Subberthwaite - Sullington

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

256-261

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'Subberthwaite - Sullington', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 256-261. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51317 Date accessed: 23 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Subberthwaite

SUBBERTHWAITE, a township, in the parish and union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 7½ miles (N. by W.) from Ulverston; containing 147 inhabitants. Here are quarries of slate.

Suckley (St. John the Baptist)

SUCKLEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Martley, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 10 miles (W. S. W.) from Worcester; containing, with the hamlets of Alfrick and Lulsley, 1153 inhabitants, of whom 599 are in the township of Suckley. This parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Teme, and on the west by the county of Hereford, comprises 5184 acres, whereof 2693 are in Suckley township. About two-thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow, pasture, orchard, and woodland; a part of the arable land is appropriated to the growth of hops. The surface is undulated; the soil, generally, a fertile clay, with a substratum of transition limestone and conglomerate; and the scenery, especially along the chain of the Suckley hills, beautifully picturesque. The lands, with the exception of a few acres, are all freehold: Earl Somers is lord of the manor. The population is chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits, and many of the females in making gloves for the Worcester manufacturers. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 14. 9½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £732 payable to the rector, and £51. 4. 6. to the grammar school of Stourbridge; the glebe consists of 16 acres, and there is a parsonage-house. The church is an ancient structure with a massive square tower, standing in the middle of the parish, and contains several monuments in good preservation. At Alfrick and Lulsley are chapels of ease; and in Suckley township is a place of worship for Lady Huntingdon's Connexion. A free school is endowed with £10. 10. per annum, arising from bequests by J. Palmer, Esq., in 1628, and by an unknown benefactor. Thomas Freeman, Esq., in 1794, bequeathed £1000, which were invested in lands now producing £46 per annum; and there are several smaller bequests for the poor.

Sudborne (All Saints)

SUDBORNE (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Plomesgate, E. division of Suffolk, 1½ mile (N. by E.) from Orford; containing 623 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the sea and the river Ore, comprises 5400 acres. Sudborne Hall, formerly the seat of the viscounts Hereford, is now the property of the Marquess of Hertford. The living is a rectory, with that of Orford annexed, valued in the king's books at £33. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes of Sudborne have been commuted for £478. 8. Dr. Pretyman Tomline, Bishop of Winchester, was rector of the parish.

Sudborough (All Saints)

SUDBOROUGH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Thrapstone, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3 miles (N. W.) from Thrapstone; containing 332 inhabitants, and comprising 1764 acres. A considerable number of the women are employed in lace-making. An extensive brewery is carried on. Stone is procured for building and for the roads, and here is a large brick-yard. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 10., and in the gift of the Bishop of London: the tithes have been commuted for £359, and the glebe comprises 40 acres: a new rectory-house was built by the present incumbent, the Rev. W. Duthy, in 1826. The church is in the early, decorated, and later English styles, and contains some ancient brasses and monuments. A Sunday school was founded by the Marchioness of Bath, in 1788, and endowed with £366.13. 4. three per cent, reduced annuities; she directed that 30 boys and 30 girls should be instructed in the principles of the Established Church, the master and mistress to be paid one penny a week for each child, and the remainder of the fund to be expended in firing, and in books and rewards for the children.

Sudbrook, or Southbrook (The Trinity)

SUDBROOK, or Southbrook (The Trinity), a parish, in the union and division of Chepstow, hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Chepstow. This place, which is situated near the mouth of the Severn, where it joins the Bristol Channel, can now be considered only as a hamlet; a great portion of it has been either encroached upon, or washed away, by the combined operations of the tide and the waters of the river. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Portscuete, and valued in the king's books at £4. 14. 7. The church is in ruins: near it are the remains of a Roman encampment, the greater part of which has disappeared.

Sudbrooke

SUDBROOKE,a hamlet, in the parish of Ancaster, poor-law union of Grantham, wapentake of Loveden, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln; containing 192 inhabitants.

