The parish of Leyland

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1911

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3-10

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'The parish of Leyland', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 3-10. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53059 Date accessed: 24 October 2014.


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LEYLAND

Leyland; Euxton; Cuerden; Clayton-le-Woods; Whittle-le-Woods; Hoghton; Withnell; Wheelon; Heapey

This extensive parish, having an area of 19,265½ acres and a population in 1901 of 17,940, appears from its irregular shape to be a remnant of a larger district, from which at various times other parishes have been cut off. At one time the townships of Hoghton, Withnell, Wheelton and Whittle-le-Woods formed a district or lordship bearing the special name of Gunolfsmoors. This part includes most of the hilly country in the eastern half of the parish; in the Leyland or western half the surface becomes comparatively level.

The township was anciently divided into four 'quarters,' viz. Leyland, Euxton, Cuerden with Clayton and Whittle, and the Moors, each of which paid equally to the county lay fixed in 1624. (fn. 1) To the fifteenth the various townships paid thus:—Leyland, £1 0s. 2d.; Euxton, £1 5s. 7d.; Cuerden, 15s. 8d.; Clayton, £1; Whittle, 17s. 4d.; Hoghton, 6s. 9d.; Withnell with Roddlesworth, 7s. 8d.; Wheelton with Heapey, 11s.; a total of £6 4s. 2d., when the hundred paid £30 12s. 8d. (fn. 2)


LEYLAND PARISH

LEYLAND PARISH

The agricultural land in the parish now amounts to nearly 16,000 acres, and is occupied as follows:— Arable, 2,530 acres; permanent grass, 12,454 acres; woods and plantations, 726 acres. (fn. 3)

Although Leyland stood upon one of the ancient roads to the north, and gave a name to the hundred, there is little distinction about its history. The principal family, that of Hoghton, long had possessions outside the hundred which seem to have been more attractive, as at Lea and later at Walton; the Faringtons became the principal residents in the western part of the parish about 1560, and have maintained their pre-eminence. (fn. 4) The Reformation left a large number of the minor gentry and people faithful to the Roman Catholic religion. (fn. 5) The Commonwealth sequestrations involved the principal families, as well as many smaller ones, in disaster, for the Faringtons were bound up with the Earls of Derby, and the Andertons were zealous Royalists; the Hoghtons were divided, a Parliamentarian succeeding his Cavalier father.

The passage of the Young Pretender through the parish in 1745 does not seem to have been marked by any noteworthy incident.

In the last century the various branches of the cotton manufacture and other industries found a resting-place, though agriculture occupies most of the land, and the hill quarries are actively worked.

Church

The church, which is dedicated in honour of ST. ANDREW, (fn. 6) is situated on elevated ground at the south-east end of the village, and consists of chancel with north vestry and organ chamber, nave and west tower. Only the chancel and tower, however, are old, the nave having been pulled down in 1816, and the present structure, which is in the Gothic style of the day, erected in the following year. (fn. 7) When the old walls were demolished their foundations were left in below the floor of the new building, but the width of the nave being increased 9 ft. on each side, they are now wholly invisible. (fn. 8) Some alterations in the south-east corner in 1852, which necessitated the entire removal of the old foundations in that part, showed them, however, to be composed of fragments of a still earlier church, portions of 12th-century masonry, together with incised slabs and parts of stone coffins, being found. (fn. 9) Of this earlier structure, however, nothing is known, and the rebuilding of 1817 makes it impossible to say anything definitely as to the development of the plan. The chancel is of 14th-century date, the roof being of high pitch with overhanging eaves and covered with stone slates, but the north side is now hidden externally by a modern vestry and organ chamber. The tower belongs to the late 15th or early 16th century, and is centrally placed with the nave.

The chancel, which is built of gritstone, is 39 ft. 3 in. long by 18 ft. 4 in. wide inside, and has a three-light pointed east window with plain chamfered mullions crossing in the head, and two smaller but similar windows in the south side with a priest's doorway, now built up, and a modern two-light window further west. The jambs of the doorway and windows on the south side are moulded, but those of the east window are chamfered like the mullions, and may indicate a later insertion. (fn. 10) A string course with the scroll moulding runs round the chancel both inside and out below the sills, and level with the springing of the arch of the priest's doorway, and it is continued round the buttresses, which terminate in triangular heads. The interior of the chancel is faced with stone and preserves its ancient ritual arrangements. The sedilia are triple under semicircular arches with moulded labels dying into the underside of the string above. The three seats are on the same level, and the piscina, which has two floriated bowls, is part of the composition, being under an arch similar to the other three and adjoining them to the east. At the east end of the north wall is a new two-light window now opening into the vestry, and below it an aumbry. (fn. 11) West of this, at a distance of 9 ft. from the east wall, is a low side window, the opening of which to the chancel is 9 in. in width by 16½ in. high, with a 1½-in. chamfer all round. The window is now filled with a wood door and opens into the vestry, where it is splayed to a width of 4 ft. 3 in., the splay being equal on each side. The sill is 3 ft. 6 in. from the ground, and the opening has a segmental arched head 2 ft. high. The plinth of the chancel is visible in the vestry, showing that the opening was originally in an outside wall.

The western half of the north side of the chancel is modern and is open to the organ chamber by two pointed arches of two orders on a modern shafted pier with moulded cap, the arch mouldings dying into the walls at the sides. The roof is of framed spars, plastered between, with curved pieces at the wall plate and near the apex. The chancel arch and arch between the organ chamber and nave are modern, and there is a modern Gothic oak chancel screen.

