The parish of Lancaster (in Lonsdale hundred)
Church, advowson and charities

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1914

Pages

22-33

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'The parish of Lancaster (in Lonsdale hundred): Church, advowson and charities', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8 (1914), pp. 22-33. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53257 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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Church

The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN (fn. 219) stands in a fine situation on the north-west side of the town immediately north of the castle, with the towers and battlements of which it groups in picturesque fashion in all distant prospects of the town, and consists of a chancel (fn. 220) and nave, each with clearstory and north and south aisles, south porch, west tower, and a modern north chapel and vestries. The site is an ancient one, occupying with the castle the summit of the hill on and round which the ancient town was built, and is about 110 ft. above the River Lune, which curves past it at a distance of about 250 yds. to the north and north-west. The view from the west end of the churchyard is a very fine and extensive one, embracing the whole of Morecambe Bay, with the estuary of the Lune in the foreground, the fells of Lancashire and Cumberland and the more lofty Lake Mountains beyond.

Of the building which preceded the present church on the same site little or nothing can be said, but a number of sculptured stones of pre-Conquest date which have been found from time to time in different parts of the fabric seem to prove that some kind of stone structure stood here in Anglo-Saxon times, (fn. 221) and part of the west wall of the nave may possibly belong to this pre-Conquest period. The whole of the chancel and nave, however, with the exception of the west wall and a portion of the south wall as far as and including the south entrance, are of 15th-century date, and were probably built some time subsequent to the transference of the priory to the nuns of Syon in 1431. Apart from the tower and the modern additions, the building forms a parallelogram measuring internally 145 ft. in length by 58 ft. 6 in. in width, the chancel and nave being of nearly equal length, each consisting of four bays with continuous north and south aisles. The south-west doorway with the wall on either side is of late 12th-century date, and indicates a church of considerable importance at that time, though its extent can only be surmised. A moulded base stone found during the rebuilding of the vestry in 1872 was until recently the only other evidence of the building of that period; but in 1903, on taking down the north wall of the nave, another moulded base stone with foot ornament and four moulded jamb stones were discovered in the wall, all of transitional character and seeming to point to the existence of a north doorway in the early building. It is unlikely, however, that these stones were in their original position, the probability being that they were used up in the 15th-century wall at the rebuilding, and that the original early church was much less in width. Down to the year 1898 the west wall was internally covered with plaster, but on this being stripped in July of that year two doorways were discovered, one 9 ft. to the north and the other 2 ft. 6 in. (fn. 222) to the south of the centre line of the present nave, the northernmost of which appears to be of even more ancient date than the south-west entrance. The evidence of the masonry, however, is not conclusive, as the south jamb has been entirely rebuilt in one stone and the north jamb has been much encroached on by the 15th-century respond. The opening is 3 ft. wide and 6 ft. 3 in. high, with a square head in one stone supported by rough corbels, and the sill is 1 ft. 5 in. above the present floor. This door, if it belongs to a building earlier than the 12th century, is of great interest, as it has not been an external opening, and may therefore have been the door between an early nave and a west tower. The other doorway is of 14th-century date, and was originally an external opening, being moulded on the west side, and to this period the whole of the south part of the west wall of the nave, including the south-west diagonal buttress, may be assigned. There are also evidences of some building having taken place in the 13th century (fn. 223) in a moulded base placed upside down, built into the wall near the floor at the west end of the nave; and a respond cap of the same date, now in the church tower, was discovered in the north wall in 1903. But as neither of these fragments is in its original position they afford little help in tracing the development of the plan between the 12th century, or earlier, and its completion in the 15th century. Whatever the earliest church may have been, it seems clear that the 12th-century building was one of some importance and that work was in progress at various times in the three centuries following. Before the final rebuilding after 1431 the church seems to have been only about 49 ft. in width, made up probably of a nave 21 ft. 6 in. and aisles about 11 ft. wide, but whether this represents the extent of the Norman or even the 13thcentury building is uncertain. The Norman structure may have been of even less width than this, being extended northwards perhaps in the 14th century, when the present west door and wall were erected. However that may be, at the time of the rebuilding of the nave and chancel the north wall was pushed out another 10 ft., increasing the width of the building to its present dimensions. The whole of the earlier structure having practically perished in the 15th century, the size and extent of the mediaeval church must remain more or less a matter of conjecture.


Plan of Lancaster Church

Externally the chancel and nave have undergone little or no change since the building was completed, (fn. 224) but many alterations have taken place in the interior during the 18th and 19th centuries. The first half of the 18th century saw the erection of galleries on the north and south sides and at the west end, (fn. 225) and in 1718 the east end of the church behind the altar was made into a registry and consistory court, the east end of the north chancel aisle being used as a vestry. (fn. 226) New seats were erected in the chancel in 1731, and the roof was repaired in the year following. In 1743, consequent on the recasting of the old bells, the then existing tower was raised 10 yds., being covered with rough-cast four years later. (fn. 227) The tower seems to have stood somewhat to the north of the present one, but no record of it, other than the evidence of old prints, remains, these showing it to have had originally a plain parapet and a projecting vice in the north-west corner. (fn. 228) In 1753 the tower, being unsafe, was taken down and the present structure was erected in the following year, it being agreed that 'the steeple be a distinct building of itself and not to be built upon any part of the church wall,' and that it should front to the south. (fn. 229) In 1761 a battlement 'equal and like to that upon the chancel' was raised upon the 'north side of the upper leads,' but little further work seems to have been done to the exterior of the church till 1816, when the old south porch was taken down (fn. 230) and a new one erected, which stood till 1903. The roof was found to be in a dangerous condition in 1821, but owing to a lengthy dispute in the following year, as to whether the corporation was under obligation to repair the chancel, the work of restoration was not begun till 1823, when the chancel and nave roofs were stripped, and the former being found in a ruinous state was renewed in 1824. Great changes took place in the interior of the building during the early part of the 19th century. In 1812 a gallery was erected for the accommodation of the charity children 'in lieu of the gallery removed lately on the erection of the new organ,' and in 1825–6, the consistory court being abolished, the altar was moved to the east end of the church and a new vestry and registry built on the north side of the aisle in 1828. Prior to this period the communion rails had crossed the chancel between the second pillars from the east, and the extra space thus gained in the chancel was used for the erection of 168 free seats. These alterations were in progress for some years after 1826, and included the removal of all the stalls to the east wall, where they were placed facing west, two on each side of the altar in the chancel and four at the end of each aisle. The communion rails were moved to between the first piers with returns north and south to the east responds, and the east ends of both aisles were filled with children's seats. The north and south galleries were extended eastward, a screen and partition erected at the west end, some alterations made in the seating of the nave (fn. 231) and the floor of the chancel levelled and flagged. The alterations then made subsisted till 1864, the interior of the building during the first half of the century being filled with square pews, which extended to the middle of the second bay of the chancel. A long gallery extended from the second pillar on the south side of the chancel till it joined the wide west gallery containing the organ, which returned along the north side as far as the second pier from the west. The two easternmost bays of the nave on the north side were free from galleries, the pulpit and reading desk standing against the pier, but another and smaller gallery occupied the two westernmost bays of the north side of the chancel corresponding to that opposite. The Duke of Hamilton's pew was at the east end of the nave on the north side and the seats of the corporation at the west end of the chancel on the south side. There were staircases midway in the chancel aisles against the north and south walls and at the northwest and south-west corners of the nave, and a separate staircase to the singers' seats in the west gallery near the westernmost pier of the south side. Access to the Record Room over the north vestry was gained from the gallery staircase.

In 1864 a complete restoration of the interior was begun, when the north and south galleries were taken down, the old square pews removed and oak benches substituted, the pulpit removed to its present position at the north-east corner of the nave and the chancel entirely rearranged. The west gallery alone was retained, but those portions of it which extended over the aisles were removed in 1903. In 1872 the organ was removed from the west end and rebuilt in an organ chamber on the north side of the chancel on the site of the old vestry, a new vestry being built beyond it further north. In 1903 a chapel was erected on the north side of the nave in memory of the officers and men of the King's Own Royal Lancaster Regiment who fell in the South African campaign of 1899–1902, in the building of which the whole of the north nave wall was taken down and rebuilt 24 ft. to the north, forming the outer wall of the new chapel; the south porch was taken down and a new one built in the same year.

