CHAPTER VI - OTHER CHAPELS, ALTARS AND IMAGES
St. Bartholomew's Chapel
After the Lady Chapel at the east end, the next in importance
of the three external chapels of Rahere's church was the chapel of
St. Bartholomew, at the north-east end. The round-headed arched
entrance to it from the ambulatory is all that now remains above
ground, the chapel itself having been entirely demolished.
The first record of it in the 'Book of the Foundation' has been
already quoted; (fn. 1) it runs thus:
'When then in the beginning there was built in the aforesaid
place an oratory of the blessed apostle, many and innumerable
miracles were performed.'
The next is in the same book, (fn. 2) where it is related that
'A youth Osbern whose right hand clave to his left shoulder
and his head lay immovably pressed down upon his hand . . . he,
coming before the altar of the most blessed apostle Bartholomew,
. . . the freedom of his limbs was obtained.'
The third reference is also from the 'Book of the Foundation' (fn. 3) and
has been already quoted in full. It is where the deaf, dumb, blind
and crippled girl was healed in a place described as 'far off in the
left end of the church'. The fourth reference is from the same book (fn. 4)
(for we assume that the image of the apostle referred to was the one
which would have stood at the north end of the altar in St. Bartholomew's Chapel and not the one which stood at the cloister door). (fn. 5)
It is the amusing account of a priest of Kent, who, on his way to
the church with others to join in the celebration of the festival of
St. Bartholomew (24th August), finding no inn for the night, determined with his friends to leave the horses to pasture whilst he himself
kept watch and guard. But the good man fell asleep and his horse
broke away without his being conscious of it. There then—
'Appeared to him a man having a shining countenance and lightly
shaking the garment which he (the priest) wore said "arise; why
art thou so long overcome by slumber?"'
He at once awoke, found that his horse had gone, heard it neigh in
the distance, caught it, and on reaching St. Bartholomew's 'prostrated
himself before the image of the apostle and gave thanks for the
finding of his horse'.
There are various references in the wills to the image of St. Bartholomew; thus, Henry Bosele, in 1371, willed a mass before the image
of St. Bartholomew; (fn. 6) and in 1485 Thomas Peerson left 8d. for
a taper to St. Bartholomew. (fn. 7)
In 1409 we have confirmation of the chapel at that time also
being on the north side in the will of Thomas de Stanlo, (fn. 8) who willed
to be buried before the 'altar of St. Bartholomew where the apostilmasse is sung in the north part of the church'; and where he also
wished a marble stone to be placed upon his tomb.
The chapel was rebuilt, and probably farther east, at the end of
the fourteenth century, because Joan Lovetoft, in 1397, willed to be
buried in the chapel of St. Bartholomew 'newly founded', to the
repair and support of which she bequeathed 40s. and one linen cloth
(nappa) and a napkin (manutergium). (fn. 9)
One John Newport, a wealthy man, (fn. 10) living here at that time, in his
will desired to be buried in Roger Walden's Chapel.'
The Waldens, Newports, and Lovetofts were all well-to-do people
and evidently intimately connected, because both Roger Walden and
his brother John were the executors of John Newport and John
Lovetoft was one of his feoffees.
It would appear that the old Bartholomew Chapel was taken down
and rebuilt to give more space for Roger Walden's parish chapel,
which was built at the same time, and this may have been done by
the Lovetofts, as Joan Lovetoft willed to be buried there.
As to the position where the St. Bartholomew Chapel was 'refounded' there is no direct evidence, but it may have been (as already
suggested (fn. 11) ) farther east on the same side of the church; the present
window at the north-east end of the north ambulatory forming
a large arched entrance. The appearance of the wall externally
below the present window favours this view. It is true that no
foundations of the walls of such a chapel were found when search
was made in 1911, but that may be accounted for by the fact that
that space was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as
a burial ground for the poor, which would have necessitated the
removal of any foundations that might have been there. It is
difficult to suggest any other position for the chapel, because it was
still on the north side of the church in 1409, as shown by T. de Stanlo's
will, mentioned above, which was made at least twelve years after
the chapel was 'refounded'. But wherever it was placed, there must
have been a space on the west side of it for St. Anne's Chapel, as will
be seen presently. (fn. 12)
There are no post-suppression records of the chapel, from which
we assume that it was demolished either by Henry VIII or in Elizabeth's reign, at the same time as the parish church (as mentioned
by Stow). (fn. 13)
The original plan of the chapel is assumed to have been the same
as that of the South Chapel, that is with two apses, for a portion of
the foundations of the eastern apse was discovered when the new
furnace room was made in 1913. The remains have been left
The turret stair, which led to the schoolmaster's house, has stood
on the eastern part of the site since early in the seventeenth century,
if not earlier. The present sacristy, or robing room, occupying the
western part of the site, was erected in 1866. (fn. 14)
The South or St. Stephen's Chapel.
