The parish of Brindle

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1911

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75-81

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'The parish of Brindle', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 75-81. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53075 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


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BRINDLE

Brumhull, 1202; Burnhull, 1205, and commonly; Burnul, 1212; Brunhill, 1227; Brunehill, 1247; Bryndill, 1511.

The parish is remarkable as being one of the few ancient parishes in the county having but a single township. The area is 3,104 acres. (fn. 1) The surface is elevated, as will be inferred from the name, and rises at two points, (fn. 2) north and south, to 525 ft.; it slopes to the north-west somewhat rapidly. In the slight hollow between the highest points lie the village and church of Brindle, near the centre of the township. There are several hamlets; to the west Pippin Street, to the north Jack Green and Brindle Lodge, to the south-west Thorpe Green, Radburn and Rip Row. A brook, the Lostock, rising near the church runs east to the boundary, and then turning south-west itself forms the boundary for some distance.


BRINDLE PARISH.

BRINDLE PARISH.

The population in 1901 was 1,026.

The principal roads meet at the village; they come from Hoghton, Walton-le-Dale, Clayton-le-Woods and Whittle-le-Woods. The nearest railway stations are Bamber Bridge and Hoghton, nearly 2 miles from the church. The Wigan and Lancaster Canal goes along near the western border.

St. Helen's wells are near the border of Whittle-leWoods. (fn. 3) There are remains of several ancient crosses. (fn. 4)

The wake was held on the Friday in Whitsun week. (fn. 5)

The government is in the hands of a parish council.

To the ancient fifteenth Brindle paid 11s. 8d. when the hundred paid £30 12s. 8d.; and to the county lay of 1624 it paid £5 11s. 1¼d. out of £100. (fn. 6) From its secluded situation in a hilly district the parish has had an uneventful history (fn. 7) ; yet it saw a little of the Civil War. (fn. 8) In more recent times some scandal was caused by its workhouse and lunatic asylum. (fn. 9)

A muslin manufactory is mentioned in the Directory of 1824. There are now a cotton factory and chemical works, and the valuable stone quarries are worked. Grass and potatoes are the chief crops. There are 444 acres of arable land, 2,362 acres of permanent grass and 70 of woods and plantations. (fn. 10) The soil is mainly clay and sand.

One of Wesley's most prominent fellow-labourers, the Rev. William Grimshaw, was born at Brindle in 1708. Ordained for the Anglican ministry and curate of Howarth he worked energetically with the Methodists, and had great influence in the border district of Lancashire and Yorkshire. He died in 1763. (fn. 11)


Grelley. Gules three bendlets enhanced or.

Manor

The manor of BRINDLE was a member of the fee of Penwortham, and was in 1212 held, together with Anderton, by Robert Grelley, lord of Manchester, but no service was rendered. (fn. 12) It continued to be reckoned among the possessions of the Grelleys and their successors down to the 17th century. (fn. 13) In 1320 the lord of Brindle owed suit of court to Manchester and was one of the judges there 'by custom of old time,' (fn. 14) and the manor was, with Anderton, part of the Upper Bailiwick. (fn. 15) Sir Peter Gerard held the manor and advowson in 1473 of the lord of Manchester in socage, rendering puture, suit of court, and a rent of 15s. (fn. 16) This quit-rent was still paid in the middle of the 18th century.

Brindle and Anderton were together held of the Grelleys by a family which derived a surname from the former place. Peter, (fn. 17) Thomas (fn. 18) and Sir Peter de Burnhull (fn. 19) appear during the 13th century. Sir Peter married Alice de Windle, and thus greatly increased the family possessions. (fn. 20) He was succeeded in turn by his sons Peter and Alan, both minors. (fn. 21) The former son died without issue before 1298, (fn. 22) and the latter, who died before 1324, left three children—Peter, Joan and Agnes. The son, who married Katherine afterwards wife of Hugh de Venables, died soon after his father without issue. Joan married William Gerard and Agnes married David Egerton. (fn. 23) For a time the inheritance was held by the sisters and their husbands, but Agnes dying without issue the whole ultimately went to the Gerards of Bryn.

The manor of Brindle descended regularly in this family (fn. 24) until 1582, when Sir Thomas Gerard, having incurred the resentment of Elizabeth by his adherence to Rome and Mary Queen of Scots, as it was supposed, was thrown into the Tower, and only escaped with a heavy fine. Brindle was among the manors sold to pay it; the purchaser was William Cavendish, ancestor of the Duke of Devonshire. (fn. 25) The advowson has descended regularly to the present duke, (fn. 26) but the manor has been granted to a junior branch of the family, (fn. 27) and was held by the late Charles Compton William Cavendish, third Lord Chesham, K.C.B., (fn. 28) who died in 1907. His heir, the present Lord Chesham, was a minor. A court leet and court baron used to be held in May. (fn. 29)


Gerard of Bryn. Azure a lion rampant ermine crowned or.

The place does not seem to have had a resident lord since the end of the 13th century. Among the minor families which appear in the records are those of Chorley, (fn. 30) Brereworth, (fn. 31) Gerard of Radburn, (fn. 32) whose estate descended to the Walmesleys of Showley, (fn. 33) Warburton, (fn. 34) Worthington of Blainscough, (fn. 35) Clayton, (fn. 36) Hoghton, (fn. 37) Hesketh, (fn. 38) Swansey (fn. 39) and Hulton. (fn. 40) The Subsidy Roll of 1332 shows Robert the Physician among the contributors in Brindle. (fn. 41)


Cavendish, Lord Chesham. Sable three stags' heads cabossed argent.

