETH (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Ulverston; containing 3449 inhabitants, and including the chapelries of Broughtonin-Furness, Seathwaite, and Woodland with Heathwaite, the township of Dunnerdale, the districts of Low-Quarter and Middle-Quarter, and the extra-parochial places of Waitham-Hill, Mosshouses, Marshfield, and Herdhouse. The parish is separated from that of Millom, in the county of Cumberland, by the river Duddon, which falls into the Irish Sea; it comprises, exclusively of waste and common, about 1000 acres of inclosed and cultivated land, with a tolerable portion of wood. The soil is of a clayey nature, alternated with tracts of lighter quality, and there are some good meadows; quarries are wrought of dark blue slate, which is conveyed to distant places. Railway communication has been opened up, to Whitehaven on the one side, and to Ramsyde, on Morecambe bay, on the other. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £125; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of York. The church contains several ancient monuments, and the windows exhibit some beautiful specimens of stained glass. There are chapels at Broughton-in-Furness, Woodland, and Seathwaite.

Kirkby-Laythorpe (St. Denis)

KIRKBY-LAYTHORPE (St. Denis), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Aswardhurn, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Sleaford; containing 213 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2400 acres of land of mixed cultivation: the village is seated on the north side of the road leading from Sleaford to Boston. The living is a rectory in medieties (to which the vicarage of Asgarby was united in 1737), valued jointly in the king's books at £9. 12. 6.; net income, £287; patron, the Marquess of Bristol: the impropriation of Asgarby belongs to Sleaford almshouses. The church was principally built in the fifteenth century, and has a low embattled tower, and a Norman door with some portions in the early, and others in the later, English style. There once existed another church, dedicated to St. Peter, the place having formed two parishes until 1593.

Kirkby-Lonsdale (St. Mary)

KIRKBY-LONSDALE (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Kendal, Lonsdale ward, county of Westmorland; comprising the chapelries of Barbon, Casterton, Firbank, Hutton-Roof, Killington, Mansergh, and Middleton, and the townships of Kirkby-Lonsdale and Lupton; and containing 4178 inhabitants, of whom 1629 are in the township of Kirkby-Lonsdale, 30 miles (S. by W.) from Appleby, and 252 (N. W. by W.) from London, on the great road from Kendal to Leeds. The name of this place is derived from its having been the chief town of the district which had a church, and the adjunct Lonsdale from its situation in a dale, or valley, on the western bank of the river Lon or Lune. The town is one of the largest in the county, and consists of several handsome streets, which are lighted, but not paved; the three principal ones meeting nearly in the centre, where is the market-place. The houses are well built of white hewn stone, and roofed with blue slate, and many of them have fine gardens attached; the inhabitants are supplied with water from a spring at Totley wood, one mile distant, by means of pipes, under the direction of a joint-stock company. A book society, supported by subscription, was founded in 1794. The manufacture of knit stockings, for which the place was famous, has declined; and the weaving of carpets, blankets, coarse linen, calico, and gingham, is now carried on, to a small extent. Approaching the town from Lancaster, the river Lune is crossed by a lofty stone bridge of great antiquity. The market is on Thursday; and fairs are held on Holy-Thursday and October 5th for horned-cattle and horses, and on St. Thomas' day for woollen-cloth. The market-place, formed in 1822, is a spacious quadrangle: in the fish-market is an ancient market-cross. A court-leet and view of frank-pledge for the manor are held in October; and petty-sessions for Lonsdale ward every Thursday. The powers of the county debt-court of Kirkby-Lonsdale, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Sedbergh, and part of the districts of Kendal, Settle, and Lancaster.

The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 15. 2.; net income, £250; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The church is a noble structure of great antiquity, with a square tower which was rebuilt in 1705; the interior is divided into four great aisles, by three rows of pillars, which support the roof: the arched doorway under the tower is evidently of Norman architecture; the east window, with light detached pillars, is in the early English style. Each of the chapelries forms a separate incumbency, and there was formerly a chapel at Tarn-side. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Glassites, or Sandemanians, have places of worship. The free grammar school was founded in 1591, by letters-patent of Queen Elizabeth, and endowed by Mr. Godshalfe and others; the endowment has been augmented, and produces about £50 per annum. There are four exhibitions, of £5 per annum each, to Queen's College, Oxford, founded by Henry Wilson in 1638; three, of about £20 each, to Christ's College, Cambridge, on the foundation of the Rev. Thomas Wilson, in 1626; and three at the same college, founded by Dr. Thomas Otway, Bishop of Ossory, who died in 1692. At Sellet Bank, about a mile and a half from the town, is a chalybeate spring; and according to tradition, an artificial mound in the neighbourhood, called Cock-Pit Hill, is the tumulus of one of the British kings. Lonsdale gives the title of Earl to the family of Lowther.

