Wiggenhall (St. Germans)
WIGGENHALL (St. Germans), a parish, in the
union of Downham, hundred of Freebridge-Marshland, W. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (S. S. W.)
from Lynn; containing 625 inhabitants. The parish is
situated on the Great Ouse river, and comprises 1275a.
1r. 34p., of which 543 acres are arable, and 677 meadow
and pasture. The surface is flat; a considerable portion
lies below high-water mark, and some on a level with
the bed of the river, which is confined by lofty banks.
The course of the Ouse has been diverted into a new
channel, called the Eau-Brink cut, and in several parts,
where it greatly curved, has been straightened. The
village, which is large, is divided by the river into two
portions, connected with each other by a bridge of wood.
Here is a station of the Lynn and Ely railway. The
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books
at £6, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Norwich: the great tithes have been commuted for £281. 5.,
and the vicarial for £133. 15.; the appropriate glebe
comprises 29 acres, and the vicarial 3½ acres, with a
house. The church, situated on the east bank of the
Ouse, is chiefly in the later English style, with a square
embattled tower. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. In this parish was
Fitton, the ancient seat of the Howards, afterwards dukes
Wiggenhall (St. Mary the Virgin)
WIGGENHALL (St. Mary the Virgin), a parish,
in the union of Downham, hundred of FreebridgeMarshland, W. division of Norfolk, 5¾ miles (S. W.
by S.) from Lynn; containing 292 inhabitants. The
parish is bounded on the west by the river Ouse, and
comprises 2807a. 1r. 22p., of which 1043 acres are arable,
1649 meadow and pasture, 5 woodland, and 107 in roads,
drains, and waste. The village consists of scattered
houses, and on the opposite bank of the Eau-Brink cut
is the hamlet of Saddle-Bow. The gateway of the ancient
Hall built by the Kerville family, is still remaining.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £12. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown:
the great tithes have been commuted for £380, and the
vicarial for £92. 14.; the glebe comprises 4 acres, with
a house, built by the Rev. R. T. Powell. The Rev. Robert
Eden, of Leigh, near Rochford, having bought two farms
in Wiggenhall, of which he also purchased the impropriate tithes, amounting to £70 per annum, assigned the
latter to the vicarage, in 1842. The church is a stately
structure in the later English style, with a square erabattled tower; the nave is lighted by clerestory windows,
and there are a fine brass eagle, and an altar-tomb bearing the arms of the Kervilles and the Plowdens, with the
effigies of a knight in armour, his lady, and two children.
Here is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists.
Hatton Berners, who signed the warrant for the decapitation of Charles I., was buried here.
Wiggenhall (St. Mary Magdalene)
WIGGENHALL (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish,
in the union of Downham, hundred of Free bridgeMarshland, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N.)
from Downham; containing 775 inhabitants. The parish
is situated on the Great Ouse river, on the west bank of
which was a hermitage dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. This foundation, in 1181, was appropriated by
the prior and convent of Reynham, to nuns of the order
of St. Augustine, and made subordinate to the monastery
of Castle-Acre; it flourished till the Dissolution, when
its revenue was valued at £31. 16. 7. The parish comprises 4248a. 1r. 23p., of which 3198 acres are arable,
738 meadow and pasture, and 128 in roads, drains, and
water: an act was passed in 1813, for draining and improving the fen lands. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 15. 10., and in
the gift of Mrs. Tompson: the great tithes have been
commuted for £538. 8., and the vicarial for £253: the
glebe comprises 4½ acres. The church is in the later
English style, with a square embattled tower; the chancel is separated from the nave by a carved screen, and
on the south side are three sedilia. There are places of
worship for Baptists and Primitive Methodists.
Wiggenhall (St. Peter)
WIGGENHALL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union
of Downham, hundred of Freebridge-Marshland,
W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Lynn;
containing 112 inhabitants. It is intersected by the
Ouse, and comprises 958a. 8p., of which 466 acres are
arable, 419 meadow and pasture, and 63 in roads, drains,
and river. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued
in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of the
Crown; impropriator, J. Hall, Esq. The great tithes
have been commuted for £152. 10., and the vicarial for
£130; the glebe contains 2 acres, with a cottage. The
church, which is situated on the east bank of the river,
is in the later English style, with a square embattled
tower; the south aisle was taken down in 1841.
WIGGESLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Thorney,
union, and N. division of the wapentake, of Newark,
S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8½ miles (E.
by S.) from Tuxford; containing 92 inhabitants. The
tithes were commuted for land in 1813.
WIGGINTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Terrington, union of Malton, wapentake of Bulmer, N.
riding of York, 9 miles (W.) from Malton; containing
28 inhabitants. It is situated about a mile north of
Wigginton (St. Bartholomew)
WIGGINTON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the
union of Berkhampstead, hundred of Dacorum, county
of Hertford, 1¼ mile (S. E.) from Tring; containing
635 inhabitants. It comprises 1662 acres, of which 294
are waste. The London and Birmingham railway passes
on the north-east of the church. Here is an extensive
common, which, according to tradition, was the scene of
military achievements, not only during the parliamentary
war, but even in the time of the Romans; an almost
perfect specimen of a Roman camp may still be seen.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the
Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford (the appropriators), with a net income of £69: the tithes have
been commuted for £340.
Wigginton (St. Giles)
WIGGINTON (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of
Banbury, hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, 5¼
miles (W. N. W.) from Deddington; containing 310 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's
books at £17. 2. 8½.; net income, £290; patrons, the
Principal and Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford. The
tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in
1795. The church is small, mostly of early English
character, and adorned with a tower of the 15th century,
of three stages, and embattled: there are some interesting
features. To the south-east of the church are vestiges
of a Roman villa, extending over a considerable space.
On digging here, an octagonal apartment with a tessellated pavement was discovered, and to the south-east of
it, another of square form, with tesserae of coarse and
imperfect character. These apartments were heated by
flues under the floor; and coins were also found.
WIGGINTON, a chapelry, in the parish and union
of Tamworth, S. division of the hundred of Offlow
and of the county of Stafford, 1¾ mile (N.) from Tamworth; containing, with the hamlets of Comberford,
Coton, and Hopwas, 849 inhabitants. It is of level or
gently-undulated surface, and the soil is a rich fine marl.
In Coton is a paper manufactory. The Derby and Birmingham railway passes through the chapelry. The
living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £92; patron,
the Vicar of Tamworth. The chapel, dedicated to St.
Leonard, a neat structure of brick, was enlarged in 1830
by the erection of a north aisle. At Coton is a small
chapel for the convenience of its inhabitants and those
of Hopwas, built about ten years since. Thomas Barnes,
in 1717, gave property now worth about £5 per annum
in support of a school at Hopwas. Mr. Taylor and
Mrs. Beardsley bequeathed each £200, half the interest
to be appropriated to the augmentation of the curate's
stipend, and the other half to the poor.
WIGGINTON, a parish, in the wapentake of Bulmer, union and N. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N.) from
York, on the road to Helmsley; containing 392 inhabitants. It comprises about 2040 acres, of which 1200
are arable, and 800 meadow and pasture; the surface is
quite flat, and the soil composed in equal portions of a
stiff clay and a fine sand. The living is a rectory, valued
in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the patronage
of the Crown; the tithes have been commuted for £197.
The church is a small and very ancient structure.
WIGGLESWORTH, a township, in the parish of
Long Preston, union of Settle, wapentake of Staincliffe West, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (S. S. W.)
from Settle; containing 421 inhabitants. The township
comprises 4089a. 2r. 2p., divided among several proprietors, of whom the principal is Earl de Grey, lord of
the manor: the soil, though of various quality, is every
where such as to encourage improvement. A rent-charge
of £53. 17. 3. has been awarded as a commutation for
the vicarial tithes, and one of £49. 19. 6. for the impropriate, payable to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church,
Oxford. The free school here was founded in 1789, by
Lawrence Clark, who endowed it with £1136 three per
cent, consols., for the instruction, in the classics and in
English, of all the children of the township. There is a
sulphureous spring, impregnated with iron.
WIGGONBY, a township, in the parish of Aikton,
union of Wigton, ward and E. division of Cumberland, 4¾ miles (N. E.) from Wigton; containing 190 inhabitants Margaret Hodgson, in 1792, left land now let
for about £175 a year, in support of a school. Near Down
Hall, within the township, is an encampment 60 yards
square, planted with fir, and surrounded by a ditch.