The nave is 73 ft. long by 52 ft. 6 in. wide, but extends 4 ft. further west on each side of the tower. The roof is one wide span, with four plain framed principals ceiled between, and there are five windows of three lights on each side. There are galleries on the north and south sides, but since the erection of the organ chamber and the consequent piercing of the north-east wall of the nave the gallery on the north side stops short some distance from the wall. The southeast corner of the nave is occupied by the Farington chapel, which marks the site of the chantry of St. Nicholas and preserves an ancient right confirmed by Bishop Chaderton in 1591. (fn. 12) A board in the gallery records that the chapel was repaired, a vault made, and seats erected by William Farington of Worden in 1746. The chapel is now inclosed by a modern screen and measures 20 ft. by 17 ft. It contains a small brass 18th-century chandelier. On the wall above in the gallery are five hatchments belonging to the Farington family. The chapel had originally a window at its east end, but when the nave was widened a door was substituted. The walls of the nave are plastered and there are doors at its western end on both north and south, that on the north side, however, being built up.

The west tower, which is 16 ft. 6 in. square inside, is open to the church and has a vice in the south-west corner. The tower arch is lofty and of two chamfered orders dying into the walls at the springing. There is an ascent of five steps from the floor of the tower to that of the nave, which gives to the building when entered from the west door a certain sense of dignity which it would not otherwise possess. The whole of the east wall of the tower, which including the buttresses is 35 ft. 6 in. in width, is exposed to the nave and of bare stone. Above the arch is an opening 4 ft. high from the bell-ringing chamber, and the marks of the former high-pitched roof are clearly visible, the extreme apex only being hidden by the modern ceiling. Externally the tower has a moulded plinth, with diagonal buttresses of four stages on its west side and square ones on the east, going up to within a short distance of the string course below the embattled parapet, the angle pinnacles of which are an early 19th-century addition. The string course has two stone gargoyles on each side except on the east, where there is only one, and the battlement has a shield in the middle merlon on each side, while on the west side the string course has a curious carving of a bird together with a four-leaved flower. (fn. 13) The belfry windows are of three lights under a four-centred arched head, and the west door has moulded jambs and head, with hood mould. The west window is of three lights under a low pointed head, with new mullions, sill and tracery, but the jambs are the original ones. Above the window is a small niche with moulded jambs and head, and above these again a small semicircular-headed opening. The lower portion of the second stage of each of the western buttresses has also a semicircular-headed niche with moulded heads and jambs. The north and south sides of the tower are plain in the lower part, but have a niche at the same level as that on the west side and a small glazed single light to the ringing chamber above. There is a clock-face on the north, south and west sides.


Leyland Church from the South-east

The fittings, including the font and pulpit, are all modern, but there are some fragments of 16th-century glass in the middle window in the south side of the nave, (fn. 14) and on the sill of one of the adjoining windows are preserved in a glass case copies of Foxe's Acts and Monuments, Jewell's Apology, and A Preventative Against Popery in two volumes.

There is a ring of eight bells, two being added in 1897 to the original peal of six cast by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester in 1722. The new bells are by Taylor of Loughborough. Three of the old bells appear to have been recast during the last century. (fn. 15)

The curfew is rung at 8 p.m. from Michaelmas to Lady Day, and at 9 p.m. from Lady Day to Michaelmas. There is also a morning bell formerly rung at 5.55 a.m., now at 7 a.m. throughout the year. (fn. 16)

The plate consists of a chalice, paten and flagon (fn. 17) of 1758 with the maker's mark C B; a paten of 1716, inscribed 'The gift of Eliz. Farington of Worden, widow, Aug. 7, 1716'; two almsdishes of 1770, 'The gift of Samuel Crook of Leyland, gentleman, 1773'; and a two-handled cup of 1801 inscribed, 'A gift to Leyland Church by Mary Lang, third wife to Robert Lang of Leyland Lanc, 1805.' There is also a silver bread box given by the Rev. Leyland Baldwin in 1903.

The registers of baptisms and burials begin in 1653, those of marriages in 1655. The first volume (1653 to 1710) has been printed, (fn. 18) with a few earlier transcripts from 1622 to 1641.

The churchyard, which is almost entirely surrounded by fine lime trees, lies chiefly on the south and east of the church, the chief entrance being at the north-west corner under a stone gateway by a flight of steps from the road, which passes close to the building on the north side. It contains a number of sepulchral slabs, most of them with incised crosses, and on the south side of the church is a curious stone with the rudely-cut figure of a man, to the memory of one William Walker, 'bachelor of Musicke and Clarke of the Parish,' who died in 1588. Above the figure is the motto 'Musica mentis medicina macstae,' and below 'Nulla dies sine linea.' East of the chancel are two 17th-century stones with long Latin inscriptions, (fn. 19) now much worn, marking the place of burial of Robert Charnock (d. 1670), and of Roger Charnock (d. 1632) and Ann his wife (d. 1659), the second stone bearing the Charnock arms. The churchyard has been considerably extended on the south side in recent years by the addition of ground given by the Rev. Leyland Baldwin.

Advowson

The church of Leyland was given to Evesham Abbey by Warine Bussel, baron of Penwortham, and the gift was enlarged by Richard Bussel, his son, in the first half of the 12th century. (fn. 20) Two oxgangs of land were given later. (fn. 21) The grant was of little benefit to the monks, as they received only 2 marks from the church, (fn. 22) and in June 1330 they procured the king's licence for the appropriation of the rectory. (fn. 23) Pope John XXII also granted their request, ordering the Bishop of Lichfield at the next vacancy in the rectory to allow the abbot possession, and to ordain a vicarage. (fn. 24) At the beginning of 1332 the bishop accordingly annexed the church of Leyland to the abbey, decreeing that the vicar to be appointed should have for his residence half of the rectory house and 1 oxgang of land in the vill, tithe free; and should also receive the tithes of wool, hay, &c., of the whole parish, altarage dues, Peter pence, and oblations. The vicar, however, was to pay synodals, procurations, and Peter pence, and 40s. to the abbot and convent, who were responsible for all charges not expressly mentioned. (fn. 25) From this time the abbot and convent of Evesham presented vicars. After the suppression the advowson of the vicarage was, with other Evesham properties, in 1543 granted by the Crown to John Fleetwood of Penwortham. (fn. 26) In 1748 the advowson was purchased by Thomas Baldwin, the vicar, from the executors of Henry Fleetwood, (fn. 27) and has since descended in his family, the present patron being Colonel Robert Baldwin.

