The parish of Middleton

Sponsor

Victoria County History

Publication

Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

Pages

151-161

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'The parish of Middleton', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5 (1911), pp. 151-161. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53019 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

MIDDLETON

Middleton; Pilsworth; Hopwood; Thornham; Birtle-With-Bamford; Ashworth; Ainsworth; Great Lever

This parish, originally a single manor, comprises 1 2,101 acres, and in addition to the central portion— Middleton proper, with Pilsworth, Hopwood, and Thornham—has a number of outlying portions, some distant several miles from the parish church. Great Lever, one of these detached parts, though like the others a 'hamlet' of Middleton, appears to have had an independent history, and was perhaps early added to Middleton to compensate for the loss of Radcliffe. The history of the parish is that of the lords of the manor until recent times, when coal-mining and manufactures have caused great changes. Formerly a large part of the area was moorland, and considerable portions are still used as pasture lands.

The 'hamlets' appear to have become 'townships' in the 18 th century. (fn. 1)

In 1624 the parish was assessed to the county lay as a single township, paying £5 16s. when Salford Hundred contributed £100. (fn. 2) In consequence of disputes, the proportions to be borne by the several hamlets had been agreed upon in 1590. (fn. 3) To the fifteenth Middleton contributed £2 out of £41 14s. 4d. paid by the hundred. (fn. 4)

Several distinguished men have sprung from the parish—Cardinal Langley, William Holt the Jesuit, Thomas Jones, Archbishop of Dublin, Ralph Assheton the Parliamentary leader in the county; William Assheton and Charles Burton, (fn. 5) divines; and Samuel Bamford. Sir Ralph Assheton, who acquired the manor with his wife, may also be mentioned, as also his descendant, Sir Richard, who fought at Flodden. In religious and political matters the people seem to have gone with the times, embracing Protestantism without reluctance and siding with the Parliament in the Civil War, though the lord of Ashworth and one of his tenants suffered for taking the other side. In more recent times the people became strongly Radical, as in other places where there was a large manufacturing population. Luddite riots occurred in 1812. Middleton gives a name to one of the parliamentary divisions of the county.

The following is the apportionment of agricultural land in the parish: Arable land, 1,394 acres; permanent grass, 5,060; woods and plantations, 142. The details are given thus:—

Arable acresGrass acresWoods, &c. acres
Middleton9954
Middleton604777
Middleton50690950
Birtle-with-Bamford281,16462
Ashworth1781528
Great Lever321
Ainsworth1401,0202

INDEX MAP of the PARISH of MIDDLETON

INDEX MAP of the PARISH of MIDDLETON

The Lower Coal Measures or Gannister Beds underlie the greater part of the parish, but a broad belt of the Coal Measures occurs from Heywood to Middleton, overlying the greater part of the townships of Middleton and Hopwood, whilst other areas are found at Bamford and over the eastern half of the township of Thornham.

Church

The church of ST. LEONARD (fn. 6) stands in a commanding position on the north side of the town, on high ground overlooking the valley of the Irk. It consists of chancel, with north and south chapels and south vestry, nave with north and south aisles, south porch and west tower. There is no structural division between the nave and chancel, the nave taking up the first five bays from the west, and the quire seats occupying the sixth. The sixth bay is inclosed by screens on the north and south, and a line of screens runs across the church on its west side. The east part of the chancel projects 16 ft. 6 in. in front of the line of the chapels and is lighted by a modern window of five lights, and by north and south windows of three and two lights respectively.

The greater part of the church was rebuilt in the 16th century, but there are remains of much older work, and the tower dates from the beginning of the 15th century. The earliest part is the tower arch, which is built up of 12thcentury masonry belonging to a former building. Other fragments of 12th-century masonry have also been used up in the later rebuilding. Of the extent of the 12th-century church no evidence remains, but its nave was most likely about 40 ft. long by 18 ft. wide, covering approximately the space occupied by the three western bays of the nave before its extension northward. This church appears to have stood till the beginning of the 15th century, when Thomas Langley, Bishop of Durham, pulled it down and built an entirely new structure 'of well hewn stone, with a roof of wondrous beauty. (fn. 7)

The new building was consecrated 22 August 1412, but the only part of it which can with any certainty be said to remain is the tower. The extent of Langley's church can only be surmised, but he seems to have retained the width of the 12th-century nave, lengthening it eastward and adding, or perhaps only rebuilding, the north and south aisles. Its plan is, however, only a matter of conjecture; it may be suggested that the nave was of about the length of the four existing western bays, and that the chancel was continued some 30 ft. eastward. The door now called Langley's door at the south-east end of the south aisle appears to be of older date than the rest of that part of the building, but it is very doubtful whether it is in its original position.


Middleton Church

Langley's work seems to have stood little more than a hundred years, for the greater part of the present building dates from 1524, when Richard Assheton reconstructed it, setting up the present nave arcades and clearstories, and the north and south aisles. The line of Langley's south arcade was retained, and the south aisle widened to its present extent; but the north arcade was pushed 5 ft. to the north, giving a nave 24 ft. 6 in. in width, and throwing the tower out of the centre. (fn. 8) The chancel now assumed its present shape, though its north wall was probably solid, being pierced with an arch at a later date, when the socalled rector's chapel (now the organ chamber) was built. The Assheton Chapel on the south side was founded at this time, though the fact that its east wall does not bond with that of the chancel suggests its having been an addition, or that this wall was rebuilt at a later time. The north chapel, by the evidence of its windows, as well as of the straight joint in the pier north of the chapel, which was evidently originally a respond, appears to be of later date than the north aisle, probably of the first half of the 17th century. To a later date than 1524, too, must be assigned the south-east vestry, which is below the level of the floor of the church, probably to avoid blocking the windows of the chancel and south chapel. The vestry walls, for which the ground had apparently to be lowered, are not bonded with those of the main building, and though their exterior detail is similar to that of the north aisle, they seem to be later work.

West and side galleries were erected at the end of the 18th century, (fn. 9) that on the south side being carried over the Assheton Chapel, but these were taken down in the restoration of 1868, when the church was reseated and a doorway, which formerly existed in the north wall of the tower, was built up. (fn. 10)

There were extensive alterations and restorations in 1846–7 and 1868–9.