In 1628 several recusants compounded for the sequestered two-thirds of their estates. (fn. 42) Thomas Woodcock had his estate confiscated by the Commonwealth authorities and ordered for sale in 1652. (fn. 43) Several other 'delinquents' and recusants occur in the records of that time. (fn. 44) To the hearth tax of 1666 as many as 112 hearths contributed, but no house had so many as six hearths. (fn. 45) Several 'Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 46)

Denham Hall is noticed by Kuerden as having been built by Sir Henry Slater. (fn. 47) James Heatley of Samlesbury purchased an estate in the parish and his son William (1764–1840) built Brindle Lodge, which he bequeathed to his niece, Mrs. Catherine Eastwood. In consequence of disputes over the inheritance it was sold to Mr. Whitehead of Preston. (fn. 48)

The Duke of Devonshire was almost sole landowner in 1798. (fn. 49)

In 1742 twenty-four tenements on lease for three lives contained 410 acres, worth £410; thirty-two tenements on lease for two lives contained 409 acres, worth £455; fifteen tenements on lease for one life contained 239 acres, worth £260; twenty-one tenements on lease for twenty-one years contained 148 acres, worth £155; six tenements containing 57 acres were held at will, worth £62; twenty-two cottages held at will were worth £19. The total area was given as 1,267 acres (of 8 yards to the rod), worth £1,420 per annum. (fn. 50)

Church

The church of ST. JAMES (fn. 51) consists of chancel with north chapel and vestry, nave, south porch, and west tower. Only the tower and chapel, however, are old, being of 15th-century date, and the latter has been so much restored in recent years as to deprive it of nearly all its archaeological interest. The nave of the old church was pulled down and the present one built in 1817. Baines (fn. 52) states that the north and south walls of the chancel were rebuilt long before this date, but he may refer to the rebuilding of the 15th century. The present chancel dates from 1869–70, when the church was thoroughly restored, its south wall, which formerly stood 4 ft. back, being brought into line with that of the nave. Little remains, therefore, to show the disposition of the original plan, though the length of the building was presumably the same as at present.

The chancel is 26 ft. by 23 ft. with a five-light pointed east window, and two windows of two lights and a priest's door in the south side. The north side has a modern arcade of two pointed arches opening to the chapel, which is the same length as the chancel and 20 ft. in width. Internally the chapel has little antiquarian interest, having been entirely renovated, but externally the old stone walling remains, the top of the gable alone being new. The east window is of three cinquefoiled lights under a four-centred arch with moulded jambs and head, but without hood mould, and on the north side is a square-headed three-light window of similar detail. The roof is modern. There was another similar square-headed window on the north side, but the modern vestry effectually hides or has destroyed all the other ancient features on this side. The diagonal buttress at the north-east corner is part of the original structure bonding into the walling, but a wider buttress on the north side, now in the angle of the vestry, is a later addition. The chancel and chapel are under two separate gabled roofs of different height, but both butting at the west end against the wide gable of the nave. The roofs are covered with blue slates and have overhanging eaves.

The nave is 43 ft. square, and originally had galleries all round. The east and west galleries were taken down in 1869–70, but those on the north and south stood till 1887. The galleries probably gave some sense of proportion to the church which it now lacks, the nave, which is without aisles and under one wide gabled roof, being a cheerless specimen of the worst period of churchwarden Gothic. (fn. 53) Later stone pointed arches of two orders separate it at the east end from the chancel and chapel. The roof is divided into four bays by three plain wood principals, and the windows are pointed of three lights with the mullions crossing in the heads. At the west end, north of the tower, is a three-light square-headed window copied from that on the north of the chapel. A porch has been added in front of the south door.

The tower, which is at the south-west corner of the nave, presumably in a line with the ancient chancel, is 9 ft. 6 in. square inside, and is built of gritstone. It has a projecting vice in the south-east corner, but its stages are unmarked externally by any string-course, and the top finishes with an embattled parapet with angle and intermediate pinnacles. The west door has a four-centred arch and hollow chamfered jambs and head, and above is a pointed window of three cinquefoiled lights with hood mould terminating in shields. The mullions and tracery are new. The belfry windows are of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery over under a pointed labelled head. There is a clock on the west side, made by Thomas Kirkhall of Bolton-le-Moors, 1637. On the north and south sides, below the belfry, is a small square-headed window, and on the west side above the clock a small niche with the canopy cut away. The west buttresses are diagonal and of five stages, and there is a square buttress at the northeast angle now incorporated with the nave wall. The tower arch is of two chamfered orders dying into square jambs at the springing, and is filled with a modern glazed screen, the bells being rung from the floor of the church.

The fittings are mostly modern, but some of the old oak seating has been used up as wainscot along the lower part of the nave walls. There are some fragments of 16th and early 17th-century glass placed in front of the north window of the chapel, including two shields (fn. 54) of arms.

The first shield has a strap-work border, and in place of crest a basket of fruit. Between the shields is a round piece of glass on which is a plough, the groundwork being made up of fragments of a Resurrection window, showing figures rising from tombs. There is also an inscription on the glass to Thomas Brown, one of her Majesty's Yeomen of the Guard. (fn. 55) Under the tower is a board with the royal arms of George III, and in the nave there is a good brass chandelier dated 1792, now unfortunately painted blue and gold.

The font now in use is a modern Gothic one, octagonal in shape, but the church contains three other fonts, and there is a fifth in the rectory garden. Of those in the church the oldest is a circular stone one 2 ft. in diameter, probably of 12th-century date, standing on a made-up base at the west end of the nave. Close to it is a four-sided font with chamfered angles, apparently dating from the early 16th century, having panelled sides, on one of which is the sacred monogram and on another a four-leafed flower. The other two sides are defaced and plain. The remaining font inside the building is a plain 18th-century one on a circular pedestal, but the one in the rectory garden is of greater interest. It is seven-sided and of rough stone, and is only 16 in. in diameter. It was recovered in the village in 1907, and may have belonged to St. Helen's well. The bowl is 12 in. wide and 7 in. deep, and there is no pedestal.