Kirkby-Mallory (All Saints)

KIRKBY-MALLORY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Hinckley; containing, with the chapelry of Earl-Shilton, 2479 inhabitants, of whom 259 are in the township of Kirkby-Mallory. This place derived its name from the family of Malory, its ancient lords, the first of whom noticed in history was Geoffrey, father of Sir Ankitell Malory, Knt., governor of Leicester Castle under Robert Blanchmains, Earl of Leicester, in the reign of Henry II. During the earl's rebellion against that sovereign, Sir Ankitell marched a body of troops to Northampton, and having defeated the citizens, returned to Leicester laden with plunder; his lands in consequence became forfeited, and were seized for the king, in 1174, but were restored to his son on payment of a fine of 60 marks, in the first year of the reign of John. In the reign of Edward III. the manor was sold to the monks of Leicester, in whose possession it continued till the Dissolution, when, together with the advowson of the living, it was granted by Henry VIII. to Thomas Harvey, from whom it passed to the family of Noel. At the residence of the Noels, called Kirkby Hall, and now one of the seats of the Earl of Chesterfield, Baxter, the nonconformist divine, composed his celebrated work entitled The Saints' Rest, while living under their protection during the rebellion. The parish is in a fertile district, and the surrounding scenery is enriched with timber of stately growth. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15, and in the patronage of Lady Byron, with a net income of £504: the tithes were commuted for land in 1771. The church is an ancient structure, with an embattled tower surmounted by a light cupola, and contains various interesting monuments. The parsonage-house is beautifully situated, commanding one of the finest views in the county. There is a chapel of ease at Earl-Shilton.

Kirkby-Malzeard (St. Andrew)

KIRKBY-MALZEARD (St. Andrew), a markettown and parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York; comprising the townships of Azerley, Fountains-Earth, Grewelthorpe, Kirkby-Malzeard, Laverton, Stonebeck-Down, and Upper Stonebeck, and the chapelry of Hartwith with Winsley; and containing 5180 inhabitants, of whom 900 are in the town, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Ripon. This place was the property of the Mowbray family, afterwards dukes of Norfolk, whose castle here was demolished in the reign of Henry II., and one of whom, John de Mowbray, obtained for the inhabitants in the reign of Edward I. a charter for a weekly market and two annual fairs, which, after having been discontinued for several centuries, were revived in 1816. The market is on Wednesday, and the fairs are on Whit-Monday and October 2nd. The parish comprises by computation 53,000 acres, of which 3421 are in the township of Kirkby-Malzeard; of the latter, 862 are common or waste. The surface is beautifully diversified with hills and dales, and the scenery abounds with interesting features; the soil in the valleys is fertile, and in good cultivation, but a considerable portion of the parish is high moor, affording only tolerable pasture. The living is a vicarage, with that of Masham united; net income, as returned in 1831, £384; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. The great tithes of the township of Kirkby-Malzeard have been commuted for £180, and the small for £55. The church has been repewed, and 350 additional sittings provided. There are separate incumbencies at Dallowgill in Laverton, Grewelthorpe, Hartwith, Mickley in Azerley, Middlesmoor, and Ramsgill in Stonebeck-Down.

Kirkby-Misperton (St. Lawrence)

KIRKBY-MISPERTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, partly in the union of Malton, and partly in that of Pickering, lythe of Pickering, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Barugh-Ambo, Great and Little Habton, and Ryton, 905 inhabitants, of whom 169 are in the township of Kirkby-Misperton, 8 miles (N.) from Malton. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Rye; the soil is in general a strong clay, but sandy in the northern part, and the scenery in many situations is picturesque. The village is on an eminence, and nearly at the junction of Ryedale with the vale of the Derwent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 1. 10½.; net income, £960; patron, Lord Feversham. The church is an ancient edifice, with a square tower. There is a chapel of ease at Ryton, and at Great Habton and Barugh are places of worship for Wesleyans.