WIGGONHOLT, a parish, in the hundred of West
Easwrith, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex,
8 miles (N. N. E.) from Arundel; containing 36 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Arun,
and comprises about 800 acres, the greater portion of
which is meadow and pasture. The soil varies from a
loamy sand to a retentive clay; the surface, though
generally level, is enlivened with a pleasing diversity of
scenery. The road from Petworth to Brighton passes
through. The living is a rectory, with that of Greatham
consolidated, valued in the king's books at £7. 4. 4½.,
and in the gift of the Hon. Robert Curzon: the tithes of
Wiggonholt have been commuted for £102. 14., and the
glebe comprises 9 acres. The church was repewed and
repaired in 1839, at the expense of the Hon. R. Curzon;
the rectory-house was enlarged and altered in 1838 by
the incumbent, and is now a spacious residence, in the
Elizabethan style. A great number of Roman urns was
found in 1827, made of red pottery, and beautifully
figured; but from the unprotected situation in which
they had been deposited, few of them were in a perfect
state. Coins of the emperors Nero, Vespasian, Claudius,
Adrian, and Marcus Antoninus, were also discovered.
Wighill (All Saints)
WIGHILL (All Saints), a parish, in the W. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 2½ miles
(N. by W.) from Tadcaster; containing 237 inhabitants.
This parish is on the river Wharfe, and comprises about
1700 acres, of which 740 are arable, 920 meadow and
pasture, and the remainder woodland, plantations, and
roads. The surface is undulated, and the sceuery agreeably diversified; the soil is various, in some parts clay,
and in others sandy loam. Wighill Park, the seat of
Edward York, Esq., is a handsome mansion, beautifully
situated. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed
with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the
king's books at £5. 3. 6½.; net income, £114; patrons,
and impropriators of the other rectorial tithes, the Wilson family, who are lords of the manor. The church,
situated on an eminence rising from the margin of the
Wharfe, is an ancient structure in the Norman style.
The eastern part of the chancel was fully repaired, and a
convenient vestry built, a few years ago, at a cost of £333,
by the vicar, the Rev. Thomas Jessop, D.D., to whose
improvements the late Archbishop of York contributed
an antique pulpit. The western portion of the chancel
also, was completely repaired in 1842, at the cost of
the late R. F. Wilson, Esq.
Wight, Isle Of.—See Southampton county.
WIGHT, ISLE OF.—See Southampton county.
Wightering, Sussex.—See Wittering.
WIGHTERING, Sussex.—See Wittering.
Wighton (All Saints)
WIGHTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of
Walsingham, hundred of North Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 2¼ miles (N. by E.) from Little Walsingham; containing 559 inhabitants. It comprises
2932a. 14p., of which 2558 acres are arable, 291 pasture,
44 wood, and 37 in roads and waste; the surface is
varied, and the river Stiffkey flows through the lands.
The village is pleasantly situated on the road from
Fakenham to Wells, and on the banks of the river are
a flour-mill, and a mill for crushing bones for manure.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £11. 11. 8.; patron and appropriators, the
Dean and Chapter of Norwich. The great tithes have
been commuted for £575, and the vicarial for £230. 10.;
the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square
embattled tower; in the churchyard are several ancient
tombs. There are some remains of an intrenchment
called Crabb's Castle; and in digging the foundations
for the parsonage-house, some skeletons and cannonballs were discovered.
WIGLAND, a township, in the parish of Malpas,
union of Wrexham, Higher division of the hundred of
Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, if
mile (S. S. E.) from Malpas; containing 240 inhabitants.
It comprises 488 acres of a loamy soil. At the Lower
Wych, in the township, are brine-springs, from which
salt is made: in 1643 the works were destroyed by a
detachment of the parliamentary army, but they were
soon restored. The tithes have been commuted for
£60. At the Higher Wych is a large school, supported
by the two rectors of the parish.
WIGLEY, a tything, in the parish of Eling, union
of New-Forest, hundred of Thorngate, Romsey and
Southern divisions of the county of Southampton;
containing 115 inhabitants.