In the churchyard, in the angle of the vestry and north chapel, is a stone coffin, and near to it a sepulchral slab with a plain incised cross. There are also two other slabs in the churchyard, one to the east and the other to the south of the building, each with a floreated cross, and on both the north and south sides is an octagonal sundial shaft raised on two steps. The tops of the shafts are square with hollowed faces, and the dial plates are gone.

There are six bells, four of which are by Taylor of Loughborough, one recast in 1837, and the others cast in 1904. The two remaining bells are ancient and said to belong to the 14th century. One bears the inscription in Gothic letters, 'MARIA IN NÕE IHS,' and the other has various marks difficult to decipher, one being a Gothic a.

The plate consists of a chalice, ' the gift of Rachael Derbyshire to the church of Brindle, An. Dom. 1729'; another chalice without inscription with maker's mark RL; a paten of 1704–5; a pewter flagon; and a silver-plated flagon given in 1874.

The registers begin in 1558. The first two volumes (1558 to 1714) have been printed by the Lancashire Parish Register Society. (fn. 56) The churchwardens' accounts begin in 1775.

Advowson

The rectory is mentioned before 1200, (fn. 57) but it must be noticed that in 1341 Brindle was taxed as one of the townships of Penwortham. (fn. 58) A few years later the regular succession of rectors begins. The advowson was always attached to the manor (fn. 59) until the division mentioned above, when the Duke of Devonshire retained the patronage, which has descended to the present duke. (fn. 60)

The net value of the rectory in 1535 was £12 18s. 4d. (fn. 61) In 1650 besides the church there was a parsonage-house with 4 acres of glebe, and the value was about £75 a year. (fn. 62) The certified value sixty years later was less than this, namely, £49 15s. (fn. 63) It is now given as £464. (fn. 64)

The following is a list of the rectors:—

InstitutedNamePatronCause of Vacancy
c. 1190Ughtred (fn. 65)
oc. 1292Thomas de Burnhull (fn. 66)
oc. 1355Hugh de Pemberton (fn. 67)
11 Feb. 1369–70Thomas de Chorley (fn. 68) David de Egertond. Hugh de Pemberton
10 Apr. 1413Richard de Shakerley (fn. 69) Sir Thos. Gerard
9 Jan. 1445–6John del Kirk (fn. 70) Sir Peter Gerardres. R. de Shakerley
24 Oct. 1487William Lunt (fn. 71) Sir T. Gerardd. J. del Kirk
?Thomas Gerard (fn. 72)
c. 1523Thomas Bulkeley (fn. 73) Sir T. Gerard
12 Aug. 1537John Harper, M.A. (fn. 74) Thomas Gerardd. T. Bulkeley.
oc. 1565William Rishton (fn. 75)
18 Nov. 1567William Gerard (fn. 76) Sir T. Gerardd. W. Rishton
25 Jan. 1575–6John Shireburne, B.D. (fn. 77) Bishop of Chester
25 Dec. 1594James Starkie, M.A. (fn. 78) W. Cavendishd. J. Shireburne
25 May 1603William Bennett, B.A. (fn. 79) William Cavendishd. J. Starkie
30 Dec. 1629William Bispham, M.A. (fn. 80) The Kingd. last incumbent
29 Apr. 1636Alexander Clarke, M.A. (fn. 81) Countess of Devonshireexch. W. Bispham
3 Apr. 1637Robert Gale, M.A. (fn. 82) "d. A. Clarke
21 Apr. 1640Edward Rigby, M.A. (fn. 83) Earl of Devonshireres. R. Gale
Dec. 1646Thomas Cranage (fn. 84) exp. E. Rigby
1650William Walker (fn. 85) Earl of Devonshire
1651Philip Bennett (fn. 86)
1651Henry Pigot, B.D. (fn. 87)
25 Oct. 1662Earl of Devonshire
19 June 1722John Young (fn. 88) Duke of Devonshired. H. Pigot
4 May 1743William Burrow, M.A."d. J. Young
20 Nov. 1751Samuel Pegge, M.A. (fn. 89) "res. W. Burrow, jun.
25 Oct. 1758John Bourne, M.A."res. S. Pegge
31 Oct. 1770Peter Walthall, M.A. (fn. 90) "res. J. Bourne
7 Sept. 1812John Charles Bristed, M.A. (fn. 91) "d. P. Walthall
25 Apr. 1822Charles Edward Kendall, M.A. (fn. 92) "res. J. C. Bristed
9 Aug. 1864Thomas Lund, B.D. (fn. 93) "d. C. E. Kendall
3 July 1877Stephen Ray Eddy, M.A. (fn. 94) "d. T. Lund
26 Nov. 1889Kinton Jacques, M.A. (fn. 95) "res. S. R. Eddy
3 May 1909George Lomas, M.A. (fn. 96) "res. K. Jacques
25 Jan. 1910Philip Lancashire, M.A. (fn. 97) "d. G. Lomas

Of the pre-Reformation clergy little is known. Some of them occur as trustees or witnesses to charters. There was no endowed chantry, but in 1541 there were two priests living in Brindle, paid by Thomas Gerard; the rector at that time may have been non-resident. (fn. 98) The visitation list of 1548 shows the rector and three others, one perhaps absent, that of 1554 gives three names; those of 1562 to 1565 give the rector's name alone. (fn. 99) Many of the subsequent rectors were pluralists, and a curate was placed in charge of this out-of-the-way parish. Samuel Pegge is the most noteworthy of the later rectors.