Kirkby-Moorside (All Saints)

KIRKBY-MOORSIDE (All Saints), a markettown and parish, in the union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Fadmoor, Farndale West-side, and Farndale Low-Quarter, and the chapelry of Gillimoor, 2482 inhabitants, of whom 1905 are in the township of Kirkby-Moorside, 29 miles (N. by E.) from York, and 224 (N. by W.) from London. A Cistercian nunnery stood about a mile from the town; it was founded in the reign of Henry I. by Robert de Stuteville, and, on its Dissolution, had an income of £29. 6. 1. a year, and was granted to the Earl of Westmorland. In the year 1813, when its foundations were cleared away, several stone coffins were found. The manor was forfeited by the earl upon his attainder, in the reign of Elizabeth, and remained with the crown till it was bestowed by James I. upon his favourite, the Duke of Buckingham, whose son, after a life of dissipation, died here in comparative poverty. The estate was afterwards sold to Sir Charles Duncombe, ancestor of the present owner. The town is irregularly built on a rather elevated site, bounded on two sides by hills; and the scenery around is picturesque, embracing the vales of Kirkdale, Sleightholmedale, and Dowthwaite, and the eastern moors of Yorkshire, which border on the valleys. In the vicinity are several cornmills; a considerable quantity of malt is made; and near the town are limestone and freestone quarries, and coal-mines. The market is on Wednesday; and fairs are held on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week and Sept. 18th, for cattle, sheep, &c. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 0. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £417; impropriator, Lord Feversham: the glebe comprises 62½ acres, besides 30½ acres of moor allotment. The church is a neat edifice, and contains some ancient portions, with later insertions; it has some interesting memorials, among which is a curious marble monument with carved figures of Lady Brooke and her six sons and five daughters, all in a kneeling posture. There are chapels of ease at Cockan and Gillimoor; and the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, and Ranters, have places of worship. Some remains exist of the walls of the manor-house anciently belonging to the Neville family; and about three miles northward is a cairn, opened by Professor Phillips within the last few years, and left by him in a state to be examined by the curious. At a further distance of three miles in the same direction are three tumuli.

Kirkby-Overblow (All Saints)

KIRKBY-OVERBLOW (All Saints), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Stainburn, and the townships of Kearby with Netherby, Rigton, and Sicklinghall, 1623 inhabitants, of whom 381 are in the township of Kirkby-Overblow, 6 miles (W.) from Wetherby. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Wharfe, and comprises 8038a. 2r. 11p., of which 2555 acres are arable, 4700 meadow and pasture, and 146 woodland: in Kirkby-Overblow township are 2296 acres. The surface is elevated, and the higher grounds command some beautiful views over the fertile Wharfdale; the lands are in high cultivation. There are quarries of good building-stone, which is also used for the roads. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 1. 0½.; net income, £944; patron, Col. Wyndham. The tithes of Kirkby-Overblow and Kearby with Netherby have been commuted for £472, and the glebe consists of 72 acres. The church, which is a spacious and venerable structure, was made collegiate, prior to the year 1364, for a provost and four chaplains. At Stainburn is a chapel. There are four places of worship for Wesleyans in the parish, and four schools; one of the schools, built in 1782, is endowed with 11 acres of land.

Kirkby-Ravensworth (St. Peter and St. Felix)

KIRKBY-RAVENSWORTH (St. Peter and St. Felix), a parish, in the union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of York, 4¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Richmond; containing, with the townships of Ravensworth, Washton, Dalton, Gayles, New-Forest, and part of Newsham, 1451 inhabitants, of whom 109 are in the township of Kirkby-Ravensworth, or Kirkby-on-the-Hill. This parish comprises about 14,000 acres, of which a considerable number are moor, and the remainder arable, meadow, and pasture. Its surface is varied with hill and dale, and is in some parts well wooded; the soil is generally fertile. There are quarries of good freestone, two of which are extensively wrought; a copper-mine, also, discovered many years since, was wrought for a short time, but, not yielding a remunerating supply, was discontinued. The village, which is small but neatly built, is pleasantly situated on an eminence, commanding some fine views. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Bishop of Chester, as appropriator of the rectory, which is valued in the king's books at £25. 5. 2½. The church is a handsome edifice with a lofty embattled tower, erected in 1397, on the site of a more ancient church. The Grammar school and Hospital of St. John the Baptist were founded in 1556, by Dr. Dakyn, rector of the parish, who endowed them with lands at East Cowton, now producing £1100 per annum, for the instruction of boys, and the support of the aged and indigent. There are some remains of a castle founded by Bodin, ancestor of the Fitz-Hugh family.