The church is constructed throughout of wrought stone, except in the older portions at the west end, the 15th-century structure being of local gritstone, and is of rather remarkable regularity of design, all the windows except the east window of the chancel being alike in detail, and without external distinction of nave and chancel. The roofs are of very flat pitch, and are hidden behind embattled parapets, and there were originally no windows at the west end. The chancel is 69 ft. 3 in. (fn. 232) by 24 ft., and of four bays with north and south arcades having piers of four engaged shafts 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter with moulded caps and bases, 16 ft. in height to the springing of the arches, which are of two moulded orders with label over. The east window is a pointed one of five cinquefoiled lights and perpendicular tracery in the head with hollow moulded jambs and internal hood mould, and is flanked on the outside by heavy square set buttresses, the wall finishing above in an embattled parapet slightly raised in the middle. The roof, which is 41 ft. 6 in. in height, is a modern reconstruction of the old flat panelled roof divided into four bays, the principals being carried for about 3 ft. down the wall on to stone brackets and the panels sparred and boarded. The aisles are 14 ft. in width, and have similar flat lean-to roofs, a threelight window at the east end, and similar windows to each bay north and south, except on the north side, where the third bay is occupied by the organ. These windows, like those in the nave and clearstory, have four-centred arched heads with external and internal labels and hollow-moulded jambs, external and internal, splayed sills and hollow-chamfered mullions, the lights, which go up to the heads, being cinquefoiled. The sills of the chancel aisle windows are slightly lower than those in the nave, and there is a doorway below the second window in the south aisle. (fn. 233) At the east end of the south wall of this aisle is a small piscina with four-centred moulded head and jambs, but otherwise no trace of the ancient ritual arrangements remains. The walls of the chancel and the greater part of the nave are, however, still covered with plaster, the removal of which might bring further original detail to light. There are four clearstory windows, each of three lights, to the chancel, which is separated from the nave by a pointed arch similar in detail to those of the chancel arcades, springing from clustered piers of twelve engaged shafts 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with moulded caps and bases. There are similar but smaller pointed arches dividing the chancel and nave aisles. The floor of the chancel is on the same level as that of the nave, the sanctuary alone, which occupies the easternmost bay, being raised two steps. The altar rails are modern and of iron, but the 14th-century canopied stalls are retained, five on each side and two on either side of the altar, above which the canopy work is continued in front of the window. The stalls are of great interest and excellent workmanship and probably date from c. 1340. The detail is rich and the tracery in the canopies of a very flamboyant character, but the work is nevertheless unmistakably English. There is a tradition that the stalls, which retain their misericorde carvings, were brought from Cockersand Abbey in 1543. The rest of the chancel fittings are modern.

The nave is 72 ft. by 24 ft., with aisles 14 ft. wide, and consists of four bays with north and south arcades having octagonal piers, 2 ft. in diameter, with moulded caps and bases, equal in height with those of the chancel and chancel arch, but the arches, which are 26 ft. 6 in. in height, are of two plain chamfered orders. The westernmost bay is 6 ft. 6 in. wider than the others, which are 13 ft. 6 in.—the same width as those of the chancel—and is occupied by the gallery, access to which is gained by a wooden staircase with 18th-century turned balusters at the end of the north aisle. The clearstory and aisles are a continuation of and similar in detail to those of the chancel, but externally the parapet above the clearstory is differentiated from that of the aisles by the buttresses being carried up as pinnacles above the parapet; otherwise the external detail is of a somewhat monotonous uniformity, the walls having a good moulded plinth and buttresses of four stages square at the bottom and v-shaped above, continued in a slight projection up the merlon of the embattled parapet of the aisle. The south aisle has three windows in the south wall and a modern one of four lights at the west. The north aisle is now open by a modern arcade of four arches to the memorial chapel, which is 67 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft., with an apsidal east end. The height of the aisles is 26 ft. to the outer wall-plate, the roofs rising about 3 ft. higher towards the nave, which is the same height as the chancel.

The late 12th-century south doorway has moulded inner jambs and outer angle shafts with bases and capitals, carrying a pointed arch of two moulded orders. The shafts and bases have been renewed, but the rest of the work is original and in a tolerably good state of preservation. Internally the doorway has a lofty splayed elliptical arch, and the walling on each side, as well as at the west end of the nave and aisles, has been stripped of plaster. The 14thcentury wall at the west end of the south aisle is of rough rubble masonry with a diagonal buttress projecting 4 ft. at the angle, having three sets off in its upper half and built of mixed sandstone and gritstone. The 14th-century pointed door, which now opens into the tower, is built of gritstone, and is 5 ft. wide, with continuous wave-moulded jambs and head and hood mould over, the jambs on the inner (east) side having a plain splay. The east wall of the 18th-century tower was built at a distance of 18 in. from the old west wall of the nave, entirely hiding the doorway, but not in any way injuring it. After its discovery in 1898 an oblique passage-way was cut through the east wall of the tower, and the 14th-century doorway is now once again used, in conjunction with the south tower door, as an entrance to the building.

The modern two-storied porch measures internally 15 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft., and is built of wrought stone, access to the chamber over being by a vice in the east wall. The former porch, built in 1816, was a low structure, slightly less in size, with a flat embattled gable and pointed outer arch, and square buttresses at the angles. The present porch was built in memory of James Pearson Langshaw and his wife by their daughter Fanny Austin.

The tower measures 16 ft. by 15 ft. internally, the greater length being from west to east, with walls 4 ft. 6 in. thick, and is of four stages with square buttresses, moulded plinth and embattled parapet with angle pinnacles, the total height to the top of the parapet being 96 ft. (fn. 234) It is faced throughout with wrought stone, and is a rather interesting example of Georgian Gothic harmonizing quite successfully with the 15th-century building to which it is attached, and at a distance giving little indication of its late date. Its detail, however, shows unmistakably its 18th-century origin, especially in the elliptical-headed belfry windows, the heads of which between the two principal openings are filled with ornament characteristic of the time. The west side is blank below the belfry, except for a modern clock dial which is repeated on all four sides, the doorway being on the south with a pointed traceried window of four lights above. There is also a round window in the third stage north and south, originally perhaps intended for a clock, but now glazed. The strings marking the stages are carried round the buttresses as gablets. There is no vice in the tower, access to the lower stages being by a built-up stone staircase in the north-east corner and by wooden stairs above. Externally, between the north-east angle of the tower and the modern walling of the memorial chapel, and 12 in. in front of it, a short portion of rubble walling about 6 ft. in length, with quoins at the angle, marks the extent northwards of the pre15th-century building.

On the south side of the church there was formerly an altar of St. Thomas of Canterbury. (fn. 235) There was also a chapel of St. Patrick. (fn. 236) In 1204 land was given for the maintenance of St. Mary's light, (fn. 237) and St. Nicholas's light is also mentioned. (fn. 238)

The font is modern, but has a carved oak pyramidal cover dated 1631. The bowl of an old plain octagonal stone font, 2 ft. 3 in. in diameter and 2 ft. high, was recovered some years ago from the vicarage garden, and is now in a recess at the west end of the nave.

The pulpit is of oak, of 17th-century date—a good specimen of Jacobean work, and there are three brass chandeliers, suspended by ornamental iron rods—two in the chancel and one in the nave— given in 1717 by William Heysham.

An organ erected in 1728 in the west gallery was removed to Whalley Church in 1811, and was replaced by a new one which stood in the gallery till 1872, when it was removed and rebuilt on a larger scale in its present position. It was restored and enlarged in 1898.

There are some 17th and 18th-century brasses, one in the floor of the chancel being to the memory of Thomas Covell, '6 tymes maior of this towne, 48 yeares keeper of this castle, 46 yeares one of ye coroners of ye county palatine of Lancaster, captaine of ye freehold band of this hundred of Loinsdale on this side ye sands and justice of peace and quorum throughout this said county palatine of Lancaster who dyed ye 1 of August 1639, aetatis suæ 78.' The figure (fn. 239) which accompanied the inscription is now attached to a modern screen below the tower, together with a number of later brasses and name-plates from the old pews. In the chancel are memorials to Richard Adams (d. 1662), Seth Bushell (d. 1684), and Samuel Eyre (d. 1689), and one by Roubiliac to Dr. William Stratford, who died in 1751. At the west end of the north aisle is a modern tablet in memory of Henry Cort, who was born at Lancaster in 1740, 'to whom the world is indebted for the arts of refining iron by puddling with mineral coal and of rolling metals in grooved rolls.' (fn. 240) On the south aisle wall is a memorial bust of Archdeacon Bonsey, vicar 1893–1909.