A school was founded about 1623, the master being appointed by the rector. (fn. 100)

There is a Methodist chapel near the northern boundary, opened in 1828 (fn. 101)

A large proportion of the inhabitants have from the Reformation onwards remained faithful to Roman Catholicism. (fn. 102) Very little is known of the priests who ministered to them in the first part of the penal times, (fn. 103) but from 1704 the Benedictines have been in charge, and a chapel and residence were built. (fn. 104) The present church of St. Joseph dates from 1786; the district attached to it is peculiar, inasmuch as it lies in two dioceses—Liverpool and Salford. There is an ancient cross in the churchyard. (fn. 105)

Charities

Apart from the school there are only two endowed charities. (fn. 106) The poor's stock and the gift of Edward Blacklidge (fn. 107) produce £5 6s., and from the Shuttlingfields estate (fn. 108) £38 18s. 4d. is received, of which £20 is given to the school. The remainder, about £20 after charges have been paid, is given in sums of money to the poor, preference being given to widows and aged persons.

Footnotes

1 3,106, including 11 of inland water; Census Rep. 1901.
2 The southern one is called Haugh Hill and the northern Duxon Hill.
3 'Over against Swansey house, a little towards the hill, standeth an ancient fabric once the manor-house of Brindle, where hath been a chapel belonging to the same, and a little above it a spring of very clear water, rushing straight upward into the midst of a fair fountain, walled square about in stone and flagged in the bottom, very transparent to be seen, and a strong stream issuing out of the same. This fountain is called St. Helen's well, to which the vulgar neighbouring people of the Red Letter [Roman Catholics] do much resort with pretended devotion in each year upon St. Helen's day, where and when out of a foolish ceremony they offer or throw into the well pins which there being left may be seen a long time after by any visitor of that fountain'; Kuerden in Baines' Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 497. See also Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xvii, 28, where there are drawings.
4 Ibid. 27, &c.
5 Baines, op. cit. iii, 500.
6 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 19, 22.
7 Sir Thomas Gerard is stated to have led many of his tenants and archers from Brindle to the battle of Flodden in 1513; H. Weber, Flodden Field, 183.
8 In 1651, the Earl of Derby having left the Isle of Man and arrived at Preston to raise a force for Charles II, Colonel Lilburne advanced north from Chester to meet him, and with his horsemen came to Brindle on 23 August, where 'they put their horses to grass in those low meadows between the church and Preston,' and took their ease. Some Royalists, 'they being all enemies thereabouts,' sent word to Preston, and a bold attempt was made to capture the horses. Though surprised Lilburne's men drove off the attack, 'the young men' being 'soundly paid home for their forwardness. None escaped but either slain or taken, save one called Newsham, who forsaking his horse fled into a thick oller tree and there hid himself in the leaves thereof and at night went away.' Some companies of foot had been quartered within Brindle and kept guard in the church. The fight at Wigan Lane followed. See War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 73–5.
9 'The workhouse, about a mile from the village, is for the support of the poor of any township that may choose to contribute towards the support of the house. There are about eighty townships in England that send hither their poor. For many years this was used as a general receptacle for pauper lunatics and the idle and refractory poor of other townships were sent here. A severity of discipline was thus introduced which in consequence of the building of the county asylum at Lancaster [1816], and the subsequent interference of several magistrates, has been done away'; Baines, Lancs. Dir. 1825, ii, 644.
10 Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
11 Dict. Nat. Biog.
12 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 34.
13 It is not mentioned after 1473 in Manchester documents, but the Pen wortham bailiffs made a claim to lands in 1522; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 130.
14 Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), ii, 286.
15 Ibid. ii, 374.
16 Ibid. iii, 478.
17 Peter de Burnhull appears as a witness about 1190; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 411. He occurs also between 1202 and 1206; ibid. 170, 204.
18 Thomas de Burnhull appears in the survey of 1212 as holding part of Ashtonin-Makerfield and Alston; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 74, 50. He also took part in the perambulation of the forest in 1228; Lancs. Pipe R. 420.
Robert Grelley in 1227 made agreement with Thomas de Burnhull (among others) as to the suit of court due for Brindle, and Thomas and the rest agreed that they would perform suit at the court of Manchester every three weeks and fortnightly at pleas to be held by the king's writ and at the judgement of thieves; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 47.
19 Peter was the son of Thomas; Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), iii, 852. He is described as a knight about 1285; ibid. 848. Peter de Burnhull succeeded his father before 1246, in which year he was defendant to a claim made by Richard son of Thomas de Burnhull, a minor; Assize R. 404, m. 2 d. At the same time he claimed Siward son of Maud as his fugitive 'native'; ibid. m. 6. In the following year he had a dispute with Adam de Pemberton respecting land as to which a duel had been waged; ibid. 454, m. 25. Peter de Burnhull was a juror in 1251, 1254 and 1265; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 186, &c. He had disputes with Adam de Hoghton respecting a ditch in Brindle, probably in connexion with the boundary; Assize R. 405, m. 2 d.; 1235, m. 12.
20 See the accounts of Windle and Ashton for the later descents. It seems that Peter had a second wife Margery, who hanged herself in a fit of madness. Her goods were confiscated, but restored to Peter by the king. The official of the Archdeacon of Richmond in 1277 made a claim on the goods, suspended him from entering church, and excommunicated him, on which he appealed to the king's protection; Coram Rege R. 33, m. 5; 39, m. 24. About the same time he called upon Benedict the Carpenter to finish the mill in Brindle which he had contracted to make, and for which he had been paid in part; De Banco R. 24, m. 18 d. He was dead in 1292, when his executors were plaintiffs; Assize R. 408, m. 99 d.