Sudbrooke (St. Edward)

SUDBROOKE (St. Edward), a parish, in the wapentake of Lawress, parts of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 4¾ miles (N. E.) from Lincoln; containing 81 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10., and in the gift of the Bishop of Lincoln: the tithes have been commuted for £56.

Sudbury (All Saints)

SUDBURY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Uttoxeter, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Uttoxeter; containing 599 inhabitants. The river Dove forms its southern boundary. The parish comprises about 3600 acres of land, mostly pasture and dairy-farms; the surface is undulated, the soil various, and the scenery picturesque, and well timbered. Sudbury Hall, the property of Lord Vernon, is a fine mansion of brick, in the Elizabethan style, erected in the early part of the 17th century, and contains many stately apartments; the south front overlooks the Derby and Uttoxeter road, and a beautiful terrace, tasteful flower-gardens, and a fine lake, cover about thirty acres. The park consists of about 600 acres, with a large stock of deer, and has a spacious carriage-drive two miles in length. This delightful retreat was the residence of the Dowager Queen Adelaide from August 1840 to the year 1843. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 13. 1½.; patron, Lord Vernon: the tithes have been commuted for £600, and there are 110 acres of glebe, with an excellent rectory-house. The church is a venerable structure, mantled with ivy, and stands at the west end of the village, in the pleasure-grounds of the Hall. It consists of a nave, a beautiful chancel, two aisles, and a tower, and having been put into thorough repair in 1830, is now one of the handsomest village churches in the kingdom: there are some ancient monuments to the Montgomery and Vernon families. Schools are supported by Lord Vernon; and besides almshouses for seven persons, are several minor charities.

Sudbury

SUDBURY, a hamlet, in the parish of Harrow-onthe-Hill, union of Hendon, hundred of Gore, county of Middlesex; containing 566 inhabitants. Here is a church dedicated to St. John, the living of which is in the gift of the Misses Copland.

Sudbury

SUDBURY, a borough and market-town, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 22 miles (W. by S.) from Ipswich, and 56 (N. E. by N.) from London; containing 5085 inhabitants. This place, originally called South Burgh, is of great antiquity, and at the period of the Norman survey was of considerable importance, having a market and a mint. A colony of the Flemings who were introduced into this country by Edward III. for the purpose of establishing the manufacture of woollen-cloth, settled here, and that branch of trade continued to flourish for some time, but at length fell to decay. The town is situated on the river Stour, which is crossed at Sudbury by a bridge leading into Essex. For some time after the loss of the woollen trade, it possessed few attractions, and the houses belonged principally to decayed manufacturers; but within the present century it has been greatly improved. It was paved and lighted in 1825, under an act of parliament, which was amended and the powers enlarged in 1842. The town-hall, erected by the corporation, in the Grecian style, is a great ornament to the town, in which is also a neat theatre. The trade now principally consists in the manufacture of silk and crape, and bunting for ships' flags; that of silk was introduced about 40 years ago by manufacturers from Spitalfields, in consequence of disputes with their workmen: about 1500 persons are engaged in the silk, and 400 in the crape and bunting business. The river Stour, which is navigable hence to Manningtree, affords a facility for the transmission of coal, chalk, lime, and agricultural produce. An act was passed in 1846 for effecting a railway communication with Colchester. The statute market is on Saturday, the corn-market on Thursday; and fairs are held on March 12th and July 10th, chiefly for earthenware, glass, and toys.


Arms.

A charter of incorporation was granted by Queen Mary in 1554, and confirmed by Elizabeth in 1559; another was given by Oliver Cromwell, but that from which the corporation till lately derived its power was bestowed by Charles II. The government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the number of magistrates is five. The borough first sent members to parliament in the commencement of the reign of Elizabeth, and continued to exercise that privilege until the year 1844, when the inhabitants were disfranchised by a special act of parliament. The powers of the county debt-court of Sudbury, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Sudbury, and part of that of Cosford. The recorder holds courts of quarter-session.


Corporation Seal.