The value of the church was in 1291 estimated to be £10 yearly. (fn. 28) The same sum was the value of the ninth of sheaves, wool, &c., in 1341. (fn. 29) The estimated value of the rectory in 1535 was £48 2s., which formed part of the revenues of the abbey's cell of Penwortham (fn. 30) ; while that of the vicarage was £11 net. (fn. 31) By 1650 the revenues of the rectory had been divided among several lay owners, and the vicar's endowment consisted of his house, lands, &c., worth about £6 a year, and the small tithes, estimated at about £14. (fn. 32) The confiscated estate of Leyland Hall was in 1690 given to the vicar, (fn. 33) and this considerably augmented his income, which amounted to £100 a year about 1720. (fn. 34) The present income is given as £900. (fn. 35)

Leyland gave a name to a rural deanery embracing the parishes within the hundred. (fn. 36) The dean's court, at least in recent times, was held in Chorley Church. (fn. 37)

The following have been rectors and vicars of the parish church:

Rectors
InstitutedNamePresented byCause of Vacancy
c. 1190Sweyn (fn. 38)
oc. 1220Thomas Bussel (fn. 39)
oc. 1246William [de Meols] (fn. 40)
15 Jan. 1303–4Mr. William de Cruce Roys (fn. 41) Evesham Abbey
9 Nov. 1308John de Bohun (fn. 42) "
21 June 1322Mr. Thomas de Astley (fn. 43) "d. J. de Bohun
Vicars
22 Sept. 1331John le White (fn. 44) Evesham Abbey
22 Sept. 1339Robert de Preston alias Woodward (fn. 45) "exch.
13 Oct. 1350John de Halsnead (fn. 46) "res. R. le Woodward
27 May 1357Adam Wylot de Meols (fn. 47) "d. J. de Halsnead
Thomas de Aston
27 Oct. 1369John le Serjeant (fn. 48) Evesham Abbeyd. T. de Aston
13 Sept. 1394John de Alston (fn. 49) "res. J. le Serjeant
10 Mar. 1402–3John Weston (fn. 50) "d. last vicar
16 Oct. 1411John Walton (fn. 51) "res. Mr. J. Weston
16 Oct. 1433Ralph Farington (fn. 52) "
23 Jan. 1457–8Humphrey Farington (fn. 53) "res. R. Farington
6 Nov. 1461Thomas Awton (Cocks) (fn. 54) "d. H. Farington
3 Nov. 1463Thurstan Shorrock (fn. 55) "res. T. Cocks
30 Apr. 1488Ralph Blacklache (fn. 56) "d. T. Shorrock
11 Sept. 1494Seth Woodcock (fn. 57) "d. Ralph Blacklache
28 Apr. 1516Edward Molyneux (fn. 58) "d. S. Woodcock
[1536]Mr. Thomas Powell
17 June 1538Charles Wainwright (fn. 59) Evesham Abbeyres. T. Powell
11 Feb. 1562–3Thomas Buckley (fn. 60) T. Gwentd. C. Wainwright
21 July 1570John Shireburne, B.D. (fn. 61) John Fleetwoodd. T. Buckley
31 May 1595John White, M.A. (fn. 62) [d. J. Shireburne]
27 Oct. 1604Thurstan Breres, B.D. (fn. 63) Ric. Floetwoodres. J. White
27 Jan. 1611–12James Langley, M.A. (fn. 64) "d. T. Breres
c. 1650William Rothwell, M.A. (fn. 65) d. J. Langley
25 July 1677John Rishton, M.A. (fn. 66) Edw. Fleetwoodd. W. Rothwell
17 Feb. 1684–5George Walmesley, M.A (fn. 67) "d. J. Rishton
21 Oct. 1689Thomas Armetriding, B.A. (fn. 68) "d. G. Walmesley
25 Jan. 1719–20Christopher Sudell, M.A. (fn. 69) Henry Fleetwoodd. T. Armetriding
6 Nov. 1733Edward Shakespear, M.A. (fn. 70) "res. Chr. Sudell
21 Apr. 1736
15 June 1748Thomas Baldwin, M.A. (fn. 71) Robert Harper, &c.d. E. Shakespear
13 June 1753Thomas Baldwin, M.A. (fn. 72) John Baldwind. T. Baldwin
24 June 1802Thomas Baldwin, LL.B. (fn. 73) Thos. Baldwind. T. Baldwin
5 July 1809Nicholas Rigbye Baldwin, M.A. (fn. 74) N. R. Baldwind. T. Baldwin
29 Dec. 1824Gardner Baldwin, M.A. (fn. 75) G. Baldwind. N. R. Baldwin
1852Thomas Rigbye Baldwin, B.A. (fn. 76) T. R. Baldwind. G. Baldwin
1891Octavius de Leyland Baldwin, B.A. (fn. 77) R. Baldwind. T. R. Baldwin

The list of rectors and vicars does not call for comment. The change from non-resident rectors to resident vicars was no doubt an advantage to the people at first, but in course of time the vicars too sometimes evaded residence. Before the Reformation there appears to have been a staff of six or seven priests serving the parish church, (fn. 78) with its chantry, and the chapels at Euxton and Heapey. Five of them, including the vicar, appeared at the visitation of 1554, and though only three are recorded in the list of 1562, (fn. 79) five names appear in the following year, headed by the recently appointed vicar. (fn. 80) In 1565, however, the vicar and his curate were the only clergy there, (fn. 81) and when the vicar was resident he does not always seem to have considered a curate necessary. (fn. 82) The chapels of Euxton and Heapey were probably served only irregularly, if at all, until the time of the Commonwealth. In recent times, of course, great changes have been made. In 1782 Richard Balshaw gave a capital sum of £200 for the vicar or other minister to read the morning prayers of the church service and to read a lecture or sermon in the parish church every Friday morning. The income, about £27, is still paid to the vicar. (fn. 83)

