Lancashire Fines
4-6 Philip and Mary

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

William Farrer (editor)

Year published

1910

Pages

143-164

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'Lancashire Fines: 4-6 Philip and Mary', Final Concords for Lancashire, Part 4: 1509-1558 (1910), pp. 143-164. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=52585 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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4–6 Philip and Mary

(Bundle 18, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary, 1558).

m. 4. Monday in the fourth week of Lent, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Crane, plaintiff, and William Chorley and Alice his wife deforciants of a messuage, a toft, a croft, a garden, an orchard, 10 a. of land, 3 a. of meadow, 4 a. of pasture, 10 a. of moss, 20 a. of turbary, and 40 a. of moor in Eccleston.

William and Alice remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave them £20.

m. 7. [21 March, 1558].
Between Robert Hardey and Henry Hardey, plaintiffs, and Roger Kenyon deforciant of a messuage, a garden, and an orchard in Manchester.

Roger remitted all right to Robert and Henry, for which Robert and Henry gave him £20.

m. 10. [21 March, 1558].
Between Edward Braddyll, gent., plaintiff, and Henry Forster, of London, yeoman, deforciant of a messuage, a toft, a garden, 10 a. of land, 5 a. of meadow, 7 a. of pasture, one a. of wood, 10 a. of moor, and 14 a. of turbary in Read.

Henry remitted all right to Edward and his heirs, for which Edward gave him £40.

m. 13. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Aspenall and William Dewhurst, plaintiffs, and Alexander Howghton deforciant of the manor of Penhulton, with the appurtenances, and of 8 messuages, 6 cottages, 6 tofts, 8 gardens, 8 orchards, a wind-mill, 300 a. of land, 40 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 20 a. of wood, 100 a. of turbary, 40 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 6s. 8d. of rent in Penhulton [Little Pendleton], Clidero, Wylpeshyre, and Rybchester.

Alexander remitted all right to John and William and to the heirs of John, for which John and William gave him £200.

m. 16. [21 March, 1558].
Between Ralph Massy, plaintiff, and Adam Fyssheweke, gent., deforciant of the moiety of three messuages, 2 cottages, 4 tofts, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 120 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 20 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 4s. of rent in Newsham, Woodplumpton, Whyttyngham, Grymestre, and Haughton.

Adam remitted all right to Ralph and his heirs, for which Ralph gave him £50.

m. 19. [21 March, 1558].
Between Thomas Crosse, Richard Hey, William Smalshaghe, and John Fayrcloghe, plaintiffs, and Robert Dalton, esq., and Anne his wife, and Joan Dalton, widow, deforciants of a moiety of 2 messuages, 2 gardens, 80 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, and 20 a. of wood in Dalton.

The deforciants remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Thomas, for which the plaintiffs gave them £66.

m. 23. [21 March, 1558].
Between Thomas Molynex, gent., plaintiff, and Thomas Gerrard, kt., and Elizabeth his wife deforciants of two messuages, 4 gardens, 2 orchards, 20 a. of land, 8 a. of meadow, 16 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, and 20 a. of furze and heath in Pemberton.

Thomas and Elizabeth acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Thomas Molynex, and granted that a messuage, two gardens, an orchard, 10 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 8 a. of pasture, an a. of wood, and 10 a. of furze and heath, which Gilbert Molynex held for the term of his life on the day this agreement was made, after the said Gilbert's decease should remain to the said Thomas Molynex and to his heirs for ever, for which Thomas gave to the said Thomas Gerrard £100.

m. 28. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Hogeson, plaintiff, and Thomas Molyneux deforciant of a messuage, a garden, an orchard, 20 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, and 6 a. of pasture in Duckysbury [Duxbury].

Richard acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Thomas, for which Thomas granted them to Richard; to have and to hold for the term of 21 years commencing immediately after the decease of one John Molyneux; rendering 30s. 10d. therefor yearly to the said Thomas and his heirs.

m. 29. [21 March, 1558].
Between Alexander Rygbye, plaintiff, and William Orrell, gent., and Thomas Orrell, son and heir apparent of the said William [deforciant] of a messuage, a garden, 7 a. of land, and an a. of meadow in Wygan.

William and Thomas remitted all right to Alexander and his heirs, for which Alexander gave them £20.

m. 32. [21 March, 1558].
Between Robert Cottome, plaintiff, and Nicholas Ambrose and William Ambrose deforciants of 3 messuages, 3 barns, 3 gardens, 40 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 60 a. of moor, 20 a. of turbary, and 20 a. of furze and heath in Gosenarghe.

Nicholas and William acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Robert, for which Robert and Richard granted them to William for his life; after the said William's decease to remain to James Cottome and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to John Cottome, brother of the said James, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Thomas Cottome, another brother of the said James, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said William Ambrose for ever.

m. 35. [21 March, 1558].
Between Thomas Warberton, the elder, and Ellen his wife, plaintiffs, and Thomas Warberton, the younger, son of Thomas Warberton, the elder, deforciant of 3 messuages, a cottage, a toft, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 100 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 2 a. of wood, 60 a. of moor, 20 a. of moss, 10 a. of turbary, and 40 a. of furze and heath in Butterworthe.

Thomas, the younger, acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Thomas, the elder, for which Thomas, the elder, and Ellen granted them to Thomas, the younger; to have and to hold for 41 years commencing immediately after the decease of the said Thomas, the elder, and Ellen, rendering 48s. therefor yearly to Thomas, the elder, and Ellen and the heirs of the said Thomas, the elder, during the said term.

m. 38. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Nuttall and John Banyster, plaintiffs, and William Woodfall, gent., deforciant of 5 messuages, a cottage, a dovecote, 6 gardens, 200 a. of land, 40 a. of meadow, 100 a. of pasture, 10 a. of wood, 200 a. of moor, 200 a. of furze and heath, and a mine of coals in (Sutton (fn. 1) ), Wyndhyll [Windle], and Eccleston in the parish of Prescott.

William acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Richard, for which Richard and John granted them to William for his life; after his decease to remain to John Woodfall, son and heir of the said William, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Peter Woodfall, another son of the said William, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Valentine Woodfall, another son of the said William, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said William for ever.

m. 41. [24 March, 1558].
Between George Nelson and Thomas Smyth, plaintiffs, and Richard Assheton, esq., deforciant of 12 messuages, 4 cottages, 4 tofts, a dovecote, 12 gardens, 12 orchards, 200 a. of land, 40 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, and 200 a. of moor in Langton [Longton], and Downe Lytherland.

Richard remitted all right to George and Thomas and to the heirs of George, for which George and Thomas gave him £200.

m. 44. [21 March, 1558].
Between Matthew Markland, William Nelson, Peter Mershe, Robert Baron, Hugh Longshaghe, Lawrence Forthe, and Gilbert Barowe, plaintiffs, and Thomas Hesketh, kt., and Anne his wife deforciants of 2 messuages, a garden, 26 a. of land, and 3 a. of meadow in Wygan and Croston.

Thomas and Anne acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Matthew, and granted that 3 a. of land in Wygan, which Elizabeth Whalley, widow, held for the term of her life, after the said Elizabeth's decease should remain to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Matthew, for which the plaintiffs gave them £300.

(Bundle 19, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary, 1558).

m. 3. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Shyrburne, kt., plaintiff, and Thomas Walmesley deforciant of the fourth part of a messuage, 30 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, and 20 a. of pasture in Aghton [Aighton], in Blackburneshyer.

Thomas remitted all right to Richard and his heirs, for which Richard gave him £20.

m. 7. [21 March, 1558],
Between Henry Tyrrell, kt., John Lynsell, John Charnock, and Thomas Walynger, plaintiffs, and Anthony Broun, Serjeant at Law, and Joan his wife deforciants of the manors of Faryngton and Leylond, with the appurtenances, and of 70 messuages, 2 mills, 1000 a. of land, 60 a. of meadow, 500 a. of pasture, 40 a. of wood, 2000 a. of moss and heath, and 40s. of rent in Clayton [-le-Woods] and Leylond.

Anthony and Joan remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Henry, for which the plaintiffs gave them £400.

m. 10. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Modye, clerk, plaintiff, Joan Dalton, widow, and Robert Dalton, esq., and Anne his wife deforciants of the moiety of 2 messuages, 2 gardens, 80 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, and 20 a. of wood in Dalton [par. Wigan].

The deforciants remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave them 100 marks.

m. 13. [21 March, 1558].
Between William Radclyff, kt., and Hamlet Dychefeld, plaintiffs, and James Pemberton deforciant of the manors of Halsnade and Burton Hed, with the appurtenances, and of 20 messuages, 6 cottages, 6 tofts, 2 dovecotes, 20 gardens, 20 orchards, 400 a. of land, 200 a. of meadow, 100 a. of pasture, 200 a. of wood, 600 a. of moor, 100 a. of turbary, 100 a. of pasture, (fn. 2) 400 a. of furze and heath, and 10s. of rent in Halsnade, Burtonhed, Bedford, Whyston, and Sutton.

James remitted all right to William and Hamlet and to the heirs of William, for which William and Hamlet gave him £200.

m. 16. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Rovyngton, plaintiff, and Peter Anderton, esq., and James Anderton, son and heir apparent of the said Peter, deforciants of 12 a. of land, 2 a. of meadow, and 6 a. of pasture in Anderton; and also of a moiety of one watermill, an a. of land, and 2 a. of pasture in Helaye [Healey].

Peter and James remitted all right to Richard and his heirs, for which Richard gave them £48.

m. 20. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Chysenall and Roger Bradshay, plaintiffs, and Richard Lathom, esq., deforciant of 3 messuages, 3 cottages, 2 tofts, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 100 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 40 a. of turbary, 20 a. of moss, 40 a. of moor, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 10s. of rent in Allerton and Wryghtyngton.

Richard Lathom remitted all right to Richard and Roger and to the heirs of Roger, for which Richard and Roger gave him £106.

m. 23. [21 March, 1558].
Between Francis Gartsyde and Richard Romesbothom, plaintiffs, and Thomas Werberton, the elder, and Ellen his wife deforciants of 4 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 200 a. of land, 40 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 100 a. of moor, 40 a. of moss, 20 a. of turbary, and 100 a. of furze and heath, and 12s. of rent in Butterworthe, Egeworth, and Warneton.

Thomas and Ellen remitted all right to Francis and Richard and to the heirs of Francis, for which Francis and Richard gave them £60.

m. 26. [21 March, 1558].
Between Ralph Longworthe and James Parker, plaintiffs, and Hugh Parker deforciant of 3 messuages, a cottage, a toft, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 100 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 40 a. of turbary, 40 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Chorley.