Sudbury comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Gregory, and St. Peter, containing respectively 1262, 1897, and 1926, inhabitants. The living of All Saints' is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 11, 5½.; net income, £119; patrons, the Rev. Charles Simeon's Trustees. The living of St. Gregory's is a perpetual curacy, with that of St. Peter's annexed; net income, £l60; patron, the Rev. II. Maclean. The churches are of considerable antiquity, and are spacious and handsome structures, mostly in the later English style, of which they present some fine specimens, though generally much defaced. In that of All Saints is a curious monument to the Eden family, whose pedigree is painted on the walls: the pulpit is remarkably beautiful. St. Gregory's, which is the most ancient, was collegiate until Henry VIII. granted its site and other possessions, for the sum of £1280, to Sir T. Paston, Knt.: the font is very magnificent; and in a niche in the vestry-room wall, inclosed with an iron-grating, is a head supposed to be that of Symon de Theobald or de Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury in the time of Richard II., and a native of this town, who was beheaded by the mob in Wat Tyler's rebellion.

A free grammar school was instituted in 1491, under the will of William Wood, warden of Sudbury College, who endowed it with a farm now worth about £100 per annum. The hospital of St. Leonard here, for lepers, was founded by John Colneys, and endowed by Symon de Sudbury with about five acres of land, a chapel, and a dwelling-house; it is applied towards the maintenance of the poor. From a bequest by Thomas Carter in 1706. fifty men receive coats, and fifty women gowns, on St. Thomas's day; and there are several smaller charities for the benefit of the indigent. The union of Sudbury comprises 42 parishes or places, 24 of which are in the county of Suffolk, and 18 in that of Essex; the population amounts to 30,048. The college of St. Gregory, for secular priests, established by Symon de Sudbury, was richly endowed, and was valued at the period of the Dissolution at £122. 18. 3. per annum; its only remains are the gateway, and portions of a wall now forming part of the workhouse. A gateway which was part of a monastery of Augustine friars, is to be seen in Friar's-street. An hospital was founded in the reign of King John, by Amicia, Countess of Clare, which was afterwards given to the monks of Stoke; and there was also a Benedictine cell to the abbey of Westminster, instituted in the reign of Henry II. About half a mile from the town is a spring of pure water, which, from its supposed efficacy in curing diseases, is called by the inhabitants "Holy water." Sudbury is the birthplace of Gainsborough, the celebrated painter. It gives the inferior title of Baron to the Duke of Grafton.

Sudeley-Manor (St. Mary)

SUDELEY-MANOR (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 1 mile (S. S. E.) from Winchcomb; containing 84 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 11. 5½.; net income, £45; patron, LordRivers. The church, which has remained in a dilapidated state ever since the injury it sustained in the great civil war, was the burial-place of Queen Catherine Parr, and of several members of the family of Bridges. The ancient castle is said to have been built ex spoliis Gallorum, by Boteler, Lord Sudeley, a celebrated warrior, in the reigns of Henry V. and VI., who sold it to Edward IV., for fear of confiscation. It was granted by Edward VI. to his uncle, Lord Seymour, who espoused Queen Catherine Parr; and Mary bestowed it upon Sir John Bridges, created by her Baron Chandos of Sudeley, whose grandson, the third Lord Chandos, entertained Queen Elizabeth here in 1592. George, the sixth lord, having embraced the cause of Charles I., reduced the castle to its present state of ruin: the remains are considerable and interesting. C. Hanbury Tracy, Esq., was created Baron Sudeley, in 1838.

Suffield (St. Margaret)

SUFFIELD (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (W. by N.) from North Walsingham; containing 249 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the rectory of Gunton and the vicarage of Hanworth, and valued in the king's books at £14: the tithes have been commuted for £350, and the glebe comprises 10½ acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower; it contains monuments to the Morden and Clough families, and the remains of a richly carved screen. Thomas Bulwer, in 1693, bequeathed property now let for £12. 10. per annum, for distribution among the poor; and the Rev. Thomas Symonds, in 1682, left land producing £15 per annum, to be divided among six widows. Lord Suffield derives his title from the parish.