Plan of Middleton Church

The walls of the building are constructed of rather rough masonry, except those of the tower, which still retain the more finely wrought work of Langley's time. The walls of both aisles and clearstories are embattled, and the roofs are covered with lead. The aisles have lean-to roofs, those of the north being of flatter pitch than the south, and the external detail of the north side of the building is generally plainer and poorer than that of the south, which has an elaborately panelled and moulded embattled parapet to the aisle. On the middle of the parapet of the south aisle is the inscription: ric. assheton et anna uxo. ei. anno d'ni movoxxiii,' and at its east end are two stones with inscriptions, the upper one of which is uncertain, and the lower has the initials SBB STD.

The chancel, 24 ft. 6 in. by 30 ft., preserves none of its ancient ritual arrangements. The east wall above the window sill was rebuilt in 1847, and the present five-light window substituted for a late window of seven lights with transoms, but no tracery. The window on the north has three trefoiled lights under a three-centred arch, and is the original 16thcentury one; that on the south side, which contains the 'Flodden' glass, is of two lights, and belongs to 1847. A doorway on the south side to the vestry was blocked up in 1872, and the entrance removed to the east end of the Assheton Chapel. The west half of the chancel has an arch north and south to the two chapels, that on the north, as already mentioned, being apparently a later extension eastward when the chapel was built or reconstructed. The north chapel is now used as an organ chamber, but was formerly known as the Rector's or Langley's Chapel, presumably from the fact that the altar of the Virgin and St. Cuthbert, endowed by Langley, was on this side of the nave. There is nothing to show, however, that a separate chapel existed on the present site before the existing one was erected. The east window is of five and the north window of four uncusped lights under three-centred heads. The windows to the Assheton Chapel have a similar number of uncusped lights, that on the south being under a segmental head, while the two-light window at the east end of the south aisle, together with the window over the 'Langley door,' are of similar plain detail. All the other windows to the north and south aisles have four-centred arched heads and cusped lights. There is a descent of seven steps from the Assheton Chapel to the south-east vestry, and the oak door is probably the original one brought from its old position on the south side of the chancel. There is what appears to be the remains of a piscina at the east end of the south wall of the Assheton Chapel under the window, about 3 ft. 3 in. from the floor. The vestry is lighted by a two-light window on its east and south sides, and a recess in the north wall shows the position of the original doorway.

The nave is 24 ft. 6 in. by 70 ft. in length, and has an arcade of five bays with octagonal piers and pointed arches of two plain chamfered orders. The capitals and bases are coarsely moulded, and the eastern arch on the north side has a line of 12th-century billet ornament in its outer order, a piece of detail from the former church. There is nothing to show why this particular arch should have been thus distinguished. The arcade is continued one bay eastward into the chancel, and the eastern pier on each side, between the chancel and the nave, has a cable-moulded necking which slightly distinguishes it from the others. The clearstory runs the whole length of nave and chancel, and has twelve uncusped three-light square-headed windows on each side. The roof to nave and chancel is of flat pitch with brackets carried down the wall resting on corbels between the clearstory windows, and is a modern restoration of the original oak roof of the 16th-century church. The weathering of a former roof remains in the east wall of the west tower, showing the centre line of Langley's nave. Above, on the south side, is a door which formerly led from the upper stage of the tower to the roof. The tower arch is pointed, but is constructed, as before stated, of 12th-century masonry, probably dating from about 1140. It is now of two orders, sitting rather awkwardly on the three shafts below, the inner order being plain, but the outer one made up of stones carved with cheverons with an outer ring of variously ornamented stones. The arch rests on three 12th-century shafts at either side with moulded capitals and bases, raised some height above the floor in the rebuilding. Of the six capitals five are of the scalloped type with cable-moulding under; the sixth is an ornamented variety of the cushion capital. The abaci are of different patterns, but the square billet ornament is much used.

The north aisle is 14 ft. wide, and has a narrow pointed door with moulded jambs and head and external label opposite the second bay from the west, with a three-light window to each of the other bays, and one at the west end which is entirely new, with three cinquefoiled lights under a pointed head. At the east end of the north wall, between the third and fourth windows from the west, is a recess in the wall 2 ft. 2 in. deep and 6 ft. 6 in. wide under a fourcentred arched head 4 ft. high, and raised above the floor 13 in., containing a coffin slab with a foliated incised cross. Above the recess is the indent of a small brass of a hooded female with inscription under. There is nothing to indicate whom the brass commemorated or whether it has any connexion with the recess underneath, but the latter is popularly styled the ' founder's tomb,' and there is a tradition that the original north aisle was built by Maud Middleton early in the 14th century, and that she was buried under the north wall. It is possible that the incised slab marked her burial-place, and that in the rebuilding of 1524 the recess was made to contain it, and a brass placed above to commemorate the lady whose remains it formerly covered. (fn. 11) There is also a plain corbel above the recess about 7 ft. from the floor.

The south aisle is 21 ft. 6 in. wide, but narrows to 15 ft. 6 in., the width of the Assheton Chapel, near its east end. It has three three-light windows in the south wall, in two of which the mullions have been renewed, and one at the west end. The east end of the wider part is occupied by the Hopwood Chapel or pew, which has a two-light window in the east wall, and is inclosed by a Jacobean oak screen with twisted balusters along the top. The pew is 10 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. 6 in. and has four linen pattern panels inserted at its north-east corner. The walls on the east and south are likewise panelled, hiding a piscina at the south-east. There is a moulded bracket on the east wall 8 ft. from the floor. At the east end of the south aisle is the 'Langley door,' which has a squareshouldered lintel and a two-light window over. The door itself is ancient and nail-studded, and the masonry, as before stated, is older than that on either side of it, though the evidence of the head and jambs suggests that it has been moved. The east wall of the south aisle, however, does not bond with that containing the doorway, and it is just possible that the latter is part of the 15th-century church in its original position. It is to be noted that the south wall of the Assheton Chapel sets back 3 in. on the inside at a height of 6 ft. above the floor.

The south porch projects 11 ft. 6 in. in front of the aisle wall opposite the second bay from the west, and has a low pointed outer arch with ogee crocketed label over, flanked by canopied niches. Like the rest of the building it has an embattled parapet, and the whole of its south face has been elaborately panelled, though the detail is now much worn away and its beauty lost. Over the entrance are the initials A RA, seeming to imply that it is the work of Richard and Ann Assheton. There are also two shields, one of which shows the Assheton molet, but the other is defaced. The porch is an open one with seats on each side, and the inner doorway has a four-centred moulded arch and retains its old nail-studded door with wicket and wooden draw-bar.