The last of Rahere's three external chapels is the South Chapel,
which corresponds to St. Bartholomew's Chapel on the north side.
As the altar of St. Stephen was on the south side of the quire, we
incline to the view that that was the dedication of this south chapel.
The only record we have of St. Stephen's altar is in the will of John
Chishull, priest, made in his lodging within the Close in 1382. (fn. 15) He
bequeathed his 'body to be buried in the conventual church of the
true religious men of St. Bartholomew, before the altar of St. Stephen,
situate on the south side of the quire there'. He bequeathed, among
many other things, 'to the altar of St. Stephen £10 for the painting
of two pictures to be dedicated there', of which one was to be above
the altar and the other before it.
This chapel was standing in the middle of the nineteenth century
and was used as the parish vestry room at that time. John
Carter, in describing it in the year 1809, (fn. 16) refers to it as a complete
specimen of simple Saxon (sic) architecture. Its original windows,
he says, were stopped out, though visible externally; a sketch made
by him in the year 1780, showing fifteenth-century cuspings, is now
in the Gardner Collection. The south window, he says, had been
destroyed and replaced by a modern one. Godwin described the
chapel in 1838 as a small chamber of the same character as the aisles, (fn. 17)
that is of the twelfth century.
In 1822 the vestry directed the churchwardens to carry out a proposed alteration of the entrance and the insertion of a double circular
window therein. In 1830 a receipted bill in the belfry cupboard
records that a new roof was made for the vestry, showing that the
fire of that year reached thus far eastward (as indeed is shown in the
wood engraving in Knight's London). (fn. 18)
The doom of the chapel was sealed when an agitation commenced
for a better vestry room in the year 1826. It was then agreed (fn. 19) that
it would be a great convenience to provide a vestry room with a fire,
as there was much inconvenience and danger to health and comfort
of persons waiting in the church whilst parish meetings were being
held in the vestry. Ten years later, in 1836, a committee of the
vestry recommended (fn. 20) that a room for vestry meetings be formed
in a vacant space above the south aisle, and that, by way of saving
expense to the parish, the then vestry room and east porch (then
requiring considerable repairs) should be removed, the ground being
made use of as an additional burial-ground. But the vestry, to their
credit, on the motion of Mr. Pocock, did not adopt the report, and
directed that the east porch be repaired instead. They, however,
formed the new vestry room in the south transept (fn. 21) (as already
mentioned (fn. 22) ). The old vestry chapel was still allowed to remain for
another ten years; for in 1846 Mr. Cockerill was granted permission
to remove a portion of its roof to complete some buildings he was
then erecting on the south side of the church. (fn. 23)
The destruction of the chapel came three years later when, in the
year 1849, the chapel then being unused, the rector, the Rev. John
Abbiss, obtained a 90 years' building lease of the land adjoining the
chapel on the east and west sides. He then proceeded to pull down
the chapel, and on its site and that of the leasehold land adjoining,
to build a school-house: the ground floor to serve as an infants'
school, the first floor as a girls' school, with dwelling-rooms above
for the schoolmistress. It was so used until 1888, when the new
schools were built; after which time the ground floor was used as
a vestry room and for other parochial purposes, and the two floors
above as dwelling-rooms for church-workers.
In 1867 the furnace of the church was placed beneath this infants'
school-room floor within what remained of the bases of the walls
of the ancient chapel. But in 1913 this undesirable state of things
was altered: the furnace was moved outside the church on the north
side, and, the freehold interest in the lease having been acquired and
presented to the church by the patroness, Mrs. F. Abbiss Phillips
(now Mrs. Bowen Buscarlet), the house was taken down and the
remains of the chapel were uncovered. It was then first discovered
that the plan of the chapel was one of two apses, one apse on the
east side and one on the south. Upon the remains of the twelfthcentury walls was then built a new choir vestry, at the sole charge
of Mr. G. Duckworth Atkin, a member of the Restoration Committee.