Suffield, with Everley

SUFFIELD, with Everley, a township, in the parish of Hackness, union of Scarborough, liberty of Whitby-Strand, N, riding of York, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Scarborough; containing 132 inhabitants. The township comprises 1394 acres, of which 561 are arable, 469 pasture, 97 wood, and 267 waste or moor. The village of Suffield is situated east of the Derwent, about a mile north-east from that of Everley.

Suffolk

SUFFOLK, a maritime county, bounded on the east by the North Sea, or German Ocean, on the north by the county of Norfolk, on the west by that of Cambridge, and on the south by that of Essex. It extends from 51° 56' to 52° 36' (N. Lat.), and from 23' to 1° 44' (E. Lon.), and comprises an area of about 1512 square miles, or 967,680 statute acres. There are 64,041 inhabited houses, 2352 uninhabited, and 574 in progress of erection; and the population amounts to 315,073, of whom 154,095 are males, and 160,978 females.

At the period of the Roman invasion, the county formed part of the territory inhabited by the Iceni or Cenomanni, who, according to Whitaker, were descended from the Cenomanni of Gaul; under the Roman dominion it was included in the division of Flavia Ccesariensis. After the withdrawal of the Roman legion, Cerdic, one of the earliest Saxon invaders, founder of the kingdom of Wessex, landed in 495 at a place subsequently called Cerdic Sand, in the hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, forming the north-eastern extremity of the county; and having gained some advantages over the opposing Britons, set sail for the western parts of the island. During the succeeding invasions of the Saxons, the territory now comprised in the counties of Suffolk, Cambridge, and Norfolk, was erected by Uffa, about the year 575, into the kingdom of East Anglia, when the relative position of this district obtained for its inhabitants the name of Suthfolc, or southern people (in contradistinction to the inhabitants of Norfolk), whence, by contraction, its modern name.

Under the act 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, Suffolk is partly in the diocese of Norwich, and partly in that of Ely, in the province of Canterbury. It is divided into the archdeaconries of Suffolk and Sudbury, and the number of parishes is 504. For purposes of civil government it is divided into the hundreds of Babergh, Blackbourn, Blything, Bosmere and Claydon, Carlford, Colneis, Cosford, Hartismere, Hoxne, Lackford, Loes, Mutford and Lothingland, Plomesgate, Risbridge, Samford, Stow, Thedwastry, Thingoe, Thredling, Wangford, and Wilford. It contains the borough, markettown, and sea-port of Ipswich; the borough and market towns of Bury St. Edmund's and Eye; the market-towns and sea-ports of Lowestoft, Southwold, and Woodbridge; the sea-ports of Aldborough and Dunwich; and the market-towns of Beccles, Bungay, Clare, Debenham, Framlingham, Hadleigh, Saxmundham, Stow-Market, and Sudbury. By the act 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the county was divided into the Eastern and Western divisions, each sending two members to parliament; and two representatives are returned for each of the boroughs, except Eye, which was deprived of one by the act just mentioned. Suffolk is included in the Norfolk circuit; the assizes are held alternately at Bury and Ipswich; and the general quarter-sessions at Beccles, Woodbridge, Ipswich, and Bury, each for its respective district.

The soils are various, but the limits of each may be clearly traced. Strong clayey loams, with a substratum of clay marl, form the largest tract, which is commonly called High Suffolk, and extends from the confines of Cambridgeshire and Essex, on the south-west, across the central parts of the county, to Norfolk, on the northeast. The bottoms of the vales in this part, traversed by numerous running streams, and the slopes descending to them, are superior in quality to the rest of the district, the soil generally consisting of a friable loam. Rich loams, of various qualities, occupy that portion of the county included between the south-eastern part of the strong loams and the estuaries of the rivers Stour and Orwell, lying to the south of a line drawn from Ipswich to Hadleigh. Some of these loams are of a sandy quality, others much stronger; from Stratford and Higham, on the borders of the Stour, eastward across the Orwell, to the banks of the river Deben, near its mouth, extends a tract of friable and putrid vegetable mould of extraordinary fertility, more especially at Walton, Trimley, and Felixstow.