The tower is 10 ft. 6 in. square inside, and is of three stages with diagonal buttresses and a vice in the south-west corner. The west window of the ground story is of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery over, and above this is a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in the head. The jambs of both are old, but the mullions and tracery have been renewed. The upper stage of the tower contains a clock with faces on the north, south, and west sides, above which is a string-course crowned with an embattled parapet. The north and south sides of the tower are plain, but there are slits to light the vice in the south-west corner on both faces. In 1709 a further story was added in the shape of a wooden belfry stage with a roof gabled on all four sides, giving a curious and not very attractive finish to the tower. The original outside oak boarding, having decayed, has been replaced by pitch pine.

The rood screen, though damaged in the 18th century and probably also by repairs in the early part of the 19th century (c. 1835–44), is a good example of 15th-century work. The whole was repaired in 1898, when the rood was set up over it. It has a wide central opening with double doors,and four openings on each side, with traceried heads, and above are modern canopies with richly carved cornice and cresting. The lower part is filled with panels with carved shields on which are displayed in bad heraldry the arms of the Asshetons and their alliances. (fn. 12) The screen formerly extended across the full width of the church, but the parts in front of the two chapels appear to have been demolished when the galleries were erected. These have now been replaced by modern screens in character with the older work. The screen between the chancel and the north chapel (organ chamber) is ancient, and has nine openings with traceried heads and a four-centred arched doorway at the west end with carved spandrels. The cornice is carved with the vine trail, but the cresting is broken and mutilated. The screen opposite, between the chancel and Assheton Chapel, is modern and very plain, but retains a little old work in a leafpattern cornice on the chancel side.

There are four old stalls at each side of the chancel door, the misericordes being very simply carved with leaves, and in the quire are six old bench-ends—three on each side, now used as ends to the quire stalls. Otherwise all the fittings, including the font, pulpit, and seating, are modern. The font is at the west end of the south aisle, and was plain till 1846, when it was carved as at present. There is an old oak almsbox at the east end of the north aisle.

There are several brasses to the Asshetons within the altar rails, the most interesting being that of Sir Ralph Assheton and his wife Margery (Barton) with seven sons and six daughters, and a shield of Assheton quartering Barton. There is no inscription, but the details point to a date at the end of the 15th century. Other brasses are those of Edmund Assheton, rector, 1522, Richard Assheton, 1618, and Ralph Assheton, 1650, the Parliamentary General (his monument was removed from the Assheton Chapel in 1889), his sister Alice and her three husbands. (fn. 12a)

The east window of the Assheton Chapel contains some fragments of 16th-century glass in the outer lights, including a shield in the west light (1 and 4 now blank, probably Assheton; 2 and 3 Middleton quartering Barton); and in the south light a fragment with the heads of a bishop and a priest. The three middle lights have each three shields of modern glass with the arms of various families connected with Middleton Church. (fn. 12b) There is a fragment of ancient glass in the middle window of the south aisle, but the most interesting glass in the church is that known as the Flodden window on the south side of the chancel. Up to 1846–7 this glass was in a three-light window in the north aisle, but was at that time removed to its present position, suffering a good deal in the process. 'It contains the figures of some of the principal persons of Middleton and neighbourhood who accompanied Sir Richard Assheton to Flodden, and represents first himself and his lady in scarlet, in long garments, with an attendant squire in blue, his chaplain also in blue kneeling before an altar, and seventeen bowmen . . . also in blue with long hair, and the name of each man originally placed over each figure.' (fn. 13) In many parts the window is little better than a patchwork of mutilated fragments. The figures of the archers are fairly recognizable, but Sir Richard and Lady Ann are so broken up and mixed with other parts that it is difficult to trace them. (fn. 14) Most of the names can still be read,but some have become obliterated. The following can be read: Henricus Taylyer, Richard Kylw—, Hughe Chetham, James Gerrarde, John Pylkyngton, Philipe Werburton, William [Ste] le, John Scolefede, Wylliam—, James Taylier, Roger Blomeley, Crystofer Smythe, Henry Whitaker, Robart Prestwyche, Richard Bexwicke. The archers stretch across the upper portion of the two lights, and Sir Richard and other figures are below. These no doubt were originally in a third light, but of the exact disposition of the parts there is unfortunately no record. (fn. 15) In 1786 Philip de la Motte visited the church and made an engraving of part of the window, (fn. 16) which has preserved the names of the archers and the dedicatory inscription as it was in the latter half of the 18 th century. The inscription, which has since been transposed, is given thus: 'Orate pro bono statu Richardi Assheton et eorum qui hanc fenestra[m] fieri fecerunt quoru[m] no[m]ina et imagines ut supra ostenduntur anno d[omin]i mcccccv.' (fn. 17)

There is an interesting description of this window in a poem called Iter Lancastrense written by the Rev. Richard James, of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1636:—
Now go we to ye church of Middleton
To find out there summe glorye of our owne.
At chardge of those good men, whoe went out far
In suite of our brave Ashton to the warre.
There stands à painted windowe, where I weene
The showe of their departure may be seene:
The Lord and Ladye first in skarlett; then
One neere attending of ye chiefest men;
Their garments long, his short and bliew, behinde
The chaplaine of ye warfare you may finde
In robe of ye same colour, for to say
Before an altar praiers of ye daye
On bended knees; him follow neighbours bould
Whoe doe bent bowes on their left shoulders hould,
Their girdle sheaft with arrowes; as the squire
So are they all, court mantells in attire
Of blewe; like Greeks in Trojan warre, their haire
In curles long dangling makes ye semblance faire
And sterne; each hath his name, and people tell
That on ye same lands now their children dwell
As yet so called. (fn. 18)

In 1869, during the restoration, a stone coffin containing human remains was found in the north side of the nave in the third bay from the west. (fn. 19) Part of a stone altar slab was formerly preserved in the church, but has now disappeared. (fn. 20)

In the Assheton Chapel are preserved a crested helmet, sword, banner, and three spurs, popularly associated with Sir Richard Assheton, the soldier of Flodden. The crest (boar's head) and banner were probably carried at the funeral of Sir Ralph Assheton in 1765, and afterwards deposited here. The banner was cleaned in 1895, and the arms of Assheton impaling Copley, together with the Ulster red hand, were disclosed, proving it to be not earlier than 1739. It is now inclosed between two sheets of glass. (fn. 21)

There is a ring of eight bells. Six were cast by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester in 1714, and two were added in 1891, by Mears & Stainbank. (fn. 22)

The plate is all modern, and consists of two chalices, a paten, and an almsdish of 1843, and a paten of 1842. There is also a silver-plated flagon. The ancient plate (seven pieces) was stolen from the vestry in 1784.

