Norham, or Norhamshire (St. Cuthbert)
NORHAM, or Norhamshire (St. Cuthbert), a
parish, in the union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N.
division of Northumberland; containing 2934 inhabitants, of whom 902 are in the township of Norham,
7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Berwick. The doctrines of
Christianity are stated to have been first preached to the
Northumbrians, by the Scottish missionaries, at Norham;
and on the establishment of a see for Northumbria, this
place was given to Aidan, the first bishop. It continued
in the possession of his successors until the time of
Bishop Barnes, who alienated his rights to the crown:
the bishops exercised a special jurisdiction throughout
the district, having their sheriff, coroner, justices, and
other civil officers, their court of exchequer, gallows, &c.
Being situated on a pass or ford on the river Tweed,
called Ubbanford, upon the borders of England and
Scotland, Norham was frequently the scene of rapine
and bloodshed, and the place of meeting between the
principal officers of the two kingdoms for settling affairs
relative to the border. Bishop Flambard, in 1121, probably erected the first regular fortress. Having been enlarged and strengthened by succeeding prelates, the castle,
when well garrisoned, was deemed almost impregnable.
David I., King of Scotland, however, in 1138 took and
destroyed the town and fortress after a spirited resistance; but they were rebuilt in 1154, by Bishop Pudsey,
who erected the present great tower of the castle, and
conferred extensive privileges by charter on the inhabitants.
Various treaties between the Scots and King John
were arranged here; and in 1215, that monarch, in consequence of the defection of the Northumbrian barons,
and their having sworn homage to the Scottish king
(Alexander II.), laid siege to the castle, which held out
successfully for forty days, when he was obliged to
withdraw his forces. In 1318, it was unsuccessfully
besieged by the Scots, who, however, were more fortunate in an attack in 1322; they then obtained possession
of it, but were soon afterwards compelled to abandon
the prize, after having for ten days resisted an assault
of Edward II. Upon the accession of Edward III.,
they stormed the castle with success, and retained it a
short time. The town was plundered and burnt in
1355, by a party of Scottish troops, under the command
of Sir William Ramsay; in 1498 the castle was besieged
by the Scottish monarch himself, but the Earl of Surrey
advancing to the relief of the garrison, the assailants
were compelled to retire. Just before the battle of
Flodden-Field the Scots again invested the fortress,
which fell into their hands through information given
by a deserter from the garrison. The remains of this
strong edifice occupy the summit of a steep rocky eminence impending over the river, and so near that portions have been washed away by the stream; the keep
or main tower, with its vaults and prisons entire, is
the principal part, and is constructed of a soft red
The parish consists of the townships of Duddo, Felkington, Grindon, Horncliffe, Loan-End, Longridge, Norham, Norham-Mains, Shoreswood, Thornton, and Twizel.
It comprises by computation 14,000 acres: the soil is
various; the substratum abounds with coal, of which
several mines are in operation, and there are some
quarries of stone, raised for ordinary building purposes.
Here is a considerable salmon-fishery; and fairs take
place on the second Thursday in May, and the third
Thursday in October. A market was formerly held, but
it has been long discontinued. The living is a vicarage,
valued in the king's books at £15. 6. 8., and in the gift
of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, who are likewise
appropriators: the vicarial tithes have been commuted
for £460, and the glebe comprises 24 acres. The church,
built about 1180, comprises only part of the original
edifice, the tower and aisles having been rebuilt in
1837, and a north and south transept in 1838; it had
anciently three chantries in honour of St. Cuthbert, the
Blessed Virgin Mary, and St. Nicholas, and possessed
the privilege of sanctuary for thirty-seven days. The
remains of Ceolwulph, a lineal descendant of Ida, and
King of Northumbria, were brought from Lindisfarne
and buried at Norham, where also Gospatric, Earl of
Northumberland, was interred. There is a place of
worship in connexion with the United Secession Synod
of Scotland; also a free school, originally founded in
1762, and rebuilt in 1809, and which is endowed with
about twenty acres of land, producing an annual income
of £36. About two miles below Norham, on the banks
of the river Tweed, two urns containing human bones
have been found in a gravel-pit called the Crooks, near
which are the pedestals of two ancient crosses, also an
artificial eminence, probably a barrow, surrounded by
stone steps. There are some Druidical remains, and
vestiges of a Roman camp. The learned Dr. George
Carleton, successively Bishop of Llandaff and of Chichester, who died in 1628, was born here.