The ancient walls vary from 2 ft. to 3 ft. in height on the east and
south sides, to 7 ft. on the west side. The new walls of the vestry
follow the inner face of the old walls, but, being only 1 ft. 10 in. in
width, the old walls project beyond the new work some 1 ft. 4 in. to
1 ft. 8 in. The external door has been placed in the east wall at
a point where the old wall had been removed to form a coal shoot.
On the north wall of the chapel, at a height of 3 ft. 4 in. above the
floor level, are the remains of an aumbry, 2 ft. 3 in. in width, the upper
part of which is a restoration.
The Parish Chapel.
That there was a parish chapel here from the first there can be
little, if any, doubt.
Henry VIII in his grant to Rich said (fn. 24) that the inhabitants of the
Close had always had their own parish church and burial place within
the church of the late monastery and annexed to the same church,
and all sacraments and other divine services for the parishioners were
administered by a curate at the cost of the prior and convent, as in
other parish churches in the realm.
In the first instance at any rate it would seem that this parish church
(or chapel) was in the north transept; the parish altar probably
being in the apsidal east chapel of the transept. We assume that it
was there that the assemblage of impotent folk took place on St. Bartholomew's Day 1148, as recorded in the 'Book of the Foundation'; (fn. 25)
for the nave of the church was not built at that time and none of the
side chapels would have been large enough for such a purpose. As
such an assemblage could not have taken place before the high altar
of the monastic quire, the north transept would seem to have been
the only available place for such a gathering.
The north transept was not an unusual position for the parish chapel.
At Romsey it formed (eventually) the chancel of an enlarged parish
church, which was in the north aisle of the nave. At Tewkesbury the
nave of the parish chapel was built against the north wall of the north
transept and was entered from outside through the door in the west
wall of the transept. At St. Bartholomew's it would have been
entered in a similar way but directly from Smithfield by way of Cloth
Henry VIII in his grant to Rich (fn. 26) said that 'a certain chapel
commonly called the parish chapel with a part of the church of the
monastery had been taken away', and as at the suppression the walls
of the north transept were entirely taken away it is not unreasonable
to assume that the parish chapel and the north transept were one and
the same place.
The Walden Chapel, as shown below, was, however, also called
the parish chapel, from which we assume that it was an extension
eastward in the fourteenth century of the parish chapel in the transept,
similar to that at Holy Trinity Aldgate. (fn. 27) This probably involved the
removal of the apsidal eastern chapel of the transept (as was the case
in building the sacristy in the south transept), and placing the altar
at the east end of the new chapel to form the high altar of the parish
chapel. This high altar is referred to by John Agmondesham in his
will in 1509; (fn. 28) and by Nicholas Mynne in 1528: (fn. 29) a lesser altar was
probably placed elsewhere in the transept.
That the parish chapel, pulled down by Henry VIII, was distinct
from the Walden Chapel is evident from Stow's record of a parish
church or chapel that was not pulled down at the suppression. (fn. 30) He
'The church being pulled down to the quire, the quire was, by
the king's order, annexed for the enlarging of the old parish church
thereto adjoining, and so was used till the reign of Queen Mary,
who gave the remnant of the priory church to the Friars preachers
or Blackfriars and was so used as their conventual church until
the first of our sovringe Lady Queen Elizabeth when those friars
were put out and all the said church with the old parish church was
wholly as it stood in the last year of Edward VI given by Parliament to remain for ever a parish church to the inhabitants within
the Close called Great St. Bartholomew's. Since the which time
that old parish church has been pulled down.'
(That is between 1559 and 1598.) Stow is very precise in this statement, for he corrected his 1598 edition by inserting in 1603 after the
words 'old parish church has been pulled down' (marked by italics
above) 'except the steeple of rotten timber ready to fall of itself.