Wigmore (St. James)
WIGMORE (St. James), a parish, in the union of
Ludlow, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford,
8 miles (S. W.) from Ludlow; containing, with the
township of Limebrook, 506 inhabitants, of whom 328
are in Wigmore township. This parish, which gives
name to the hundred, contains 3450 acres, mostly arable
and well-wooded; and is crossed nearly at right angles
by the roads from Leominster to Knighton, and from
Ludlow to Presteign. Thin beds of limestone occur
here, in which various kinds of fossils are to be found.
Petty-sessions are held monthly. There are fairs for
cattle, sheep, &c, on May 6th and August 5th. The
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £8; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of
Hereford: the great tithes have been commuted for
£172, the small tithes for £155, and the vicar has an
acre and a half of glebe. On a commanding elevation,
a little westward of the village, are the ivy-mantled ruins
of Wigmore Castle, the outer works of which are the
most perfect; the massive fragments of the keep occupy
the summit of a lofty artificial mound, and present a
grand appearance. The founder of this once stately
edifice is unknown, but it is recorded that Edward the
Elder caused it to be repaired. It was taken from Edric,
Earl of Shrewsbury, by Ranulph de Mortimer, who came
over with the Conqueror, and made it his principal seat.
The same nobleman, in 1100, established in the parochial church a college of three prebendaries, which continued till 1179, when his son Hugh founded a noble
abbey in honour of St. James, for monks of the order of
St. Augustine, about one mile distant from the castle,
and endowed it so amply that, at the Dissolution, its
revenue was estimated at £302. 12. 3. An alien priory,
a cell to that of Aveney, in Normandy, is said to have
existed at an early period, at Limebrook; and a nunnery
of the order of St. Augustine was founded there by the
Mortimers, some time in the reign of Richard I.: at the
suppression the latter was valued at £23. 17. 8. In the
neighbourhood are traces of several British encampments, attributed to Caractacus; and some Roman encampments.
WIGSTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Lilford,
union of Oundle, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of
the county of Northampton, 4 miles (S. byE.) from
Oundle; containing 97 inhabitants. Here was once a
Wigston Magna (All Saints)
WIGSTON MAGNA (All Saints), a parish, in the
union of Blaby, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division
of the county of Leicester, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from
Leicester; containing 2189 inhabitants. This parish
was formerly designated Wigston-Two-Steeples, from
its having two churches, one of which, now in a very
dilapidated state, is used as a schoolroom. At a place
called the Gaol Close, during the war in the reign of
Charles I., a temporary prison was erected, to which
the prisoners were removed from the county gaol at
Leicester: the royal army lay in the vicinity some few
days. The village is pleasantly situated on the road
between Welford and Leicester, and is chiefly inhabited
by persons employed in the manufacture of stockings.
The Leicester canal runs through the parish, and a station on the Midland railway has been established here.
The parish comprises 2944a. 1r. 3p.; the soil is a strong
marly loam, producing excellent wheat and beans, and
there are large tracts of luxuriant meadow land. The
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £9. 8. 9.; net income, £107; patrons, alternately, the Haberdashers' Company, and the Governors
of Christ's Hospital, London. The tithes were commuted for land in 1764. There is a place of worship
for Independents; also a lunatic asylum; and an hospital for six widows and as many widowers, endowed
with £3000 by Miss Clarke.
WIGSTON PARVA, a chapelry, in the parish of
Claybrooke, union of Lutterworth, hundred of
Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester,
6¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Lutterworth; containing
74 inhabitants. It lies near the intersection of the Roman Watling-street and Fosse-way, and comprises about
386 acres of land, of hilly surface and fertile soil, and
mostly freehold. The Ullesthorpe station of the Midland railway is distant about three miles westward.
Wigston Hall, a large square mansion in pleasant
grounds ornamented with yew-trees, was built in the
reign of George II. by Nicholas Grundy, Esq., high
sheriff of the county, and is now the residence of Henry
Goodrick Willet, Esq., chief owner of the township.
The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small ancient
building. The manor was formerly held by Reading
Wigtoft (St. Peter and St. Paul)
WIGTOFT (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in
the union of Boston, wapentake of Kirton, parts of
Holland, county of Lincoln, 11 miles (N.) from
Spalding; containing 713 inhabitants. It comprises
5698a. 3r. 16p., of which about one-half is arable, and
the other pasture and meadow; the soil is a rich loam,
and under good cultivation. The living is a discharged
vicarage, with that of Quadring united, valued in the
king's books at £11. 5.; net income, £412; patron, the
Bishop of Lincoln; impropriator, G. Holland, Esq. The
church is of various dates; the lower part of the tower
is Norman, with a spire of later English, and the nave
and chancel are in the decorated English style, with
additions of a later period. A free school was endowed
with land now producing £56 per annum, by William
Blisbury, in 1714; and there are lands worth £24 a
year, belonging to the poor.