Note.—The above description refers to the state of the church in 1910. Some changes have since been made and others are in progress or planned. The pulpit has been moved to the south side of the nave, and the Covell brass has been fixed in the porch. New oak roofs are to be placed on nave and chancel, of higher pitch than the present. The chancel is to be raised two steps above the nave and other steps will lead up to the communion table, which is to be brought forward so as to leave an ambulatory behind. The seats and ancient stalls in the chancel will also be rearranged. The floors of the church are to be taken up and asphalted. A new heating chamber will be provided.

On the east wall of the vestry are some strips of wood, probably from old pews, on which are carved the names of James Fenton vicar, Tho. Sherson esq. mayor, John Tarleton 1693, Richard Simpson 1693, and R. T. Westmore 1693.

Built into the south wall of the vestry are preserved two stone grave slabs, one bearing a floreated cross and the other a sword and shield, and there is a smaller stone with cross and sword in the west wall. There are also preserved in the vestry some pieces of Samian ware and a coin of Constantine II found below the foundations of the porch in 1903 and fragments of ancient glass obtained from the plaster of the old west wall. (fn. 241) Besides these fragments there is no ancient stained glass, but in 1738 the corporation received 8s. 'for a parcel of old glass taken out of the old window belonging to the chancel.' (fn. 242)

There is a ring of eight bells by Taylor of Loughborough, 1885–6, given by Mr. James Williamson, now Lord Ashton. (fn. 243) He gave the clock at the same time.

The silver plate consists of four flagons of 1678–9 with the maker's mark W S; a chalice of 1691 with the maker's mark W S with bow and arrow between; two breadholders of 1697–8 with the maker's mark F a; a small visiting chalice inscribed 'Given for the use of the sick Communicants of the Parish of Lancaster 1728,' the marks on which are very much worn, and a small breadholder apparently for use with it, the marks also much worn but a year or two later in date; a cup of 1757 of Newcastle make with the maker's mark R M; two cups of Sheffield make of 1848–9; a chalice and paten inscribed 'To the glory of God and in memory of Lieutenant Charles Gibson Michaelson, R.N. Presented in affectionate remembrance by some of his brother officers 1883,' the chalice being of 1881–2 and the paten of 1882–3 date; and a chalice and paten of 1908–9, both inscribed 'A.M.D.G. The gift of S. Mary's Guild in dear loving memory of their warden and vicar the Venerable Archdeacon Bonsey. R.I.P. 13 January 1909.' There is also a set of plated vessels, consisting of chalice, paten, breadholder and flagon, originally given to Carnforth Church in 1870, and presented in November 1902 to the vicar of Lancaster as chaplain to the Lancaster Workhouse for use in that institution.

The registers begin in 1599. The earliest volume (1599–1690) has been printed. (fn. 244)

The records of 'the Twenty-four' who superintended the affairs of the parish begin in 1641. (fn. 245) From these it appears that the church had a clock in 1652, and that a bell was rung at 4 a.m. and 7 p.m. from 1 November to 2 February. (fn. 246) The Twentyfour, sometimes called sidesmen, (fn. 247) were chosen thus: For Lancaster, the mayor and five others; Scotforth, Skerton and Over Wyresdale, two each; Aldcliffe, Ashton, Stodday, Thurnham, Poulton, Bare, Torrisholme, Heaton, Overton, Middleton, Bulk and Quernmore, one each. There were also nine churchwardens. (fn. 248)

To the south-west of the church opposite the tower door is a sundial on a high stepped base, the plate of which is inscribed 'Sic umbra vertit, sic vita fugit.' It is undated, but probably belongs to the late 18th century. It was restored by Joseph Fenton in 1894.

The churchyard was enlarged in 1818. The oldest dated stone is 1671. (fn. 249)

The church is approached from the town on the south-east by a wide and picturesque flight of steps leading from the top of Church Street. The steps were 'new laid' in 1761 (fn. 250) with 15-in. treads and 6-in. rise, 'the flats to be proportioned as the ground will admit of, not having above two steps together between each flat,' a disposition which has since been maintained. The present steps were laid in 1884.

The old vicarage-house (fn. 251) was pulled down in 1848 and the present one erected. Over the door was a stone inscribed

a. w. 1636

Advowson

The existence of a church before the Conquest is implied in the name of Kirk-Lancaster in Domesday Book; the ancient inscribed crosses lend support to the belief that it existed in the 7th or 8th century. (fn. 252) Whatever may have been its earlier history, the church was in 1094 given by Count Roger of Poitou to the Norman abbey of St. Martin at Sees, and in return a prior with some fellow monks was placed in charge. (fn. 253) No vicarage was to be ordained, (fn. 254–5) but when the priory had been finally suppressed by Henry V and its endowments conferred upon Syon Abbey, (fn. 256) a resident vicar was deemed necessary. Hence in 1430–1 a vicarage was ordained by the Archdeacon of Richmond, (fn. 257) the Abbess of Syon of course having the presentation. The vicar was to occupy the house which had been the priory, reserving a chamber and stable for the use of the abbess's representatives whenever they might have to visit Lancaster. He was to reside and show hospitality according to his means. His endowment consisted of the tithes of corn of Lancaster township, Thurnham and Glasson, Ribby, Wrea and Badgerburgh; the oblations of the three principal feasts—Christmas, Easter and the Assumption— and various offerings and small tithes, including all sums given to the high altar. His total income was then estimated at £76 19s. 7¼d.; out of it he had to maintain divine worship as if rector, and pay various dues, such as Peter pence, the tenth to the Crown, whenever granted, &c. (fn. 258)

After the dissolution of Syon the advowson was granted out by the Crown, (fn. 259) and after several transfers was acquired by Edward Marton of Capernwray, elder brother of the Oliver Marton who was vicar from 1767 to 1794. (fn. 260) It has since descended with Capernwray, the present patron being Mr. George Henry Powys Marton.

The rectory was in 1291 assessed at £80 a year, but after the invasions of the Scots thirty years later the value was reduced to £26 13s. 4d. (fn. 261) In 1341 the value of the ninth was given as £26 18s. 9d., but this did not include the borough of Lancaster, 47s. 11d., and the small tithes and altarage, £22. The loss resulting from the devastation made by the Scots was estimated at 43 marks. (fn. 262) In 1527 the rectory was said to be worth £100 a year, (fn. 263) and this was also the return made in 1535 (fn. 264) ; the vicarage in those years being valued at £80 and £40 19s. 10d. respectively. (fn. 265) In 1650 the vicar was said to receive £280 a year, (fn. 266) but in 1717 only about £200. (fn. 267) In 1824 an Act was passed commuting the vicar's tithes for a corn rent to produce £1,358 a year at least. (fn. 268) The net value of the vicarage is now stated to be £ 1,500. (fn. 269)

The following have been vicars:—

InstitutedNamePatronCause of Vacancy
27 Aug. 1431Richard Chester, D.D. (fn. 270) Syon Abbey
oc. 1466–84Richard Burton (fn. 271)
c. 1525–40William Green, D.D. (fn. 272) Syon Abbey
oc. 1554–62Francis Mallet, D.D. (fn. 273)
— 1566John Wainhouse (fn. 274)
29 Dec. 1575Hugh Conway, M.A. (fn. 275) William Leyburned. last vicar
25 Jan. 1581–2Henry Porter (fn. 276)
18 Feb. 1608–9Geoffrey King, M.A. (fn. 277) [T. Farington, jun.]d. H. Porter
8 Nov. 1630Augustine Wildbore, D.D. (fn. 278) Thos. Faringtond. Geoff. King
30 June 1631The king
— June 1654William Marshall, M.A. (fn. 279) George Toulsond. A. Wildbore
6 Sept. 1660Hugh Barrow, M.A. (fn. 280) The kingd. A. Wildbore
10 Dec. 1672Edmund Garforth, M.A. (fn. 281) George Toulsond. H. Barrow
19 June 1682Seth Bushell, D.D. (fn. 282) "d. E. Garforth
17 Mar. 1684–5James Fenton, D.D. (fn. 283) "d. S. Bushell
29 Oct. 1714James Fenton, D.C.L. (fn. 284) Robert Gibsond. J. Fenton
8 June 1767Oliver Marton, LL.B. (fn. 285) Sir Thomas Heskethd. J. Fenton
17 Sept. 1794William White, M.A. (fn. 286) Trustees of O. Martond. O. Marton
13 Sept. 1806John Manby, M.A. (fn. 287) The kingd. W. White
24 Apr. 1844Joseph Turner, M.A. (fn. 288) George Martond. J. Manby
7 Feb. 1871John Allen, D.D. (fn. 289) George B. H. Martond. J. Turner
20 Oct. 1893William Bonsey, M.A. (fn. 290) R. A. Yerburghres. J. Allen
5 June 1909Joseph Udell Norman Bardsley, M.A. (fn. 291) G. H. P. Martond. W. Bonsey