I have oft heard it reported that a new steeple should be built with
the stone, lead and timber of the old parish church but no such thing
was performed'. In 1603 Stow added 'the parish have lately repaired
the old wooden steeple to serve their turn'. This the parishioners
were enabled to do by a bequest made by Evan Meredith in his will
in the year 1601 (fn. 31) of £30 'towards the makinge up of the steple' to
be paied 'when the works aforesaid shalbe don and finished and not
This parochial steeple is shown on Ralph Agas's map (pl. LVIb, p. 110)
as on the north side of the church towards the east and much in the
same position as the present turret stair to the old boys' school in
the north triforium, but we incline to the opinion that it stood in the
angle formed by the Walden Chapel and the transept. (It is suggested
later that the present pre-Reformation peal of five bells was in this
steeple. (fn. 32) )
The Walden Chapel.
Walden's Chapel, variously called the Chapel of All Saints, the
Chapel of All Hallows, and the Parish Church, was founded towards
the end of the fourteenth century by Roger Walden, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, as already described. (fn. 33)
It is first mentioned in the will of the John Newport referred to
above, dated 15th April 1396, (fn. 34) in which he desires to be buried 'within
the chapel of his venerable lord Lord Roger Walden, treasurer of
England, in the church of St. Bartholomew by Smythfeld'. It is
next mentioned in Roger Walden's own will dated 31st December
1405, (fn. 35) in which he speaks of the 'certain new chapel' he had 'newly
caused to be made'. We may therefore assume that it was built
but little prior to the year 1396, with which date the architectural
character of its remains in the north ambulatory agree.
That it was on the north side of the church; that it was dedicated
in honour of All Saints; and that it was sometimes known by the
synonymous dedication of All Hallows we also know from Wills.
Thus, one John Walden, clerk (fn. 36) (not the brother of Roger Walden), in
his will (27th December 1404) desired to be buried 'within the chapel
founded by Lord Roger Walden on the north side of the church'.
In 1417 Roger Walden's brother John desired to be buried 'in the
new chapel of the church of St. Bartholomew lately built on the
north part of the church', (fn. 37) and his widow Idonia, in a will dated
18th February 1420/1 (fn. 38) (enrolled in the Court of Husting and
made in the name of Idonia Rote, she having married John Rote
after the death of her first husband), desired 'to be buried in All
Saints' Chapel in the church of St. Bartholomew near West Smythfeld'; and in a subsequent will dated 17th January 1424/5, (fn. 39) made
in the name of Idonia Walden, she described the chapel as 'the new
chapel of the church of St. Bartholomew which has lately been built
on the north side of the said church where John Walden my late
husband is buried'. (fn. 40) Reference has already been made to the will
of Walter Shirington, the canon of St. Paul's who, in 1448, willed to
be buried in Walden's chapel.
In 1509 'John Agmondesham, gentleman', willed 'to be buried
within the priory' and bequeathed 'to the high altar of Allhallows
within the priory towards an altar cloth to be bought for the same
20s.' (fn. 41) (His will was witnessed by 'Master William Bolton, prior'.)
The following wills do not say whether the parish chapel referred
to is Walden's parish chapel or the one destroyed by Henry VIII.
In 1502 John Fitzherbert, Remembrancer to the king, willed 'to be
buried in the parish chapel within the conventual church'. (fn. 42) In 1508
John Clerke, gentleman, willed, if he died at 'Seynt Barthilmewes',
to be buried 'in the parish chapel afore seynt Ursula mine Avowerie'
(i.e. patron saint), for which he bequeathed to the prior 20s.; and he
desired that his 'grave be covered and made plain of marble, the same
to have a remembrance of mine auctorities (actions) passed' (fn. 43) In
1513 Walter Martyn willed 'to be buried in the parish chapel', and
bequeathed thereto 1s. for tithes forgotten and £10 to the repairs
of the church. (fn. 44) In 1514 John Webbes willed to be buried 'within
the church before the parish chapel ', (fn. 45) and in 1524 Elizabeth Westby
bequeathed 'unto the maintaining of the vestments and ornaments
of the parish chapel' 10s. (fn. 46)
Sometimes the parish chapel was called the parish church, as in
1528 when Nicholas Mynne gave to the high altar of the parish church
3s. 4d. for tithes forgotten. (fn. 47) And that the Walden Chapel was known
as the parish church is indicated in the records of the Court of Augmentations, where there is a grant by the prior and convent to one
Stephen Fyndeley of the offices of 'clerk of the church of the monastery
and of parish clerk of the church or chapel of All Saints within the
church of the monastery aforesaid'. (fn. 48) If Fyndeley was parish clerk
of All Saints, then it follows that All Saints was the parish church.