Kirkby, South (All Saints)

KIRKBY, SOUTH (All Saints), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Skelbrooke, and the townships of North and South Elmsall, and Hamphall-Stubbs, 1528 inhabitants, of whom 602 are in the township of South Kirkby, 8½ miles (S.) from Pontefract. The parish comprises by measurement 5600 acres, of which about 100 are woodland and plantations; of the remainder, rather more than two-thirds are arable, and nearly one-third pasture. Limestone forms the principal substratum of the eastern part of the parish, perhaps of one-half of the whole; and the substratum of the remainder is clay and sandstone. A good quarry of sandstone usually employs about 15 hands, and large quantities of ridge stones are sent westward for the manufactories. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 10. 2½.; net income, £244; patron and incumbent, the Rev. G. Allott: the tithes were commuted for land and a cornrent in 1807. The church is a neat structure, in the later English style, with a lofty tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Kirkby-Stephen (St. Stephen)

KIRKBY-STEPHEN (St. Stephen), a market-town and parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland; comprising the townships of Hartley, Kaber, Kirkby-Stephen, Nateby, Smardale, Waitby, Wharton, and Winton, and the chapelries of Mallerstang and Soulby; and containing 2850 inhabitants, of whom 1345 are in the township of Kirkby-Stephen, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Brough, 11 (S. E. by S.) from Appleby, and 265 (N. N. W.) from London. This town, which derives the adjunct to its name from the saint to whom its church is dedicated, is pleasantly situated in a fertile plain, on the western bank of the river Eden, opposite the hills that separate this county from Yorkshire. It consists of one good street; the houses are well built, and the town is abundantly supplied with water. The inhabitants are partly employed in the woollen manufacture, and in knitting stockings; great quantities of stockings were formerly exposed for sale at the market, but the trade in this article is on the decline. There is a manufactory for spinning and carding wool. The market is on Monday, for corn, flour, oatmeal, and provisions. Fairs are held on the Monday before Shrove-Tuesday, and the Monday before March 20th, April 25th, and Oct. 2nd, for horned-cattle, horses, woollen-cloth, blankets, cotton goods, &c.; on Sept. 27th, chiefly for horses; and on October 29th, for cattle and sheep. There are fairs for hiring servants on the last Monday in June and the first Monday in July. On the north side of the market-place, which is spacious and convenient, is a market-house, erected in 1810, in pursuance of the will of Mr. John Waller. The county magistrates hold petty-sessions here once a month, and special sessions as often as required.

The parish comprises by computation 31,870 acres of land, of which the soil is in some parts fertile; the substratum is rich in mineral produce, and mines of copper, lead, and coal are in operation, but the coal-mines are not very productive. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £48. 19. 2.; net income, £356; patron, H. King, Esq.; impropriators, the Earl of Lonsdale, Sir George Musgrave, Bart., and others. The church is an ancient and spacious building, with a lofty tower, and contains sepulchral chapels belonging to Smardale Hall, Wharton Hall, and Hartley Castle. In the second of these is a fine alabaster monument with the effigies of Thomas, Lord Wharton, and his first and second wives; and in the last is a monumental figure of a man in armour, supposed to have been erected to the memory of Sir Andrew Harcla, Earl of Carlisle, and governor of Hartley Castle, who was beheaded for treason in the reign of Edward II. There are chapels at Soulby and Mallerstang; and places of worship in the parish for Independents and Wesleyans. The free grammar school, held in an ancient edifice formerly the rectoryhouse, was founded in the 8th of Elizabeth, by Thomas, Lord Wharton, and endowed with property producing £40 per annum.