An account of 1324–5, when the priory was in the king's hands, shows the staff employed, viz. the prior, five monks and two chaplains. (fn. 292) In 1430 it was recorded that by ancient usage there were daily said matins and two masses by note—one of St. Mary (de Domina) and one of the day; a mass of Requiem each Monday for benefactors; also an early mass each morning between 5 and 6 o'clock. On Sundays and festivals another mass was celebrated, with priest, deacon and subdeacon. A lamp was kept burning continually. Six wax candles were lighted at masses, matins and vespers diebus ferialibus and twelve double feasts, and six torches at the high altar at the elevation of the Body of Christ. (fn. 293)

By the ordination of the vicarage in 1430 the vicar was bound not only to reside himself but also to provide six chaplains—three for Lancaster and one each for the outlying chapels of Gressingham, Caton and Stalmine. A sacrist or clerk was necessary also. Though the income assigned was £77, it was found insufficient for so great a charge, and in 1440 the vicar complained that his expenses amounted to more than £160 a year, of which £50 had to be paid to the chaplains and clerk, about £60 was estimated to be requisite for hospitality, the repairs of chancels, house and books took £26, and various other expenses the remainder. Among the minor charges may be noted one for incense for incensing the ploughs at the Epiphany. (fn. 294) The vicars may on this account have been excused from residence; some of the later ones certainly had other benefices.

The services of the church, chapels and chantries would require a resident staff of eight or ten priests, and before the Reformation there were probably others, paid by private persons or living on the casual offerings for masses, &c.; there were also the friars. (fn. 295) The visitation list of 1554, after much destruction had been wrought by the Reformation, records eleven names in all, two being at Caton and Gressingham, and the list of 1562 records ten, of which two were inserted perhaps a little later; five of the clergy appeared at the visitation. Bishop Coates visited this part of his diocese about the end of 1554 and restored the ancient ceremonial and worship; he administered confirmation to the children. (fn. 296)

There appears to be no evidence of the general disposition of the clergy and people of the town towards Elizabeth's establishment of religion. Dr. Mallet, the vicar in 1559, was notoriously hostile, but, while resigning some of his preferments, willingly or unwillingly, he retained the deanery of Lincoln, and must therefore have renounced communion with the Roman Church and accepted the queen's ecclesiastical supremacy. (fn. 297) Though he did not reside at Lancaster, it may be assumed that the legal services were duly performed at the parish church and the dependent chapels of Gressingham, Caton and Stalmine, Overton and Over Wyresdale being more doubtful. A staff of four ministers would be required, and this is in the 17th century found to be the normal one. Of Mallet's immediate successors nothing is known; but Henry Porter was a zealous preacher, probably of the Puritan school, and his twenty-seven years' labour would have a powerful influence on the new generation which had sprung up since Elizabeth's accession, and would know little or nothing of the old religion.

In 1610 the clergy were the vicar and the chaplains of Gressingham, Wyresdale and Stalmine. (fn. 298) In 1622 the vicar, curate and schoolmaster of Lancaster and the lecturer at Stalmine contributed to a levy on the clergy, so that some of the chapels were neglected or served by lay 'readers.' (fn. 299) Sir John Harrison gave £10 to secure a lecturer or special preacher in the town, and continued this in 1647. (fn. 300) During the Commonwealth period there was some improvement here as elsewhere; there were five or six ministers in 1650, and each of the chapels, except Admarsh and perhaps Overton, seems to have been supplied. (fn. 301)

Though Dr. Wildbore, the vicar, compounded in 1649 for his 'delinquency' in adhering to and assisting the king's forces during the war, (fn. 302) he was not restored to either of his benefices. He was perhaps too strict an Episcopalian to accept the Presbyterian discipline then established. Marshall, his intruding successor, had to contend with George Fox, who designated him by the (with him) opprobrious epithet of 'priest' when brought before the justices in 1652. Fox had entered 'the steeple-house and declared the truth to the priest and people, laying open before them the deceit they lived in and directing them to the power and Spirit of God, which they wanted. But,' he confesses, 'they haled me out and stoned me along the street till I came to John Lawson's house.' (fn. 303)

At the Restoration Marshall's title was for some reason ignored. Probably he neglected to secure the royal confirmation, and this may have been deliberate, for he did not proceed with his ministerial work. The king therefore appointed a successor to Dr. Wildbore, who had died several years before. There is little to call for comment in the later history of the church. Nonconformists and Quakers were numerous. Dr. Bushell, who was vicar for two years only, is said to have treated them with great tenderness, in marked contrast to his predecessor and successors, who were 'severe' in exacting their dues. (fn. 304) In August 1687 Bishop Cartwright visited the church and confirmed 500 persons, 'most of them aged people.' (fn. 305)

During the Jacobite occupation in 1715 prayers were read on 8 November by a chaplain, William Paul, who substituted King James's name for that of Anne, which he found in the printed book. 'The vicar of Lancaster was asked to preach, but it seems that he was not so averse to it any more than some of his brethren, but he wanted to see how the scales would turn before he would think of venturing so far.' (fn. 306) The same vicar in 1745 took a vigorous part on the Hanoverian side, and the Jacobites in their retreat north sacked the vicarage and demanded £20 for leaving it unburnt; they told his servants they would shoot him if they met him, being the greatest enemy they had, alike as a preacher and a justice of the peace. (fn. 307)

The visitation returns have few details of interest. In 1724 it was stated that the vicar read prayers twice every Sunday and once every week-day; in 1737 he celebrated the Lord's Supper at least twelve times in every year. A second church was built in the town in 1754. (fn. 308) The recent history has been marked by a dispute between the vicar and some of the parishioners respecting tithes in 1897 to 1900; the agitation arose from a reassessment and subdivision of the tithes. It was at last agreed that the dues should be redeemed by the corporation on behalf of the town, and a single payment is now made yearly out of the poor rate.

The mayor and burgesses in 1546 maintained two priests at the parish church, one out of Gardiner's grammar school endowment (fn. 309) and the other out of an estate called St. Patrick's Lands, which had been left for charitable uses. (fn. 310) The priest of the former had £4 a year and of the latter £4 13s. 4d. One of them celebrated the 'Jesus Mass.' (fn. 311) There was a Gild of Jesus at the parish church. (fn. 312) At Gardiner's almshouse by the church there was a chapel of St. Mary, with a chantry priest 'to celebrate mass daily and four bedemen to pray for the souls' of the founder and his ancestors. The endowment was £11 6s. 8d. a year, and the chapel was furnished with chalice, two vestments, mass book and bell. (fn. 313) At the Dominican house a chantry had been founded by one of the Lawrence family (fn. 314) ; there was an endowment of £4 12s., and after the suppression of the friars and dismantling of their house the cantarist continued 'at his pleasure to celebrate mass in other places.' (fn. 315) A fraternity of the Holy Trinity and St. Leonard was founded in or before 1377; it was a burial gild. (fn. 316) A chantry called 'St. Loyes Chapel' had land in Deep Carr; it may have been one of those already mentioned. (fn. 317) There is some evidence of the existence of a Franciscan house, (fn. 318) but it may not have survived long.

The grammar school was of ancient origin. (fn. 319) A master was endowed, as already stated, by John Gardiner in 1472, and again by Randall Carter in 1615. (fn. 320)

Charities

There was an official inquiry into the charities of the parish in 1901, and the report, together with the former report of 1826, was issued in 1903. The following particulars have been taken from it. Educational and ecclesiastical endowments excepted—these including the grammar school and Ripley's Hospital— the annual income is £2,775. In addition the Lancaster Infirmary has an income from endowments of £1,073.