Hugh acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Ralph, for which Ralph and James granted them to Hugh, to have and to hold for one week; after that term to remain to the said Hugh, and Anne his wife, and to the heirs males begotten of the body of the said Hugh; in default to remain to James Parker, brother of the said Hugh, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Thomas Parker, brother of the said Hugh and James, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to a certain John Parker, uncle of the said Hugh, and to his heirs for ever.

m. 29. [21 March, 1558].
Between Thomas Hesketh, kt., plaintiff, and Joan Dalton, widow, and Robert Dalton, esq., and Anne his wife deforciants of 12 messuages, 10 cottages, 8 tofts, 22 gardens, 22 orchards, 300 a. of land, 140 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 6 a. of wood, 300 a. of turbary, 200 a. of moss, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 40s. of rent in Croston; and also of a fourth part of the manor of Croston, with the appurtenances, and a fourth part of 1000 a. of moor in Croston.

The deforciants remitted all right to Thomas and his heirs, for which Thomas gave them £230.

m. 32. [21 March, 1558].
Between Nicholas Robynson, clerk, and John Cowper, plaintiffs, and Oliver Myddleton deforciant of 8 messuages, 2 cottages, 8 tofts, 8 gardens, 8 orchards, 100 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 60 a. of wood, 100 a. of turbary, 100 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Dalton [-in-Kendal], Netherborowe [Burrow], and Yelondstorthes [Yeland Storrs].

Oliver acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Nicholas, for which Nicholas and John granted them to Oliver, to have and to hold to the said Oliver and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Christopher Myddleton, son and heir apparent of John Myddleton, esq., and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Edward Myddleton, brother of the said Christopher, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to Richard Middleton, brother of the said Christopher and Edward, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Oliver for ever.

m. 35. [21 March, 1558].
Between William Ratclyff, esq., plaintiff, and John Talbott, esq., deforciant of 16 a. of land in Clytherowe.

John remitted all right to William and his heirs, for which William gave him £12.

m. 38. [21 March, 1558].
Between Lawrence Irelande and Thomas Nelson, plaintiffs, and John Starkye and Anne his wife, and Henry Starkye and Isabella his wife deforciants of 3 messuages, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 40 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 6 a. of wood, 10 a. of moss, 10 a. of turbary, and 20 a. of furze and heath in Clawghton [par. Garstang].

The deforciants remitted all right to Lawrence and Thomas and to the heirs of Lawrence, for which Lawrence and Thomas gave them £150.

m. 41. Monday in the fourth week of Lent, 2 & 3 (sic) Philip & Mary. [16 March, 1556].
Between William Hogekynson, John Fletewood, esq., Richard Howgh, Christopher Sumpner, and James Hesketh, plaintiffs, and Thomas Hesketh, kt., deforciant of 2 messuages, a cottage, 2 tofts, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 300 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 10 a. of pasture, 40 a. of moor, and 4 a. of moss in Preston in Amoundernes, Howghwyk [Howick], Crosseton, and Ulneswalton.

Thomas remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of William, for which the plaintiffs gave him 60 marks.

m. 44. Monday in the fourth week of Lent, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Mason, plaintiff, and Thomas Mawdesley and Margaret his wife deforciants of 2 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, 4 gardens, 3 orchards, 30 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 6 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 5 a. of moor, 5 a. of moss, and 4 a. of furze and heath in Lathum.

Thomas and Margaret remitted all right to Richard and his heirs, for which Richard gave them 30 marks.

m. 45. [21 March, 1558].
Between Thomas Chaderton, plaintiff, and Lawrence Tetlow deforciant of 4 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 8 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, and 8 a. of pasture in Manchester.

Lawrence remitted all right to Thomas and his heirs, for which Thomas gave him 100 marks.

m. 51. [21 March, 1558].
Between William Neilde, plaintiff, and Adam Fysshewyck, gent., deforciant of a moiety of 3 messuages, 2 cottages, 4 tofts, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 120 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 20 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 4s. of rent in Newsham, Woode Plumpton, Whyttyngham, Grymesore [Grimsargh], and Haughton.

Adam remitted all right to William and his heirs, for which William gave him £50.

m. 54. [21 March, 1558].
Between Henry Hyggyn, plaintiff, and Lawrence Towneley and Helen his wife deforciants of a messuage, 12 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, and 6 a. of pasture in Great Mersden.

Lawrence and Helen remitted all right to Henry and his heirs, for which Henry gave them 40 marks.

m. 58. [21 March, 1558].
Between Adam Byrome, plaintiff, and Joan Brereton, widow, and Geoffrey Brereton, son and heir apparent of the said Joan, deforciants of 10 messuages, 6 cottages, 4 tofts, 4 crofts, 10 gardens, 10 orchards, 20 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 10 a. of pasture, and an a. of wood in Manchester and Salford, and of common of pasture for all cattle in Manchester and Salforde.

Joan and Geoffrey remitted all right to Adam and his heirs, for which Adam gave them 200 marks.

m. 61. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Nuttall, gent., and John Jackson, plaintiffs, and Thurstan Tyldesley, esq., deforciant of 10 messuages, twr water-mills, a dovecote, 20 gardens, 200 a. of land, 60 a. of meadow, 200 a. of pasture, 100 a. of wood, 200 a. of furze, and 300 a. of moor in Wurkesley [Worsley].

Thurstan acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Richard, for which Richard and John granted them to Thurstan, to have and to hold to the said Thurstan and to the heirs males of his body begotten and to be begotten; in default to remain to a certain Hugh Tyldisley, brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Richard Tyldesley, another brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to George Tyldisley, another brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Thomas Tyldesley, another brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Gilbert Tildesley, another brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to James Tyldesley, another brother of the said Thurstan, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Edward Tyldesley and the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to a certain Ralph Barton, and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Thurstan for ever.

m. 64. Monday next before the feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary. [23 August, 1557].
Between Thomas Asshawe, esq., and William Bannester, plaintiffs, and Alexander Wammysley and Margaret his wife deforciants of 3 messuages, 8 cottages, 10 gardens, 8 orchards, 60 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 100 a. of moor, 40 a. of moss, 20 a. of turbary, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Rybchester and Dutton.