Wigton (St. Mary)
WIGTON (St. Mary), a market-town and parish,
and the head of a union, in the ward, and E. division of
the county, of Cumberland; containing, with the townships of Oulton, Waverton, and Woodside-Quarter, 6432
inhabitants, of whom 4738 are in the town, 305 miles
(N. N. W.) from London. Of the early history of this
place little is recorded: the barony was given by William de Meschines to Waldeof, Lord of Allerdale, and by
him to Odoard, who lived about the period of the Norman Conquest, and assumed the name De Wigton. The
town was burnt by the Scots when they plundered the
abbey of Holme-Cultram, in 1322; and during the civil
war, in 1648, the van of the Duke of Hamilton's army
was quartered here. Wigton consists principally of one
spacious street, with a narrower extending transversely
at one end of it, and contains some handsome well-built
houses; it is pitched with pebbles, and supplied with
water from wells, the property of individuals, and from
a public pump, erected near the centre of the town.
There are a subscription and a circulating library: races
formerly took place in the month of August. The principal articles of manufacture are checks, muslins, and
ginghams, which are made to a considerable extent; and
an establishment for calico-printing and dyeing affords
employment to many of the inhabitants. Coal is obtained within three miles, and copper-ore within five
miles, of the town. A branch of the Maryport and Carlisle railway was opened to Wigton on May 3rd, 1843:
the station here is 16 miles from the former town, and
11½ from the latter. The market-days are Tuesday and
Friday, the former for corn, of which a great quantity
is pitched in the market-place. Fairs are held on Feb.
20th, a very large horse-fair; on April 5th, for hornedcattle; and Dec. 21st, called Wallet fair, for cattle,
butchers' meat, apples, and honey: there are statutefairs at Whitsuntide and Martinmas. The powers of
the county debt-court of Wigton, established in 1847,
extend over the registration-district of Wigton. The
county magistrates hold a petty-session every month;
and constables are appointed at the court leet and baron
of the manor, which takes place in September.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the
king's books at £17. 19. 0½.; net income, £162; patron,
the Bishop of Carlisle; impropriators, the landowners.
The tithes were commuted for land in 1811. The church,
which is said to have been originally erected by Odoard,
with materials brought from a neighbouring Roman
station called Old Carlisle, subsequently belonged to
the abbey of Holme-Cultram. It was taken down in
1788, and the present edifice, a light and handsome
building, erected on its site: attached is a library for
the use of the clergy, presented by Dr. Bray. There are
places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. The free
grammar school, at Market Hill, near the entrance of
the town, was founded in 1730, by certain of the inhabitants. In 1787, the sum of £1000 three per cent,
stock was bequeathed by John Allison to the school; and
in 1798, £355 by Thomas Tomlinson, Esq., who also
left £100 for the establishment of a public library: the
present income is about £68. The Rev. John Brown,
D.D., author of the tragedy of Barbarossa, received his
early education in the school. An hospital for six widows
of beneficed clergymen or curates of two years' standing,
was founded in 1725, by the Rev. John Tomlinson, who
endowed it with a rent-charge of £45. 12., to which other
benefactions have been added. The poor-law union embraces 31 parishes or places, which contain a population
of 23,366. Ewan Clarke, the Cumberland poet; Joseph
Rooke, a distinguished mathematician and philosopher;
R. Smirke, R.A., the celebrated historical painter; and
Mr. George Barnes, professor of mathematics, were natives of the town.
WIGTON, a township, in the parish of Harewood,
Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding
of York, 5½ miles (N. by E.) from Leeds; containing
170 inhabitants. This township, including the hamlets
of Brandon and Alwoodley-Gate, comprises about 1200
acres, of which the soil is fertile, and generally in good
cultivation; the scenery is varied, and in some parts of
romantic character. On Black Hill, near the village,
urns and ancient coins have been found: in 1760, two
stone coffins were discovered.