Testimony as to the good character of Robert de Burnhull, clerk, was given in 1293; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 280.
Thomas son of William de Burnhull was plaintiff in 1331; Assize R. 1404, m. 17.
21 During the minority of Peter the manor was entrusted to Gilbert de Clifton, who in 1292 was called upon to justify his position, it being alleged that the king should have the wardship, as Thomas Grelley was a minor. It was asserted in defence that Brindle was not held of Grelley by knights' service, but by a free rent of 15s. a year for all services; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 377.
22 Margaret widow of Peter son of Peter de Burnhull claimed her dower in Brindle, Windle, &c., against Alan son of Peter de Burnhull in 1298; De Banco R. 124, m. 9 d.
23 William son of William Gerard and Joan his wife and David de Egerton and Agnes his wife, Joan and Agnes being sisters and heirs of Peter de Burnhull, were parties to a suit in 1339; De Banco R. 320, m. 544; 325, m. 376 d.
24 Sir Thomas Gerard died in 1416 seised of the manor of Brindle and Anderton, and the advowson of the church of the former place, held of Thomas La Warr, baron of Manchester, in socage by the service of 40s. a year; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 123. The service due for Brindle was not known to the jurors in 1447, when inquiry was made after the death of Sir Peter Gerard (Towneley MS. DD, no. 1465), but as stated in the text 15s. was due in 1473. In 1524 the manor and advowson were stated to be held of Lord La Warr in socage; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 52.
The manor occurs in Gerard family arrangements; e.g. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 246; 35, m. 3; 36, m. 230.
25 Ibid. bdle. 44, m. 228. The deforciants were Sir Thomas Gerard, Elizabeth his wife, Thomas his son and Thomas his bastard brother. The estate is described as the manor of Bryndle alias Brundle alias Brundhill alias Brunhill, with the advowson of the church, 200 messuages, 100 tofts, two mills, two dovecotes, 200 gardens, 300 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, 3,000 acres of pasture, 200 acres of wood, 3,000 acres of furze and heath, 1,000 acres of moor, 1,000 acres marsh and 40s. rent. The area of Brindle being a little over 3,000 acres, these figures can only be regarded as showing the relative proportions of arable, pasture, &c.
26 The succession has been: Sir William Cavendish, first Earl of Devonshire (1618), d. 1626 -s. William, second earl, d. 1628 -s. William, third earl, d. 1684 -s. William, first duke (1694), d. 1707 -s. William, second duke, d. 1729 -s. William, third duke, d. 1755 -s. William, fourth duke, d. 1764 -s. William, fifth duke, d. 1811 -s. William, sixth duke, d. 1858 -cos. William (second E. of Burlington), seventh duke, d. 1891 -s. Spencer Compton, eighth duke, d. 1908— neph. Victor Christian William, ninth duke. See G.E.C. Complete Peerage, iii, 113–19.
In 1608 a settlement of the manor of Brindle, &c., was made by William Lord Cavendish; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 73, no. 50. Brindle was noticed in the Commonwealth sequestrations; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 2831. The Right Hon. William Cavendish (who was afterwards fourth duke) was vouchee in a recovery of the manor and advowson in 1747; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 567, m. 6. An Act was passed in 1819 confirming the title of the Duke of Devonshire to the manors of Brindle and Inskip.
27 Lord George Cavendish acquired it in 1819 by an exchange of possessions; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 157.
28 George Augustus Henry Cavendish, third son of the fourth Duke of Devonshire, cr. Earl of Burlington 1831, d. 1834 -s. William, d.v.p. 1812 -s. William, seventh duke. The youngest son of the first earl, Charles Compton Cavendish, was created Baron Chesham in 1858; d. 1863 -s. William George, second lord, d. 1882 -s. Charles William Compton, third lord, d. 1907 -s. John Compton, fourth lord, b. 1894. See G.E.C. op. cit. ii, 82, 220.
29 Baines op. cit. (ed. 1836), iii, 497.
30 John son of Robert de Langton in 1362 granted to William de Chorley, Margery his wife and Ralph their son all his land in the town and manor of Brindle; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 119.
31 A Margery de Berdwrth was a tenant in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 8 d. At the same time Almarica daughter of Henry de Brereworth unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and land against Thomas son of Adam de Hoghton; it appeared that John son of Henry son of Roger de Brereworth had granted the same to Adam de Hoghton; ibid. m. 59. Adam and Uriel Brereworth occur in 1447; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 10, m. 3b. In 1556 James Brereworth made a settlement or sale of his capital messuage in Brindle, the plaintiffs being William Gerard of Brindle and Ewan Haydock; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 17, m. 162.
Evan Fish in 1571 purchased land, &c., from Francis Haydock and Alice his wife; ibid. bdle. 33, m. 33.
32 Oliver Gerard of Brindle, Oliver his son and William Gerard of Radburn, all described as yeomen, were defendants in 1554; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 196, m. 7 d. Sir Thomas Gerard in 1561 demised to Oliver Gerard a messuage and lands called Denham in Brindle, and Oliver, son of the lessee, was in occupation in 1594; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. clxiv, G 8.
William Gerard of Radburn, drover, died in 1622 holding lands in Brindle of the Earl of Devonshire and others in Walton-le-Dale and Whittle-le-Woods. His heir was his daughter Ellen wife of Richard Walmesley, then twenty-six years of age, and mother of Gerard Walmesley and other children; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 311–13. A younger son Thomas succeeded.
33 For pedigree see Burke's Commoners, iii, 229; Abram's Blackburn, 458.