Alexander and Margaret acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Thomas, for which Thomas and William granted them to Alexander and Margaret, to have and to hold to the said Alexander and Margaret for their lives; after their decease to remain to Robert Wammysley, son and heir apparent of the said Alexander and Margaret, and to the heirs begotten of his body; in default to remain to Thomas Wammysley, brother of the said Robert, and to the heirs begotten of his body; in default to remain to the heirs begotten and to be begotten of the bodies of the said Alexander and Margaret; in default to remain to the heirs begotten of the body of the said Margaret; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Margaret for ever.

m. 67. [23 August, 1557].
Between Hugh Nelson, plaintiff, and Richard Assheton, esq., deforciant of a barn, and 3 a. and half a r. of land in Mawdesley.

Richard remitted all right to Hugh and his heirs, for which Hugh gave him £20.

m. 70. [23 August, 1557].
Between Ralph Barton, esq., and George Valentyne, plaintiffs, and Thurstan Tyldisley, esq., deforciant of 2 messuages, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 40 a. of land, 30 a. of meadow, 30 a. of pasture, and 12 a. of wood in Hawghton and Kydpull, in the parish of Eccles.

Thurstan remitted all right to Ralph and George and to the heirs of Ralph, for which Ralph and George gave him £80.

m. 73. [23 August, 1557].
Between John Traves and Richard Traves, plaintiffs, and William Colley and Margery his wife deforciants of 10 a. of land and 6 a. of pasture in Wyndle.

William and Margery remitted all right to John and Richard and to the heirs of John, for which John and Richard gave them £60.

m. 77. [23 August, 1557].
Between Hugh Anderton, esq., plaintiff, and Richard Starkye, gent., and Elizabeth his wife, and John Cleyton, gent., and Matilda his wife deforciants of 2 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 60 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 60 a. of moor, 40 a. of turbary, 40 a. of moss, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Cleyton [-le-Woods] and Leylond.

The deforciants remitted all right to Hugh and his heirs, for which he gave them £80.

m. 80. [23 August, 1557].
Between George Byrom, plaintiff, and Ralph Browne and Jane his wife, and Adam Holland and Ellen his wife deforciants of 4 messuages, 2 cottages, 6 gardens, 4 orchards, 7 a. of land, and 2 a. of pasture in Salford, Manchester, Barton, and Hulme.

The deforciants remitted all right to George and his heirs, for which George gave them. . . . (fn. 3)

m. 83. [23 August, 1557].
Between William Colley and Edmund Colley, plaintiffs, and Robert Traves, gent., and John Traves, son and heir apparent of the said Robert, deforciants of 60 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, and 40 a. of pasture in Whyston.

Robert and John remitted all right to William and Edmund and to the heirs of William, for which William and Edmund gave them £100.

m. 86. [23 August, 1557].
Between Robert Rygbye, of Whrightyngton, plaintiff, and Richard Mawdesley deforciant of 3 a. of land in Wryghtington.

Richard remitted all right to Robert and his heirs, for which Robert gave him £20.

m. 89. [23 August, 1557].
Between Henry Byrom, plaintiff, and Ralph Ratclyff, gent., deforciant of an a. of land, an a. of meadow, and a r. of pasture in Salford.

Ralph remitted all right to Henry and his heirs, for which Henry gave him £20.

m. 92. [23 August, 1557].
Between Arthur Asheton, plaintiff, and Roger Gartsyde deforciant of 10 messuages, 5 cottages, 12 gardens, 4 orchards, 60 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 30 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, and 100 a. of moor and turbary in Huddersfeld [Hundersfield] and Spotland.

Roger remitted all right to Arthur and his heirs, for which Arthur gave him £140.

m. 96. [23 August, 1557].
Between John Arscot, esq., and James Gardyner, gent., plaintiffs, and Bernard Style and Cecilia his wife, one of the daughters and coheirs of Thomas Anderton, deceased, deforciants of 12 messuages, 12 tofts, 12 gardens, 200 a. of land, 50 a. of meadow, 200 a. of pasture, 50 a. of wood, and 60 a. of moor and turbary in Wygan, Ince, Walton, Mellyng, Aghton [Aughton], and Halewoode.

Bernard and Cecilia remitted all right to John and James and to the heirs of John, for which John and James gave them £40.

m. 99. [23 August, 1557].
Between Henry Forshallghe, William Weyrden. and John Dysley, plaintiffs, and Richard Farryngton deforciant of 2 messuages, a barn, 3 gardens, an orchard, 20 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 8 a. of pasture, 40 a. of moor, 20 a. of turbary, and 20 a. of furze and heath in Leyland.

Richard remitted all right to Henry and John and to the heirs of Henry, for which Henry and John gave him £40.

m. 102. [23 August, 1557].
Between the King and Queen, plaintiffs, and Christopher Moyrys, gent., one of the grooms of the Privy Chamber, deforciant of the manor of Cartmele, with the appurtenances, and of 40 messuages, 40 cottages, 40 gardens, 40 orchards, 4 dovecotes, 2 mills, 1000 a. of land, 500 a. of meadow, 600 a. of pasture, 1000 a. of furze and heath, 500 a. of moor, 500 a. of marsh, 200 a. of wood, 40s. of rent, and View of Frankpledge in Cartemele.