Of the building itself nothing now remains except the three arched
openings in the north ambulatory already described. (fn. 49) Of the dimensions of the chapel, we can only assume that it extended eastward
from the transept the length of those three arched openings and
possibly another bay, if St. Anne's Chapel, now to be referred to,
was on the site of the north apsidal chapel.
St. Anne's Chapel.
Of St. Anne's Chapel but little is known. In the year 1504 one
Edward Hungerford, Esquire, in his will, after directing that his body
should be buried in his chapel of St. Anne, where his wife Anne was
buried, went on to say, 'I bequeth to the said prior and convent my
psalter booke glosed, my book of vi parts of the bibill, and my booke
Speculum exemplare, the said books to be teyd wt cheynes on a yron
bolt betwene the doore of Saynt Bartilmew chapell and the Est side
of my said chapell'. (fn. 50)
We assume that, as Edward Hungerford referred to the chapel as
his chapel, he was the founder and that it was built not very long
If, as we suppose, St. Bartholomew's Chapel had been rebuilt
more than a hundred years before this date to the outside of bay ten,
then the St. Anne's Chapel here referred to was probably between
the rebuilt St. Bartholomew Chapel and the east end of Walden's
Chapel and outside bay eleven, and was entered through the original
arched entrance to St. Bartholomew's Chapel still standing. There
would then have been ample space on the north wall of bay ten to the
east of the entrance, and west of that to the St. Bartholomew Chapel,
for the books bequeathed to have been chained.
There are now, however, no traces whatever of the chapel.
St. Katherine's Chapel.
Of this chapel the only records are that Roger de Barneburgh,
canon of All Saints, Derby, in the year 1375, willed 'to be buried in
the chapel of St. Katherine in the nave of the church, at the south end
of the altar of the same chapel'; (fn. 51) and that in 1393 John Wrighte,
janitor of the priory, bequeathed 'to the service of the altar of
St. Katherine, a chalice of silver and golded below weighing thirty
shillings of English money'. (fn. 52)
The Chapel of the Holy Trinity.
The Holy Trinity altar was usually placed against the west wall of
the pulpitum, but there is no record of the position of this chapel at
St. Bartholomew's. Richard Gray, in 1432, willed to be buried
'afor ye trinite autre in chirche of Seynt Bartylmew'. (fn. 53) Sir William
Coventry, the prior, was executor to the will. In 1458 Alice Bysshop,
alias Derby, who willed to be buried between the high altar and the
quire, directed her executors to buy four tapers, not to exceed 3 lb.
each, to remain in the church after her burial; one taper in the chapel
of the Holy Trinity for service at the time of mass; another in the
chapel of the Blessed Mary; another before St. Bartholomew, and
the fourth apparently before the tomb of an ancestor. They were
to be held by four poor persons, and she wished immediately after
her death to have a thousand masses said for the souls of herself
and for those of her father and mother. (fn. 54) Thomas Peerson, as we
shall see, in 1485 also bequeathed a taper in the worship of the
St. John the Evangelist's Chapel.
To the chapel of St. John the Evangelist there are several references. In the year 1426 Katherine Lancaster, who dwelt in the
Close, in a long will bequeathed one out of six torches 'for the altar
of St. John'. (fn. 55) In 1474 John Durem, late a baron of the Exchequer,
willed to be buried in the church 'before the chapel of St. John the
Evangelist, founded in the aforesaid church'. (fn. 56) In the year 1477
his widow, Elizabeth Durem, willed to be buried before the same
chapel beside her husband. (fn. 57) In 1485 Peerson (as above) bequeathed
a taper in the worship of St. John the Evangelist, (fn. 58) and in 1514 John
Alexander desired to be buried in the church 'before the altar of
St. John the Evangelist'. (fn. 59) Its position in the church is not recorded.
St. Edmund's Chapel.
To the chapel of St. Edmund the only reference we have is in the
year 1499, in the will of Sir John Longe of London, priest, where he
desired to be buried 'without the chapel door of St. Edmund', and
also directed that a mass be said by the canons during three years for
the souls of himself and others 'at the altar within the chapel of
St. Edmund aforesaid'. (fn. 60) We have no record of its position in the
The Prior's Chapel.