Lancaster Castle having been the prison for the county, funds for the relief of poor prisoners are a characteristic feature. Abigail Rigby in 1709 left a rent-charge of £2 for the prisoners for debt in the castle; she also left £100 for an 'orthodox divine' who should 'preach and read . . . divine service and administer the sacrament of the Lord's Supper after the manner and according to the usage of the Church of England to the prisoners within the Castle.' George Rogerson in 1619 left a rent-charge of £4 to relieve poor prisoners with meat and drink. Peter Lathom in 1700 left £200 to buy land, the income of which was to go to the use of poor prisoners. William Edmondson in 1735 left money with which Low Field in Scotforth was bought, and the rent according to his direction was given in bread to the prisoners at Lancaster and Preston, being equally divided between each place. Sir Thomas Gerard of Garswood gave a rent-charge of £8 for the debtors in prison. Henrietta Rigby in 1741 left £100 to provide 20s. a year for poor widows, the remainder of the interest to be given to 'twelve of the most necessitous prisoners in the castle who should be known to be laborious sober people and who should not lavish their money and time in drinking and gambling.' These benefactions are intact. The incomes from the estates of Peter Lathom and Abigail Rigby have greatly increased, and a further augmentation was derived from money given by charitable visitors. The gross income is now about £114, but as prison conditions have entirely changed a new scheme was in 1890 made for the administration. (fn. 321) The net income is now given to the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society.

The various almshouse and pension charities have been consolidated under schemes of 1870 to 1900. (fn. 322) They are known as 'the Lancaster charities,' and have a gross income of £2,180. The almshouse for a chaplain and four bedemen founded by John Gardiner in 1472–85 has been mentioned above. The Crown in taking possession of the endowments allowed the £7 7s. 4d. payable to the bedemen and their attendant to continue, and the lessee was to keep the building in repair. That income, composed of small ground rents, has been lost, but fresh endowments have been provided by various benefactors between 1856 and 1900. The houses near the east end of the church were rebuilt in 1792. (fn. 323) William Penny in 1715 left money for an almshouse with twelve apartments, each with a garden plot, for as many 'poor, ancient, indigent men and women,' and a chapel 'for prayers to be read therein to the said poor people.' Some surplus money was to provide apprenticeship fees. The houses were built accordingly in Back Lane, now King Street. In recent years several additional sums have been given to the endowment, and most of the lands have been sold, the proceeds being invested in consols. (fn. 324) Anne Gillison in 1781 gave a piece of land behind her stables and abutting on Common Garden Street to the mayor and town for the erection of eight houses for the reception of as many 'destitute unmarried women of good character' belonging to the town. A widow might be chosen should there be no suitable unmarried woman. To this charity also additional gifts have been made. (fn. 325) Mrs. Margaret France in 1818 gave £300, partly for the Dispensary and partly for Penny's and Gillison's almshouses. Sir John Harrison in 1669 (fn. 326) gave £100 to buy land for the benefit of the poor; this is now represented by an annual charge of £5 on the corporation funds. William Heysham in 1725 bequeathed his estate called the Greaves to the corporation for the benefit of eight poor men. The land has recently been sold and the money invested in £13,760 consols and land near Carnforth. (fn. 327) Various other gifts have been made to the trustees of the combined charities, (fn. 328) who administer in accordance with the different trusts.

Miss Betsy Jane Bradshaw in 1890 bequeathed £750 to the vicar and churchwardens of St. Thomas's for the benefit of the poor of that parish. The income, £24 7s. 6d., is distributed in small grants of groceries and meat at Christmas time to persons of all religious denominations. John Brockbank devised the Highfield estate to his sister, who (as Dorothy Peacock, widow) in 1875 gave it with various moneys to trustees to provide annuities of £30 a year each to widows or spinsters over fifty years of age, members of the Church of England having preference. The income is £265, and there were seven annuitants in 1903. The following benefactions had not become effective in 1901: that of Charles Blades, who in 1891–3 left £2,000 to found annuities for poor men 'of the Protestant Christian faith'; and that of Mrs. Jane Greene, who in 1890–1 left the income of £160 Lancaster Corporation stock for a dole to forty poor widows every Christmas Eve, the vicar and mayor to choose the recipients.

Several other townships of the parish have special funds.

The Poor's Land in the Common Holme at Caton is supposed to have been bought by a gift of £20 by Edward Fincham for the poor of the township. Doles of about 3s. each are given at Christmas to some twenty poor men.

At Gressingham several old rent-charges, amounting in all to 31s., are distributed by the vicar and churchwardens to six poor persons each January.

For the poor of Heaton 29s. 8d. a year is available, being the interest of a sum of £50 bequeathed (before 1700) by William West. (fn. 329)

John Troughton in 1729 charged his estate at Colliwell (Colloway) with £3 a year for the poor of Overton. In 1826 the charity was distributed by the curate in small doles, but it has been lost since 1869 because the collection and distribution of the money remained in the hands of a representative of the benefactor, who refused to have a trust properly constituted. The persons liable for the rent-charges have become exonerated.

In Poulton, Bare and Torrisholme an annual charge of 7s. 6d. from a donation of Edward Lodge, formerly spent in gifts of wheat or money, has been lost since 1826. Another fund, of unknown origin, is now represented by £59 consols, yielding 32s. 8d. a year. It has long been utilized for apprenticing.

John Taylor in 1874 bequeathed £50 to the poor of Scotforth, but this was lost by the insolvency of the trustee. Anne Cawson in 1660 gave a rent-charge of 3s. on Brandrigg for the poor, still paid, and William Cooke in 1640 gave a like charge, now partly lost, on an estate in Ellel; the resulting sums have been given at Christmas time to three poor persons.

For the poor of Skerton a fund of £28 was in existence in 1760, represented by two messuages and a garden. In 1826 the sidesmen received £3 a year, which they distributed on 21 December in small doles. The endowment now consists of five cottages, producing £32 10s. a year, which is still distributed in small doles to a large number of applicants—as many as 258 in 1900. The administration has become irregular through the extinction of the 'township' of Skerton. Henry Kendall in 1857 left three houses in Main Street for the poor; the net income, £12 13s. 6d. in 1900, is distributed in a manner similar to the last-named charity. Mrs. Augusta Jane Parkin in 1895 left the Quarry field to provide coal during the winter for the poorest residents, those attending St. Luke's Church and schools to have prior consideration. In practice much of the income, which is £7 5s. 4d. from £264 consols, has been given in money doles.

Thomas Thompson in 1810 bequeathed £1,400 for the benefit of poor and indigent persons in the vaccaries of Lentworth, Lee, Tarnbrook and Greenbank in Over Wyresdale. This charity was entirely lost by bankruptcy. Richard Townley in 1851 bequeathed £400 for the poor of the same township. The capital is invested in consols and produces £10 12s. 4d. which the trustees give to eight or nine poor persons.