NORHAM-MAINS, a township, in the parish of
Norham, union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, N. division
of Northumberland, 6½ miles (S. W. by W.) from
Berwick; containing 98 inhabitants. It is on the borders of Scotland, close to the Tweed, which runs on the
north-west; and comprises about 950 acres. The tithes
have been commuted for £287. 11. 8., payable to the
Dean and Chapter of Durham.
NORLAND, a township, in the chapelry of SowerbyBridge, parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of
Morley, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (S. W.) from
Halifax; containing 1670 inhabitants, partly engaged
in the woollen manufacture. The township comprises
by computation 1140 acres of land. The substratum is
principally millstone-grit, of which there is a large outcrop at Butterworth-End, beyond which, and nearer to
North Dean, a quarry is extensively wrought; a belt
of plate coal is also discernible within the group of
middle millstone, in the cuttings for the line of the
Manchester and Leeds railway. The township consists
chiefly of detached houses and small hamlets, scattered
over the southern acclivity of the vale of Calder. There
is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NORLEY, a township, in the lordship of Kingsley,
parish of Frodsham, union of Runcorn, hundred of
Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester,
5 miles (S. E.) from Frodsham, on the road to Northwich; containing 615 inhabitants. The township comprises 1304 acres, of a sandy soil. Norley Hall, with
1000 acres of land, is the property of Samuel Woodhouse, Esq.: Norley Bank, a modern mansion, is the
seat of Egerton Warburton, Esq. A church was
erected here in 1832; it is a neat stone building, with a
tower. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the family of Woodhouse; net income, £100.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Normanby (St. Peter and St. Paul)
NORMANBY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish,
in the E. division of the wapentake of Aslacoe, parts
of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 7 miles (W.
by S.) from Market-Rasen; containing 471 inhabitants.
It is bounded on the east by the river Ancholme, and
comprises by computation 1600 acres; the substratum
contains good limestone, which is burnt for manure, and
also used for the roads. The living is a discharged
vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; net income,
£88; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter
of Lincoln: the tithes were commuted for land in 1789.
The church is an ancient structure, partly in the Norman
and early English styles. There is a place of worship
for Wesleyans; and a school is endowed with about 16
acres of land, purchased with £200 bequeathed by Mrs.
Dunn, and producing £25 per annum.
NORMANBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Burtonupon-Stather, union of Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey,
county of Lincoln; containing 130 inhabitants.
NORMANBY, a township, in the parish of Stow,
union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Well, parts of
Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7¾ miles (S. E.) from
Gainsborough; containing 24 inhabitants.
NORMANBY, a parish, in the union of Pickering,
wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York; containing,
with Thornton-Risebrough township, 245 inhabitants,
of whom 212 are in the township of Normanby, 6 miles
(W. S. W.) from Pickering. This parish, which is supposed
to have derived its name from one of its ancient proprietors, comprises 2300 acres, whereof two-thirds are arable,
and the remainder, including about 15 acres of woodland, meadow and pasture; the surface is undulated,
and the scenery richly diversified. The small village is
situated on the road from Malton to Kirkby-Moorside,
and very near the river Seven, which falls into the Rye
a little above Newsham bridge. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 6.;
patron, R. Hill, Esq.: the tithes of the parish have been
commuted for £490, and the glebe consists of 10 acres.
The church is an ancient structure in the Norman style,
with a low tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In the parish is a sulphureous mineral spring,
the water of which contains carbonic acid and a small
portion of neutral salt.
NORMANBY-IN-CLEVELAND, a township, in the
chapelry of Eston, parish of Ormesby, union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh,
N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Guisborough; containing 134 inhabitants. At the time of
the Domesday survey, lands were held here by the king,
the Earl of Morton, and the family of Mallet; amongst
the proprietors since that date, occur the families of
Brus, Thweng, Morley, and Pennyman. The township
comprises 1640 acres: the river Tees runs at a short
distance to the north. The village, which is small, is
situated close to Eston, and on the road from Yarm to
Kirk-Leatham. The tithes have been commuted for
£179, payable to the Archbishop of York.
