POSSESSIONS OF THE MONASTERY AND ITS SEALS - THE CONVENTUAL SEALS
Before detailing the other possessions of the monastery, it would
seem fitting briefly to describe the seals struck from time to time
by the prior and convent, with which the acts and deeds of the convent
were sealed in chapter (pl. XIII).
The seals, with the exception of Rahere's, are described in the
catalogue of seals in the department of MSS. in the British Museum,
and those descriptions are here followed with a few additional notes
as to where the seals occur, the reference numbers from the catalogue
being shown within brackets.
I. Rahere's is a circular seal measuring 2 1/10 in. in diameter. (fn. 1) It
represents the south side of a church with four round-headed windows
and a high-pitched tiled roof. There is an eastern chapel with a
similar, though lower, roof and a cross at its eastern end. Three
round towers are shown with conical roofs and projecting eaves. The
centre tower is higher than the others, is surmounted by a cross, and
has two small windows. The legend round the seal is imperfect, the
impression being broken at the top. It runs:
… VM CONVEN. ECCLE. DI. ET S. BARTHOLOMEI DE SM.
(Sigillum conventus ecclesiae Dei et Sancti Bartholomei de Smethfelde—the seal of the convent of the church of God and of St. Bartholomew
The only impression known of this seal is attached to a deed (fn. 2) in
the possession of the governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, whereby
Rahere and the convent, in the year 1137, appointed Hagno to the
vicarage of St. Sepulchre's. The other impression attached to the
same deed is apparently that of the seal of the hospital, which had
its own separate seals.
II. . This is also a twelfth-century seal, measuring, when
perfect, about 2½ in. by 2¼ in. It represents St. Bartholomew with a
nimbus lifting up the right hand in benediction, with a shaft sur
mounted by a cross in the left hand. The figure of the saint is shown
half-length above a section, or the west front, of a church with two
round-headed arches flanked by two circular towers with conical
roofs and small windows; between the arches is a circular centre
tower with a window in the upper story surmounted by a cross. (The
towers are very similar to those in Rahere's seal No. I above.)
The impression, which is attached to a grant by Prior Peter le Duc,
in 1242, is damaged in the lower part. (fn. 3) The legend runs:
✠ SIGILL. CONV … S ECC … HOLO … I DE LV[n]DON
(Sigillum conventus ecclesiae sancti Bartholomei Apostoli de Lundon).
It also occurs among the charters at the hospital in 1198 and 1289. (fn. 4)
III. . This is a small circular counter-seal measuring 1¼ in.
in diameter. It represents a church with a high-pitched roof surmounted by a tower with one fair-sized window and a cross at the
left gable end of the roof and two narrow round-headed arches in
the wall. The church is standing on a ship of antique shape with
curved prows which terminate at each end of the ship, which is on
the sea, in a bird's head. In the field on either side of the tower is
the inscription NAVIS ECCL'IE, and on the left a wavy estoile of
six points, and on the right a crescent. The legend, which is well
SIGILL' PRIORIS ECCLESIE SCI BARTOLOMEI.
The impression of this seal is attached to the same deed as II above.
IV. . This is called the Common Seal of the convent and
probably dates from the thirteenth or early fourteenth century. (fn. 5) On
the obverse is represented St. Bartholomew seated on a carved
throne (somewhat resembling the throne on the obverse of the Great
Seal of Edward I); in the right hand is a book, in the left a flaying
knife uplifted. In the field on the left is a crescent and on the right
an estoile, each between two groups of three small spots. Around
is the legend:
SIGILLVM COMMVNE PRIOR' ET CO[n]VE[n]TVS S[an]C[t]I BARTHOLOMEI LONDON'.
On the reverse of the seal is depicted a church with a central crocketed
spire, a cross at each gable end, masoned walls imitating ashlar work
and traceried windows. The church is standing on a ship on the sea,
with a castle at each end of the ship. In the field at the sides is the
inscription—NAVIS ECCL'E. The legend with beaded borders is:
CREDIMVS: ANTE: DEVM: PROVEHI: PER: BARTHOLOMEW.
(We believe that we are brought into the presence of God by the aid
of St. Bartholomew.)
An impression of this seal is attached to a deed dated 25th September
16 Richard II (1392); (fn. 6) another is attached to a Harleian Charter
dated in the chapter-house, 7th December, 25 Henry VIII (1533); (fn. 7)
it is also an impression of this seal that is affixed to the surrender of
the monastery, 25th October, 1539. (fn. 8)
V. . A seal ad causas; (fn. 9) it is a pointed oval measuring
2¾ in. by 1½ in., and is apparently of the fourteenth century. It
represents St. Bartholomew standing on a corbel with a flaying knife
in the right hand and a long shaft surmounted by a cross in his left
hand. The impression is imperfect; all that remains of the legend is:
… ET CONV … THOL'I LOND AD CAVS …
(Sigillum Prioris et Conventus Sancti Bartholomei London ad causas).
We have met with no impression of this seal other than the cast
in the British Museum. It would have been engraved to append
to decisions of the prior and convent in matters of minor importance.
VI. . The seal of the Dominican, Preaching or Black Friars,
set up here by Queen Mary 1555-58. (fn. 10) It is a pointed oval seal
measuring 2½ in. by 15/8 in. It represents St. Bartholomew standing
with nimbus; in the right hand is the knife and in the left hand
a book; the figure is under a dome-shaped canopy of the style of
the Renaissance supported by two pilasters. In the exergue (fn. 11) is
a floral ornament. The legend, with an inner border beaded, runs:
SIGILLV: COVET: S'CTI: BARTHOLOMEI: ORDINIS: FRATRV: PREDICATORV: LODO:
(The seal of the convent of St. Bartholomew of the order of the
Preaching Friars, London).
The matrix of this seal is in the possession of the rector and churchwardens of the church. (fn. 12)