Footnotes

219 The original authority for this invocation is the charter of Roger of Poitou, 1094.
220 There are measured drawings of Lancaster Church in John O'Gaunt Sketch Book, vol. iii, plates 57–61. Cf. Glynne, Churches of Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 87; Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc.), iv, 683.
221 The cross dug up in the churchyard in 1807 and now in the British Museum is described and illustrated in V.C.H. Lancs. i, 266 and more fully by Mr. H. Taylor, Anct. Crosses of Lancs. 338. A number of other sculptured fragments found in the north wall of the nave in 1903 when it was pulled down prior to the building of the new chapel are now preserved in the church tower. They are fully described and illustrated by Prof. W. G. Collingwood, Reliquary, Oct. 1903; see also V.C.H. Lancs. i, 266 and Trans. Lanc. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxi, 44–55.
222 These measurements are to the jambs of the respective doorways.
223 See also Wickwane's Reg. (Surtees Soc. cxiv), 123, where it is noted that the dedication of the church of Lancaster was postponed 'so that within two years from the feast of St. John the Baptist, 1281, the chancel be lengthened 30 ft.'
224 In 1511, however, 'the chancel of the parish church of Lancaster had need to be amended as well in glasying as in leds and specially the great window above the High Altar'; Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 587.
225 In 1709 (Dec. 28) the corporation 'ordered that a gallery be builded on the south side of the church at the cost of the corporation from the great door to Mr. Hodgson's gallery; in 1724 a new gallery was ordered at the charge of the parish from the back of the west end gallery to the west end wall and from the end of Mrs. Myers' seat to the south wall'; in 1730 there was a proposal for a 'new gallery' and in the following year the 'council seats in the north gallery' were sold.
226 The east end of the chancel south aisle was used as a lumber room, from which the old sanctus bell, which hung over the east wall of the aisle, was rung.
227 It was agreed in 1744 that 'the base and battlement of the tower or steeple shall be of hewn freestone on the outside and that there shall be four pyramidical pinnacles at the corners and four weather-cocks of copper suitable to the said four corners'; in 1748 it was agreed to rough-cast the steeple 'with lime and sand or good mortar' at a cost of £8.
228 See Buck's view of Lancaster 1728. The illustration of Lancaster in Britton's Beauties of England and Wales (1807), from a painting by Ibbetson, shows the tower as raised in 1744.
229 The story of the building of the tower is interesting. Mr. Sephton, a Liverpool architect and surveyor, reported on and condemned the old tower, and it was agreed in June 1753 that it be 'wholly taken down and rebuilt and that Mr. Sephton do prepare a plan and estimate.' An assessment was made of £500 and the contract was let to William Kirkby, mason, of Lancaster in July. Mr. Sephton was to be paid £7 17s. 6d. for his professional services and expenses and an Alderman Barber of Lancaster was appointed 'to superintend the work and to be paid £20 a year while it proceeded.' As might have been expected under the circumstances the building did not make satisfactory progress and in November a meeting was held 'to consult upon urgent affairs relating to the fabric and to discourse with the workmen engaged to build the steeple,' when it was agreed that unless Wm. Kirkby proceeded with the work according to agreement 'so as to secure the west end of the church and to prevent the same from falling through, the damage done thereto by the said Kirkby's taking down the steeple by undermining or otherwise' contrary to the articles of agreement, an action be immediately commenced against him. This, however, does not seem to have been necessary, but in Feb. 1754 Mr. Sephton had to be sent for 'to view and examine so much of the steeple as was already built,' for which he charged a fee of 3 guineas and expenses. The tower was not finished till 1755, the total amount paid to the mason being £572 18s. 3½d. See Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 626.
230 The illustration of the church on Mackreth's plan of Lancaster, 1778, shows a low south porch, with pointed arch and gable and diagonal buttresses. This porch is also figured in Freebairn's view. 1802.
231 In 1824 a seat or pew known as Noah's Ark, which had stood for many years near the pulpit on the north side, was removed to near the vestry door, ' where a possibility of hearing the service is nearly excluded.' The owners claimed in 1825 that it be replaced.
232 70 ft. 9 in. if measured to middle of chancel arch or pier.
233 The doorway is a modern one, taking the place, about 1828, of a small south doorway which then stood in the third bay from the east.
234 In proportion to the height of the church it is perhaps too lofty, the height of the nave parapet being only 45 ft. In distant views of the town, however, the tower is very effective, grouping well with the castle and buildings adjoining.
235 John Gardiner, the benefactor (1472), desired to be buried near it, and provided vestments, chalice, &c., for the priest. A stone of marble was to be placed over his grave; End. Char. Rep.
236 See a later note (310).
237 The land was half an acre close to the castle. The light was burning daily; Lanc. Ch. ii, 311.
238 Richmond Wills (Surtees Soc.), 171. There may have been a veneration of St. Nicholas in the town from an early time. In 1292 Pope Nicholas IV granted an indulgence of a year and forty days to those who should visit the church on the Nativity, Annunciation, Purification and Assumption of St. Mary, the feasts of St. Nicholas and the dedication feast; Lanc. Ch. i, 105.
239 It is illustrated in Thornely's Monumental Brasses of Lancs. and Ches. 282.
240 A full list of the monuments and inscriptions inside the church is given in Lanc. Ch. iv, 688–715.
241 Ibid. 721.
242 Ibid. 623. For some arms formerly in the church windows see Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 271.
243 They replaced a ring of eight bells, three of which were cast by A. Rudhall of Gloucester in 1744 and one in 1747, one by Wm. Mears of London in 1786, and three recast by C. & G. Mears in 1846. The inscriptions are given in Lanc. Ch. 720. In 1665 there were four bells in the steeple and a 'little bell at the east end of the church.' In 1693 two bells were recast by Wm. Scott of Wigan, and in 1722 the great bell being broken it was agreed to 'be cast into two smaller and a new one added to make the number six.' The bells were unsatisfactory in 1743 and were recast by Abel Rudhall in the following year.
244 Lancs. Parish Reg. Soc. xxxii (1908). Transcribed by Henry Brierley. There is an old piece of a register book beginning in Nov. 1538 with baptisms down to Feb. 1553, weddings to Jan. 1555 and burials to Feb. 1546.
245 Lanc. Ch. iii, 602.
246 Ibid. 604.
247 Ibid. 614.
248 Ibid. iv, 781–92, for lists.
249 A full list of the churchyard monuments and inscriptions is given Lanc. Ch. iv, 723–70. Amongst the graves is that of John and Betty Whewell, parents of Dr. Whewell, Master of Trinity. They died in 1816 and 1807 respectively.
250 The old steps were made use of in the new embattled parapet on the north side of the church. The cost of the new steps and repairing the flags was £36.
251 A sketch of it made in 1845 by Capt. E. Jones is in W. Farrer's collection. Another was given in Lanc. Guard. 14 Jan. 1911.
252 References have been given above.
253 V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 167.
254 –5 Lanc. Ch. i, 123 (in 1246), 139, 145. In 1246 it was asserted that the prior was bound to find a chaplain to celebrate in the castle; Assize R. 404, m. 25.
256 Madox, Formulare, 271. Lancaster is not named in the confirmation of the foundation of Syon by Martin V in 1418; Dugdale, Mon. vi, 543. Giles Lovell, the last prior, seems to have died in 1429; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 30. It was not till then that Syon Abbey had possession of the church.
257 Lanc. Ch. iii, 576; Simpson, Lanc. 334–41.
258 Before fixing the vicar's stipend, a survey of the revenues was made; Rentals and Surv. R. 378.
259 Elizabeth in 1559 granted the advowson to Nicholas Leyburne of Cunswick; it was to be held by the fortieth part of a knight's fee; Lanc. Ch. iii, 595, quoting Pat. 1 Eliz. pt. iii, m. 16. The grantee died the next year, having granted the next presentation to his younger son William. The heir was his elder son James, aged eight years; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 52. An agreement was made by the brothers in 1576, by which William appears to have secured the advowson entirely; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 38, m. 43.
260 The changes can be traced by the list of vicars. It appears from the papers of Littledale Chapel (at Chester Dioc. Reg.) that Edward Marton was patron of the vicarage in 1751.
261 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 307, 327. To aid the church Popes Alexander and Nicholas granted indulgences to those who should frequent it at the feasts of St. Mary, &c.; Lanc. Ch. i, 104, 105.
262 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 35. The various townships were estimated to contribute thus: Overton, 63s. 4d.; Middleton, 60s.; Heaton with Oxcliffe, 44s. 10d.; Skerton, 44s. 5d.; Scotforth, 43s. 4d.; Ashton with the Lancaster portion of Thurnham, 52s. 2d.; Bulk with Aldcliffe, 23s. 4d.; Caton, 55s.; Gressingham, 26s. 8d.; Poulton with Bare and Torrisholme, 43s. 4d.; Stalmine with Staynall, 35s. 8d.; Preesall with Hackinsall, 46s. 8d.