In the projecting north-eastern district, lying between the river Waveney and the ocean, is also much land of loamy quality; but as it is interspersed with many sandy tracts, and on the sea-coast is of a sandy character throughout, it may be considered to form part of the great sandy maritime district extending from the river Orwell, between the clayey loams and the sea, to the north-eastern extremity of the county. The lands in this latter district, which is called the Woodlands, are generally of excellent staple, and are among the best cultivated in England; although, in the country lying between the towns of Woodbridge, Orford, and Saxmundham, and north-eastward as far as Leiston, there is a large extent of poor, and in some places even blowing, sands, which have caused the south-eastern part of the county to receive the name of "Sandlings," or "Sandlands." The substratum of the eastern part of Suffolk, though sometimes marl, is generally sand, chalk, or crag. The last is a singular mass consisting of cockle and other shells, found in numerous places from Dunwich, southward, to the Orwell, and even beyond that river.

Another district of sand occupies the whole extent between the clayey soils and the fenny tract, which latter forms the north-western angle of the county, and may be separated from the sands by an irregular line drawn from near where the river Lark begins to form the western boundary of Suffolk, to the Little Ouse, a short distance below Brandon. These western sands, unlike much of the last-mentioned, are seldom of a rich loamy quality; they comprise numerous warrens and poor sheep-walks, and much of the sandy land now under tillage is apt to blow, that is, to be driven by the wind, and consequently ranks among the worst soils. The chief exceptions to the general inferiority of this district lie south-east of a line drawn from Barrow to Honington, and at Mildenball. The substratum is throughout a perfect chalk, at various depths. Of the Fens, it is only necessary to observe, that the surface, to the depth of from one foot to six, consists of the ordinary peat of bogs, which in some places is very solid and black, but in others is more loose, porous, and of a reddish colour: the substratum is generally a white clay, or marl.

By far the greater part of the county is under tillage. The crops commonly cultivated are wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, buck-wheat, turnips, cabbages, carrots, potatoes, beet, tares, cole-seed, red and white clover, trefoil, sainfoin, hemp, and hops. The culture of carrots in the sandlings is of very ancient practice, great quantities having been formerly sent from that district by sea to the London market; they are now grown chiefly as food for horses. In the fen district, cole-seed constitutes one of the principal crops; and the cultivation of sainfoin is particularly extensive in the chalky subsoils. The pasture lands were remarkable for their richness, but the best have been ploughed up, and the extent occupied by dairy-farms is not so great as formerly, though much butter is still sent to the London market. Large tracts of grass-land are mown for the supply of the towns with hay: the herbage which springs up after the gathering of the crop, is here called rowings. The woods are of very small extent, and are not generally of luxuriant growth; the strong loams formerly bore considerable quantities of fine oak, a great portion of which has been cleared off, and various plantations made, but only with a view to ornament. The broadest tracts of waste land are those occupying nearly all the country from Newmarket, on the borders of Cambridgeshire, to the confines of Norfolk, near the towns of Thetford and Brandon; and those lying between Woodbridge, Orford, and Saxmundbam, in the eastern part of the county. Besides these, heaths of smaller extent are scattered in every quarter. The chief use of the wastes is as sheepwalks.

The manufactures and commerce are very inconsiderable, in comparison with those of many other counties. The principal manufacture is the combing and spinning of wool, in a great measure for the Norwich manufacturers, which is carried on, though not to any great extent, in most parts of the county. At Sudbury are manufactories for silk and woollen goods; there is also a silk factory at Mildenhall, and another at Glemsford. The imports are merely the ordinary supplies of foreign articles for the inhabitants; the chief exports are corn and malt. The principal fishery on the coast is that of herrings, which is a main support of the town of Lowestoft, where about 40 boats of 40 tons' burthen each, are engaged in it; the season commences about the middle of September, and lasts until towards the end of November. The town also partakes in the mackerel-fishery, in which the same boats are employed, the season commencing about the end of May, and continuing until the end of June. In the Orford river is a considerable oyster-fishery.