The registers begin in 1541, (fn. 23) and the churchwardens' accounts in 1647. (fn. 24)

At the east end of the south aisle wall is a wooden sundial with the date 1788 and motto 'Lose no time.'

The churchyard is principally on the north and south sides of the building, with gates at the northwest and south-west. It is paved with gravestones laid flat. The modern graveyard or cemetery lies to the south of the church, separated from it by a road.

Advowson

The patronage has always been an appurtenance of the manor of Middleton. The church is mentioned early in the 13th century. (fn. 25) In 1291 the value of the rectory was given as £13 6s. 8d., (fn. 26) but fifty years later the ninth of sheaves, wool, &c., was worth only £4. 8s. 10d., for which Middleton answered. (fn. 27) About 1534 the income was estimated at £37 0s. 8d., to which the tithes of grain contributed £20. (fn. 28) The parsonage house and glebe were estimated as worth £40 a year in 1650, when the tithes and prescription rents amounted to £188 12s. 4d.; besides this Ralph Assheton, the squire and patron, had 300 acres of demesne lands on which he had never paid tithes. (fn. 29) Bishop Gastrell records that it was certified as worth about £250 a year, early in the 18th century. (fn. 30) The value is now £950. (fn. 31)

The former rectory was in 1840 described as 'a large and ancient structure, supported in part by buttresses; at a comparatively recent period it was surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge and a wooden bridge-house; part of the moat is perceptible, and in some walls loopholes for the discharge of arrows are visible. There was formerly much stained glass in the room called the Hall, and there is a very curious specimen of a carved oak. screen.' (fn. 32)

The following is a list of the rectors:—

Instituted.NamePatronCause of Vacancy
c. 1180?Adam (fn. 33)
oc. 1202? Thomas (fn. 34)
c. 1230Peter (fn. 35)
— 1297John de Middleton (fn. 36) Roger de Middleton
21 July 1328Thomas de Newbold (fn. 37) Agnes de Bartond. J. de Middleton
23 Dec. 1339Richard de Downton (fn. 38) Agnes de Middletond. T. de Newbold
8 Oct. 1340Robert de Radcliffe (fn. 39) "d. R. de Downton
15 Oct. 1343Richard de Beckingham (fn. 40) "res. R. de. Radcliffe
3 Dec. 1348Richard de Blythe (fn. 41) exc. R. de Beckingham
19 Feb. 1350–1Richard de Cudworth (fn. 42) Bishop of Lichfield
3 June 1351William de Langley (fn. 43) Duke of Lancasterres. R. de Cudworth
29 Aug. 1386William de Preston (fn. 44) Ralph de Bartond. W. de Langley
16 June 1390William de Ferriby (fn. 45) Ralph de Bartonres. W. de Preston
3 Apr. 1395Robert Collan (fn. 46) Ralph de Bartond. William
14 Apr. 1402Robert de Hopwood (fn. 47) The Kingd. R. Collan
—1462John Barton (fn. 48) Richard Barton
c. 1492Mr. Edmund Ashton (fn. 49) d. J. Barton
? 1522Mr. John Claydon (fn. 50)
23 Feb. 1540–1Robert Assheton (fn. 51) Edmund Hopwoodd. J. Claydon
— 1559John Assheton (fn. 52) res. R. Assheton
13 Jan. 1584–5Edward Assheton (fn. 53) Will. Asshetond. J. Assheton
10 Oct. 1614.
24 July 1618Abdie Assheton, B. D. (fn. 54) Robt. Holt, &c.d. E. Assheton
10 Jan. 1633–4William Assheton (fn. 55) Ralph Asshetond. A. Assheton
— 1659? Thomas Johnson, M.A. (fn. 56) d. W. Assheton
8 Nov. 1662Robert Simmonds (fn. 57) Sir Ra. Assheton
15 June 1682Richard Warburton, M.A. (fn. 58) Sir Ra. Asshetond. R. Simmonds
16 Sept. 1701Henry Newcome, M.A. (fn. 59) Sir Ra. Asshetond. R. Warburton
26 Mar. 1714Samuel Sidebottom, M.A. (fn. 60) The Queend. H. Newcome
17 July 1752Francis Pigot, M.A.Sir Ra. Asshetond. S. Sidebottom
26 July 1757Richard Assheton, D.D. (fn. 61) Sir Ra. Asshetond. F. Pigot
20 Jan. 1801Robert WalkerLord Suffieldd. R. Assheton
16 Mar. 1818John Haughton, M.A."d. R. Walker
30 Jan. 1829James Archer (fn. 62) "d. J. Haughton
21 July 1832Charles John Way, M.A. (fn. 63) "d. J. Archer
1 July 1835Richard Durnford, M.A. (fn. 64) "res. C. J. Way
9 Aug. 1870Waldegrave Brewster, M.A. (fn. 65) The Crownprom. Bp. Durnford
16 Oct. 1888Thomas Ebenezer Cleworth, M.A. (fn. 66) A. Butterworthd. W. Brewster
2 July 1909Robert Catterall"d. T. E. Cleworth

Before the Reformation the scattered parish was served by the rector, chantry priests, and some six or seven others. (fn. 67) The church appears to have been fairly well furnished, possessing an organ and 'regal.' (fn. 68) The visitation list of 1548, however, contains only five names beside the rector's, one of them being that of Thomas Mawdesley, who apparently remained there as schoolmaster, though decrepit, till his death. Two of the others reappear in 1554, with two more names; in 1562 there are still six names, but Mawdesley's is the only one of the old clergy; three years later the rector, newly appointed in 1559, was at Durham, his curate was in charge, and Mawdesley's and one other name appear. (fn. 69) After this time it is probable that the rector and one curate constituted the clerical staff, service being maintained at Cockey or Ainsworth Chapel, and perhaps at Ashworth also. (fn. 70) Bishop Bridgeman about 1630 built a domestic chapel at Great Lever, which appears to have been used by the neighbouring people for a time. (fn. 71) The Commonwealth surveyors of 1650 recommended a division of the parish and the building of new churches at Thornham and Pilsworth; (fn. 72) but nothing seems to have been done, and it was not till recent times that any new districts were formed.