Kirkby Thure or Thore (St. Michael)

KIRKBY THURE or THORE (St. Michael), a parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland; containing, with the chapelries of Milbourne and Temple-Sowerby, 1171 inhabitants, of whom 442 are in the township of Kirkby-Thure, 5¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Appleby. This place received its adjunct designation from Thor, the chief of the Saxon idols, to whose honour a temple was raised here. In 1684, an ancient well, some urns, and other earthen vessels, were discovered in the parish; and on turning up the site of an ancient fortress called Whelp Castle for cultivation, in 1687, a quadruple wall, some arched vaults, leaden pipes, and an altar inscribed Fortunæ Servatrici, were discovered, the supposed remains of the Roman station Brovonacœ, fixed by Horsley at this place. In 1770, the horns of a moose deer were dug up near the confluence of the rivers; and in removing the foundations of the old bridge, in 1838, a great number of additional Roman relics were found. An old house in the parish, called the Spital, is said to have belonged to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. The parish comprises by measurement 2425 acres; two-thirds are arable, and with the exception of about 50 acres of wood, the remainder is pasture. The soil near the river is a sandy loam, and on the higher lands gravel, alternated with clay; the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the lower grounds are intersected by the rivers Eden and Troutbeck, which unite at the village. The village, which is of considerable extent, was partly built with the ruins of Whelp Castle, which occupied an adjacent eminence. In 1838, a bridge was erected across the Troutbeck, at a cost of £1000: along this, passes the road from Appleby to Penrith. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £37. 17. 11.; net income, £750; patron, the Earl of Thanet: the tithes were commuted for land in 1812. The church is an ancient structure. There are chapels at Temple-Sowerby and Milbourne; also a place of worship for Wesleyans, and a school with a trifling endowment. Near the village is a sulphureous spring, called Pots Well, which rises from an alabaster rock, considerably below the surface of the ground.

Kirkby-Underdale (All Saints)

KIRKBY-UNDERDALE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Pocklington, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 6½ miles (N.) from Pocklington; containing 324 inhabitants. It is on the road from Bridlington to York, and comprises by computation 5049 acres, of which 3549 are arable, 1260 pasture, and 240 woodland. The surface is diversified by hill and dale; the soil is a loam, with flint in the higher grounds, and clay in the valleys. One of the highest hills is about 800 feet above the level of the sea, and descends gradually to the plain of York; another hill is of the oolite formation, being the only one of the kind for many miles distant. The village stands near a rapid declivity of the Wolds, and the scenery around is varied and pleasing. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £840. 10., and the glebe comprises 91 acres. The church is an ancient edifice in the Norman style, with a square tower, and very picturesquely situated; it underwent a thorough repair, at a considerable expense, in 1827. Dr. Thirlwall, Bishop of St. David's, was rector from 1833 to 1840.

Kirkby-Underwood (St. Mary and All Saints)

KIRKBY-UNDERWOOD (St. Mary and All Saints, a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Bourne; containing 192 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 4.; net income, £170; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for land in 1803. An almshouse was endowed with a rent-charge of £59. 3. by Richard Brownlow, Esq., in 1638, for six poor men, and a woman to attend on them.

Kirkby-Upon-Bain (St. Mary)

KIRKBY-UPON-BAIN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, S. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Horncastle; containing, with the township of Tumby, 680 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 6½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £653. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1796. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a school endowed with land now producing £60 per annum, by Richard Brocklesby, in 1713.

Kirkby-Wharfe (St. John the Baptist)

KIRKBY-WHARFE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 2¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Tadcaster; containing, with the townships of Grimston and Ulleskelf, 744 inhabitants, of whom 81 are in the township of Kirkby-Wharfe with North Milford. This parish, which is situated in the picturesque valley of Wharfdale, comprises by measurement 3192 acres, whereof 1660 are arable, 1427 meadow and pasture, and 105 woodland and plantations. Of the whole, about 1240 acres are in Kirkby-Wharfe with North Milford, the property of Lord Howden. The surface is undulated, and the scenery enriched with woods. The soil is extremely fertile, producing fine crops of wheat and other grain, and the meadows and pastures are luxuriant; the substratum is chiefly freestone of good quality for building, and whinstone affording excellent materials for the roads. The village is on the south bank of the Wharfe. The York and North-Midland railway passes through Ulleskelf, and is carried over the river by a bridge. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 16. 8.; net income, £117; patron, the Archbishop of York. The church is an ancient structure, in the early Norman style, with a tower of later date; it has been repewed, and the number of sittings has been increased by the erection of a gallery, which has by no means improved the appearance of the interior: there are numerous ancient monuments of the date 1300, and some very beautiful specimens of carved oak. At Ulleskelf is a place of worship for Wesleyans.