This is a well-watered county: the principal rivers are the Stour, the Gipping or Orwell, the Deben, the Ore, the Waveney, the Little Ouse or Brandon river, and the Lark; besides which, the smaller streams are exceedingly numerous. The Stour meets the tide at Manningtree, in Essex, and begins to expand into a broad estuary, which at high water has a beautiful appearance; at low water the river shrinks into a narrow channel, bordered by extensive mud banks. Proceeding eastward, it is joined near Harwich by the Orwell, and their united waters having formed the port of Harwich, discharge themselves into the North Sea, between that town, in Essex, and Landguard Fort at the south-eastern extremity of Suffolk. This river is navigable up to Sudbury. The Gipping is formed by the confluence of three rivulets at Stow-Market, from which place it was made navigable in 1793; below Ipswich it assumes the name of Orwell, expands into an estuary, and continues its course to its junction with the Stour opposite Harwich. It is navigable for ships of considerable burthen up to Ipswich, and the scenery on its banks is beautiful. The Deben, which rises near Debenham, at Woodbridge expands into an estuary, and proceeds thence in a southern direction to the sea: towards its mouth it takes the name of Woodbridge haven, joining the sea about ten miles below that town, to which it is navigable for considerable vessels. The Ore expands into an estuary as it approaches Aldborough, where, having arrived within a very short distance of the sea, it suddenly takes a southern direction, discharging its waters below Orford; it is navigable to a short distance above Aldborough. The Waveney joins the Yare at theheadof Bredon-water, an expansion formed by these united rivers, which, contracting again near Yarmouth, pursue a nearly southern course to the sea, below that town: this river, the meadows on the banks of which are among the richest in England, is navigable for barges as high as Bungay bridge. The Little Ouse, or Brandon river, is navigable up to Thetford; the Lark, to within a mile of Bury St. Edmund's; and the Blythe, to Halesworth. The only artificial navigation is that in the channel of the Gipping, from StowMarket to Ipswich, 16 miles and 40 rods long, and having 15 locks, each 60 feet in length and 14 in width; the canal was opened in the year 1793, and the expense of its formation was about £26,380. Suffolk has the advantage of two considerable railways; namely, the Ipswich and Colchester, which quits the county at Manningtree, Essex; and the Ipswich and Bury, which is wholly within its limits, and passes by the town of StowMarket. A third line connects the town of Lowestoft with Norfolk.

Within the limits of the county were comprised the Roman stations Ad Ansam, at Stratford, on the border of Essex; Cambretonium, at Brettenham, or Icklingham; Garianonum, at Burgh Castle (though some fix it at Caistor, near Yarmouth); and Sitomagus, probably at Dunwich. Remains of Roman military works exist at Burgh Castle, Brettenham, Icklingham, Stow-Langtott, and Stratford on the banks of the Stour; and numerous domestic and sepulchral relics of the same people have been dug up in different places, such as pavements, coins, medals, urns, rings, &c. The stupendous work of human labour called the Devil's Ditch, on Newmarket heath, is supposed to have served as the line of demarcation between the kingdoms of Mercia and East Anglia. Near Barnham, on the borders of the Little Ouse, is a range of eleven tumuli, the neighbourhood of which is thought to have been the scene of a conflict between the Danes, under Inguar, and the forces of Edmund, King of East Anglia. Others occur in different places, the most remarkable group being that called the Seven Hills, at Fornham St. Geneveve. The number of religious houses, of all denominations, including four alien priories, was about 59. There are remains of the abbeys of Bury St. Edmund's, Leiston, and Sibtow; of the priories of Blythburgh, Butley, Clare, Herringfleet, Campsey-Ash, Dodnash, Gorleston, Kersey, Ixworth, Orford, Wangford, Ipswich, Mendham, and Sudbury; and of the nunneries of Bungay and Redlingfield. The remains of fortresses are chiefly those of the castles of Bungay, Clare, Framlingham, Haughley, Lidgate, Mettingham, Orford, and Wingfield. Ancient mansions are to be seen in different parts, the most remarkable being Hengrave Hall; and there are many elegant seats, among the most distinguished of which are Euston Park, the residence of the Duke of Grafton; Heveningham Hall, the seat of Lord Huntingfield; Flixton Hall; and Kentwell Hall. Suffolk gives the title of Earl to the family of Howard.