There was an endowed chantry in the church— that of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert, founded in the north or 'Rector's Chapel' by Thomas Langley, CardinalBishop of Durham, for a priest to celebrate for the souls of the kings of England, the bishop and his family, and to keep a grammar school free for poor children. At the confiscation the incumbent was celebrating and teaching according to his foundation, the endowment amounting to £6 clear. (fn. 73) Another chantry chapel—that of St. Chad and St. Margaret, on the south side of the chancel—had no endowment, but is supposed to have been built by the lords of the manor, who subsequently used it as their own. (fn. 74)

The grammar school appears to have been coeval with the Langley chantry, 1412; it was continued after the Reformation, and re-endowed by an old pupil, Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's, in 1572. (fn. 75) The schoolhouse built after the re-endowment still stands, and is of the usual type, with a schoolroom in the middle in one story, lighted by large five-light mullioned and transomed windows, and living-rooms in two stories at either end. The roof is of low pitch, and covered with stone slates without parapets or copings, but on each gable-end is a small finial. The walling is of stone rubble, with wrought stone quoins and window dressings, and the windows are all square-headed with chamfered mullions, and labels formed by the weathered string-courses which run round the building.

Charities

In addition to the school the parish possesses several charities (fn. 76) applicable generally for the relief of the poor and for apprenticing children. (fn. 77) The township of Middleton has some benefactions for the poor, (fn. 78) and in conjunction with Thornham shares in the widows' gown charity. (fn. 79) Thornham has an educational fund, (fn. 80) and Ainsworth a small sum for the poor. (fn. 81) Some benefactions have been lost. (fn. 82)