Thomas Walmesley, grandfather of the above-named Richard, held lands in Brindle, Whittle-le-Woods and Clayton, purchased from Robert Swansey in 1572, and left them to a younger son Edward; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 34, m. 36; 47, m. 48; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 72.
34 Geoffrey de Warburton was defendant in a plea of land in 1331; Assize R. 1404, m. 17. Sir Geoffrey de Warburton the elder, Robert de Warburton and others were defendants in 1360, the plaintiffs being William Gerard and Joan his wife; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 7, m.4.
35 In 1338 William Gerard and his wife granted lands in Brindle to William de Worthington, Isabel his wife and Thomas their son; Blainscough Abstract (in possession of W. Farrer). Thomas the son of William in 1359 purchased or further secured 40 acres of pasture from the Gerards; Final Conc. ii, 161. The estate, a messuage known as Worthington House and 40 acres, is mentioned several times in the abstract referred to. In the 16th century it was stated to be held of Gerard and Cavendish, but in 1620 of Edward Mosley as of his manor of Manchester; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 52; xii, no. 18; xv, no. 27; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 173.
36 John Clayton of Brindle and Joan his wife had land in Euxton in 1418; Final Conc. iii, 77. The family are mentioned later; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 7, m. 3b; 10, m. 22.
37 Agnes widow of Adam de Hoghton in 1290 claimed dower in a messuage and three plough-lands in Brindle; De Banco R. 86, m. 117 d. Thomas Hoghton, who died in 1589, had a messuage in Brindle, but the tenure is not stated; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 39.
38 Thomas Hesketh of Rufford in 1523 held 30 acres of pasture in Brindle of Sir Thomas Gerard; ibid. v, no. 16.
Sir John Southworth in 1561 purchased a messuage, &c., from Gabriel Hesketh; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 23, m. 25.
39 The lands of William Swansey and Ellen his wife in Clayton, Brindle and Whittle are mentioned in 1407; Pal. of Lanc. Misc. 1/9, m. 20.
Hugh Swansey (see Ducatus Lanc. ii, 95) died in 1566 holding land in Brindle of Sir Thomas Gerard by a rent of 4s., and other lands in Chorley, &c. Robert his son and heir was thirty-eight years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 29. A sale by Robert Swansey in 1572 has been mentioned in a preceding note. He and his wife Anne in 1574 made a settlement of messuage, dovecote, lands, &c., in Brindle; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 243.
Edward Swansey was a freeholder in 1600, and contributed to the subsidy in 1628; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 245, 171.
40 Ralph Hulton of Brindle and Katherine his wife had land in Bolton in 1451; Final Conc. iii, 118. Edward Hulton contributed to the subsidy of 1525; Subs. R. 130, no. 86. The surname occurs later (e.g. Pal. of Lanc. Writs of Assize, bdle. 19, 32 Hen. VIII), and Hilton's Brow is on the eastern side of the township.
41 Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 52.
42 These were John Crook, for £2 10s. a year; Grace Duxon, £2; and Janet Gerard, £4.
43 Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3095. The offence is not stated.
44 John Catterall had adhered to the king's forces; he had a messuage, land and mill in Brindle; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 16. Richard Crook petitioned for the restoration of the estate of his deceased brother William, a recusant, on compounding; ibid. ii, 88. James Fish had had twothirds of his estate sequestered for recusancy; ibid. ii, 321. Thomas Garstang was in the same case; ibid. iii, 5. George Purefoy of Belgrave, Leicestershire, petitioned for the messuage, called Slackhall, sequestered from John Gerard deceased for recusancy; ibid. iii, 22. John Hilton of Leyland had two-thirds of his estate in Leyland and Brindle sequestered for his recusancy, and desired to compound; ibid. iii, 229. A William Sharrock of Brindle is mentioned also; two-thirds of his estate had been sequestered for recusancy as far back as 1627; Cal. Com. for Comp. v, 3196.
45 Subs. R. 250, no. 9; the rector's house had five hearths and Sir Henry Slater's four.
46 Francis Smith of Queniborough, Leicestershire, in right of his wife Catherine; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Non-jurors, 97. Also the following: John Gorton, George Topping, Christopher (son of Robert) Blacklidge, Robert Higginson, Oliver Gerard, William Hilton, William Turner, Mary Turner his sister, Hugh Langtree, John Clayton, William Proctor, James Gerard, John Crooke and Evan Fish; ibid. 100, 101.
47 Quoted in Baines' Lancs. ut sup. It is said to have been called Swansey House previously. There is a date 1666 on it. Sir Henry Slater was buried at Brindle 14 Nov. 1675, and Dame Rachel 5 Mar. 1697–8. For pedigree see Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 256.
48 The story is told in detail in Gillow's Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Catholics, iii, 253. William Heatley was a great benefactor to Roman Catholic churches and charities, and left a large part of his fortune to his conferssor, apparently on trust. The will caused much disturbance, and further disputes arose over a seat in St. Joseph's Church. Mr. Eastwood, failing in his claims, became a Protestant, and sold the estate and everything belonging to it.
49 Land tax return at Preston. He paid £46 out of £54 raised. James Heatley paid £2 10s.
50 MS. compiled by Mr. Pegge, in possession of W. Farrer. The tenants' names are given.
51 The earlier invocation seems to have been St. Helen. The 'parish church of St. Helen of Brindle' is mentioned in the will of Sir Thomas Gerard, 1522. See Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 52.
52 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 498.
53 It resembles that of Leyland, which was built about the same time and probably by the same 'architect.'
54 (1) Azure a double-headed eagle displayed or; (2) Argent, on a bend sable three covered cups of the first (for Rixton).
55 He died 1606; see entry in register.
56 Transcribed by the Rev. Canon Jacques and Henry Brierley, vol. xi, 1901. The originals are very defective, but most of the gaps have been supplied from the transcripts at Chester. The two volumes are now bound together.