263 Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15, for both rectory and vicarage.
264 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i, 425.
265 Ibid. v, 263. The glebe was worth £1 a year; corn tithes £13 6s. 8d.; other tithes £15 14s. 8d.; Easter roll £11 10s. The vicar had to pay 11s. 6d. for synodals and procurations.
266 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 126.
267 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 429.
268 Ibid. 432. Priv. Act 5 Geo. IV, cap. 28.
269 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
270 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 407, from the Richmond Register. This vicar is named in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 33. He was vicar in 1440; Exch. K.R. Eccl. 3/13 (4/47). He was perhaps the Richard Chester who resigned a prebend at Hereford for one at St. Paul's in 1449; Le Neve, Fasti, i, 522; ii, 442.
271 This vicar had a dispute with the Abbess of Syon as to certain tithes, and a decision was given in 1467 by the Archdeacon of Richmond as arbitrator; Anct. D. (P.R.O.), B 1854. He was vicar as early as Sept. 1466, and occurs again in 1470 in connexion with the dispute with Syon; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Prothon. file 6 Edw. IV b, file 10 Edw. IV. He was vicar in 1482 and 1484; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 1028; Towneley MS. HH, no. 351. One Richard Burton was Archdeacon of Worcester 1479–83; Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 75.
272 In 1527 it was stated that he had been vicar for two years; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15. He was vicar in 1535 (Valor) and till his death in 1540. He had the rectories of Kettering and Northchurch also, and was a prebendary of St. Paul's from 1534 till his death; Le Neve, Fasti, ii, 393. A drawing of his memorial brass is in Dugdale's St. Paul's. By his will (P.C.C. 24 Alenger) he left £100 to Lancaster, directing that £40 of it should be spent on the high altar, 'in ornaments about the Sacrament' and £20 on the bridge; note by Mr. T. Price.
273 Mallet's name is given in the visitation list of 1554. He had been educated at Cambridge (M.A. 1524–5, D.D. 1534–5) and became master of Michael House (1533) and vice-chancellor (1536); he held various benefices, being promoted to the deanery of Lincoln in 1554 and nominated to the bishopric of Salisbury in 1558. Queen Elizabeth succeeding, he lost this preferment, but retained the deanery till his death in 1570. See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Athen. Cantab. i, 290; Grace Book B (Luard Mem.), ii, 122, 188; Le Neve, Fasti, ii, 34, 135, 606. For pedigree see Visit. of Yorks. (Harl. Soc.), 194.
On Mallet's nomination to Salisbury a William Baines was presented to the vicarage of Lancaster; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1547–80, p. 110. This probably never took effect, for Mallet was still vicar in 1562, though he did not appear at the visitation; Chester Dioc. Reg.
274 Compounded for first-fruits 18 Oct. 1566; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 409.
275 Church P. at Chester Dioc. Reg. Conway was educated at Oxford; M.A. 1575; Foster, Alumni. Accounts of the vicars from this time are given in Lanc. Ch. iv, 772–80, and Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), v, 471–3.
276 Act Bks. at Chester. In 1590 he was resident and was a painful preacher; S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxi, no. 47. He was buried at Lancaster 21 July 1608. For his descendants see Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 234.
277 Act Bks. at Chester. Educated at Cambridge, where he was a fellow of King's College; M.A. 1591. In 1619 it was presented that Mr. King the vicar had preached but four times that year, and that the chancel was ruinous; Visit. Rec. at Chester. Mr. King occurs as vicar in the story of Richard Hurst, 1628; Challoner, Missionary Priests, no. 161.
278 At this vacancy there was a dispute as to the patronage. A. Wildbore, D.D., was nominated on 7 Nov. by T. Farington (and instituted next day), Richard Routh on 9 Nov. by Tobias Knipe and Arthur Gardner, and William Brudenell, M.A., on 17 Jan. by John Kellet the elder and John Kellet the younger; Church Papers at Chester. At last Wildbore was instituted a second time on the king's presentation; Act Bks. at Chester. The dispute was brought before the House of Lords in 1641, Knipe and others alleging injustice and trickery on the part of the bishop, who was a kinsman of Wildbore, and asking for inquiry; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, 77.
Dr. Wildbore was also vicar of Garstang from 1621, but was expelled from both benefices as a Royalist during the Civil War in 1643. He died in or before 1654. His place at Lancaster during the sequestration was supplied by Nehemiah Barnett and then by William Marshall. The former entered by an order of the House of Commons, in which he was described as 'a godly, learned, and orthodox divine'; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), v, 472, citing House of Commons' Journals. As 'minister of Lancaster' he was a member of the classis in 1646. Little is known of him. He matriculated at New Inn Hall, Oxford, in 1636, but did not graduate; Foster, Alumni. He died in 1647, being buried on 28 Oct., and was described in the register as 'vicar of Lancaster.'
Among the lay members of the classis were George Toulson (patron), Thomas Toulson, Thomas Rippon and Henry Porter.
279 Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 40. Marshall was placed in charge after Barnett's death; in 1650 he was described as 'a godly and painful minister'; Commonw. Ch. Surv. 126. He had the degree of M.D. Though his marriage is recorded at Lancaster and Aldingham he is not styled 'vicar' in either entry. The Lancaster registers give no sign of his presence in the town after that event, but he occurs regularly in the Freemen's Roll down to 1676 or later.
His appointment as vicar was considered invalid at the Restoration, and he is stated to have then entered into practice as a physician in London; Calamy, Nonconf. Mem. (ed. Palmer), ii, 97.
280 The king presented 'by lapse,' Marshall being ignored; Pat. 12 Chas. II, pt. ii, no. 133. Hugh Barrow was educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1642; Foster, Alumni.
281 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb., where he entered in 1648; Mayor, Admissions, i, 88. M.A. 1660. He was buried at Lancaster 8 Jan. 1681–2.
282 Act Bks. at Chester. Dr. Bushell was vicar of Preston 1663–82. There is a notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog. He was buried at Lancaster 8 Nov. 1684. An inscription to his memory was fixed up behind the communion table, but in 1691 was ordered to be removed; Enrolment Bks. at Chester Dioc. Reg.
283 Act Bks. at Chester. James Fenton was educated at Queen's Coll., Oxf.; M.A. and D.D. 1697; Foster, Alumni. He and his curate were 'conformable' in 1689. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229.
284 Church Papers at Chester. There was again a dispute as to the patronage. William Lindley was nominated by George Toulson and Elizabeth Toulson, widow, but on inquiry Robert Gibson's right was established; ibid. Dr. Fenton was son of his predecessor and was educated at Corpus Christi Coll., Oxf.; D.C.L. 1721. He was vicar during the Jacobite occupations of the town in 1715 and 1745. He was also rector of Heysham 1738–56.
285 Educated at Trinity Hall, Camb.; LL.B. 1743.
286 Educated at Clare Hall, Camb.; M.A. 1796. He was kept prisoner for four years by the French Government, dying at Verdun 14 June 1806; M.I. The obituary notice at the time stated that 'being one of the persons detained at the commencement of hostilities, numbers of his unfortunate countrymen have experienced his benevolence'; Lanc. Gaz. 19 July 1806.
287 The king presented because of the lunacy of the patron, Oliver Marton. Manby was educated at Merton Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1789; Foster, Alumni. He had another benefice near Bristol.
288 Educated at Corpus Christi Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1828. He had been rector of Fen Ditton 1842–4, and was made hon. canon of Manchester in 1853.
289 Educated at Exeter Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1861, D.D. 1876. He was made hon. canon of Manchester in 1878, and died in 1907.
290 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1871. Vicar of Corfe 1871–80, and Northaw 1880–93. He was presented by his brother-in-law, the patron for that turn. He was made hon. canon of Manchester in 1898 and Archdeacon of Lancaster in 1905. He died at the vicarage 13 Jan. 1909; Eagle, xxx, 207.
291 Previously rector of Ulverston (q.v.).
292 Mins. Accts. bdle. 1125, no. 21.
293 Rentals and Surv. R. 378. Mr. Richard Chester, vicar of St. Mary's, in 1431 gave a receipt for a mass book worth 200s., two antiphoners worth 16s. 4d. and 10s. 4d., and a grail worth 33s. 4d.; which books, or their value, he was to deliver on demand, apparently to the representatives of Syon Abbey; Add. MS. 32107, no. 790.