Middleton: The Grammar School

Footnotes

1 Bishop Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 99, has 'hamlets' in the text and 'towns' in the margin.
2 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 22.
3 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 574.
4 Gregson, op. cit. 18.
5 Diet. Nat. Biog.
6 About 1240 Robert son of Roger de Middleton released to his aunt Helewise a 'land' called Henginde Chader (Hanging Chadder in Thornham) given her by her brother, his father, in free marriage, to hold in free alms of the parsons serving God in the church of St. Leonard of Middleton, rendering 4 l. yearly on the alter of St. Leonard. The bounds included Blacklache (between Thornham and Hanging Chadder), Lostcbooth Clough, Creswall Syke, Fahhanesgreave, Lamilache, the great highway by Bolsterstan (Balderston) towards Crompton, the head of Great Hathershaw and Hathershaw Brook, Saltergate (between Berdeshul and Bolsterstancroft), and Little Hathershaw Brook. The land had been 'bounded to God and the church of B. Leonard,' free and quit of Robert and his heirs, for his own welfare and that of his wife and children, in free alms, nothing being required except prayers and psalms; Hopwood D.
7 'Quae tam in opere lapideo, quam in tectura arte mirifica et perpolite vestris sumptibus de novo totaliter constructa est'; Licence of bishop for Langley's church.
8 Compare for this process Eccles Church, Manchester Cathedral, &c.
9 North and south galleries, 1792.
10 Glynne mentions 'a frightful tawdry pew belonging to Lord Suffield' in the south gallery; Lancs. Churches (Chet. Soc), 97. This was in the fourth bay from the west,but Lord Suffield's gallery extended over the rest of the south aisle eastward. A brief description of the building about 1795 is in Aikin's Country round Manch. 243.
11 Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xv, 173.
12 The original panels may have become defaced and been renewed at a later date by someone ignorant of heraldry. See a letter by Rev. E. F. Letts, quoted in Dean's Historical Middleton, 139, in which the matter is discussed at length.
12 a The brasses are drawn in J. L. Thornely's Brasses of Lancs, and Ches.
12 b These are all given in Dean's Historical Middleton, 134–5.
13 Corser, note in Iter Lancastrense (Chet. Soc. vii), 38.
14 Dean, Hist. Middleton, 99.
15 Full - size drawings of the principal figures were made by James Shaw in 1844–5, at the instance of John Pegge, before the removal of the window from the north aisle, and these are now in the Assheton Chapel.
16 Motte's original copper-plate, after it had been lost more than a century, was recovered in 1903.
17 The date is wrong if the window really represents the Flodden archers, but it has been suggested that an x or xx has been left out, and that the window was glazed in 1515, or more likely in 1525, during the rebuilding of the church.
18 The poem was first published in 1845 by the Chetham Society, vol. vii. It is illustrated by coloured illustrations of the window from Shaw's drawings.
19 Hist. Middleton, 131.
20 Ibid. 132.
21 There was formerly a pair of spurs, but after the repairs of 1868–9 only one was left. The churchwardens thereupon acquired a new pair in place of the one lost, which accounts for the three at present shown; Hist. Middleton, 141.
22 The fust bell has the inscription— 'Peace and good neighbourhood, A.R. 1714'; the eighth—'There shall be upon the bells Holiness to the Lord, 1891.'
23 Two volumes, including the entries from 1541 to 1729, have been printed by the Lancashire Parish Register Society. Many years are missing.
24 The churchwardens' accounts have been transcribed by Mr. Giles Shaw.
25 See the deeds quoted above. In 1246 it was reported that Peter Carite, having killed Robert de Heap, fled to the church of Middleton, and the sheriff's bailiffs took 20s. from him 'that he might attain to the king's peace'; Assize R. 404, m. 17 d.
26 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249.
27 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39.
28 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 226. The glebe land brought in £5 14s. 8d.; tithes of lambs, &c., £5; and Easter offerings, £6 6s. To the Archdeacon of Chester 16s. 8d. was paid for synodals and procurations.
29 Commonw. Ch. Surv. 23; other rents amounted to £4. 5s., of which 9s. came from Oldham parish.
A terrier of 1663 describes the rectory house as having ten little bays, with barns, &c., and 60 acres of land; in the hall, as heirlooms, were two tables, a livery cupboard, two forms, and a ceiled bench. The glebe land let to tenants amounted to 133¼ acres, customary measure; the boon labours consisted of leading turves, shearing in harvest, a hen, and a heriot at the death of a tenant or tenant's widow; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 471 n.
30 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 96. There were five churchwardens, chosen by the rector and patron and serving for Middleton, Hopwood, Thornham, Pilsworth, and Birtle. The other hamlets or townships had chapels.
31 Manch. Dioc. Dir. Particulars of the revenue from an advertisement of 1861 are given in Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 481.
32 E. Butterworth, Middleton, 29. The stained glass was removed to the church.
33 Adam the clerk of Middleton attested the charter concerning Ashworth printed in Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), iii, 449. It is possible that he was the rector.
34 'Thomas the Parson,' possibly of Middleton, occurs in a fine of 1202: Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.) i, 20. He may have been of I'restwich.
35 He attested grants by Roger de Middleton and Alan his son to the monks of Stanlaw; also the above-cited release by Robert son of Roger; see Whalley Coucber (Chet. Soc), ii, 620–21.
36 Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 8; the new rector, a clerk, was son of the patron. He died 2 June 1328.
In 1302 John, rector of Middleton, attested a Hopwood charter.
In 1306 he was charged with killing Henry son of Alexander Collop, and pleaded that as a clerk he could not plead without his ordinary. The jury found that he was 'in no wise guilty,' and he was freed; Assize R. 422, m. 3.
37 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 104; he was a chaplain. The patron is called widow of Sir John de Barton.
38 Ibid, ii, fol. 113b; a clerk.
39 Ibid, ii, fol. 114b; he was son of Robert de Radcliffe, and a clerk. He is named in Cal. Close, 1346–9, p. 50. The patron is described as widow of Roger de Middleton.
40 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 116b
41 Ibid, ii, 122b; the new rector had been vicar of Blyth in the diocese of York. The priory of Blyth, which had the patronage of the vicarage, was then in the king's hands by reason of the war with France.
42 Ibid, ii, fol. 128; the Bishop collated, by lapse.
43 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 128b; a clerk. Henry Duke of Lancaster presented for this turn by reason of the forfeiture of John de Ainsworth, possessor of the manor of Middleton. In 1366 and again in 1371 William de Langley had leave of absence for a year; ibid, v, fol. 13b, 24b. He is supposed to have been a member of the family of Langley (or Longley, as it was usually spelt) in Middleton, and nearly related to the Langleys who acquired Agecroft and Prestwich by marriage, acting as trustee for a settlement in 1352; Final Conc, ii, 132. He died 11 July 1386.
44 Lich. Epis. Reg. vi, fol. 52; a chaplain. In June 1389 William de Preston, rector of Middleton, was empowered to nominate general attorneys during his absence beyond the limits of the Duchy of Lancaster; Towneley MS. CC, no. 342.
45 Lich. Epis. Reg. (note by Mr. Earwaker). He is no doubt the 'Sir William, last rector,' who died at York 23 Mar. 1394–5, as appears by the institution of his successor.
To William de Ferriby, B. Can. L., Boniface IX granted in 1389 provision of a canonry of Lincoln, &c., notwithstanding that he held the parish church of Whiston in the diocese of York; Cal. Papal Letters, iv, 345. Four years later William Ferriby, priest, of the diocese of York, obtained a dispensation to hold two benefices with cure of souls; ibid, iv, 465.
46 Lich. Epis. Reg. vi, fol. 59b; a priest. He died at Easter, 1402.
Robert Collayn, chaplain, was a feoffee of the manor of Middleton in 1370; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 130.
47 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 88; a clerk. The king presented on account of the minority of Richard son and heir of Ralph Barton. Hopwood was still rector in 1443 and 1448; ibid, ix, fol. 126; Kuerden fol. MS. 79 (C). According to Mr. Harland he was a son of Geoffrey de Hopwood, and occurs as rector down to 1457: Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 479.
48 Lich. Epis. Reg. xii, fol. 100; the bishop on 20 Mar. 1461–2 directed the Archdeacon of Chester to inquire as to the patronage of Middleton, 'a certain Richard Barton having presented Sir John Barton, priest.' For the reason of the inquiry see the account of the descent of the manor.