Christopher remitted all right to the King and Queen and to the heirs of the Queen, for which the Queen gave him 1000 marks.

m. 106. . . . . 4 & 5, Philip & Mary. (fn. 4) [? 23 August, 1557].
Between Richard Ratclyffe, gent., and George Dombyll, gent., plaintiffs, and Edmund Trafford, kt., Edmund Trafforde, son and heir apparent of the said Edmund, Thomas Leigh and Isabella his wife, Hugh Traves and Anne his wife, Ranulph Cleyton and Thomasina his wife, Alice Trafford, and Gilbert Gerrard, esq., deforciants of 7 messuages, 2 cottages, 2 tofts, a water-mill, 10 gardens, 10 orchards, 100 a. of land, 12 a. of meadow, 10 a. of pasture, 6 a. of wood, 6 a. of moor, 2 a. of marsh, 2 a. of turbary, 12 a. of furze and heath, and 20s. of rent in Manchester and Chorleton....

The deforciants acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Richard, for which Richard and George granted to the said Isabella Leigh a fifth part of the messuages, lands . . . . . . . . ; to have and to hold the said fifth part to the said Isabella and her heirs for ever. The said Richard and George also granted another fifth part of the said messuages, lands and tenements to the said Hugh and Anne; to have and to hold to them and to the heirs of the said Anne for ever. And further the aforesaid Richard and George granted to the said Thomasina another fifth part of the messuages lands and . . . . . . . . ; to have and to hold to her and her heirs for ever. The said Richard and George also granted another fifth part to the said Alice; [to have and to hold] to the aforesaid Alice and to her heirs for ever. Moreover, Richard and George granted the residue to Gilbert; to have and to hold to him and his heirs for ever.

(Bundle 20, 4 & 5, & 5 & 6 Philip & Mary, 1558).

m. 122. Monday in the fourth week of Lent, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Carter and Henry Davyson, plaintiffs, and Edmund Ley and Emota his wife deforciants of a messuage, 2 gardens, 14 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 2 a. of pasture, 3 a. of wood, 4 a. of furze and heath, 2 a. of turbary, and 20 a. of moor and moss in Sutton.

Edmund and Emota acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of Henry, for which Richard and Henry granted them to Edmund for his life; after his decease to remain to the said Emota for her life; after the decease of the said Edmund and Emota and the longest liver of them to remain to Robert Ley, son of the said Edmund and Emota, and to the heirs begotten of the body of the said Robert; in default to remain to the heirs begotten and to be begotten of the body of the said Emota; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Edmund Ley for ever.

m. 119. [21 March, 1558].
Between Robert Bolton, plaintiff, and William Bolton deforciant of a messuage, 2 gardens, 3 a. of land, 2 a. of meadow, and an a. of pasture in Wilpeshyre.

William remitted all right to Robert and his heirs, for which Robert gave him 100 marks.

m. 116. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Fletwoode, plaintiff, and Alice Smalewode, daughter and heir of William Smalewode, deceased, deforciant of a messuage, a toft, a croft, a garden, an orchard, 20 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 6 a. of pasture, 10 a. of moss, and 20 a. of moor in Penwortham.

Alice remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave her £20.

m. 112. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Barnes and Lawrence Heyton, plaintiffs, and Thomas Byspam deforciant of 3 messuages, a cottage, a toft, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 80 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 30 a. of wood, 20 a. of turbary, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Byllyngge and Raynford.

Thomas remitted all right to John and Lawrence and to the heirs of John, for which John and Lawrence gave him £40.

m. 109. [21 March, 1558].
Between John Bold, esq., plaintiff, and Thomas Hesketh, kt., and Alice his wife deforciants of 10 messuages, 4 cottages, 4 tofts, 10 gardens, 10 orchards, 300 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 50 a. of pasture, 12 a. of wood, 40 a. of turbary, 20 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Shevington and Thistelton.

Thomas and Alice remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave them £120.

m. 105. [21 March, 1558].
Between William Buddell, plaintiff, and Thomas Harryson and Ellen his wife deforciants of a moiety of a messuage, 30 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, and 10 a. of pasture in Woodplumpton.

Thomas and Ellen remitted all right to William and his heirs, for which William gave them £40.

m. 102. [21 March, 1558].
Between William Terbocke, esq., plaintiff, and Thomas Hesketh and Alice his wife deforciants of 8 messuages, 4 cottages, 4 tofts, 8 gardens, 8 orchards, 150 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 60 a. of turbary, 20 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Rayneforth.

Thomas and Alice remitted all right to William and his heirs, for which William gave them £160.

m. 98. [21 March, 1558].
Between Richard Bolde, son and heir apparent of Richard Bolde, esq., plaintiff, and John Bolde and Elizabeth his wife deforciants of a messuage, 2 tofts, a garden, an orchard, 3 a. of land, an a. of meadow, an a. of pasture, and 42s., 8d. of rent in Eccleston and Sutton.

John and Elizabeth remitted all right to Richard and his heirs, for which Richard gave them £40.

m. 95. Monday next after the Assumption, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary. [22 August, 1558].
Between George Newsham, gent., plaintiff, and Richard Molyneux, kt., deforciant of 3 messuages, 2 cottages, a watermill, 50 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 6 a. of wood, 100 a. of turbary, and 100 a. of furze and heath in Newsam and Holoforth in the parish of Gosenargh.