An altar of St. Nicholas existed in the church for a long time, (fn. 84) and there was also an altar before the rood. (fn. 85) At the former in 1524 Sir Henry Farington endowed a chantry for 'an able and welldisposed priest daily to say and do masses . . . and other divine service daily to say and do there for ever.' The chantry priest was also to be ready to assist in his surplice at matins, mass and other service 'daily done with note' in the church among the other priests and clerks. The founder gave certain church ornaments and plate for use at the altar, but still regarded them as his private property. (fn. 86) The priest had also 'to keep one free grammar school in the church.' (fn. 87) The endowment consisted of a number of tenements in Leyland, Cuerden, Ulnes Walton and other adjacent townships, and amounted to £4 5s. 9d. at the suppression. (fn. 88) The first priest seems to have been Thurstan Helde or William Walton, but in 1535 Thurstan Taylor was doing service, (fn. 89) and he remained until 1547, 'celebrating and keeping school according to his foundation.' (fn. 90)

The chantry school was threatened with destruction by the confiscation of the endowment at the Reformation, but £3 6s. 8d. a year was granted by Queen Elizabeth for the revival of it, and other endowments were added. (fn. 91) It is now closed.

Charities

An official inquiry as to the charities of the parish was made in 1899. (fn. 92) The endowments for education produce nearly £500 a year, and over £50 is devoted to church purposes.

For Leyland township £20 for the poor is available from the Balshaw school endowment. (fn. 93) More important are the almshouses founded by William Farington in 1661, (fn. 94) and by John Osbaldeston in 1665, (fn. 95) with revenues of £80 and £194 respectively; there are also a bread charity (fn. 96) and a dole for poor widows. (fn. 97) A number of ancient gifts have either been lost or merged in those mentioned. (fn. 98)

For Euxton the gifts of Richard Hodson and others produce nearly £15 a year, distributed in linen or calico, bread, or money gifts. (fn. 99) Euxton is also entitled to share in the benefits of Goosnargh Hospital in Kirkham. At Cuerden £5 6s. 8d. is distributed in money. (fn. 100) For Clayton-le-Woods the benefaction of John Clayton produces £16 18s. 8d., applicable to the general benefit of the poor under a scheme made by the Charity Commissioners in 1887. (fn. 101) There is another small fund. (fn. 102) A trifling money distribution is made at Wheelton (fn. 103) ; and for Whittle-le-Woods there are an almshouse and an income of about £10, partly for the occupant of the house, but chiefly given to the poor in kind. (fn. 104)

An apprenticing fund given by Samuel Crooke in 1770 for the townships of Leyland, Euxton and Clayton, Cuerden and Whittle-le-Woods is now given to the poor. (fn. 105)