57 Ughtred, rector of Brindle, attested a charter about that time; Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc), i, 296. The church does not occur in the Taxation of Pope Nicholas in 1291, but in 1292 Gilbert de Clifton (guardian of the heir) granted that he would attend at Wigan in September before Thomas de Burnhull, parson of the church of Brindle, and Warine de Clayton, executors of the will of Peter de Burnhull, and account with them; Assize R. 408, m. 99 d. At the same time Thomas the parson of Brindle complained that Gilbert de Clifton had obstructed a road in Brindle; ibid. m. 36 d.
58 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), p. 40; it should pay 20s.
59 In 1369 David de Egerton claimed the advowson against William Gerard and Joan his wife; De Banco R. 436, m. 317. Afterwards the whole of the Burnhull estate came to the Gerards, and the advowson of the church of Brindle was included; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 123.
60 See the account of the manor above.
61 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 232. Rents of lands were estimated at 13s. 4d.; tithes of grain, &c., £10 16s. 8d.; offerings and Easter roll, 53s. 4d. Of the total 20s. was paid to the bailiff and 5s. to the archdeacon.
62 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 104.
63 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 348; the glebe produced £5 8s., and the tithes averaged £40. There were two churchwardens and two assistants.
64 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
65 Whalley Coucher, i, 296, as above. The grantor, Robert, was rector of Rochdale about 1190. Henry, parson of Blackburn, the first witness, was presented as early as 1160.
66 Assize R. 408, m. 36 d., 99 d. as above.
67 This rector was much concerned in numerous suits respecting lands in Pemberton and elsewhere, either as owner or trustee. He is described as rector in pleas in 1355; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 17d., 20. He died, according to the Lichfield registers, on the Saturday before 29 Aug. 1369.
68 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 85; he was a priest. Shortly after institution he obtained leave of absence for a year; ibid. v, fol. 25. He was still rector in 1407; L.T.R. Memo. R. 173, j.
69 Lich. Epis. Reg. vii, fol. 103b; a chaplain. The name is spelt Shakerby in one place.
70 Ibid. ix, fol. 127b; a priest.
71 Ibid. xii, fol. 121; a priest. He was still rector in 1496; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 3.
72 This name is doubtful, being taken from the list in Croston's ed. of Baines' Lancs. iv, 216, where accounts of the later rectors may be found.
73 He was rector in Sept. 1523; see a deed in Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 3. In a list compiled in 1527 it is stated that Thomas Bulkeley, clerk, had been rector of Brindle for four years, on the nomination of Sir Thomas Gerard, kt., deceased, and that the benefice was worth £20 a year; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15. He had been Sir Thomas's chaplain; see Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 216; ii, 233. The name was also spelt Buckley; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 232.
74 Lich. Epis. Reg. xiii-xiv, fol. 36. In 1548 he had a dispute with the executors of the late rector (Bulkeley) respecting the church land at Haugh Moss, tithes, &c.; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 32. He was buried at Brindle, 7 Jan. 1563–4.
75 Visitation list at Chester. The name is also given as Ruxton (? Rixton).
76 The Church Papers at Chester begin with this rector. He paid his first-fruits on 19 May 1568; Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 409, where later payments of the kind are recorded.
77 Act Bks. at Chester; the bishop collated by lapse. B.D. at Oxford 1563; Foster, Alumni Oxon. First-fruits paid 16 Feb. 1575–6. He was vicar of Micheldever, Hants, rector of Waverton near Chester from 1565 to 1576, and vicar of Leyland from 1570 till his death; see Ormerod, Cheshire (ed. Helsby), ii, 789. Buried at Brindle 22 Dec. 1594.
For some particulars of his religious views see the account of Bury Church. He was a son of Robert Shireburne of Wolfhouse in Chipping; C. D. Sherborn, Fam. of Sherborn, 57. In 1590 the rector of Brindle was 'infirmed'; S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxi, 47.
78 First-fruits paid 30 Oct. 1595.
79 Act Bks. at Chester. First-fruits paid 14 June 1603. From the registers he appears to have resided, as his wife was buried at Brindle in 1617. He was 'no preacher'; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 11. He was still rector in 1622; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 67.
80 Act Bks. at Chester. Bispham was probably non-resident. He became rector of Eccleston near Chester in 1636 by exchange with Alexander Clarke. He was also rector of Lymme and prebendary of Chester. See Ormerod's Cheshire (ed. Helsby), i, 269; ii, 830. While at Brindle he contributed to the subsidy of 1624 and to the repair of St. Paul's; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 81, 94. He was presented twice—by trustees and by the king on account of the minority of his ward the Earl of Devonshire. In Croston's edition of Baines' Lancs. he is said to have suffered as a Royalist during the Civil War, but he regained his preferments, and died in 1686, aged eightyeight.
81 M.A. of Cambridge; incorporated at Oxford 1627; Foster, Alumni. Firstfruits paid 7 Feb. 1636–7. From this point the dates, &c., have been compared with those in the Institution Books, P.R.O., printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes. Alexander Clarke was buried at Brindle 27 Mar. 1637.
82 First-fruits paid 15 May 1637.
'Sam. Bradwell, rector,' signed the registers in 1638, but nothing further is known of his connexion with Brindle.
83 Act Bks. at Chester. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1636; Foster, Alumni. First-fruits paid 30 June 1640. He was expelled by the Parliament in 1646, he being 'a delinquent in arms at Lathom House'; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 46.
84 He was intruded on the sequestration of the benefice; ibid. i, 43, 46. He signed the 'Harmonious Consent' of 1648 as 'pastor of Brindle.' He was buried there 7 June 1650.