Richard remitted all right to George and his heirs, for which George gave him £200.

m. 91. Monday next after the feast . . . . . . . . Philip & Mary. (fn. 5) [22 August, 1558].
Between George Fyssher and William Bancroft plaintiffs, and Humphrey Lynde and Agnes his wife, one of the daughters and heirs of Richard Blundell, deceased, and Henry Blundell [deforciants] of the third part of . . messuages, 4 cottages, 10 gardens, 6 orchards, 40 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, 12 a. of pasture in Lancaster, Preston in Amoundernes, Broughton, Inghoo [Ingole], and Brockhole . . . (fn. 6)

The deforciants acknowledged the said third part to be the right of George, for which George and William granted it to Henry, to have and to hold to him and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Richard Blundell for ever.

m. 87. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Wallenger and William Hodson, plaintiffs, and Anthony Browne, Serjeant at Law, and Joan his wife, and William Farrington, gent., deforciants of 5 messuages, 7 gardens, 80 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 20 a. of wood, and common of pasture and common of turbary in Leylond, now or late in the several tenures of the said William Farryngton, James Yong, Margaret Farrington, widow, late the wife of Roger Faryngton, Thomas Garstange, . . . late the wife of George Sumpner, and Alexander Clayton, or their assigns; and of a moiety of a cottage and an improvement of the waste and common of pasture, and common of turbary in Leylond now or late in the several tenures of Robert Heskett and John Bolton or their assigns.

The deforciants remitted all right to Thomas and William and to the heirs of Thomas, for which Thomas and William gave them £100.

m. 84. [22 August, 1558].
Between John Shepperd and Isabella his wife, plaintiffs, and Robert Holt, esq., deforciant of 2 a. of pasture in Spotland.

Robert remitted all right to John and Isabella and to the heirs of Isabella, for which John and Isabella gave him £20.

m. 80. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Carlyll, son and heir apparent of John Carlyll, (fn. 7) esq., Richard Chysnall, John Molyneux, and Hugh Anderton, plaintiffs, and Richard Moleneux, kt., deforciant of the manors of Ellell, Aghton, Formeby, Eccleston, Bradley, Fysshewyke, and Larbrecke, and of 300 messuages, 100 cottages, 4 water-mills, a fulling-mill, 2 windmills, 100 tofts, 300 gardens, 300 orchards, 4000 a. of land, 2000 a. of meadow, 2000 a. of pasture, 300 a. of wood, 4000 a. of moor, 100 a. of turbary, 500 a. of furze and heath, and £4 of rent in Ellell, Aghton [Aughton], Eccleston, Hesken, Bradley, Fyshewyke, Larbreke, Upholland, Downlytherland, and [West] Derbye; and also of a free fishery in the water of Rybble.

Richard remitted all right to John and Isabella and to the heirs of John, for which John and Isabella gave him £600.

m. 76. [22 August, 1558].
Between John Fell, plaintiff, and William Bardsey and Nicholas Bardsey, son and heir apparent of the said William, deforciants of 4 messuages, 2 cottages, 20 a. of land, and 6 a. of wood in Bardsey and Ulverston, and of a yearly rent of 23s. 8d. issuing from the manor of Bardsey with the appurtenances; and of a water-mill in Bardsey.

William and Nicholas remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave them £100.

m. 73. [22 August, 1558].
Between George Fyssher and William Bancroft, and Henry Nycholson and Joan his wife, one of the daughters of Richard Blundell, deceased, and Henry Blundell deforciant of a third part of five messuages, 4 cottages, 10 gardens, 6 orchards, 40 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, and 12 a. of pasture in Lancaster, Preston in Amoundernes, Broughton, Inghoo [Ingole], and Brockehole.

The deforciants acknowledged the said tenements to be the right of George, for which George and William granted them to Henry Blundell, to have and to hold to him and to the heirs males begotten of his body; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Richard Blundell for ever.

m. 69. [22 August, 1558].
Between Roger Kay, plaintiff, and James Openshawe deforciant of two messuages, 20 a. of land, 8 a. of meadow, 8 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 60 a. of moor, and 4 a. of furze and heath in Ratclyffe.

James remitted all right to Roger and his heirs, for which Roger gave him £20.

m. 66. [22 August, 1558].
Between George Pendelton, plaintiff, and Thomas Teatlowe deforciant of a messuage, a toft, a garden, an orchard, and half an a. of land in Manchester.

Thomas remitted all right to George and his heirs, for which George gave him £20.

m. 63. [22 August, 1558].
Between John Wyerden, plaintiff, and George Newsham deforciant of a messuage, 4 cottages, a barn, 4 tofts, 4 gardens, an orchard, 20 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, and 4 a. of pasture in Preston in Amoundernes.

George remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave him £40.

m. 60. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Longton, kt., plaintiff, and Ralph Massye, gent., deforciant of the fourth part of a messuage, a garden, a croft, 5 a. of land, 2 a. of meadow, and 2 a. of pasture in Preston in Amoundernes.

Ralph remitted all right to Thomas and his heirs, for which Thomas gave him £40.

m. 57. [22 August, 1558].
Between Richard Wrightington, Richard Chysnall, and John Legh, plaintiffs, and Roger Bymson and Alice his wife, and Alexander Bymson and Anne his wife deforciants of 3 messuages, 4 gardens, 3 orchards, 30 a. of land, 15 a. of meadow, 40 a. of pasture, 10 a. of wood, 20 a. of furze and heath, and 10 a. of moor in Shevyngton and Coppull; and of a moiety of a messuage, 20 a. of land, 8 a. of meadow. 20 a. of pasture and 3 a. of wood in Dutton; and also of a third part of 2 messuages, 16 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, 3 a. of wood, and 20 a. of furze and heath in Duckesbery and Chorley.