'The chapel of the lord prior' next to which Thomas Felmysham,
in the year 1451, desired to be buried (fn. 61) 'if it pleased the prior' may
or may not have been a separate chapel.
There may have been other chapels, though not mentioned in the
The High Altar.
The high altar, we assume, was placed on the cord of the apse at
the time of the foundation of the church. As there were then seven
bays in the apse it would have been one bay farther west than it is
at present. When, early in the fifteenth century, the east end was
remodelled the altar was probably placed one bay eastward against
the straight east wall and raised on several steps above the presbytery,
which itself was raised (fn. 62) some 2 ft. 3 in. from the twelfth-century
floor level. At this time there stood, as stated in the will of William
Thirwall, quoted below, an image of the Blessed Virgin on the south
side of the altar. After the suppression, the altar still stood raised
on steps above the presbytery until 1556, or later, when the Blackfriars were in possession, because in that year one John Garatt willed
to be buried 'between the steps going up to the high altar and the
chancel'. (fn. 63) About the year 1776 the floor of the church was levelled
up to that of the presbytery, thus reducing the elevated appearance
of the altar. When the altar steps were removed we have no record,
though certainly it was before the nineteenth century. In 1864,
when the floor of the church was lowered again, the level of the presbytery was lowered too. In 1886 a new altar was presented to the
church (fn. 64) raised on three steps and again placed on the cord of the
apse, which consists now of five bays only.
The high altar is frequently referred to in the wills: there are four
references to it whilst it stood in its first position, thus:
In 1382 John Chishull, priest, bequeathed to the high altar £10
which Dom John Randish, a canon of the church, owed him for
a loan. (fn. 65) In 1387 John Royston willed to be buried before the high
altar and bequeathed to Dom John Rankedych (probably the same
as Randish above) £20 to be expended about the high altar. (fn. 66) In 1393
John Wrighte willed to be buried before the high altar and bequeathed
12 marks for making a vestment for the celebration of masses for the
soul of himself and others; and 26s. 8d. for making a dorsal for the
high altar, the money to be given to the same Dom John Rankdich
for doing the work. (fn. 67) And in 1397 Joan Lovetoft bequeathed 40s.
to the high altar, and an altar cloth and a towel. (fn. 68)
After the rebuilding of the east end references to the high altar
become more frequent, thus: In 1426 Katherine Lancaster willed to
be buried before the high altar under the stone where her husband
(Richard Brigge called Lancaster) was buried, and she bequeathed
20s. to be spent in the decoration of the same. (fn. 69) In 1432 William
Thirwall, esquire, wished to be buried in the church before the image
of the Mother of God by the high altar on the south side. (fn. 70) In 1434
Thomas Russell bequeathed to the high altar and to the fabric of the
church 20s. (fn. 71) In 1448 Walter Shirington bequeathed to the high
altar 7s. for each of three days when his obit was kept. (fn. 72) In 1450
Stephen Grove bequeathed 20 pence for its decoration. (fn. 73) In 1458
Alice Bysshop, alias Derby, willed to be buried between the high
altar and the quire. (fn. 74)
After this date till the suppression the bequests to the altar were
all for 'tithes and oblations negligently forgotten or withheld', thus:
In 1473 there was bequeathed by John Durem for such 3s. 4d. (fn. 75)
In 1514 by John Alexander 5s
(fn. 76) In 1515 by John Webbes 10s. (fn. 77) In
1521 by Bartholomew Westby the large sum of £6 13s. 4d.; (fn. 78) and by
Hugh Grannger 10s., and after mass the priest was to say de profundis
at his grave and then to cast holy water upon it. (fn. 79) In 1522 Robert
Blagge, one of the barons of the Exchequer, bequeathed for tithes
'not fully and truly paid and for the furnishing of eight images to
be new painted' 8 marks. (fn. 80)
In January 1538/9, the year of the suppression, Richard
Bellamy bequeathed 3s. 4d. for tithes negligently forgotten: he was
'a brother of the chapter seall' with the canons. (fn. 81) Among the witnesses to this will were John Deane, then the parish priest and afterwards the first rector, Dr. Bartlett, the king's physician, and others.