John Barton, rector of Middleton, was a feoffee of Thomas son and heir of James Chetham of Nuthurst, about 1480; Clowes D. He was rector in 1487; ibid, no. 139.
49 In the Examinations touching Cockey Moor (Chet. Soc. Misc. i), about 1514, Oliver Isherwood, parish priest (or curate) of Middleton for 37 years—fifteen under John Barton, and twenty-two under Edmund Ashton—describes how he and other 'good priests' sat at Radcliffe Church to hear the confessions of the people of Ainsworth during Lent, and minister to them the sacrament of the altar, the rector's deputy at the same time receiving the dues ; p. 10.
Edmund Ashton was probably a son of Sir Ralph Ashton. He studied at Cambridge; Grace Bk. A (Luard Mem.), 119. His brass in the chancel, formerly in the rector's chapel, states that he died 20 Aug. 1522; Thornely's Brasses, 147; see also Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 259.
50 Rector in 1534; Valor Eccl. The contemporary John Clayden, who was fellow of Manchester, appears to have been a different person; Raines, Fellows of Mancb. (Chet. Soc), i, 39–41.
John Claydon or Clayden was also master of Attleborough College in 1524 and 1534; L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 57; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 318. Also incumbent of 'Ratingdon,' diocese Lond., which was, in 1541, vacant by his death; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, 331. His will is in P.C.C., F. 23 Alenger.
51 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 38; a chaplain. Sir John Byron and other feoffees of Sir Richard Assheton of Middleton had made a grant of the next presentation to Edmund Hopwood and Gervase Strickland; the latter having died, the former alone presented. Robert Assheton was also rector of Radcliffe from 1537. He is said to have died in 1563; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), iii, 430.
52 Also rector of Radcliffe; paid firstfruits 29 Nov. 1559; Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 409, where are printed the payments of firstfruits down to 1659. He was buried at Middleton 9 Oct 1584.
53 Church P. at Chester Dioc. Reg. Edward Assheton paid first fruits 10 Nov. 1584. He was brother of the patron for that turn (William Assheton of Clegg in Rochdale), but owing to some informality was instituted a second time in 1614. In 1601 the rector and curate did not wear the surplice, and in 1605 the rector did not always do so; Visit. P. at Chester. He was buried at Middleton 8 July 1618. See the account of him by Canon Raines in Chet. Misc. (Chet. Soc.), v (1), 42–5; an abstract of his will is given. An Edward Ashton, B.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, was incorporated at Oxford in 1572 ; Foster's Alumni.
54 From this time the institutions have been taken from the Institution Books, P.R.O., as printed in Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Notes. The patrons for this turn were Robert Holt, John Greenhalgh, and Robert Heywood.
Abdie Assheton (son of John, a preceding rector) was baptized at Middleton 1 Nov. 1563 and buried there 13 Nov. 1633. He was elected fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge in 1589, and a life of Dr. Whitaker, master of the college, has been attributed to him; Baker, Hist, of St. John's Coll. (ed. Mayor), i, 291, 186. There is a long account of him by Canon Raines in the Langley Autobiog. (Chet. Misc. vi), 14–16; see also N. and Q. (5th ser.), xii, 436.
55 Paid firstfruits on the same day. He was a brother of the patron.
In 1650 it was reported that he supplied the cure 'very weakly,' giving 'no satisfaction to his congregation'; he did not expound chapter or psalm or catechize the youth of the parish; Commonw. Cb. Surv. 23. He refused to take part in the Bury Classis. According to Adam Martindale (Autobiog. Chet. Soc. 59) he was 'an honest, humble man, considering his high birth, but accounted an exceeding mean preacher.' He was buried at Middleton 24 Sept, 1659. His epitaph describes him as 'eminent in learning, orthodox in judgment, singular in piety, and admirable for his patience, meekness, and all other Christian virtues.' See the biography in Shaw's Bury Classis (Chet. Soc.), ii, 209– 11, where his will is printed in full.
His son William, baptized at Middleton 17 June 1642, entered Brasenose College in 1658, and became fellow in 1663; M.A. 1665; D.D. 1674. He held various ecclesiastical benefices, becoming rector of Beckenham in 1677; he was also a prebendary of York. He proposed an assurance scheme for the maintenance of clergymen's widows and others, and induced the Mercers' Company to take it up, but it failed. He was also the author of numerous publications, including Toleration Disapproved and Condemned and Possibility of Apparitions, a result of De Foe's story of Mrs. Veale's ghost. He died in 1711, and his Life was written by the Rev. T. Watts. See the account in Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), ii, 606–10; Dict. Nat. Biog.
56 Previously rector of Halsall. The name is given from Baines, Lancs, (ed. Croston), iii, 403; in the account of the following rector it is stated that Robert Simmonds was 'elected by the people,' but refused by the Classis on account of many previous acts of insubordination; and that a Mr. Folgate was appointed, who before the Classis posed as a rigid Presbyterian, but in his parish as willing to adopt some of the forbidden ceremonies.
57 'A most excellent and extraordinary martyr' for the system established before the Civil War. He was buried at Middleton 27 Mar. 1682.
58 Act Bks. at Chester. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; M.A. 1669. Was elected fellow of Manchester Collegiate Church 2 May 1684; see Raines, Fellows of Manch. (Chet. Soc.), i, p. 193–5. It is stated that guardianship of his children was granted in 1698, and yet the fellowship and rectory were not filled up after his death till 1701. He and his curate were 'conformable' in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229.
59 Eldest son of the respected Henry Newcome, founder of the Nonconformist congregation at Manchester. He was educated at Manchester Grammar School and St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; M.A. 1673; rector of Tattenhall in Cheshire 1675 to 1701; published The Complete Mother, 1695, and Transubstantiation Discussed, 1705; see Pal. Note Bk. iii, 91, 229. He was buried at Middleton 22 May 1713. His will is printed ibid. iv, 96.
60 The queen presented by reason of the vacancy of the see of Chester. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; B.A. 1713; Foster, Alumni. Migrated to Cambridge, St. John's Coll.; M.A. 1718; Scott, Admissions, St. John's C. iii, 15. He died 22 May 1752. The Sidebottoms had an estate in Oldham.
61 Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, of which he became fellow; M.A. 1751; D.D. 1782. He was presented to the rectory of Radcliffe in April 1757, but resigned it on being appointed to Middleton. In 1782 he was made warden of Manchester, and Middleton was left to the care of a curate. He was 'censured by the inhabitants of Middleton for permitting the large old rectory-house and the living generally to fall into a dilapidated state, the gardens and grounds being neglected, on the idle (and probably false) supposition that he was the last of the Asshetons who was likely ever to hold the ancient family advowson, and that its preservation was therefore unimportant'; Raines, Wardens of Manch. (Chet. Soc.), 171–76. He died 6 June 1800, and was buried at Downham.
62 He had been curate of the church for fifty years.
63 Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A. 1822; afterwards vicar of Boreham, near Chelmsford.
64 Educated at Eton and Magdalen College, Oxford, of which he was successively Demy and Fellow; M.A. 1829; D.D. 1870. He was appointed honorary canon of Manchester, 1854; archdeacon, 1867; residentiary canon, 1868; Bishop of Chichester, 1870. There is a biography of him (1899) by W. R. W. Stephens.
65 Educated at Trinity College, Oxford; M.A. 1842. Rector of Llandysilio near Oswestry, previously to his appointment to Middleton. He had been curate of Hawarden for seventeen years, and is described as 'a High Churchman of the Wilberforce and Hook school'; see Oldham Notes and Gleanings, iii, 57–9.
66 Educated at St. John's College, Cambridge ; M.A. 1886. Vicar of St. Thomas's, Nottingham, 1884 to 1888. Hon. Canon of Manchester. He died 5 April 1909; see biographical notice in Eagle, xxx, 350.
67 Clergy List of 1541–2 (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 12. One of the assistant clergy was the rector's curate, two others were paid by Sir Richard Assheton, and another by the widow of John Holcroft; three others are named, but their means of support are not recorded.
68 Ch. Goods, 1552 (Chet. Soc.), 12.
69 From the visitation lists at Chester.