Normanby-on-the-Wold (St. Peter)
NORMANBY-on-the-Wold (St. Peter), a parish,
in the union of Caistor, N. division of the wapentake
of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln,
4 miles (N. by E.) from Market-Rasen; containing 129
inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1952 acres
of land: the substratum abounds with stone of good
quality for the roads and for rough building. The
living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Claxby
in 1740, and valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 10.
The church is an ancient structure, and appears to have
been formerly much larger than at present; it contains
some richly-carved oak seats. In the churchyard are
the remains of a beautiful cross.
NORMANDY, a tything, in the parish of Ash, First
division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of
Surrey, 5¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Guildford; containing 304 inhabitants. This tything belongs to the domain
of Henley Park, and consists principally of a single farm,
with an extensive right of common: the farm was
tenanted by the late William Cobbett; and many of
his Political Registers, and other papers of interest, were
NORMANTON, a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of
the county of Derby, 2 miles (S.) from Derby; containg 309 inhabitants. It comprises 1302 acres, of
strong red marl land. The manor was granted in 1234
to the monks of Derby, and by Henry VIII. in 1544 to
the Babingtons, from whom it passed to the Beaumonts,
and the Dixies: the seat of these families was a ruin in
1712. The village is indifferently built. The Derby
canal crosses the north-east part of the parish, and the
Birmingham and Derby railway passes through it. The
living is annexed to the vicarage of St. Peter in Derby.
The church is very ancient, and though much defaced,
contains some beautiful Norman details; it consists of
a nave and chancel, with a low tower and short spire.
The Independents and Primitive Methodists have places
NORMANTON, a hamlet, and formerly a chapelry,
in the parish of Bottesford, union of Grantham,
hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of
Leicester, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from the town of
Grantham; containing 103 inhabitants.
Normanton (St. Nicholas)
NORMANTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the
union of Grantham, wapentake of Loveden, parts of
Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7¼ miles (N. N. E.) from
the town of Grantham; containing 200 inhabitants.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's
books at £10. 2. 6.; net income, £104; patron, the
Marquess of Bristol. The church is partly Norman,
and partly in the early English style, with a curious
tower, and a large stone font.
NORMANTON, a hamlet, in the parish and union
of Southwell, Southwell division of the wapentake of
Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 1 mile (N. E. by N.) from Southwell; containing
70 inhabitants. Here was formerly a chapel, the ruins
of which are now used as a barn.
Normanton (St. Matthew)
NORMANTON (St. Matthew), a parish, in the
union of Oakham, hundred of Martinsley, county of
Rutland, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Oakham; containing
28 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the
north-west by the small river Gwash, comprises 705a.
3r. 24p. The soil is partly clay, and partly light red
sand; the surface is undulated, and the scenery pleasingly varied. Stone of good quality is quarried for the
roads. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the
king's books at £5. 4. 7.; net income, £156; patron,
Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart.: the glebe comprises 22
acres. The church has been mostly rebuilt. The parish
formerly constituted a part of that of Hambleton, to the
incumbent of which the rector pays a small sum annually, in lieu of the tithes of calves and chickens, and
surplice fees. There is a chalybeate spring.
Normanton (All Saints)
NORMANTON (All Saints), a parish, in the Lower
division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of
York; containing, with the townships of Altofts and
Snydale, 1323 inhabitants, of whom 481 are in Normanton township, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Wakefield.
The parish comprises about 4000 acres; the soil is rich,
and in good cultivation. The Midland railway is joined
at Normanton by the Manchester and Leeds line; and
a little beyond this place, the York and North-Midland
railway diverges towards York. An excavation through
a rocky soil was made here, to the extent of 500,000
cubic yards; the greater portion of the earth was used
in forming the embankment at Altofts, where the railway is carried over the Calder by a viaduct. The village,
since the completion of the railway, which has a station
here, has become of considerable importance; and a
spacious hotel has been erected at a vast expense, for
the accommodation of the numerous passengers who
arrive by the York, Sheffield, Manchester, and Leeds
trains. The station comprises a depôt for merchandise,
with every requisite for facilitating the traffic on the
line. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the
king's books at £7; patrons and appropriators, the
Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge: the
great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £676,
and the small for £139; the appropriate glebe consists
of 2 acres, and the vicarial of 75. The church is a neat
structure with a tower.