The deforciants remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Richard, for which the plaintiffs gave them £200.

m. 53. [22 August, 1558].
Between John Chetham, of Nuthurst, plaintiff, and Thomas Haslom deforciant of a messuage, 6 cottages, a barn, 8 gardens, 4 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, and 4 a. of pasture in Manchester.

Thomas remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave him £40.

m. 50. [22 August, 1558].
Between Roger Hyndeley, gent., plaintiff, and Peter Waterwarde deforciant of a messuage, a garden, and 3 a. of land in Hyndley.

Peter remitted all right to Roger and his heirs, for which Roger gave him £20.

m. 47. [22 August, 1558].
Between James Wylcoke, plaintiff, and Humphrey Newton, gent., and Etheldreda his wife deforciants of 5½ a. of land in Lancastre.

Humphrey and Etheldreda remitted all right to James and his heirs, for which James gave them 20 marks.

m. 44. [22 August, 1558].
Between Elizabeth Eccleston, plaintiff, and Humphrey Newton and Etheldreda his wife deforciants of a moiety of a messuage, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 40 a. of land, 6 a. of meadow, and 20 a. of pasture in Sharowe, and Broughton.

Humphrey and Etheldreda remitted all right to Elizabeth and her heirs, for which Elizabeth gave them £30.

m. 41. [22 August, 1558].
Between George Pendilton, plaintiff, and Thomas Tetlowe deforciant of 2 messuages, 2 cottages, a barn, and 2 gardens in Manchester.

Thomas remitted all right to George and his heirs, for which George gave him £40.

m. 38. [22 August, 1558].
Between Richard Wrightyngton and Nicholas Blackelache, plaintiffs, and Peter Stanley, esq., and Elizabeth his wife deforciants of 2 messuages, 2 tofts, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 60 a. of land, 10 a. of meadow, 20 a. of pasture, and 40 a. of moor in Wryghtyngton and Hesken.

Peter and Elizabeth remitted all right to Richard and Nicholas and to the heirs of Richard, for which Richard and Nicholas gave them 40 marks.

m. 34. Monday next before St. Bartholomew the Apostle, 4 & 5 Philip & Mary. [23 August, 1557].
Between John Charnock, plaintiff, and Anthony Broune, Sergeant at Law, and Joan his wife deforciants of a messuage, a toft, 3 gardens, an orchard, 30 a. of land, and an a. of meadow in Ulneswalton and Croston.

Anthony and Joan remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave them 80 marks.

m. 30. [23 August, 1557].
Between Thomas Bower, plaintiff, and Hugh Anderton, esq., and Alice his wife deforciants of 2 messuages, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 20 a. of land, 4 a. of meadow, and 10 a. of pasture in Hyndley.

Hugh and Alice remitted all right to Thomas and his heirs, for which Thomas gave them £40.

m. 26. Monday next after the Assumption, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thurstan Sowthworth, plaintiff, and William Neilde deforciant of a moiety of 3 messuages, 2 cottages, 4 tofts, 4 gardens, 4 orchards, 120 a. of land, 20 a. of meadow, 60 a. of pasture, 4 a. of wood, 20 a. of moss, 100 a. of moor, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 4s. of rent in Newsham, Woodplumpton, Whyttyngham, Grymesere [Grimsargh], and Hawghton.

William remitted all right to Thurstan and his heirs, for which Thurstan gave him 100 marks.

m. 23. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Langton, kt., and John Fletewoode, esq., plaintiffs, and Richard Strickelande, son and heir of John Strickelande, deceased, deforciant of a messuage, a toft, a croft, a garden, an orchard, 6 a. of land, 300 a. of moss, 500 a. of furze and heath, 500 a. of moor, and 500 a. of marsh in Hoton [Hutton].

Richard remitted all right to Thomas and John and to the heirs of Thomas, for which Thomas and John gave him £40.

m. 19. Monday in the fourth week of Lent, 4 & 5 Philip and Mary. [21 March, 1558].
Between James Anderton, Gilbert Longtre, Ralph Asheton, the younger, and Roger Pendylbury, plaintiffs, and Robert Bolton the elder deforciant of the manor of Little Bolton, with the appurtenances, and of 60 messuages, 10 cottages, 10 tofts, one dovecote, one water-mill, 2 fulling-mills, 60 gardens, 40 orchards, 600 a. of land, 500 a. of meadow, 600 a. of pasture, 100 a. of wood, 1000 a. of moor, and 10s. of rent in Little Bolton, Great Bolton, and Tonge.

Robert remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Roger, for which the plaintiffs gave him £1000.

m. 16. Monday next after the Assumption, 5 & 6 (fn. 8) Philip & Mary. [22 August, 1558].
Between William Heyton and Humphrey Taylour, plaintiffs, and Thomas Asheton deforciant of the manor of Penkethe, with the appurtenances, and of 16 messuages, 4 cottages, 6 tofts, a water-mill, a windmill, 16 gardens, 16 orchards, 300 a. of land, 80 a. of meadow, 100 a. of pasture, 20 a. of wood, 100 a. of moor, 40 a. of moss, 100 a. of furze and heath, and 6s. of rent in Penkethe, Warrington, and Martynscroft, and of a free fishery in the water of Mercy. . . . . . . (decayed).