Footnotes

1 Gregson. Fragments (ed. Harland), 17, 22. The details are: Leyland and Euxton, each £5 11s. 1¼d.; Cuerden, £1 2s. 2¾d.; Clayton and Whittle, each £2 4s. 5¼d.; Hoghton with Withnell, £3 3s. 6¼d.; Wheelton with Heapey, £2 7s. 7½d., or a total of £22 4s. 7d., when the hundred paid £100.
2 Ibid. 19.
3 The details are:
ArableGrassWoods
ac.ac.ac.
Leyland1,4841,626114
Leyland9256,421244
Cuerden7961568
Hoghton381,721204
Withnell42,07196
4 To the subsidy of 1525 the following contributed in respect of their lands in the parish: Thomas, William, Isabel, and Roger Farington. The others were: John Clayton, Richard Jackson (Kuerden), James Burscough, John Cowper, Robert Swanley (Swansey), and John Woodcock; Subsidy R. 130, no. 86.
5 The following compounded for the sequestrated two-thirds of their estates in 1628 and later years: In Leyland, Roger Charnock to pay £6 a year; Euxton, Isabel Anderton £8, John Charnock £2, Robert Hodgson £2 10s., Thomas Moore £2, William Roscow £2, Robert Worthington £2; Cuerden, Ann Banister £2; Claytonle-Woods, James Anderton £40, Ralph Critchlow £2 13s. 4d., Robert Catterall £3; Hoghton, John Clayton £2, Edward Stubbs £3 6s. 8d., Christopher Taylor £2 10s.; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 173–8.
6 Avice daughter of Henry de Kuerden (about 1230) gave a rent-charge of 1d. on her lands for incense at the altar of St. Andrew of Leyland, on the saint's feast day; B.M. Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 115. One Adam Clayton also left a charge on lands in Cuerden for the maintenance of a light before St. Andrew in the parish church of Leyland; Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 188n.
In 1349 William del Whithalgh charged his lands in Cuerden with 12d. a year for the maintenance of a light of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of the church of Leyland; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 40.
7 It is said to have been designed by a Mr. Longworth, who, however, was 'more celebrated as a combatant at Waterloo than as a skilled and competent architect'; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 337.
8 Hist. Soc. Lancs. and Ches. vii, 18*, paper by Miss Farington, Jan. 25, 1855, who exhibited a 'copy of an elevation taken by some inferior architect just before the old church was pulled down.' The drawing, however, is not reproduced.
9 Ibid. Many of these stones are now deposited within an iron railing at the angle formed by the chancel and nave on the south side.
10 The windows at first sight appear to be later insertions, and the upper parts of the walls may have been rebuilt; but plain windows of this description are frequently found in 14th-century work, and the moulded jambs suggest that these are the original ones.
11 The aumbry has rebated jambs, but the door has gone. In 1855, however, it had a 'small pointed arched door, of rude oak, as black as ink, till lately painted over'; Hist. Soc. Lancs. and Ches. vii, 18*.
12 'In 1591 William Farington obtained a confirmation of his previous family claims from Bishop Chaderton, who confirms to him and his heirs for ever a right "to sit, stand, and otherwise repose themselves therein" while living, and after death to occupy "two several vawtes or toumbes, in the upper of the same lying eastward, to bury the dead bodies of the men, and in the lower standing westward, to bury the dead bodys of the women." There was a division between the two sexes in the family pew itself till 1816'; Hist. Soc. Lancs. and Ches. vii, 18.*
13 The bird is sometimes said to be a woodcock, and to denote the building of the tower by Seth Woodcock, rector, 1494–1516. Its long bill, however, gives it rather the appearance of a snipe. The carving, however, is crude and difficult to distinguish clearly from below.
14 For arms formerly in the windows of Leyland Church see Kuerden MSS. vi, fol. 49b.
15 The inscriptions on the bells are as follows: Treble: 'May Jesus Christ be praised. The gift of Margaret Kellett, 1897. John Taylor, founder, Loughboro.' 2. 'Let God be feared. 1722. Chr: Sudell: Vicar.' 3. 'The Church prosper, A.R. 1722. Thos. Blacklach, Wm. Oakenshaw, Robert Sibbarin, John Morris, Ch. Wardens, 1835.' 4. 'John Stephenson, Canal Foundry, Preston. S.M: H.B: J.M. Ch. Wardens 1835.' 5. 'Quatuor nos ante fuimus, 1722. Recast 1885.' 6. 'Mr Gardnor Baldwin, Vicar. Lancelot Lawrenson, Ch. Warden. John Stephenson, Canal Foundry, Preston, 1835.' 7. 'Mag's Quotidie dilectabimus.' Tenor: 'Morning, evening, noon and night, praise God. The gift of John Stanning, 1897. John Taylor, founder, Loughboro'; Memories of Sunny Leyland, by Rev. E. G. Marshall, 1907.
16 Ibid.
17 There was formerly another flagon, but it is now at St. Ambrose's.
18 Record Soc. of Lancs. and Ches. xxi, 1890. Edited by the Rev. Walter Stuart White, M.A. It appears (p. 23) that the 'old register book' (1538–97) was in existence in 1653.
19 The inscriptions are given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 6–8.
20 Penwortham Priory (Chet. Soc.), 1,4. In a charter of Albert Bussel's the gift of his father Warine is thus described: 'In the church of Leyland 3s. and two thirds of the tithe of the demesne'; and that of his brother Richard as 'the whole church of Leyland with all its appurtenances'; ibid. 5, 6, 40.
21 The 2 oxgangs were given to Evesham by Lettice wife of Albert from her demesne in Leyland, and confirmed by him; ibid. 6. It will be seen that half of the land was afterwards assigned to the vicarage. Ambrye Meadows, by the River Lostock, belong to the vicars of Leyland. Other land in Leyland was acquired by the abbey in 1336; ibid. 31–5.
22 Ibid. 1. About 1330 the rector paid the abbey a pension of 30s. 4d.; ibid. 44.
23 Ibid. 41; Cal. Pat. 1327–30, p. 535.
24 Penwortham Priory, 42–5. The abbot and convent had complained that 28 manors and 3 churches had been violently taken from them by various kings of England and magnates of the realm without any fault of the monks, while their charges for almsgiving, hospitality and other good works were very heavy, and fresh burdens were now imposed upon them, the wickedness of the world increasing daily. Hence they desired the church of Leyland, already in their patronage, to be appropriated to the abbey. The pope's bull was dated at Avignon, 9 Jan. 1330–1. See also Cal. Papal Letters, ii, 349.
25 Penwortham Priory, 47–9; Lich. Epis. Reg. iii, fol. 28b. In 1350 the abbot had licence to farm the rectory for three years; ibid. ii, fol. 12b. The 40s. paid by the vicar to the abbot was probably passed on to the Bishop of Lichfield in accordance with a grant (Penwortham Priory, 45).
26 Pat. 34 Hen. VIII, pt. viii.
In 1541 a claim to the (advowson of the) vicarage was made by Adam Beconsaw; Pal. of Lanc. Sessional Papers, 33 Hen. VIII, bdle. 5, no. 101.
27 Farrer, North Merls, 60.
28 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249.
29 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 39. The townships contributed thus: Leyland, 50s.; Euxton, 50s.; Cuerden, Clayton, Whittlele-Woods, Withnell-with-Roddlesworth, Wheelton-with-Heapey and Hoghton, each 16s. 8d.