A Thomas Cranage of St. John's College, Camb., became B.D. at Oxford in 1629; Foster, Alumni.
85 He was 'an orthodox, godly preaching minister and conformable unto the present government, and was presented to the said place by William, Earl of Devonshire, patron of the said church (as is pretended), and had the assent of above forty of the said inhabitants'; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. 105. Others of the name were at Manchester and Whalley.
86 The name appears in the parish registers; he is probably the Philip Bennett, incumbent of Cartmel.
87 See the account of the vicars of Rochdale. He was of Lincoln College, Oxf. (M.A. 1654), and obtained episcopal ordination during the Commonwealth period. His entry to Brindle in 1651 is noted in the parish registers, which he signed in 1653.
In 1701 it was presented to the Bishop of Chester that 'our minister hath another ecclesiastical benefice (viz. Rochdale) yet (is) very frequent within and keeps and maintains a constant curate episcopally ordained, who lives in the parsonagehouse and constantly preaches every Lord's day'; Entry in the parish registers.
88 He had been curate of Preston; Abram, Mem. of the Guilds, 81. He was buried at Brindle 4 Dec. 1742.
89 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb., of which he became fellow; M.A. 1729. He obtained prebends at Lichfield (1757) and Lincoln (1772), which he held till his death in 1796. He became vicar of Godmersham in Kent in 1731 and exchanged it for Brindle in 1751, and this he resigned for Heath in Derbyshire. He was also incumbent of Wingerworth. He published works on English antiquities. See Dict. Nat. Biog., and Scott, Admissions St. John's Coll. iii, 349. His son Samuel wrote Curialia.
90 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1757. For pedigree see J. Sleigh, Leek, 83.
In his time (1789) a new organ was erected in the church, the 'Messiah' being performed at its opening.
91 Educated at Emmanuel Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1799.
92 Educated at Trinity Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1822.
93 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb., of which he was elected fellow; M.A. 1831, B.D. 1837. He was rector of Morton in Derbyshire 1841 to 1864, and prebendary of Lichfield 1864. He published mathematical works and sermons.
94 Educated at Christ's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1861; vicar of Youlgreave 1860 to 1865, and of Buxton 1865 to 1877.
95 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1863; vicar of Westhoughton 1869 to 1889; Hon. Canon of Manchester 1902.
96 Educated at Hertford Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1876.
The Rev. H. P. Owen Smith of Douglas Chapel was nominated to the vacancy in 1908, but died before institution.
97 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1878; vicar of St. Peter's, Oldham, 1883–1909.
98 Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 17.
Sir Thomas Gerard, who died in 1523, charged his estates at Brindle with £4 a year for ever, 'to find an honest priest to say divine service' in the church, where also he desired to be buried; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 52.
99 Visitation Lists at Chester Dioc. Reg. The ornaments of the church remaining in 1552 are given in Church Goods (Chet. Soc.), 131. They included a Bible.
100 Notitia Cestr. ii, 349; Endowed Char. Rep. 1899. It is now a public elementary school.
101 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 500.
102 A list of recusants in 1628 is printed in Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 183–4. A list of all the families in the parish, compiled in 1754 by Mr. Pegge, the rector, is in the possession of W. Farrer; it shows 'Protestants' (headed by the Rev. Richard Dewhurst, the curate), 91; 'Papists,' 69; and 'Nonconformists,' 4. See also Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xviii, 217.
103 A presentment from Brindle to the Bishop of Chester in 1669 states: 'No unlawful meetings except of papists, who generally meet on Sabbath days and other holy days at the house of Ellen Shay spinster and Richard Ridley cowper. The gentleman who reads mass and inhabits in the town goes under the name of John Birkett'; Chester Dioc. Reg. For the priest named, who died a prisoner in Lancaster Castle in 1680, see Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), iv, 431–40.
John (Anselm) Bolton of Brindle, who became a monk of Dieulouard in 1751, and afterwards served in England, 'is connected with one of the very latest, if not the last, of the trials for high treason to which Catholic priests were liable till the end of the 18th century. During the time he was chaplain and incumbent at Gilling Castle, Yorkshire (1764–93), he was, through the ill-will of a discharged bailiff, accused and tried for his priesthood; but to the credit of the court was acquitted'; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiii, 134. He died in 1805.
104 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiii, 159– 60. It is stated that in 1783 the communicants numbered 600; in 1784 Bishop M. Gibson confirmed 168 persons. Extracts from the registers, going back to 1721, are given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 220. Dom William Huddleston, in charge from 1717 to 1722, became a Protestant in 1729; Local Gleanings Lancs. and Ches. ii, 128.
105 Removed from some place in the neighbourhood; Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xvii, 30.
106 A report on the charities was made in 1826; another official inquiry was held in 1898, and the report, published the following year, includes a reprint of that of 1826.
107 The capital stock of £200 was in 1826 invested in a mortgage, and produced £10 a year. It had been given by several benefactors from 1684 onwards, and included £20 for books for poor children left by Edward Blacklidge, a benefactor of the school, in 1722. The capital is still intact, but produces only £6 a year; of this 14s., representing the Blacklidge gift, is paid for books for the school.
108 This estate was originally given by William Gradell in 1735. The farm and other lands were sold in 1868 and 1879 by order of the Charity Commissioners, and the proceeds invested in consols in the name of the official trustees. Half belongs to Brindle and the other half to Walton-le-Dale.