Sugley

SUGLEY, a township, in the parish of Newburn, union, and W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 3¾ miles (W.) from Newcastle; containing 212 inhabitants. It comprises the eastern portion of the village of Lemington, which see.

Sugnall Magna

SUGNALL MAGNA, a township, in the parish of Eccleshall, poor-law union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Eccleshall; containing 138 inhabitants.

Sugnall Parva

SUGNALL PARVA, a township, in the parish of Eccleshall, union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (N. W.) from Eccleshall; containing 54 inhabitants. A tithe rent-charge of £46 is paid to the impropriator.

Sulby

SULBY, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Market-Harborough, hundred of Rothwell, N. division of the county of Northampton, 6¼ miles (S. W.) from Harborough; containing 70 inhabitants, and comprising 1562 acres. An abbey of the Praemonstratensian order, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded here about 1155, by Robert de Querceto, Bishop of Lincoln; and its possessions were so much increased by Sir Robert de Paveley, Knt., that, at the Dissolution, the revenue was estimated at £305. 8. 5.

Sulgrave (St. James)

SULGRAVE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred of Chipping-Warden, S. division of the county of Northampton, 8 miles (N. E. by E.) from Banbury; containing 560 inhabitants. The parish is on the small river Tow, and consists of 1957 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 17.; net income, £231; patron and incumbent, the Rev. William Harding; impropriator, the Rev. C. F. Annesley. There are some small endowments for education, and for the relief of the poor. Near the church, to the west, is Castle Hill; and about a mile northward is an artificial mount called Burrough Hill, crowned with an ancient fortification 40 feet square, commanding a most extensive prospect, nine counties being visible.

Sulham (St. Nicholas)

SULHAM (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Theale, county of Berks, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Reading; containing 124 inhabitants. The parish consists of a narrow slip of land extending from the river Thames to the Kennet, and comprises 692a. 2r., of which 407 acres are arable, 120 meadow and pasture, and 140 wood. The Great Western railway passes through it. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 4. 2., and in the gift of Frederick Wilder, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £204, and the glebe comprises 25½ acres. The church has been recently rebuilt.

Sulhampstead-Abbotts (St. Bartholomew)

SULHAMPSTEAD-ABBOTTS (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Reading, county of Berks, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Reading; containing, with the tything of Graizley, 425 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1723a. 3r. 26p., and is intersected by the Avon and Kennet navigation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 0½., to which the living of Sulhampstead-Bannister was annexed in 1782; net income, £600; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of Queen's College, Oxford. A school is supported by endowment.

Sulhampstead-Bannister (St. Michael)

SULHAMPSTEAD-BANNISTER (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Theale, county of Berks, 6¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Reading; containing 302 inhabitants, of whom 145 are in the Lower, and 157 in the Upper, end. The river Kennet runs through the parish. The living is a rectory, annexed to that of Sulhampstead-Abbotts, and valued in the king's books at £6. 5.

Sullington (St. Mary)

SULLINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thakeham, hundred of East Easwrith, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 5½ miles (W. by N.) from Steyning; containing 242 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises about 1700 acres, is intersected in the southern portion by a ridge of chalk hills, forming part of the South Downs; the soil is various, and there is a considerable tract of heathy common. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 17. 6., and in the gift of the Rev. G. Palmer: the tithes have been commuted for £435, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. The church is chiefly in the early English style, and contains several ancient monuments, on one of which is the mutilated effigy of a knight. Some barrows on the warren were opened in 1809, when a number of sepulchral urns, one of which was perfect, were found, containing charcoal and ashes of burnt bones; and in draining some land on the north of Southgate, in 1812, spearheads, and two swords with short blades, supposed to be Roman, were discovered.