NORMANTON-LE-HEATH, a chapelry, in the
parish of Nailstone, union of Ashby-de-la-Zouch,
hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of
Leicester, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Ashby; containing
235 inhabitants. The chapel is an ancient fabric, on an
eminence. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
NORMANTON-ON-THE-WOLDS, a township, in
the parish of Plumtree, union of Bingham, N. division of the wapentake of Rushcliffe, S. division of
the county of Nottingham, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from
Nottingham; containing 230 inhabitants. The tithes
have been commuted for £225. 15. 6.
Normanton, South (St. Mary)
NORMANTON, SOUTH (St. Mary), a parish, in
the union of Mansfield, hundred of Scarsdale, N.
division of the county of Derby, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from
Alfreton; containing 1288 inhabitants. This parish, for
many generations from the time of the Conquest, was
the residence of the family of Revel, whose mansion was
at Carnfield Hall. It lies on the Mansfield and Alfreton
road, and comprises 1879a. 2r. 31p., nearly equally
divided into arable and pasture, with a few plantations.
The surface is undulated; the soil clay, cold, and unproductive; and the scenery pleasingly diversified: the
substratum abounds with coal of good quality, of which
some mines are in operation. The village is situated on
an eminence; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in
the collieries, and in frame-work knitting, which is carried on to a considerable extent. The living is a rectory,
valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 5., and in the gift
of Thomas Radford, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £285, and the glebe comprises 60 acres, with
a house. The church is an ancient structure, with two
aisles, and a tower and pinnacles: the communion-plate,
which is very handsome, was presented by the family of
Revel. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have
places of worship. There is a small day school; and a
Church Sunday school, built in 1840, is supported by
subscription. Fossil remains of plants, fish, and shells
are sometimes found. Jedediah Strutt, Esq., the ingenious inventor of the machine for manufacturing ribbed
stockings, was born here.
NORMANTON, TEMPLE, a chapelry, in the parish
and union of Chesterfield, hundred of Scarsdale,
N. division of the county of Derby, 3¼ miles (S. E.)
from the town of Chesterfield; containing 132 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage
of Miss Lord; net income, £55. A school is supported
by subscription, aided by a small endowment and a
house for the master.
NORMANTON-TURVILLE, a hamlet, in the parish
of Thurlaston, union of Blaby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5¾ miles
(N. E. by E.) from Hinckley; with 48 inhabitants.
Normanton-Upon-Soar (St. John)
NORMANTON-UPON-SOAR (St. John), a parish,
in the union of Loughborough, S. division of the
wapentake of Rushcliffe and of the county of Nottingham, 4½ miles (N. N. W.) from Loughborough;
containing 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises by
measurement 1300 acres. The surface is varied, rising
into hills of considerable elevation; the substratum
abounds with limestone of excellent quality, which is
extensively quarried for building, and for burning into
lime. The river Soar bounds, and the Midland railway
passes through, the parish. The living is a rectory,
valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 0½., and in the
gift of J. Buckley, Esq., and others: the tithes were
commuted for land in 1776; the glebe altogether comprises 243 acres, valued at £400 per annum. The
church is a very ancient cruciform structure, of which
the north transept is entirely, and the south partly, a
ruin. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Normanton-Upon-Trent (St. Matthew)
NORMANTON-UPON-TRENT (St. Matthew), a
parish, in the union of East Retford, N. division of
the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the
county of Nottingham, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Tuxford; containing 362 inhabitants. This parish, which
is bounded on the east by the river Trent, comprises
1163a. 2r. 19p.: the village is pleasantly situated on an
acclivity. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in
the king's books at £4. 5.; net income, £154; patron
and incumbent, the Rev. W. Doncaster. On the inclosure of the open fields in 1804, 56½ acres were allotted
to the vicar in lieu of tithes. There is a place of worship
for Wesleyan Methodists.