30 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 233. The rents of the glebe lands amounted to 21s. 6d., the tithe of corn, &c., to £47 0s. 6d.
31 Ibid. v, 232. The rent of the manse was 6s. 8d., the tithes of hay, wool, &c., with oblations, £13 6s. 8d. Out of this £2 was paid to the Prior of Penwortham and 13s. 4d. to the Archdeacon of Chester.
32 Commonwealth Church Survey (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 101–4.
33 See the account of the Charnock family.
34 Notitia Cestr. ii, 379. Small tithes, Easter dues and fees, about £60; Leyland Hall about £40. At that time each of the 'quarters' of the parish had a churchwarden; for Leyland the vicar chose one out of three nominated by that quarter, while the other quarters chose their own warden.
35 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
36 Gilbert Whitestanes was dean in 1449; Towneley MS. RR, no. 1020. In 1535 William Knight, Archdeacon of Chester, held this deanery. The revenues amounted to £6 15s. 4d.; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 231.
37 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 421.
38 Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), iii, 853. As he is called 'chaplain' only, he was, perhaps, not the rector.
39 Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 115, 118, charters of the early part of the reign of Henry III. Thomas Bussel, personarius of Leyland, was one of the witnesses to an early Cuerden charter; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 9. There were two rectors at that time, for Thomas Bussel, son of Thomas rector of a mediety of the church of Leyland, granted to John son of Adam de Heskin a ridding in Leyland called Antishaw, at the rent of 12d.; Kuerden fol. MS. B, fol. 59. Benedict son of the rector of Leyland also occurs; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 12. He gave an oxgang of land in Cuerden, in free marriage with Alice his daughter, to Grolamby de Clayton, whose son Robert was plaintiff in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 24 d.
40 Ibid. 404, m. 9 d.; also in Kuerden MSS. (Coll. of Arms), ii, fol. 219; Kuerden fol. MS. (Chet. Lib.), fol. 247. He is probably the William de Meols who occurs as rector of a mediety in 1261; Farington charter in Arch. Journ. 1875, p. 480.
41 Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 9b.
42 Ibid. fol. 30; he was a priest, and the rectory was 'commended' to him for lawful causes and the utility of the church, he being presented according to the tenor of the constitution of Gregory X, Possidenda. The reason of vacancy is not stated. John de Bohun was already rector of Redmarshall in Durham, and in 1311 obtained a dispensation from Clement V to retain both; Cal. Papal Letters, ii, 84. He occurs as rector in a pleading of 1319; De Banco R. 231, m. 163 d.
In 1317 Robert de Asshehou was by the king nominated to the rectory of Leyland, no doubt in error; Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 648.
43 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 99; a subdeacon. In the following August he obtained leave to be absent from his rectory for two years while acting as advocate in the Court of Arches; ibid. ii, 7. In 1325 he obtained licence of three years' absence for study; ibid. ii, 5. He was a king's clerk, and his name occurs a number of times in the Cal. Papal Letters, ii, iii; he held canonries at Lincoln, London, Lichfield, Hereford, Exeter and Salisbury, at different times, and was Archdeacon of Middlesex 1332–3, Treasurer of St. Paul's 1333; Le Neve, Fasti; Cal. Pat. 1324–7, p. 88. He died in 1348 or 1349.
44 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 107b. He is described as 'of Baddesley,' and a chaplain. He exchanged Leyland for North Meols. For an alienation of land in his time see Coram Rege R. Trin. 45 Edw. III, pt. ii, m. 24 d.
45 Lich. Epis. Reg. fol. 113b; a priest. He had been rector of North Meols since 1314. 'Robert de Preston, called the Woodward, rector of the church of North Meols,' occurs in a deed of 1325; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 101b. As Robert le Woodward, vicar of Leyland, he occurs in pleadings from 1345 onwards; De Banco R. 344, m. 470 d., &c.
46 Lich. Epis. Reg. ii, fol. 128; a chaplain.
47 Ibid. fol. 134; a chaplain. He is often called Adam de Meols simply, but must be distinguished from his namesake, the contemporary rector of North Meols. He was still vicar at the beginning of 1368; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 169b.
Early in 1358 John de Rainford, rector of St. Clement's, Hastings, claimed from Adam Wylot of North Meols, vicar of Leyland, an account for the time during which Adam was his bailiff at Hastings; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 4 d.
48 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 85. He occurs as 'chaplain of the church of Leyland' in 1366; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 37.
In his time Thomas, son of the vicar, occurs as plaintiff in a Leyland case; he may have been son of an earlier vicar; De Banco R. 440, m. 377.
49 Lich. Epis. Reg. vi, fol. 59; chaplain. He was still vicar in 1399–1400 (Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 121), and in Aug. 1401; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 62.
50 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 88b; chaplain. He may be the John Weston, rector of Iweley (Uley), B. Can. & Civ. Law, to whom Boniface IX in 1402 granted a dispensation to hold another benefice; Cal. Papal Letters, iv, 350; v, 504.
51 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 101b; chaplain. He was still vicar in 1419; Towneley MS. DD, no. 92.
52 Lich. Epis. Reg. ix, fol. 122; priest.
53 Ibid. xi, fol. 43; chaplain. He agreed to pay a pension of 10 marks yearly to the retiring vicar, Ralph Farington; ibid. xi, fol. 91.
54 Ibid. xii, fol. 99b.
55 Ibid. fol. 101; priest.
56 Ibid. fol. 121b; priest.
57 Ibid. xiii, fol. 158; priest.
58 Ibid. xiii-xiv, fol. 59b; he was also rector of Sefton, &c. He held Leyland till his death, 1535; Valor Eccl. v, 232.
59 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 37. He refused to appear at the visitation of 1559 (Gee, Elizabethan Clergy), but his name occurs in the visitation lists down to 1562, in which year probably he died. The 'ornaments' existing in 1552, including a Bible, are recorded in Church Goods (Chet. Soc.), 125.
60 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 46, from Chest. Dioc. Reg. Thomas Gwent was the survivor of the trustees to whom in 1538 the Abbot of Evesham had granted the next presentation; ibid. 26. Thomas Buckley or Bulkeley paid first-fruits 2 Mar. 1562–3, and later in the year is named as vicar, 'lately instituted,' in the bishop's visitation list; Lancs. and Cbes. Recs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 409.
61 He paid first-fruits 31 Aug. 1570. He was also rector of Brindle (q.v.). The records in the Bishop of Chester's registry have been used for this and later institutions.