294 Exch. K. R. Eccl. 3/13 (4/47); printed in R. N. Billington, St. Peter's, Lanc., 197–9. The vicar was obliged to keep three horses ready in his stable so that the chaplains might ride off at any time to minister the sacraments in different parts of the extensive parish; it often happened that all three were in use on the same day. For Peter's pence he paid 26s. and to the collector for the apostolic see 7s. 2d. Bringing the holy oil and chrism from York cost 16d. The vicar complained that he and not the parishioners had to provide books and other ornaments, estimating his charge at £10 a year on that account. Chalices and books were sometimes stolen, and vestments, books, &c., were soon worn out by constant use.
295 These were Dominicans, but are called Austin Friars by mistake in Lancs. and Ches. Rec. i, 93. The house is named in 1416 and later; Durham Obit. R. (Surtees Soc.), 39, 65.
Sir Richard (son of Sir James) Harrington in 1462 left his body for burial in the Friars' church in the chapel where his father lay; Norris D. (B.M.), no. 1000.
Their church is named in 1491–2; Hist. MSS. Rep. xii, App. iv, 227. The will of Brian Tunstall in 1513 contains a bequest of 40s. to the Friars of Lancaster for 100 masses for his soul and all Christian souls; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 3. That of Christopher Urswick, Dean of Windsor, &c., 1521–2 (P.C.C.), contains one for prayers; he had spent £20 on repairing and making up the Friars' house and the schoolhouse in Lancaster. Such bequests show that there were priests there.
The Friars' house is named in an episcopal visitation in 1535, when the route taken was by Sawley, Whalley, Cockersand, Lancaster, Cartmel, Conishead and Furness to Calder in Cumberland; L. and P. Hen. VIII, ix, 1173 (2).
296 Foxe, Acts and Monts. (ed. Cattley), vii, 47.
297 Dict. Nat. Biog.
298 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 8. There was no service at Bleasdale; Caton and Overton are not named, but the former would be served with Gressingham and the latter from the parish church. At the visitation of 1605 presentments had been made by the vicar and curate of Lancaster and the curate of Wyresdale.
299 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 68–9.
300 Plund. Mins. Accts. i, 47. Dr. Wildbore, vicar of Garstang and Lancaster, had resided but little and kept no hospitality; Lanc. Ch. iv, 773, from S. P. Dom. Chas. I, cclx, 467.
301 Commonw. Ch. Surv. 126–8.
302 Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 1966. His fine was £132 2s. 6d.
303 Fox, Journals (ed. 1765), 74, 81.
304 W. Stout, Autobiog. 12, 93.
305 Diary (Camd. Soc.), 72.
306 Lanc. Ch. iv, 777–8; from Patten.
307 Letter in Ray's Hist. of the Rebellion (ed. 1750), 192. In this vicar's time (1731) a faculty was obtained for the erection of a gallery in the church. In the deed is named 'Stoop Hall in St. Mary's Street.'
308 Ret. at Chester Dioc. Reg.
309 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 228. John Gardiner had in 1469 obtained a lease of the Abbess of Syon's mill for 200 years at a nominal rent, his intention being to devote the profits to a chaplain ministering in the parish church and teaching boys in grammar. His will was made in 1472 and proved in 1483, and the surviving trustee in 1500 made the Mayor of Lancaster and the almshouse chantry priest the perpetual trustees of the school fund. Though the altar of St. Thomas is named in the will, afterwards (1485) it is called the altar of St. Mary and the priest 'the Lady Priest and Schoolmaster'; End. Char. Rep. 1903, pp. 28–9.
William Baxtonden seems to have been master in 1472, and Ralph Elcock, one of the original trustees, was probably the next in charge, according to the founder's express desire; Simpson, Lanc. 253, where the will is printed in full. The school chantry is not mentioned again until 1547, when John Lund, aged fifty-four, was the priest; Raines, loc. cit.
Gardiner's will (Latin) is copied in the old Lancaster charter book and in Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxv, 19; licences of mortmain (1484–5), ibid. xx, 32 d. 54.
310 Raines, op. cit. 229; John Yates was the incumbent. His name occurs in the visitation list of 1554.
The corporation in 1504 let the lands of Herberhouse to John Standish for twenty years; he was to provide a missal, chalice and set of vestments, &c., for St. Patrick's chapel for the use of the priest there; Roper, Materials for Hist. of Lanc. (Chet. Soc.), 150–1. In the chantry return the stipendiary was said to be 'in the parish church,' so that this chapel must have been there.
311 Lancs. and Ches. Rec. i, 88.
312 Lord Mounteagle, who died in 1523, left 40s. to this gild for prayers for his soul; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 64.
313 Raines, op. cit. 221. This almshouse was founded under the will of John Gardiner above mentioned, his manor of Bailrigg and other estates being assigned to trustees to secure the endowment. The foundation deed, dated 1485, is printed in full by Simpson, op. cit. 256. The mayor and corporation were to appoint the chaplain; in default the Abbot of Cockersand or the Abbot of Furness was to appoint.
Nicholas Green was made the priest of it; he was to celebrate in the parish church, but might do so in the almshouse if the poor people there were not able to go to the church, and this appears to have become the rule. Green is named as the priest at Our Lady's altar in 1485; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iii, 247. Green was still there in 1500 (End. Char. Rep.), but about 1519 Nicholas Forton was appointed and was there in 1527; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15. Edward Baines was the priest in 1535 and remained in charge till the Suppression; Valor Eccl. v, 263; Raines, loc. cit.
The endowments were derived from lands, &c., in Scotforth, Hutton, Gressingham, Preston and other places. The whole was sold by the Crown in 1588 to Miles Finch and John Audley; Pat. 30 Eliz. pt. xvi, m. 37.
314 In 1527 Sir Thomas Lawrence was stated to be the founder; Geoffrey Hesketh was then cantarist, having been nominated by Sir William Molyneux the year before; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15. Hesketh was still acting in 1535; Valor Eccl. v, 263. In 1547 the ancestors of Sir Thomas Lawrence were said to have founded it; Raines, op. cit. 225.
315 Raines, op. cit. 225; Robert Makerell was then the chantry priest. The endowment consisted of lands, houses, &c., in Lancaster, Forton and a number of other townships.
316 Roper, Materials for the Hist. of Lanc. 125. The brethren were to meet four times a year and each paid 13d. towards finding two chaplains to celebrate in the town for the welfare of the realm and for all the deceased brethren and sisters of the gild. The admission of new members was entrusted to a committee of twelve, and collectors were appointed to gather the dues. All the members were to attend the requiem mass for a deceased brother or sister and to say sixty paters and sixty aves for the soul.
317 The land was in 1591 granted to Thomas Butler; Pat. 33 Eliz. pt. v, m. 1.
318 See the list in Brewer, Mon. Francis. (Rolls Ser.), i, 581. Tanner's reference (with a query mark) is really to the Dominican house.
319 In 1284 Thomas the Schoolmaster of Lancaster and Emma his wife occupied a messuage in the town; Assize R. 1265, m. 21. Thomas de Kirkham, master of the school at Lancaster, occurs in 1292; ibid. 408, m. 96 d. Robert son of Adam de Preston complained that his eldest son Adam, being at school at Lancaster, had been abducted by the master and married to his daughter; ibid. m. 93. The monks of the priory were bound to devote themselves to study; Lanc. Ch. i, 139.
320 End. Char. Rep. 1903; Roper, op. cit. 276–315; V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 562, 565.
321 The fund is to be applied to help discharged prisoners of the county in various ways; preference to be given to those in Lancaster.
322 The charities were managed by the mayor and corporation until 1835, when the creation of a new municipal corporation required the provision of new trustees. 'There was a keen contest over the question, the survivors of the old corporation being anxious to restrict the governing body to members of the Church of England as before, the new corporation insisting on the admission of persons of other denominations.' The result was a compromise in 1837, the charities being divided into two classes, with different bodies of trustees. A further scheme was made for Penny's almshouses in 1861.
The revised scheme of 1870 gave the same body of trustees the charge of all the charities concerned—those of Gardiner, Penny and Gillison, also Heysham, France and Harrison. Persons of every religious denomination are now eligible as recipients. In 1900 the stipend of £10 payable to the 'reader' at Penny's almshouses was separated as an ecclesiastical charity. The town council appoints five of the trustees.
323 The four inmates must now be widows. A rent-charge of 1s. 11½d. from Thornton Hall, Ingleton, is the only part left of the old endowments.
324 There are now fourteen inmates, of whom twelve at least must be men; the others may be widows.
325 The conditions remain unaltered, eight women who have never been married being chosen.
326 For the benefactor see Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 268–9.
327 There are now to be ten pensioners, of whom eight must be men, receiving from 10s. to 12s. a week each.
328 Sir Thomas Storey in 1893 bequeathed £1,000 to the trustees, a member of the family of Christopher Johnson gave £525 as a memorial of him, Miss Elizabeth Paget £500 and others smaller sums.
329 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. ii, 443.