In 1545, that is after the suppression, Robert Adams bequeathed
3s. 4d. (fn. 82) for the same object. In the same year Robert Burgoyne
likewise bequeathed 13s. 4d. and also gave for the service of the
altar 'one cope and one vestment with the apparel'. (fn. 83) In 1548
Dorothy Paver bequeathed 1s. 8d. for tithes; (fn. 84) and lastly the John
Garatt, citizen and salter, mentioned above, (fn. 85) gave 1s. and directed
his executors to find yearly two tapers of wax weighing 2 lb. each,
and when his dirige and mass of requiem were done the tapers were
to be given to the friars to burn on the high altar before the sacrament. (fn. 86)
(The Blackfriars were not in possession until 1556.)
The Altar of the Holy Cross or Jesus Altar.
The altar of the Holy Cross is mentioned, as already seen, in the
will of Alice, widow of John Mores (Morys or Moore), where she willed
to be buried 'before the altar of the Cross' (coram altare crucis).
Now the position of the altar of the Cross seems to have been invariably
below the great Cross, that is on the west side of the rood screen
between the two doorways which are always found in that screen.
The usual dedication of this altar is 'the Jesus Altar'. At St. Bartholomew's there is no actual record of this altar being so called, but
we know that there was an image of Jesus Christ in the nave because (fn. 87)
Richard Bellamy willed 'to be buried in the body of the church . . .
between the font set there and the holy image of our Lord Jesus
Christ', and it is reasonable to assume that that image stood by the
altar of the Cross, which was in the nave; and therefore that that
altar had the usual dedication, and that the Altare Crucis was also
called the Jesus Altar. Where there was not a separate parish
chapel, as there was at St. Bartholomew's, this altar was used by the
parishioners as the parochial altar.
The Altar of St. Michael.
This altar is mentioned in the will of Katherine Lancaster in 1426,
wherein she directs that a wax torch be given after her death 'to her
usual altar of Michael'; (fn. 88) and Thomas Peerson bequeathed a taper
priced 8d. to St. Michael, which no doubt was to burn before an image
of that saint which would have stood beside the altar of St. Michael.
The Altar of St. Hippolytus or St. Ippolite.
We find this altar only once referred to. In the Bodleian Rental
of 1307 it is recorded that 'The Sacristan has the offerings which come
during the year to the altar of Ippolitus which are worth £4 a year'.
We have no record of the position of this altar, but it may have been
in the sacristy, where the foundations of an altar still exist.
The dedication to St. Hippolytus is uncommon in England, though
it is the dedication of the church of Ippollitts, near Hitchin, from which
the place derives its name. The saint was the soldier in charge of
St. Lawrence, and he himself suffered martyrdom by being tied to
the tails of wild horses—hence his name. His relics were transferred
from Rome to St. Denis in France, where he was a more popular saint
The only records of the images in the church before the suppression
are contained in the wills. Agnes Tredehey in the year 1409 desired
to be buried in the church 'beneath the image of the blessed Mary
Magdalene which is on the wall on the north side of the church'. (fn. 89)
Thomas Peerson, in the year 1485, who desired to be buried in the
church 'before St. Christopher at the longe stall', bequeathed as
follows—'to St. Christopher light 12d. also for a taper to St. Barthilmewe 8d. and another to St. Anthony price 8d. Another to the
Trinity price 12d. and in our Lady's Chapel another 12d.; and another
to St. Katherine of 8d. and 2 tapers in the worship of St. Thomas
the Apostle and St. Thomas the martyr, price 16d.; St. John the
Evangelist a taper price 8d. and St. Peter and St. Paul two tapers
of 16d. and St. Michael another of 8d. and another in the worship
of all Saints 2s.' (fn. 90)
An image of St. Ursula in the Parish Chapel has already been
referred to. (fn. 91)
|Chapels (with Altars).
||St. John the Evangelist.
|Walden's or All Saints'.
|Altars (no Chapels recorded).
|The High Altar.
|The Holy Cross or Jesus Altar.
|Images (with Altars).
|St. Mary the Virgin.
|St. Bartholomew (2).
||St. John the Evangelist.
|Images (no Altars recorded).
||St. Thomas the Apostle.
||St. Thomas the Martyr.
|St. Mary Magdalene.
|St. Peter and St. Paul.
|Altars now in the Church.
|The High Altar
|The Lady Altar
|The Altar of Sacrifice
|The Crypt Altar