Thomas acknowledged the said manor &c. to be the right of William, for which William and Humphrey granted them to Thomas for his life; after his decease to remain to William Asheton, son and heir apparent of the said Thomas, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to John Ashton, younger son of the said Thomas, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Richard Asheton, uncle of the said Thomas, and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to Christopher Anderton, gent., and to the heirs males of his body; in default to remain to the heirs males of the body of John, father of the said Thomas; in default to remain to the right heirs of the said Thomas for ever.

m. 13. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Stanley, kt., Lord Mountigle, the reverend father in Christ, Thomas Standley, Bishop of Sodor and the Isles, and William Fletwood, gent., plaintiffs, and Thomas Langton, kt., deforciant of the manors of Newton, Wygan, Walton in le Dale, Meller, Egresfeld otherwise Eccles [hill], Overderwen, Netherdarwen, Curedon, Makerfeld, and Harwood, with the appurtenances, and of 600 messuages, 500 cottages, 200 tofts, 12 water-mills, 20 dovecotes, 600 gardens, 600 orchards, 6000 a. of land, 2000 a. of meadow, 5000 a. of pasture, 1000 a. of wood, 600 a. of furze and heath, 6000 a. of moor, 1000 a. of marsh, and £60 of rent in Newton [-in-Makerfield], Wygan, Walton in le Dale, Meller, Egrisfeld otherwise Eccles[hill], Overderwen, Netherdarwen, Harwood Little, Curedall [Cuerdale], Curedon, Lawton, Golborn, Kenyon, Crofte, Sowthworthe, Myddelton, Arbery, Howghton, Fornehed [Fernhead], Pulton, Wolston, Hulme, Wenewyke [Winwick], Haydocke, Assheton [-inMakerfield], Pemberton, Orelee [Orrel], Byllynge, Wynstanley, Ince, Hynley, Abraham [Abram], and Preston in Amoundernes; and also of the advowson of the church of Wygan, and of free fisheries in the waters of Darwen and Ryble, in Walton, Fysshewyke, and Preston in Amoundernes.

Thomas Langton remitted all right to the plaintiffs and to the heirs of Thomas Standley, for which the plaintiffs gave him £6000.

m. 10. [22 August, 1558].
Between Thomas Langton, kt., plaintiff, and Thomas Wynckeley and Isabella, his wife, deforciants of a messuage and 3 a. of land in Newton in Makerfeld.

Thomas and Isabella remitted all right to Thomas Langton and his heirs, for which Thomas gave them £20.

m. 7. [22 August, 1558].
Between John Byron, kt., plaintiff, and Michael Pultney, esq., deforciant of the manor of Butterwurth, with the appurtenances, and of 100 messuages, 40 cottages, 100 gardens, 100 orchards, 2 dovecotes, 2 water-mills, 1000 a. of land, 200 a. of meadow, 3000 a. of pasture, 160 a. of wood, 1200 a. of moor, 1200 a. of marsh, 1100 a. of moss, 800 a. of turbary, 1000 a. of furze and heath, and £6 of rent in Butterwurth, Ogden, Ryton, and Middleton.

Michael remitted all right to John and his heirs, for which John gave him £1000.

m. 4. [22 August, 1558]. (fn. 9)
Between Anthony Jebbe, plaintiff, and Anthony Broone, Serjeant at Law, and Joan his wife, and William Hodson deforciants of the manors of Ulneswalton and Kellermergh, with the appurtenances, and of 60 messuages, 20 tofts, 20 cottages, 60 gardens, 60 orchards, 2 water-mills, 2000 a. of land, 100 a. of meadow, 1000 a. of pasture, 20 a. of wood, 2000 a. of turbary and heath, 1000 a. of common of pasture, 40s. of rent, and liberties, franchises, Views of Frankpledge, and profits of the same, waifs, estrays, goods and chattels of felons, fugitives, and outlaws in Ulneswalton, Kellermergh, and Croston; and also of 30 a. of land, 1000 a. of pasture, and 1000 a. of turbary called Penwortham Mosse, in Penwortham.

The deforciants acknowledged the said manors &c. to be the right of Anthony Jebbe, for which Anthony Jebbe granted a moiety of the said manors &c. to William for one week; after that term to remain to William Farrington, gent., and to his heirs for ever. The said Anthony Jebbe also granted the other moiety to Anthony Browne and to his heirs for ever.

The Morrow of St. Hilary, 11 Henry son of King John [14 January, 1227] before Martin de Pateshill, Ranulf son of Robert, Brian son of Alan, William de Lisle (de Insula), and Richard Duket, justices.

Between Henry de Boulton, plaintiff, and Robert Gredly, tenant of 200a. of land and 200a. of wood in Heton [Heaton, par. Dean].

Robert acknowledged the land within the boundaries underwritten to be the right of Henry, to wit, from Yareswurthebroc ascending by Ridlegesich to the middle place (ad medium locum) between the two streams (rivuli) which fall into Ridleghesichker towards the west, and so straight up between the two streams to the highroad which extends between Haliwell and Rouington, and so straight up to the High (alta) Egh, and so by that Egh around Helmeshaued to the boundaries of Haliwell; to hold to him and his heirs, of Robert and his heirs, rendering yearly a spur or 3d. at the feast of St. Michael for all service saving forinsec. For which Henry quit-claimed to Robert and his heirs all right in the residue of the land and wood. (fn. 10)

Footnotes

1 Sutton, in the two writs but not in the Foot of the Fine.
2 Moss in the original writ; Pasture in the writ of Precipe.
3 Blank in the Record.
4 This Fine being torn and decayed, the abstract is made up from the three writs and what remains of the Foot of the Fine.
5 Writ dated 3rd Aug. 5 & 6 year.
6 The first part of this abstract is made up from the writs as the Foot of the Fine is torn.
7 Carill in the three writs.
8 From the Writ.
9 Parts of this abstract are supplied from the Writs.
10 Feet of Fines, Yorks, file 18, no. 1.