62 First-fruits paid 12 Nov. 1595. The institutions from this time have been compared with those recorded in the Institution books, P.R.O., as printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. i, ii. In 1596 John Charnock was in charge of Leyland, being described as 'a sufficient, religious and able minister of the Word of God'; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 279, m. 13 d. Mr. White therefore was not resident.
In 1598 it was presented that the vicar did not wear the surplice, and did not make the sign of the cross in baptism; Visit. P. at Chest. Dioc. Reg. The same report was made in 1601 (ibid.), and this puritanism may have led to his resignation.
63 First-fruits paid 8 Feb. 1604–5. He was described as 'a preacher' about 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10.
64 First-fruits paid 5 Oct. 1612. He was a Puritan, and in 1619 was presented to the Bishop of Chester for not wearing the surplice, omitting the sign of the cross at baptism, and leaving out parts of the services; Visit. P. at Chest. Dioc. Reg. Though he then promised to conform, he readily accepted the Presbyterian discipline in the time of the Commonwealth, and was a member of the classis. From the papers in the Chester registry it appears that Langley was presented and instituted in July 1611, and again in the following January.
65 At the time of the Commonwealth Survey (June 1650) Vicar Langley was 'lately dead,' and the benefice was vacant; Survey, 105. Nathaniel son of William Rothwell, vicar, was baptized at Leyland 20 June 1651. The vicar was registrar from his appointment until 1656, when he was 'displaced,' and it is said (on the authority of Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy) that he had to endure much persecution and hardship until the Restoration; Leyland Reg. 24, 25.
He was buried at Leyland 16 Sept. 1676.
66 Of Caius Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1677, per literas regias. He was the son of Nicholas Rishton, and entered the college in 1659, though he does not seem to have graduated in the ordinary course; Venn, Admissions, 248.
67 Educated at Jesus Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1679. He was 'conformable' in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229. He died the same year, being buried at Leyland on 10 Sept.
68 Son of John Armetriding of Euxton; educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1683; R. F. Scott, Admissions, ii, 77.
69 He became rector of North Meols (q.v.) in 1733, resigning Leyland.
70 He became rector of North Meols (q.v.) in 1735, and thus had to be presented to Leyland and instituted a second time.
71 The patrons were Robert Harper, George Jervis Tapps and Walter Chetwynd. Baldwin was educated at Jesus Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1709. He was chaplain to the Earl of Cholmondeley, curate of Westhoughton, and rector of one mediety of Liverpool. In 1748 he purchased the advowsons of Leyland and North Meols. He bequeathed the former advowson to his younger son, Thomas Baldwin, rector of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex, in 1752. See Farrer, North Meols, 84; Pal. Note Bk. i, 53–4.
72 Younger son of the preceding vicar, as stated in the preceding note. Educated at Peterhouse, Camb.; M.A. 1742. He was a king's preacher.
73 Son of the last vicar, also educated at Peterhouse; LL.B. 1768; was vicar of Whalley 1776–1809. There was another Thomas Baldwin (M.A. Cantab. 1768), who was curate of Haslingden 1779–83; he wrote a narrative of a balloon excursion from Chester in 1785; N. and Q. (Ser. 3), iii, 427.
74 Brother of the last vicar, also educated at Peterhouse, of which he was a fellow; M.A. 1771. At one time he was curate of Great Crosby; also of Haslingden and Newchurch in Rossendale. He was a king's preacher.
75 Nephew of the last vicar, being son of William Baldwin, attorney. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1825.
76 Son of the last vicar. Educated at Sidney-Sussex Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1845.
77 Brother of the last vicar. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1860; vicar of Heapey 1874.
78 The Clergy List of 1542 (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), p. 17, records four priests, in addition to the vicar and chantry priest; but three were paid by Sir Henry Farington. The visitation list of 1548 (Dioc. Reg. Chest.) gives seven names, but mortuus is written against one of them. The other six again appear in 1554, but one of them, late the chantry priest, seems to have gone away to Winwick.
79 The old vicar and curate and the chaplain at Euxton.
80 A curate at Heapey and another, whose name does not occur in earlier or later lists, were the additional clergy.
81 The same curate, John Worden, appears in all the lists, 1548 to 1565.
82 There is no sign of a curate or additional preacher in the list of contributors to the subsidies of 1622–39; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 67–123. The chapels at Heapey and Euxton were without curates in 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 11. There was a curate, however, from 1676 to 1682; Leyland Reg. 61, 71. There was no clergyman but the vicar at the visitation of 1691.
83 End. Char. Rep. (Leyland), 1900, p. 48.
84 Raines, Chantries, 183; quoting the will of Sir William Farington, 1501. The altar stood in a chapel known as St. Nicholas' chapel or Farington chapel; ibid. 186.
85 Richard Kuerden, in 1529, bequeathed 3s. 4d. for the rood priest to say mass for his soul; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 95b.
86 Chantries, 185–6. The names of those to be prayed for are given. The nomination of the chaplain was to rest with Sir Henry and his heirs or trustees, but if they did not appoint the Abbot of Evesham was to do so. A solemn obit was to be kept between Easter and Pentecost, as many priests and clerks to be assembled as possible, each receiving an alms of 12d., while the parish clerk was to have 4d. for ringing the bells.
87 Ibid. 183.
88 Ibid. 186–90. There was no plate.
89 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 232.
90 Raines, op. cit. 182–4.
91 Gastrell, Notitia ii, 381; Loc. Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 108. The chantry commissioners of 1548 recommended that the school should be continued, and ordered that £3 17s. 10d. should be paid to the old chantry priest 'until further or other order or direction' should be given. The payment from the Duchy revenues still continues; it amounts to £3 16s. or £3 18s. a year; End. Char. Rep. (Leyland), 27.
92 The report, printed in 1900, includes a copy of that of 1826. The details in the text and notes are derived from it.
93 Richard Balshaw died in 1811, but had founded the charity school at Golden Hill in Leyland in 1782. The residue of the income, after the school charges had been met, was to 'industrious, aged and infirm' among the poor, who might be 'the greatest and real objects of charity.' An additional gift was made by Ellen Fisher in 1829. The income amounts to nearly £400 a year, and is distributed under a scheme of the Charity Commissioners made in 1896–7, by which the governors of the school may distribute not more than £20 a year among the poor of the township of Leyland.