70 Only the Chapel at Cockey is named in a clergy list of about 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 12. In 1620 the rector of Middleton and the curate of Cockey paid to the clergy loan, and two years later the rector, lecturer at Middleton, and curate of Cockey again contributed; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 54, 66; also p. 95.
71 Note in Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 99.
72 Commonw. Ch. Surv. 24–25.
73 Raines, Lancs. Chantries (Chet. Soc.), i, 119–25. Thomas Langley is thought by Canon Raines to have belonged to the Langleys of Middleton. He owed his early promotion to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. In the Church after minor benefices he became Dean of York in 1402, Bishop of Durham in 1406, and Cardinal in 1411; in the State he rose to be Lord Chancellor, 1405–7 and 1417–24. The chantry at Middleton was founded in 1412, in which year the cardinal visited the place to consecrate the parish church, which had been rebuilt at his expense. He died 20 Nov. 1437, and was buried at Durham. An abstract of his will is given by Raines.
The licence to endow a chantry at the altar of St. Thomes in honour of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert for a chaplain to celebrate daily for the soul of Thomas late Bishop of Durham was granted in May 1440; Cal. Pat. 1436–41, p. 399. In the same year Nicholas Hulme and other trustees granted to Thurstan Percival, chaplain of this chantry, an annual rent of 8 marks out of the manor of Cuerdley; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.).
On 10 Mar. 1442–3 Henry Pendlebury, priest, was admitted to the newly-founded chantry of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert, on the resignation of Thomas Pevall (? Thurstan percivall), last chaplain, and took oath to observe the statutes; Lich. Epis. Reg. ix, fol. 126. A Thurstan Percival was vicar of Leigh in 1474.
In 1496 lawrence Smith was the chaplain of the chantry of Middleton; Towneley MS. CC, no. 637. He gave evidence about 1514, in the Cockey Moor Examinations, being then seventy-four years of age and having been chantry priest for thirtysix years; p. 12.
In 1535 and again in 1548 Thomas Mawdesley was the cantarist. He continued to act as schoolmaster after the suppression of the chantry, on a stipend granted by the duchy, and appeared at the visitations of 1563 and 1565, being, however, decrepit. His will, made in 1554, is printed by Canon Raines; it shows that the old man—he was then sixty— had a great love for the church and his own part in it, for he left his property, among other things, 'to mend and uphold the free school,' and willed specially that the priest who should sing mass for his soul, and the souls of his parents and others, should 'uphold the free school at Middleton according to the foundation'; he left money for the high altar and the maintenance of the rood light.
The revenue, which in 1535 was returned as £4 13s. 4d. (Valor Eccl. [Rec. Com.], v, 226), was derived from a rent issuing from the Jervaulx Abbey lands at Cuerdley, and another rent from Sedbergh.
74 Raines, op. cit. 122.
75 See the section on 'Schools'; End. Charities Rep. for Middleton, 1901, pp. 8– 20; and Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xiii, 184–92, where there is a drawing of it.
76 An inquiry into the charities of Middleton was held on 3 and 4 April 1900, and the report here summarized was printed the following year, and includes that of 1828. It referred only to the portions of the parish not included within the county boroughs of Bolton and Bury. The portion within Bolton is Great Lever, which does not appear to have had any special endowment, but shares in the Guest and Hopwood Charities, which apply to the whole parish. The other townships not dealt with — Pilsworth, Birtle-withBamford, and Ashworth—likewise appear to have no special charities, at least none are recorded in the report of 1828.
77 John Guest in 1653 left a rentcharge of £3 15s. a year each to a number of parishes, included Middleton, but the castle proving insufficient an Act of Parliament was obtained providing for the investment of £500. The capital sum appears instead to have been divided among the parishes concerned, and the share allotted to Middleton and Riscliffe together, augmented by other contributions, was invested in lands in Buerdsill and Castleton, and the income divided equally between the parishes. The Middleton moiety, which in 1828 was £9, was distributed in Linen cloth, the several townships sharing in proportion to their contributions to the church rate. The land, consisting of 11 acres in Castleton, is now let at £14 a year, and the share of Middleton is £6 14s. net, distributed, in the old proportions. The part for the township of Middleton (19s. 6d.) is combined with the receipts from other benefactions, and the total sum, £32 13s. 8d., distributed in clothing, flannel, &c. A similar course is followed in other townships.
John Stock in 1692 gave various rentcharges of land, &c., in Northamptonshire for a weekly distribution of bread at Middleton Church, and for the apprenticing of poor boys or girls of his own kin, or born within the hamlets of Middleton, Pilsworth, Hopwood, and Thornham. The net income in 1828 was £22 1s., of which £15 12s. was set apart for the bread charity and the remainder paid in apprentices' premiums, usually £2 each. The charity continues to be worked in the same way; one of the rent-charges has been redeemed, and the net income is now £23 12s. 1d.
Catherine Hopwood in 1758 bequeathed £400 for the benefit of the poor, those of Hopwood to have a moiety, and £100 for the education of children in Hopwood. To this capital was added £100 accumulated from the gifts of various benefactors between 1633 and 1726. The sum was paid to Robert Gregge Hopwood, and in 1828 £30 interest was received; of this £10 each was given to the churchwardens of Hopwood and Middleton and distributed in linen cloth, £5 was paid to the schoolmaster at Hopwood, and £5 distributed in linen cloth to persons in Middleton, Thornham, Hopwood, Pilsworth, and Birtle-with-Bamford. The capital has been invested in consols, and now the income, £17 0s. 8d., is distributed among all the townships of the ancient parish, but Hopwood receives £8 19s. and Middleton £6 9s. 2d. The school at Hopwood having been closed, the share of interest intended for it is distributed with the general fund for the poor in flannel and blankets.
78 William Moss in 1772 left £50 for a distribution of linen cloth to the poor; and Elizabeth Buckley in 1807 left £50, the interest of which was in 1828 distributed among a number of poor persons. Payment of the Moss Charity out of the rates was disallowed in 1848, but on the sale of an old workhouse the township discharged its debt by a payment of£45 1s. 6d. to the official trustees; the income, about £1 8s., is distributed by the overseers in gifts of calico. The capital of the Buckley charity has also been paid to the official trustees, and the interest is added to the other sums for the poor. The rector of Middleton has always administered this charity.
A gift by Dame Eleanor Assheton in 1791 is understood to have passed into the hands of the Earl of Wilton, who, among other gifts, used to send £10 a year to the rector of Middleton. This system has been continued; in 1898 £5 4s. was spent on Sunday dinners for poor persons, and £4. 16s. on clothing.
79 The origin of this charity is not certainly known, but about a century ago the fund amounted to £400. From 1855 the dividends accumulated till in 1868 the official trustees secured the capital and accumulations, now represented by £733 17s. 8d. consols, the income being £20 3s. 8d. This is distributed in gowns for necessitous and deserving widows, and other articles of clothing, &c., the benefits being extended to single women if there is a surplus.
80 Robert Stott of Thornham in 1869 left £120 for the school attached to Thornham Church; the income is £3 5s. Jane Bridge of Castleton in 1894 left £500 for the stipend of the minister officiating at Thornham, the services then being held in the old school.
81 Samuel Baron in 1773 bequeathed £200, half for the benefit of the Nonconformist chapel at Cockey, and half for the poor, a distribution of woollen or linen cloth being directed at the chapel after service on Christmas Day. At present £4 5s., half the income, derived from a ground rent in Ancoats, is distributed at Christmas among poor members of the congregation.
82 Three benefactions, amounting to £50, for the benefit of the poor of Hopwood, existed in 1828. The capital was in the hands of Robert Gregge Hopwood, and the interest was paid to the poor rate. No payment has been made since Mr. Hopwood's death in 1854.
Robert Hopwood, M.D., in 1762 bequeathed a rent-charge of £21 arising out of Hanging Chadder for the clothing of seven poor men and seven poor women belonging to Hopwood. This charity was in active operation in 1828, but has since been lost. Captain Gregge Hopwood, on being applied to in 1861, replied that the gift was illegal under the Mortmain Acts; and this contention appears to be well founded.