94 The date is from Gastrell's Notitia (ii, 383), where it is stated that the founder endowed his six almshouses with £6 a year and new gowns every third year. In 1828 there was an inscription 'Will. Farington, Worden, 1607,' on the building. No deeds were then known to exist, but William Farington, of Shaw Hall, kept the buildings in repair, gave each of the almswomen 16s. 8d. a year and a stuff gown every third year. Each also had a cartload of turf for fuel, but paid 2s. 4d. for it. A new building was erected in 1849, and about 1861 the Misses Farington built houses for five more almspeople, and a payment is made annually from the Worden estate. The inmates are selected by the trustees of the estate and the vicar of St. James's, Leyland; they are all women, and must be resident in Leyland and members of the Church of England. Each receives 3s. a week for maintenance.
95 He left £500 to be invested in land for the maintenance of the poor of the township, the money to be paid after the death of his wife. The first purchase seems to have been made in 1691, and almshouses for six occupants were afterwards built. The Rev. Thomas Armetriding, vicar, and his widow Margaret afterwards augmented the endowment by gifts of £100 and £60; and John Beatson by his will of 1792 gave £200 for the inmates, the income to be divided equally each Good Friday among the six poor women. Mary Farington in 1811 also left £100 for the almshouses.
New houses were built in 1870, and in 1887 four additional houses were built and endowed by Mrs. Agnes Ryley, who gave £2,000 for the purpose. The whole property is administered by the Osbaldeston trustees. The six almswomen of the older foundation receive 4s. each a week, and the four of the later each 3s. 6d. There is also given for a bread charity £3 18s., eighteen penny loaves being given in the church weekly.
96 See the preceding note. It is supposed to be the result of a gift of £52 made by Mrs. Margaret Armetriding for the purpose in 1728; wheaten loaves, 1d. each, were to be distributed to such poor people of the township of Leyland as should most frequently attend divine service and sermon at the parish church, by twelve each Sabbath.
97 Alice Rowlinson by will (proved 1858) left her personal estate, &c., for William Fairclough for life, and then for poor widows residing in Leyland township. The income, £16 7s., is divided among about seventy-five widows in doles of 4s. each.
98 A sum of 10s. annually was paid by the Faringtons of Worden down to 1894; it is now considered merged in the general charge for the benefit of the almshouses. Nothing is now known of the gifts of £26 in 1728 by Christopher Preston, and £10 in 1744 by Henry Oakenshaw; in 1828 it was supposed that the vicars of Leyland had charge of the capital, and up to 1824 bread to the value of 36s. a year had been distributed; 10s. 6d. was given yearly from 1825 to 1891; but this has now been discontinued.
99 Richard Hodson, a yeoman and linen weaver, left £40, the interest (at the rate of 5 per cent.) to be given in linen cloth to the poor. The money was invested in a cottage and land in Dunkirk Lane, Leyland, which now produce £10 a year rent. Of this income about £7 is laid out in calico for the poor.
John Beatson (see Leyland above) gave £100 to the minister and chapel-warden of Euxton for bread to be distributed each Sunday among such of the poor 'as should regularly and invariably attend divine service.' The income is now £3 19s. 4d., and seven loaves are distributed each Sunday after service.
Thurstan Pincock in 1716 left a charge of 40s. yearly on his part of a close called Highfield, 20s. being payable to the curate of Euxton Chapel, 'so long as the said chapel should continue under the episcopal government,' and 20s. for the poor. The charge continues in force, and the latter moiety is distributed by the vicar of Euxton in money or in tickets for coals or grocery.
Richard Hoghton in 1686 gave charges of £1 10s. and £1 a year for cloth for the poor of Euxton and of Charnock Richard in Standish. In 1826 the owner of certain land stated that it had been customary for him and his predecessors in title to distribute 45s. to 55s. a year among the poor of the townships, but no such charge was named in the title deeds, and he therefore considered the payments to be voluntary. The property was sold soon afterwards and payments ceased.
Henry Oakenshaw in 1744 left money for a bread charity, sixpenny loaves being distributed on St. Thomas's Day. This was in existence in 1826, but has since been lost.
100 Reynold and Peter Burscough (will, 1623), two brothers, owning the great tithes of Cuerden and Whittle-le-Woods, left charges on them for the benefit of the poor of the townships, £8 a year to Whittle, and £5 6s. 8d. to Cuerden. The tithes were in 1899 the property of Mr. Townley-Parker of Cuerden, and the charges are still paid. At Cuerden the money is divided equally among the recipients, who number eight or nine.
101 John Clayton, by will in 1721, gave the rents of two closes in Clayton—then known as the Moorhey and the Intack— to trustees for the poor, to be employed as they should think fit. The income has usually been spent in doles of money, but other uses are allowed by the scheme.
102 A share of the Frith charity, amounting to 13s. 4d. a year. See a subsequent note.
103 John Simpson in 1750 gave £30, the interest to be applied for the benefit of poor housekeepers. The capital sum is intact, and the interest (9s. to 13s.) is distributed accordingly.
104 The charity of Reynold and Peter Burscough has been mentioned in a preceding note. The £8 for Whittle is distributed in gifts of food, clothing, &c., among about twenty-five aged poor persons. To it is added 5s. 4d., interest of a gift by Richard Pincock before 1762.
William Frith in 1667 left money for building 'a bay of housing of stone for two or three poor women to dwell in, which should have two rooms, one over the other, with fireplaces in them; and that they should have that house, and either of them a garden therein, with six loads of turves every year . . . if they would be at the charges of getting them.' He also left 10s. for two or three waistcoats of cloth, and this sum is still paid. See the account of Chorley charities.
105 The income of the Crooke charity (for Leyland parish) now amounts to £48 17s., but £20 is applicable to education. Of the rest the benefactor intended £15 to be applied annually for apprenticing, each of the three 'quarters' named having that sum every third year. The apprenticing ceased in 1805, the trustees finding the administration of the fund to be very difficult; and the whole sum is given to a poor person in one of the 'quarters' named, according to rotation, but it is sometimes impossible to find a suitable recipient. The trustees' dinner and school children's treat, on 1 May, consumes about £7 of the surplus, and £6 8s. is paid to the rector of Croston for distribution in that parish.